A

-A or -AT or -T, a negative suffix to verbs, peculiar to Iceland and a part, at least, of Norway. Occurs frequently in old Icelandic poetry and laws, so as almost to form a complete negative voice. In the 1st pers. a personal pronoun k (g) = ek is inserted before the negative suffix, in the 2nd pers. a t or tt. As a rule the pron. as thus repeated; má-k-at-ek, non possum; sé-k-at-ek, non video; hef-k-at-ek, non habeo; skal-k-at-ek; vil-k-at-ek, nolo; mon-k-at-ek, non ero, etc.: 2nd pers. skal-t-at-tu; mon-t-at-tu; gaf-t-at-tu, non dabas: and after a long vowel a tt, mátt-at-tu, sátt-at-tu; so almost invariably in all monosyllabic verbal forms; but not so in bisyllabic ones, máttir-a-þú, non poteras: yet in some instances in the 1st pers. a pronominal g is inserted, e. g. bjargi-g-a-k, verbally servem ego non ego; höggvi-g-a-k, non cædam; stöðvi-g-a-k, quin sistam; vildi-g-a-k, nolui; hafði-g-a-k, non babui; mátti-g-a-k, non potui; görði-g-a-k, non feci: if the verb has gg as final radical consonants, they change into kk, e. g. þikk-at-ek = þigg-k-at-ek, nolo accipere. In the 3rd pers. a and at or t are used indifferently, t being particularly suffixed to bisyllabic verbal flexions ending in a vowel, in order to avoid an hiatus,—skal-at or skal-a, non erit; but skolo-t, non sunto: forms with an hiatus, however, occur,—bíti-a, non mordat; renni-a, ne currat; skríði-a, id.; leti-a, ne retardet; væri-a, ne esset; urðu-a, non erant; but bíti-t, renni-t, skríði-t, urðu-t are more current forms: v. Lex. Poët. The negative suffix is almost peculiar to indic., conj., and imperat. moods; the neg. infin. hardly occurs. Nothing analogous to this form is to be found in any South-Teutonic idiom; neither do there remain any traces of its having been used in Sweden or Denmark. A single exception is the Runic verse on a stone monument in Öland, an old Danish province, now Swedish, where however the inscriptions may proceed from a Norse or Icel. hand. The Runic inscriptions run thus, sa’r aigi flo, who did not fly, old Icel. ‘flo-at,’ Baut. 1169. Neither does it occur in any Norse prose monuments (laws): but its use may yet be inferred from its occurrence in Norse poets of the 10th century, e. g. the poets Eyvind and Thiodolf; some of which instances, however, may be due to their being transmitted through Icel. oral tradition. In Bragi Gamli (9th century) it occurs twice or thrice; in the Haustlöng four times, in Ynglingatal four times, in Hákonarmál once (all Norse poems of the 10th century). In Icel. the suffixed negation was in full force through the whole of the 10th century. A slight difference in idioms, however, may be observed: Völuspá, e. g., prefers the negation by (using vas-at only once, verse 3). In the old Hávamal the suffix abounds (being used thirty-five times), see the verses 6, 10, 11, 18, 26, 29, 30, 34, 37–39, 49, 51, 52, 68, 74, 88, 113–115, 126–128, 130, 134, 136, 147, 149, 151, 153, 159. In Skírnismál, Harbarðsljóð, Lokasenna—all these poems probably composed by the same author, and not before the 10th century—about thirty times, viz. Hbl. 3, 4, 8, 14, 26, 35, 56; Skm. 5, 18, 22; Ls. 15, 16, 18, 25, 28, 30, 36, 42, 47, 49, 56, 60, 62. Egil (born circa 900, died circa 990) abounds in the use of the suffixed neg. (he most commonly avails himself of -at, -gi, or ): so, too, does Hallfred (born circa 968, died 1008), Einar Skálaglam in Vellekla (circa 940–995), and Thorarin in the Máhlíðingavísur (composed in the year 981); and in the few epigrams relating to the introduction of Christianity in Icel. (995–1000) there occur mon-k-að-ek, tek-k-at-ek, vil-k-at-ek, hlífði-t, mon-a, es-a; cp. the Kristni S. and Njala. From this time, however, its use becomes more rare. Sighvat (born circa 995, died 1040) still makes a frequent but not exclusive use of it. Subsequent poets use it now and then as an epic form, until it disappeared almost entirely in poetry at the middle or end of the 13th century. In the Sólarljóð there is not a single instance. The verses of some of our Sagas are probably later than the Sagas themselves; the greatest part of the Völsungakviður are scarcely older than the 11th century. In all these -at and conj. eigi are used indifferently. In prose the laws continued to employ the old forms long after they were abolished in common prose. The suffixed verbal negation was used, α. in the delivering of the oath in the Icel. Courts, esp. the Fifth Court, instituted about the year 1004; and it seems to have been used through the whole of the Icel. Commonwealth (till the year 1272). The oath of the Fifth (High) Court, as preserved in the Grágás, runs in the 1st pers., hefka ek fé borit í dóm þenna til liðs mér um sök þessa, ok ek monka bjóða, hefka ek fundit, ok monka ek finna, hvárki til laga né ólaga, p. 79; and again p. 81, only different as to ek hefka, ek monka (new Ed.): 3rd pers., hefirat hann fé; borit í dóm þenna ok monat hann bjóða, ok hefirat hann fundit, ok monat hann tinna, 80, 81; cp. also 82, and Nj. l. c. ch. 145, where it is interesting to observe that the author confounds the ist and 3rd persons, a sign of decay in grammatical form. β. the Speaker (lögsögumaðr), in publicly reciting and explaining the law, and speaking in the name of the law, from the Hill of Laws (lögberg), frequently employed the old form, esp. in the legal words of command es and skal (yet seldom in plur.): erat in the dictatorial phrases, erat skyldr (skylt), non esto obligatus; erat landeigandi skyldr, Grág. (Kb.) i. 17; erat hinn skyldr, 21; yngri maðr era skyldr at fasta, 35; enda erat honum þá skylt at …, 48; erat þat sakar spell, 127; era hinn þá skyldr at lýsa, 154; erat hann framar skyldr sakráða, 216; ok erat hann skyldr at ábyrgjask þat fé, 238; ok erat hann skyldr, id.; ok erat sakar aðili ella skyldr, ii. 74; erat hinn skyldr við at taka, 142; erat manni skylt at taka búfé, 143; enda erat heimting til fjár þess, 169; era hann þá skyldr at taka við í öðru fé nema hann vili, 209; ok erat þeim skylt at tíunda fé sitt, 211; ok erat hann skyldr at gjalda tíund af því, 212; erat kirkjudrottinn þá skyldr, 228; ef hann erat landeigandi, i. 136. Skalat: skalat maðr eiga fó óborit, i. 23; skalat homum þat verða optar en um siun, 55; skalat maðr ryðja við sjálfan sik, 62; skalat hann þat svá dvelja, 68; skalat hann til véfangs ganga, 71; skalat aðilja í stefnuvætti hafa, 127; ok skala hann gjalda fyrir þat, 135; ok skalat hann með sök fara, 171; enda skalat hann fleirum baugum bœta, 199; skalat hann skilja félagit, 240; skalat hann meiri skuld eiga en, ii. 4; skalat þeim meðan á brott skipta, 5; skalat hann lögvillr verða, svá, 34; skalat hon at heldr varðveita þat fé, 59; í skalat enn sami maðr þar lengr vera, 71; ok skala honum bæta þat, 79; skalat fyl telja, 89; skalat hann banna fiskför, 123; skalat hann lóga fé því á engi veg, 158; skalat drepa þá menn, 167; skalat svá skipta manneldi, 173; skalat maðr reiðast við fjórðungi vísu, 183. Plur.: skolut menn andvitni bera ok hér á þingi, i. 68; skolut mál hans standast, 71; skolut þeir færi til vefangs ganga en, 75, etc. etc. Other instances are rare: tekrat þar fé er eigi er til (a proverb), i. 9; ok um telrat þat til sakbóta, ok of telrat þá til sakbóta (it does not count), 178; ef hann villat (will not) lýsa sár sitt, 51; ok ræðrat hann öðrum mönnum á hendr þann úmaga, 248; ræðrat sá sínum ómögum á hendr, ii. 18; verðrat honum at sakarspelli and verðrat honum þat at s., i. 63; verðrat honum þat at sakarvörn, 149; kömrat hann öðru við, ii. 141; þarfat hann bíða til þess, i. 70; ok skilrat hann frá aðra aura, ii. 141, i. 136. Reflexive form: kömskat hann til heimtingar um þat fé, he loses the claim to the money, ii. 180, etc. All these instances are taken from the Kb. (Ed. 1853). Remarkable is also the ambiguity in the oath of Glum (see Sir Edm. Head, Viga-Glum, pp. 102, 103, note, I. c.), who, instead of the plain common formal oath—vask-at-ek þar, vák-at-ek þar, rauðk-at-ek þar odd ok egg—said, vask at þar, vák at þar, rauðk at þar. He inverted the sense by dropping the intermediate pronominal ek between the verb and þar, and pronouncing ‒ ‒́ instead of ‒́ ⏑. It further occurs in some few proverbs: varat af vöru, sleikði um þvöru, Fs. 159; veldrat sá er varir, Nj. 61 (now commonly ekki veldr sá er v., so in Grett.); erat héra at borgnara þótt hœna beri skjöld, Fms. vii. 116; era hlums vant kvað refr, dró hörpu á ísi, 19: also in some phrases, referred to as verba ipsissima from the heathen age—erat vinum líft Ingimundar, Fs. 39; erat sjá draumr minni, Ld. 128. Thorodd employs it twice or thrice: því at ek sékk-a þess meiri þörf, because í do not see any more reason for this, Skálda 167; kannka ek til þess meiri ráð en lítil, I do not know, id.; mona (will not) mín móna (my mammy) við mik göra verst hjóna, 163. In sacred translations of the 12th century it occurs now and then. In the Homilies and Dialogues of Gregory the Great: monatþu í því flóði verða, thou shalt not; esa þat undarligt þótt, it is not to be wondered at; hann máttia sofna, he could not sleep; moncaþ ek banna, I shall not mind, Greg. 51, 53; vasal kall heyrt á strætum, was not, Post. 645. 84; nú mona fríðir menn hér koma, Niðrst. 623. 7. In later writers as an archaism; a few times in the Al. (MS. A. M. 519), 3, 5, 6, 44, 108; and about as many times in the MS. Eirspennill (A. M. 47, fol.) [Etymon uncertain; that at is the right form may be inferred from the assimilation in at-tu, and the anastrophe in t, though the reason for the frequent dropping of the t is still unexplained. The coincidence with the Scottish dinna, canna is quite accidental.]

abbadís, f. abbess. Hkr. iii. 398, Fms. vii. 239, Gþl. 365.

abbast, að, dep. (= amast), to be incensed at, vex, molest; a-við e-t, Clem. 50, Fms. vii. 166; a-uppá e-t, Nj. 194.

abbindi = af-bindi, n. tenesmus, Hm. 140; cp. Fél. ix. 185, where it is spelt afbendi.

= at, v. that word, að- in compds, v. at-. -að, suff. neg., v. -a.

AÐA, u, f. (and COMPD öðu-skel, f.) α. mytulus testa planiuscula, a shell. β. fem. pr. n., Edda.

AÐAL, [O. H. G. adal, genus; cp. also A. S. éðele, nobilis; Old Engl. and Scot. ethel; Germ. edel; eðla- and eðal- came from mod. Dan. into Icel. aðall, nobility. It does not occur in old writings in this sense.] I. n. nature, disposition, inborn native quality, used only in poetry; jóðs a., childish, Ýt. 13; ósnotrs aðal, foolish, insipid, Hm. 106; args a., dastardly, Ls. 23, 24; drengs a., noble, Km. 23; ódyggs a., bad, Hsm. 19. 2. in the sense of offspring; aðul Njarðar (where it is n. pl.?), the gods, the offspring of Njord, Hallfred in a poem, vide Fs. 59. II. used in a great many COMPDS, chief-, head-. aðal-akkeri, n. sheet-anchor, Fms. x. 130: β. metaph., Bs. i. 756. aðal-bjórr, s, m. prime beaver skin, Eb. (in a verse). aðal-borinn, part., v. óðalborinn. aðal-ból, n. a manor-house, farm inhabited by its master, opp. to tenant farms, Grág. (Kb.) ii. 150; also the name of a farm, Hrafn. 4. aðal-festr, f., v. alaðsfestr. aðal-fylking, f. main force, main body, Hkr. ii. 361. aðal-haf, n. the main, Fms. iv. 177. aðal-henda, u, f., v. alhenda. aðal-hending, f. full, complete rhymes, such as allhall, opp. to skot-hending, q. v., Edda (Ht.) aðal-hendr, adj. verse in full rhyme, Edda, id. aðal-kelda, u, f. chief well, Karl. 442. aðal-kirkja, ju, f. chief part of a church, viz. choir and nave, opp. to forkirkja, Sturl. ii. 59. aðalliga, adv. completely, thoroughly; a. dauðr, quite dead, 656 C. 31, Fms. ii. 313; a. gamall, quite old, iii. 171. aðal-mein, n. great pain, Fms. vi. (in a verse), aðal-merki, n. the head-standard, Pr. 177. aðal-ritning, f. chief writing, Sks. 13. aðal-skáli, a, m. the chief apartment of a skáli, the hall, as distinguished from a forhús, Eb. 43. aðal-tré, n. trunk of a tree; eigi munu kvistir betri en a. (a proverb), Fms. iv. 33. aðal-troll, n. downright ogre, Fas. iii. 179. aðal-túlkr, s, m. chief advocate, Bs. i. 445. aðal-túpt, f. esp. in pl. ir = óðals-toptir, the ground on which a manor-bouse is built, toft of an allodial farm (Norse), flytja hús af aðaltóptum, remove it, N. G. L. i. 379.

aðal-vellir, m. pl. = óðalvellir, Rm.

að-eins, adv. only, (mod.)

aðild, older form aðilð, pl. ir, f. [root aðal], v. the following word aðili. It doubtless originally meant chiefdom, headship, but it only occurs in the limited legal sense of chief-prosecutorship or defendantship, and this only, as it seems, in Icel. not in Norse law. It is a standing word in the Icel. codes and histories of the Commonwealth. It became obsolete after the year 1272, and does not occur in the codes Jb. or Js. In early times there were no public prosecutions or lawsuits; the aðild devolved together with the erfð (heirship) on the principal male heir, if of age; erfð and aðild go together, the first as a right, the last as an incumbent duty, like an English trusteeship; til erfðar ok aðiðar, Eb. ch. 38. In the year 993 a law was passed to the effect that male heirs under sixteen years of age should be exempted from aðild, neither should heiresses ever be aðili. In such cases the aðild devolved on the next male heir above sixteen years of age, who then got a fee for executing this duty, Bs. i. 675. The aðild also could be undertaken by a delegate, called at fara með handselda sök, sök handseld, vörn handseld, fara með sök, carry on a suit, etc., v. Grágás Vs. ch. 35, (of aðild in a case of manslaughter,) and in many other places ; Eb. ch. 38, Bs. i. 675 (Rs. in fine), Bjarn. (in fine), Njála, and many others: v. Dasent, Introd. to Burnt Njal. COMPD: aðilðar-maðr, m. = aðili, Sturl. iii. 240, Orkn. 212.

aðili, ja, m. the chief-defendant or prosecutor in an Icel. lawsuit in the time of the Commonwealth. It seems to have meant originally head, chieftain, princeps. A standing word in the Grágás and the Sagas. As to the form, the older one is that which preserves the j in the terminations, gen. dat. acc. aðilja, plur. -jar, acc. -ja, dat. -jum. The Grágás constantly employs this form. The Njála and some of the Sagas drop the j and write aðila etc. In the Grágás aðilja seems to occur as an indecl. word—at least four times in the Kb.—used as nom. pl.: but as -ar in old MSS. is frequently marked by a single ‘a’ with a little stroke (a-), this may be a misinterpretation. The indeclinable form occurs in the Kb. (Þ. Þ.) 25 and 109 (only preserved in the Kb.); Kb. 147, 170 has aðilja, where the Sb. has in both passages aðiljar: cp. however guðsifja and -bræðra. There is a distinction between a sóknar-aðili or sakar-aðili, prosecutor, and a varnar-aðili, defendant. Either with gen. or prep. at, varnar-a., sóknar-a., sakar-a.; or inversely, a. sakar, a. varnar, a. frumsakar, Kb. 42, 124; a. máls, 126; a. vígsakar, in a case of manslaughter, 167; or vígsakar a. (often); a. fésakar, in a lawsuit about compensation, 123; a. legorðssakar, case of legorð, 194: with at, varnir þær er hann er aðili at, 175; aðili at legorðs sekt, App. iv. 46, Grág. Kb. 15, 211 ; cp. also § 58, p. 103: hann er aðili at sök, bæði sækjandi ok seljandi, chief-plaintiff, either for carrying it on himself or by a delegate, Kb. 208. In the case of a delegate being the aðili, the challenge of jurors and judges on account of relationship was to be made in respect to the chief aðili, not the delegate, Kb. 127.

Aðils, [A. S. Eâdgils], a pr. name, the name of the mythical Swed. king at Upsala, Edda 82; also on the Runic stones in the Isle of Man.

AF, prep. often used elliptically by dropping the case, or even merely adverbially, [Ulf. af; A. S. and Engl. of, off; Hel. ab; Germ. ab; Gr. άπό; Lat. a, ab.] With dat. denoting a motion a loco; one of the three prepp. af, ór, frá, corresponding to those in locoá, í, við, and ad locumá, í, at. It in general corresponds to the prepp. in locoá, or in locumtil, whilst ór answers more to í; but it also frequently corresponds to yfir, um or í. It ranges between ór and frá, generally denoting the idea from the surface of, while ór means from the inner part, and frá from the outer part or border. The motion from a hill, plain, open place is thus denoted by af; by ór that from an enclosed space, depth, cavity, thus af fjalli, but ór of a valley, dale; af Englandi, but ór Danmörk, as mörk implies the notion of a deep wood, forest. The wind blows af landi, but a ship sets sail frá landi; frá landi also means a distance from: af hendi, of a glove, ring; ór hendi, of whatever has been kept in the hand (correl. to á hendi and í hendi). On the other hand af is more general, whilst frá and ór are of a more special character; frá denoting a departure, ór an impulse or force; a member goes home af þingi, whereas ór may denote an inmate of a district, or convey the notion of secession or exclusion from, Eb. 105 new Ed.; the traveller goes af landi, the exile ór landi: taka e-t af e-m is to take a thing out of one’s hand, that of taka frá e-m to remove out of one’s sight, etc. In general af answers to Engl. of, off, ór to out of, and frá to from: the Lat. prepp. ab, de, and ex do not exactly correspond to the Icelandic, yet as a rule ór may answer to ex, af sometimes to ab, sometimes to de. Of, off, from among; with, by; on account of by means of, because of concerning, in respect of.

A. Loc. I. With motion, off, from: 1. prop. corresp. to á, α. konungr dró gullhring af hendi sér (but á hendi), Ld. 32; Höskuldr lætr bera farm af skipi, unload the ship (but bera farm á skip), id.; var tekit af hestum þeirra, they were unsaddled, Nj. 4; Gunnarr hafði farit heiman af bæ sínum, he was away from home, 82; Gunnarr hljóp af hesti sínum, jumped off his horse (but hl. á hest), 83; hlaupa, stökkva af baki, id., 112, 264 ; Gunnarr skýtr til hans af boganum, from the bow, where af has a slight notion of instrumentality, 96; flýja af fundinum, to fly from off the battle-field, 102; ríða af Þríhyrningshálsum, 206; út af Langaholti, Eg. 744 ; sunnan ór Danmörk ok af Saxlandi, 560; ganga af mótinu, to go from the meeting, Fms. vii. 130; af þeirra fundi reis María upp ok fór, 625. 85 ; Flosi kastaði af ser skikkjunni, threw his cloak off him (but kasta á sik),Nj. 176; taka Hrungnis fót af honum, of a load, burden, Edda 58; land þat er hann fiskði af, from which he set off to fish, Grág. i. 151, is irregular, frá would suit better; slíta af baki e-s, from off one’s back, ii. 9 ; bera af borði, to clear the table, Nj. 75. β. where it more nearly answers to í; þeir koma af hafi, of sailors coming in (but leggja í haf), Nj. 128 ; fara til Noregs af Orkneyjum (but í or til O.), 131; þeim Agli fórst vel ok komu af hafi i Borgarfjörð, Eg. 392 ; hann var útlagi (outlawed) af Noregi, where ór would be more regular, 344; af Islandi, of a traveller, Fms. x. 3; búa her af báðum ríkjunum, to take a levy from, 51; hinir beztu bændr ór Norðlendingafjórðungi ok af Sunnlendingafjórðungi, the most eminent Southerners and Northerners, 113; Gizzurr gékk af útsuðri at gerðinu, from south-west, Sturl. ii. 219; prestar af hvárutveggja biskupsdæmi, from either diocess, Dipl. ii. 11; verða tekinn af heimi, to be taken out of the world, 623. 21; gruflar hon af læknum, scrambles out of the brook, Ísl. ii. 340; Egill kneyfði af horninu í einum drykk, drained off the horn at one draught, literally squeezed every drop out of it, Eg. 557; brottuaf herbúðunurn, Fms. x. 343. γ. of things more or less surrounding the subject, corresp. to yfir or um; láta þeir þegar af sér tjöldin, break off, take down the tents in preparing for battle, Eg. 261; kyrtillinn rifnaði af honum, his coat burst, caused by the swollen body, 602; hann hafði leyst af sér skúa sína, he untied his shoes (but binda á sik), 716; Steinarr vildi slíta hann af sér, throw him off, of one clinging to one’s body, 747; tók Gísli þá af sér vápnin, took off his arms, Fms. vii. 39. Of putting off clothes; fara af kápu, Nj. 143; far þú eigi af brynjunni, Bs. i. 541; þá ætlaði Sigurðr at fara af brynjunni, id.; þá var Skarphéðinn flettr af klæðunum, Nj. 209: now more usually fara or klæðum, fötum, exuere, to undress. δ. connected with út; föstudaginn for út herrinn af borginni, marched out of the town, Nj. 274; ganga út af kirkjunni, to go out of the church, now út úr, Fms. vii. 107: drekki hann af þeirri jörðunni, of something impregnated with the earth, Laekn. 402. ε. more closely corresponding to frá, being in such cases a Latinism (now frá); bréf af páfa, a pope’s bull, Fms. x. 6; rit af hánum, letter from him, 623. 52; bréf af Magnúsi konungi, a letter from king Magnus, Bs. i. 712; farið þér á brautu af mér í eilífan eld, Hom. 143; brott af drottins augliti, Stj. 43. ζ. denoting an uninterrupted continuity, in such phrases as land aflandi, from land to land, Eg. 343, Fas. ii. 539; skip af skipl. from ship to ship, Fms. v. 10; brann hvat af öðru, one after another, of an increasing fire, destroying everything, i. 128; brandr af brandi brenn, funi kveykist af funa, one from another, Hm. 56; hverr af öðrum, one after another, in succession, also hverr at öðrum, Eb. 272, 280 (where at in both passages). 2. metaph., at ganga af e-m dauðum, to go from, leave one dead on the spot, of two combatants; en hann segiz bani hins ef hann gekk af dauðum manni, Grág. ii. 88, Hkr. 1. 327; undr þykir mér er bróðir þinn vildi eigi taka af þér starf þetta, would not take this toil from thee, Nj. 77; þegnar hans glöddust af honum, were fain of him, Fms. x. 380; at koma þeim manni af sér er settr var á fé hans, to get rid of, Ld. 52; vil ek þú vinriir af þér skuldina, work off the debt, Njarð. 366; reka af sér, to repel, Sturl. ii. 219; hann á þá sonu er aldri munu af oss ganga, who will never leave us, whom we shall never get rid of, Fas. i. 280; leysa e-n af e-u, to relieve, 64; taka e-n af lífi, to kill, Eg. 48, 416, Nj. 126; af lífdögum, Fms. vii. 204; ek mun ná lögum af því máli, get the benefit of the law in this case, Eg. 468; muntu enga sætt af mér fá, no peace at my hand, 414; rísa af dauða, to rise from death, Fms. ii. 142; guð bætti honum þó af þessi sótt, healed him of this sickness, ix. 390; vakna af sýn, draumi, svefni, to awaken from a vision, dream, sleep, 655 xxxii. I, Gísl. 24, Eb. 192, Fas. i. 41. Rather with the notion out of, in the phrase af sér etc., e. g. sýna e-t af scr, to shew, exhibit a disposition for or against, Ld. 18; gera mikit af sér, to shew great prowess, Ísl. ii. 368; éf þú gerir eigi meira af þér um aðra leika, unless you make more of thyself, Edda 32; Svipdagr hafði mikit af sér gert, fought bravely, Fas. i. 41; góðr (illr) af sér, good (bad) of oneself, by nature; mikill af sjálfum sér, proud, bold, stout, Nj. 15; ágætastr maðr af sjálfum sér, the greatest hero, Bret.: góðr af ser, excellent, Hrafn. 7; but, on the contrary, af sér kominn, ruinous, in decay; this phrase is used of old houses or buildings, as in Bs. i. 488 = Sturl. l. c.; af sér kominn af mæði can also be said of a man fallen off from what he used to be; kominn af fotum fram, off his legs from age, Sturl. i. 223, Korm. 154 (in a verse). II. WITHOUT MOTION: 1. denoting direction from, but at the same time continuous connection with an object from which an act or thing proceeds, from; tengja skip hvárt fram af stafni annars, to tie the ships in a line, stem to stern, Fms. i. 157, xi. 111; svá at þeir tóku út af borðum, jutted out of the boards, of rafters or poles, iv. 49; stjarna ok af sem skaft, of a comet, ix. 482; lúka upp af hrossi, to open a gate from off a horse, Grág. ii. 264; hon svarar af sínu sæti sem álpt af baru, Fás. i. 186; þar er sjá mátti utau af firði, af þjóðleið, that might be seen from the fareway on the sea when sailing in the firth, Hkr. ii. 64; þá mun hringt af (better at) Burakirkju, of bells rung at the church, Fms. xi. 160; gengr þar af Meðalfellsströnd, projects from, juts out, of a promontory, Ld. 10. 2. denoting direction alone; upp af víkinni stóð borg mikil, a burg inland from the inlet, Eg. 161; lokrekkja innar af seti, a shut bed inward from the benches in the hall, Ísl. ii. 262; kapella upp af konungs herbergjum, upwards from, Fms. x. 153; vindr stóð af landi, the wind stood off the land, Bárð. 166. β. metaph., stauda af e-u, vide VI. 4. γ. ellipt., hallaði af norðr, of the channel, north of a spot, Boll. 348; also, austr af, suðr af, vestr af, etc. 3. denoting absence; þingheyendr skulu eigi vera um nótt af þingi (away from the meeting), eðr lengr, þá eru þeir af þingi (away from (be meeting) ef þeir eru or (out of) þingmarki, Grág. i. 25; vera um nótt af várþingi, 115; meðan hann er af landi héðan, abroad, 150. β. metaph., gud hvíldi af öllum verkum sínum á sjaunda degi, rested from his labours, Ver. 3. 4. denoting distance; þat er komit af þjóðleið, out of the high road, remote, Eg. 369; af þjóðbraut, Grág. ii. 264, i. 15; Otradalr (a farm) var mjök af vegi, far out of the way, Háv. 53.

B. TEMP, past, from, out of, beyond: 1. of a person’s age, in the sense of having past a period of life; af ómaga aldri, of age, able to support oneself, Grág. i. 243; af aeskualdri, stricken in years, having past the prime of life, Eg. 202; lítið af barnsaldri, still a child, Ld. 74; ek em nú af léttasia skeiði, no longer in the prime of life, Háv. 40. 2. of a part or period of time, past; eigi síðar en nótt er af þingi, a night of the session past, Grág. i. 101; þá er sjau vikur eru af sumri, seven weeks past of the summer, 182; tíu vikur af sumri, Íb. 10; var mikit af nótt, much of the night was past, Háv. 41; mikið af vetri, much of the winter was past, Fas. ii. 186; þriðjungr af nótt, a third of the night past, Fms. x. 160; stund af degi, etc.; tveir mánoðr af sumri, Gþl. 103. 3. in adverbial phrases such as, af stundu, soon; af bragði, at once; af tómi, at leisure, at ease; af nýju, again; af skyndingu, speedily; af bráðungu, in a hurry, etc.

C. In various other relations: I. denoting the passage or transition of an object, concrete or abstract, of, from. 1. where a thing is received, derived from, conferred by a person or object; þiggja lið af e-m, to derive help from, Edda 26; taka traust af e-m, to receive support, comfort from, Fms. xi. 243; taka mála af e-m, to be in one’s pay, of a soldier, Eg. 266; halda land af e-m, to hold land of any one, 282; verða viss af e-m, to get information from, 57, Nj. 130; taka við sök af manni (a law term), to undertake a case, suit, Grág. i. 142; hafa umboð af e-m, to be another’s deputy, ii. 374; vera góðs (ills) maklegr af e-m, to deserve good (bad) of, Vd. 88 (old Ed., the new reads frá), Fs. 45; afla matar af eyjum, to derive supplies from, Eb. 12. 2. where an object is taken by force: α. prop. out of a person’s hand; þú skalt hnykkja smíðit af honum, wrest it out of his hand, Nj. 32; cp. taka, þrífa, svipta e-u (e-t) af e-m, to wrest from. β. metaph. of a person’s deprival of anything in general; hann tók af þér konuna, carried thy wife off, Nj. 33; tók Gunnarr af þér sáðland þitt, robbed thee of seedland, 103; taka af honum tignina, to depose, degrade him, Eg. 271; vinna e-t af e-m, to carry off by force of arms, conquer, Fms. iii. 29; drepa menn af e-m, for one, slay one’s man, Eg. 417; fell þar lið mart af Eyvindi, many of Eyvind’s people fell there, 261. γ. in such phrases as, hyggja af e-u (v. afhuga), hugsa af e-u, to forget; hyggja af harmi; sjá af e-u, to lose, miss; var svá ástúðigt með þeim, at livargi þóttist mega af öðrum sjá, neither of them could take his eyes off the other, Sturl. i. 194; svá er mörg við ver sinn vær, at varla um sér hon af hoiuun nær, Skálda 163. 3. denoting forfeiture; þá eru þeir útlagir, ok af goðorði sínu, have forfeited their priesthood, Grág. i. 24; telja hann af ráðunum fjár síns alls, to oust one, on account of idiocy or madness, 176; verða af kaupi, to be off the bargain, Edda 26; þá skalt þú af allri fjárheimtunni, forfeit all the claim, Nj. 15; ek skal stefna þér af konunni, summon thee to forfeit, a case of divorce, id.; ella er hann af rettarfari um hana, has forfeited the suit, Grág. i. 381. β. ellipt., af ferr eindagi ef, is forfeited, Grág. i. 140. II. denoting relation of a part to a whole, off, of, Lat. de; höggva hönd, höfuð, fót af e-um, to cut one’s hand, head, foot off, Nj. 97, 92, Bs. i. 674; höggva spjót af skapti, to sever the blade from the shaft, 264; hann lét þá ekki hafa af föðurarfi sínum, nothing of their patrimony, Eg. 25; vil ek at þú takir slíkt sem þér líkar af varningi, take what you like of the stores, Nj. 4; at þú eignist slíkt af fé okkru sem þú vili, 94. β. ellipt., en nú höfum vér kjörit, en þat er af krossinum, a slice of, Fms. vii. 89; Þórðr gaf Skólm frænda sínum af landnámi sínu, a part of, Landn. 211; hafði hann þat af hans eigu er hann vildi, Sturl. ii. 169; þar lá forkr einn ok brotið af endanum, the point broken off, Háv. 24, Sturl. i. 169. γ. absol. off; beit hann höndina af, þar sem nú heitir úlfliðr, bit the hand off, Edda 17; fauk af höfuðit, the head flew off, Nj. 97; jafnt er sem þér synist, af er fótrinn, the foot is off, id.; af bæði eyru, both ears off, Vm. 29. 2. with the notion ofamong; mestr skörungr af konum á Norðrlöndum, the greatest heroine in the North, Fms. i. 116; hinn efniligasti maðr af ungum mönnum í Austfjörðum, the most hopeful of youths in the Eastfirths, Njarð. 364; af (among) öllurn hirðmönnuni virði konungr mest skáld sín, Eg. 27; ef hann vildi nokkura kaupa af þessum konum, Ld. 30; ör liggr þar útiá vegginum, ok er sú af þeirra örum, one of their own arrows, Nj. 115. β. from, among, belonging to; guð kaus hana af ollum konum sér til móður, of the Virgin Mary, Mar. A. i. 27. γ. metaph., kunna mikit (lítið) af e-u, to know much, little of, Bragi kann mest af skáldskap, is more cunning of poetry than any one else, Edda 17. δ. absol. out of, before, in preference to all others; Gunnarr bauð þér góð boð, en þú vildir eingi af taka, you would choose none of them, Nj. 77; ráða e-t af, to decide; þó mun faðir minn mestu af ráða, all depends upon him, Ld. 22; konungr kveðst því mundu heldr af trúa, preferred believing that of the two, Eg. 55; var honum ekki vildara af ván, he could expect nothing better, 364. 3. with the additional sense of instrumentality, with; ferma skip af e-u, to freight a ship with, Eg. 364; hlaða mörg skip af korni, load many ships with corn, Fms. xi. 8; klyfja tvá hesta af mat, Nj. 74; var vágrinn skipaðr af herskipum, the bay was covered with war ships, 124; fylla ker af glóðum, fill it with embers, Stj. 319; fylla heiminn af sínu kyni, to fill the world with his offspring, Ver. 3. III. denoting the substance of which a thing is made, of; used indifferently with ór, though ór be more frequent; þeir gerðu af honum jörðina, af blóði hans sæinn ok vötnin, of the creation of the world from the corpse of the giant Ymir; the poem Gm. 40, 41, constantly uses ór in this sense, just as in modern Icelandic, Edda 5; svá skildu þeir, at allir hlutir væri smíðaðir af nokkru efni, 147 (pref.); húsit var gert af timbrstokkum, built of trunks of timber, Eg. 233; hjöhin vóru af gulli, of gold, golden, Fms. i. 17; af osti, of cheese, but in the verse 1. c. ór osti, Fms. vi. 253; línklæði af lérepti, linen, Sks. 287. 2. metaph. in the phrases, göra e-t af e-n (to dispose of), verða af (become of), hvat hefir þú gört af Gunnari, what hast thou done with Gunnar? Njarð. 376; hvat af motrinuni er orðit, what has become of it? of a lost thing, Ld. 208; hverfr Óspakr á burt, svá eigi vita menn hvat af honum er orðit, what has become of him? Band. 5. IV. denoting parentage, descent, origin, domicile, abode: 1. parentage, of, from, used indifferently with frá; ok eru af þeim komnir Gilsbekkingar, descend from them, but a little below—frá honum eru konmir Sturlungar, Eb. 338, cp. afkvæmi; af ætt Hörðakára, Fms. i. 287; kominn af Trojumönnum, xi. 416; af Ása-ætt (Kb. wrongly at), Edda I. β. metaph., vera af Guði (theol.), of God, = righteous, 686 B. 9; illr ávöxtr af íllri rót, Fms. ii. 48; Asia er kölluð af nafni nokkurar konu, derives her name from, Stj. 67; af honum er bragr kallaðr skáldskapr, called after his name, Edda 17. 2. of domicile; af danskri tungu, of Danish or Scandinavian origin, speaking the Danish tongue, Grág. ii. 73; hvaðan af löndum, whence, native of what country? Ísl. β. especially denoting a man’s abode, and answering to á and í, the name of the farm (or country) being added to proper names, (as in Scotland,) to distinguish persons of the same name; Hallr af Síðu, Nj. 189; Erlingr af Straumey, 273; Ástríðr af Djúpárbakka, 39; Gunnarr af Hlíðarenda (more usual frá); þorir haklangr konungr af Ögðum, king of Agdir, Eg. 35, etc.; cp. ór and frá. V. denoting a person with whom an act, feeling, etc. originates, for the most part with a periphrastic passive: 1. by, the Old Engl. of; as, ek em sendr hingað af Starkaði ok sonum hans, sent hither by, Nj. 94; inna e-t af hendi, to perform, 257; þó at alþýða væri skírð af kennimönnum, baptized of, Fms. ii. 158; meira virðr af mönnum, higher esteemed, Ld. 158; ástsæll af landsmönnum, beloved, íb. 16; vinsæll af mönnum, Nj. 102; í allgóðu yfirlæti af þeim feðgum, hospitably treated by them, Eg. 170; var þá nokkut drukkið af alþjóð, there was somewhat hard drinking of the people, Sturl. iii. 229; mun þat ekki upp tekið af þeim sükudólgum mínum, they will not clutch at that, Nj. 257; ef svá væri í hendr þér búit af mér, if í had so made everything ready to thy hands, Ld. 130; þá varð fárætt um af föður hans, his father said little about it, Fms. ii. 154. 2. it is now also sometimes used as a periphrase of a nom., e. g. ritað, þýtt af e-m, written, translated, edited by, but such phrases scarcely occur in old writers. VI. denoting cause, ground, reason: 1. originating from, on account of, by reason of; af frændsemis sökum, for kinship’s sake, Grág. ii. 72; ómáli af áverkum, speechless from wounds, 27; af manna völdum, by violence, not by natural accident, of a crime, Nj. 76; af fortölum Halls, through his pleading, 255; af ástsæld hans ok af tölum þeirra Sæmundar, by his popularity and the eloquence of S., Íb. 16; af ráðum Haralds konungs, by his contriving, Landn. 157; úbygðr af frosti ok kulda, because of frost and cold, Hkr. i. 5. β. adverbially, af því, therefore, Nj. 78; af hví, why? 686 B. 9; þá verðr bóndi heiðinn af barni sínu, viz. if he does not cause his child to be christened, K. Þ. K. 20. 2. denoting instrumentality, by means of; af sinu fé, by one’s own means, Grág. i. 293; framfæra e-n af verkum sinum, by means of one’s own labour, K. Þ. K. 142; draga saman auð af sökum, ok vælum ok kaupum, make money by, 623. I; af sínum kostnaði, at hi s own expense, Hkr. i. 217. β. absol., hún fellir á mik dropa svá heita at ek brenn af öll, Ld. 328; hann fékk af hina mestu sæmd, derived great honotur from it, Nj. 88; elli sótti á hendr honum svá at hann lagðist í rekkju af, he grew bedridden from age, Ld. 54; komast undan af hlaupi, escape by running, Fms. viii. 58; spinna garn af rokki, spin off a wheel (now, spinna á rokk), from a notion of instrumentality, or because of the thread being spun out (?), Eb. 92. 3. denoting proceeding, originating from; lýsti af höndum hennar, her hands spread beams of light, Edda 22; allir heimar lýstust (were illuminated) af henni, id.; en er lýsti af degi, when the day broke forth, Fms. ii. 16; lítt var lýst af degi, the day was just beginning to break, Ld. 46; þá tók at myrkja af nótt, the ‘mirk-time’ of night began to set in, Eg. 230; tók þá brátt at myrkva af nótt, the night grew dark, Hkr. ii. 230. 4. metaph., standa, leiða, hljótast af, to be caused by, result from; opt hlýtst íllt af kvenna hjali, great mischief is wrought by women’s gossip (a proverb), Gísl. 15, 98; at af þeim mundi mikit mein ok úhapp standa, be caused by, Edda 18; kenna kulda af ráðum e-s, to feel sore from, Eb. 42; þó mun her hljótast af margs manns bani, Nj, 90. 5. in adverbial phrases, denoting state of mind; af mikilli æði, in fury, Nj. 116; af móð, in great emotion, Fms. xi. 221; af áhyggju, with concern, i. 186; af létta, frankly, iii. 91; af viti, collectedly, Grág. ii. 27; af heilu, sincerely, Eg. 46; áf fári, in rage; af æðru, timidly, Nj. (in a verse); af setning, composedly, in tune, Fms. iii. 187; af mikilli frægð, gallantly, Fas. i. 261; af öllu afli, with all might, Grág. ii. 41; af riki, violently, Fbr. (in a verse); af trúnaði, confidently, Grág. i. 400. VII. denoting regard to, of, concerning, in respect of, as regards: 1. with verbs, denoting to tell of, be informed, inquire about, Lat. de; Dioscorides segir af grasi því, speaks of, 655 xxx. 5; er menn spurðu af landinu, inquired about it, Landn. 30; halda njósn af e-u, Nj. 104; er þat skjótast þar af at segja, Eg. 546, Band. 8. β. absol., hann mun spyrja, hvárt þér sé nokkut af kunnigt hversu for með okkr, whether you know anything about, how, Nj. 33; halda skóla af, to hold a school in a science, 656 A. i. 19 (sounds like a Latinism); en ek gerða þik sera mestan mann af öllu, in respect of all, that you should get all the honour of it, Nj. 78. 2. with adjectives such as mildr, illr, góðrafe-u, denoting disposition or character in respect to; alira manna mildastr af fo, very liberal, often-banded, Fms. vii. 197; mildr af gulli, i. 33; góðr af griðum, merciful, Al. 33; íllr af mat en mildr af gulli, Fms. i. 53; fastr af drykk, close, stingy in regard to, Sturl. ii. 125; gat þess Hildigunnr at þú mundir góðr af hestinum, that you would be good about the horse, Nj. 90, cp. auðigr at, v. at, which corresponds to the above phrases; cp. also the phrase af sér above, p. 4, col. I, ll. 50 sqq. VIII. periphrasis of a genitive (rare); provincialis af öllum Predikaraklaustrum, Fms. x. 76; vera af hinum mesta fjandskap, to breathe deep hatred to, be on bad terms with, ix. 220; af hendi, af hálfu e-s, on one’s behalf, v. those words. IX. in adverbial phrases; as, af launungu, secretly; af hljóði, silently; v. those words. β. also used absolutely with a verb, almost adverbially, nearly in the signification off, away; hann bað þá róa af fjörðinn, pass the firth swiftly by rowing, row the firth off, Fms. ix. 502; var pá af farit þat seni skerjóttast var, was past, sailed past, Ld. 142; ok er þeir höfðu af fjórðung, past one fourth of the way, Dropl. 10: skína af, to clear up, of the skv, Eb. 152; hence in common language, skína af sér, when the sun breaks forth: sofa af nóttina, to sleep it away, Fms. ii. 98; leið af nóttin, the night past away, Nj. 53; dvelja af stundir, to kill the time, Band. 8; drepa af, to kill; láta af, to slaughter, kill off; γ. in exclamations; af tjöldin, off with the awnings, Bs. i. 420, Fins, ix. 49. δ. in the phrases, þar af, thence; hér af, hence, Fms. ii. 102; af fram, straight on, Nj. 144; now, á fram, on, advance. X. it often refers to a whole sentence or to an adverb, not only like other prepp. to hér, hvar, þar, but also redundantly to hvaðan, héðan, þaðan, whence, hence, thence. 2. the preposition may sometimes be repeated, once elliptically or adverbially, and once properly, e. g. en er af var borit at borðinu, the cloth was taken off from the table, Nj. 176; Guð þerrir af (off, away) hvert tár af (from) augum heilagra manna, God wipes off every tear from the eyes of his saints, 655 xx. vii. 17; skal þó fyrst bætr af lúka af fé vegaiula, pay off, from, Gþl. 160, the last af may be omitted—var þá af borið borðinu—and the prep. thus be separated from its case, or it may refer to some of the indecl. relatives er or sem, the prep. hvar, hér, þar being placed behind them without a case, and referring to the preceding relative, e. g. oss er þar mikit af sagt auð þeim, we have been told much about these riches, Band. 24; er þat skjótast þar af at segja, in short, shortly. Eg. 546; þaðan af veit ek, thence í infer, know, Fms. i. 97. XI. it is moreover connected with a great many verbs besides those mentioned above, e. g. bera af, to excel, whence afbragð, afbrigði; draga af, to detract, deduct, hence afdráttr; veita ekki af, to be hard with; ganga at, to be left, hence afgangr; standast af um e-t, to stand, how matters stand; sem af tekr, at a furious rate; vita af, to be conscious, know about (vide VII).

D. As a prefix to compounds distinction is to be made between: I. af privativum, denoting diminution, want, deduction, loss, separation, negation of, etc., answering indifferently to Lat. ab-, de-, ex-, dis-, and rarely to re- and se-, v. the following COMPDS, such as segja, dicere, but afsegja, negare; rækja, colere, but afrækja, negligere; aflaga, contra legem; skapligr, normalis, afskapligr, deformis; afvik, recessus; afhús, afhellir, afdalr, etc. II. af intensivum, etymologically different, and akin to of, afr-, e. g. afdrykkja = ofdrykkja, inebrietas; afbrýði, jealously; afbendi, tenesmus; afglapi, vir fatuus, etc. etc. Both the privative and the intensive af may be contracted into á, esp. before a labial f, m, v, e. g. á fram = af fram; ábrýði = afbrýði; ávöxtr = afvöxtr; áburðr = afburðr; ávíta = afvíta (?). In some cases dubious. With extenuated and changed vowel; auvirðiligr or övirðiligr, depreciated, = afv- etc., v. those words.

afa, u, f. overbearing, Am. 1, Ls. 3, Bk. 2, 31, = afaryrði.

afar- and avar- [cp. Ulf. afar = μετά, όπίσω; Germ. aber, esp. in compounds: v. Grimm Gr. ii. 709], only used as a prefix in compounds, very much, very. Now often pronounced æfar, which form occurs esp. in MSS. of the 14th and I5th centuries, e. g. Fms. i. 150, xi. 249, Ísl. ii. 131; cp. also æfr, adj. iracundus. COMPDS: afar-auðigr, adj. very rich, Lex. Poët. afar-breiðr, adj. very broad, Edda 10. afar-fagr, adj. very fair, Edda (Ub.) 360. afar-hreinn, adj. very clean, Lex. Poët. afar-ílla, adv. very badly, Hkr. i. 226. afar-kaup, n. hard bargain, Sturl, (in a verse). afar-kostir, m. pl. hard condition, Eg. 14, 353, Hkr. i. 144, Ld. 222. afarkosta-laust, n. adj. on fair terms, Jb. 361, Sturl. ii. 79. afar-ligr, adj. immense, huge, Nj. 183, v. l. afar-lítill, adj. very small, Merl. 2. 46. afar-menni, n. an overpowering man, Orkn. 256 old Ed., Landn. 124, Ísl. ii. 190. afar-orð, n. overbearing words, Bs. ii. 9. afar-stórr, adj. big, Lex. Poët. afar-sætr, adj. very sweet, Sks. 534. afar-úðigr, adj. [hugð], overbearing, of violent temper, Fms. vii. 20. afar-vel, adv. very well, Hkr. i. 204, Ísl. ii. 140; cp. ofa. afar-yrði, n. = afarorð, Orkn. 274. afar-þungr, adj. heavy, Edda (Ht.) 46.

af-auðit, part. pass.; verða a. e-s, to fail, have bad luck, Gísl. 61.

af-át = ofát, over-eating, gluttony, gormandizing.

af-blómgaðr, part. pass. ‘off-bloomed,’ deflowered, 655 xxxii. 3.

af-boð, n. threats, high words, Fms. x. 199; ofboð, n., is used of panic, fear, agony, and as a prefix in compds of boðs = exceedingly. So now the modern verb ofbjóða, mostly used impers., e-m ofbýðr, to be shocked at, etc.

af-bragð, n. used of persons, a superior, excellent person; hann var a. í vizku sinni, wonderfully clever, Fms. x. 397; a. annarra manna, man of mark, vi. 144. 2. gen. afbragðs is now frequently used as a prefix to nouns to express something surpassing—a. fagr, góðr, fríðr, etc.—a. vænleikr, surpassing beauty, Stj. 195. COMPD: afbragðs-maðr, m. a great man, Fms. x. 293 (where spelt abb-).

afbragðliga, adv. surpassingly, Fas. i. 220.

afbragðligr, adj. surpassing, Eb. 256, Fms. ix. 535, x. 230 (where spelt abb-), xi. 335.

af-brigð and rarely afbrigði, n.—the compound afbrigðar-tré points to a fem.—deviation, transgression, offence, (cp. bregða af, to deviate from) esp. in pl., þeir sökuðu hann um nokkuð afbrigð þinga sinna, Post. 645. 97; sættarof ok afbrigð við guð, trespasses, 671. i; afbrigð, wrongs, Ld. 66; í afbrigðum boðorða Guðs, transgressions against the commandments of God, 671. 3; Þórðr afsakar sik um öll afbrigði við þik, for having wronged thee, Sturl. ii. 132, Fms. vii. 24, Ísl. ii. 201. COMPD: afbrigðar-tré, n. tree of transgression, Niðrst. 623. 7.

af-brot, n. pl. trespasses, sin, K. Á. 36, Fms. xi. 443; very frequent in religious writings after the Reformation.

af-brugðning, f. deviation from, 656 B. 7.

af-brúðigr and ábrúðigr, adj. jealous, Str. 5, 75; v. the following.

af-brýða, dd, [af- intens. and brúðr, sponsa], to be jealous, also contracted ábrýða; þeir vandlæta ok afbrýða sem karldýrin eru borin, Stj. 94.

af-brýði and contr. ábrýði, f. (now obsol.) jealousy; en er Sisinnus sá Clemens páfa standa hjá konu sinni, þá, viltist hugr hans mjök af mikilli ílsku ok afbrýði, Clem. 41, 42, Fms. i. 9, Ýt. 11; in all these places spelt with af-, but ábryði is more common, and occurs Hkr. i. 111; in the poem Gkv. i. 10—hon ægði mér af ábrýði—it is used of the jealousy of a wife to her husband.

af-burðr, m. (also spelt abb-), odds, balance, bias, success (cp. bera af, to prevail); kvað honum eigi annat vænna til afburðar, in order to get the better of it, Sd. 166; sá hann at engi varð afburðrinn, they fought ‘aequo Marte,’ Sturl. ii. 74; hann ætlaði sér afburð, he meant to keep the odds in his own hand, Ísl. ii. 450; skal nú faraí haustvíking, ok vilda ek, at hon yrði eigi með minnum afburðum, less glorious, Orkn. 464. II. gen. sing. and pl. afburðar-, a-, freq. used as a prefix in some COMPDS with the notion of gloriously, with distinction. afburðar-digr, adj. very thick, biðr. 24. afburða-fræknligr, adj. very gallant, Ísl. ii. 369. afburðar-járn, n. excellent iron, Fms. x. 173. afburðar-maðr, m. a man of mark, Rb. 316, Orkn. 474, Grett. 133, Finnb. 318. afburðar-mikill, adj. conspicuous, Fms. v. 181. afburðar-skip, n. a fine ship, Fas. iii. 106. afburðar-vel, adv. very well, Hkr. ii. 265, Fms. ix. 515. afburðar-vænn, adj. very fine, Fas. i. 182.

af-búð, f. an ‘off-booth,’ side-booth, apartment, Korm. 116.

af-dalr, m. an ‘off-dale,’ remote valley; freq. in tales and rhymes of hidden valleys, esp. in pl., e. g. Hvað hét hundr karls er í afdölum bjó, in a nursery rhyme, K. Þ. K. 38, Fms. v. 183.

af-deilingr, m. part, portion, share, Bs. i. 881.

af-dráttr, m. [draga af, to detract], diminution, deduction, Ann. 1358 (of duties, fines), Dipl. i. 7, Jm. 135 = costs. β. in arithmetic, subtraction, Alg. 358, now frádragning.

af-drep, n. shelter, in a storm, Skýr. 318.

af-drif, n. pl. [drifa], destiny, fate; barn líkligt til stórra afdrifa, a bairn likely to grow into a great man, Fms. iii. 112 (of an exposed child); þykir mér lítil okkur a. verða munu, inglorious life, Fær. 53. It is now also used of final fate, end. 2. offspring, Stj. 191.

af-drykkja, u, f. over-drinking, drunkenness, = ofdrykkja [af- intens.]

af-eggja, að, to dissuade, (as we might say ‘to egg off’), Fms. ix. 352.

af-eira, ð, to curtail, deprive of, with dat. of the thing; a. þá sinni sæmd, to disgrace them, Bær. 3; riddaradómi, to degrade from knighthood, 4.

af-eista, t, to castrate, Bs. ii. 118.

af-erfa, ð, to disinherit, Art. 130.

af-eyringr, m. an animal, sheep with cropped ears, Bs. 1. 723, Sturl. iii. 47; also afeyra, ð, to cut the ears off, and afeyrt, n. adj. a mark on sheep.

af-fall, n. diminution, discount, falling off, in the phrase, selja e-t með afföllum, to sell at a discount, Sd. 189.

af-fangadagr, v. atfangadagr, day preceding a feast.

af-fara, v. afför.

af-fari, adj. who deviates, trespasses, Fms. viii. 237, v. 1.

af-feðrast, að, dep. to fall short of his father, to degenerate, Fms. xi. 423.

af-feldr, m. the spoon of Hela, Edda 231.

af-ferma, d and ð, [farmr], to unload a ship, Fas. ii. 448.

af-flutning, f. and afflutningr, m. disparaging, depreciation, Bs. i. 714.

af-flytja, flutta, to disparage, Fms. x. 41, Grett. 100 A.

af-för, ar, f. departure, in the following COMPDS: affara-dagr and affarar-dagr, m. the last day of a feast, esp. of Yule or the like; a. jöla—Twelfth-night, opp. to affanga-dagr = at-fangadagr, Christmas Eve, Hkr. iii. 304, Fbr. 139, Fms. vii. 272; a. veizlunnar, Bs. i. 287, Fms. iii. 121. affara-kveld, n. the last evening of a feast, Fms. xi. 424.

af-gamall, adj. [af- intens. ?], very old, decrepid from age, Nj. 190; a. karl, Fms. ii. 182, Sks. 92.

af-ganga, u, f. surplus, Fms. iii. 208, v. l. II. deviation, digression, Skálda 203. COMPD: afgöngu-dagr, m. = affaradagr, day of departure, Fas. iii. 600.

af-gangr, s, m. surplus, store, Ver. 17, Dipl. v. 10, Fms. iv. 236, K. Þ. K. 163, in the phrase, með afgöngum, to spare, Fms. iii. 108; afgangs, gen. used adverbially, over, to spare, l. c., v. 1. II. decease, death [ganga af, to die], Fas. iii. 596.

af-gelja, u, f. [gala, cp. hégilja], chattering, Edda 110.

af-gipt, f. [gefa af], tribute, K. Á. 170. II. indulgence, absolution, Bs. i. 712, H. E. i. 523, Dipl. i. 5. COMPDS: afgiptar-bréf, n. letter of indulgence, Bs. 1. 699. afgiptar-fé, n. a Norse law term, escheatable property, N. G. L. i. 324.

af-gjald, n. tribute, Vm. 78 (freq.)

af-gjarn, adj. eager to be off, flying away, in the proverb, afgjarnt verðr öfundarfé, Fas. ii. 332; cp. afsæll.

af-gjöf, f. = afgipt, K. Á. 170, 174, H. E. i. 430.

af-glapa, að, [cp. glepja], an Icel. law term, to disturb or break the peace of a court or public meeting, by violence, crowding, shouting, brawling, or the like; ef menn troðast svá mjök at lögréttu fyrir önnkost, eðr göra þar hrang þat eðr háreysti, at fyrir því afglapast mál manna, ok varðar þat fjörbaugsgarð, Grág. i. 5; ef várþing verðr afglapat, at eigi megu mál lúkast, 105; ef menn afglapa görð allir þeir er til vóru teknir, i. 495.

af-glapan and afglöpun, f. [v. the preceding word], used of rioting or brawling in a court or at a meeting, to break the law or the peace; it is also used of any illegal steps to stop the course of law, so that the pleadings are interrupted, and there is a flaw in the procedure, v. þingsafglöpun; frequent in the Grágás and the Sagas; it was liable to the lesser outlawry, v. above: bribery and false witness seem to be counted as þingsafglöpun in Nj. 150, and were to be challenged to the High Court, Lv. 12, 31, Nj., Grág., esp. in the þ. þ. etc.: v. Dasent, Introd. to Burnt Njal.

af-glapi, a, m. an oaf, fool, simpleton, Fms. i. 156, Ld. 34, Sd. 145. COMPD: afglapa-orð, n. words of a fool, in the proverb, úmæt eru afglapaorð, ‘a fool’s word is nothing worth’—now úmæt eru ómagaorð—Boll. 352.

af-greizla, u, f. payment, contribution, Vm. 141.

af-guðliga, adv. ungodly, N. G. L. i. 376, v. l. = óguðliga.

af-gæzla, u, f. taking care of, H. E. i. 396, uncert. read.

af-göra, ð, to offend, do amiss, transgress, Nj. 254, Fms. vii. 104, viii. 300.

af-görð, f. transgression, offence, mostly in pl., trespasses in a religious sense, Sks. 601, Hkr. iii. 225.

af-görvi, v. atgörfi.

af-hallnn, false read. = ofjarlar, Vall. L. 206, v. l.

af-hallr, adj. sloping downward, Eg. 277.

af-haugr, m. a side-mound, Ísl. ii. 46.

af-hefð, f. [hefð, possessio], ousting, D. N. iv. 881.

af-hegna, d, to enclose, hedge, D. N. iii. 774.

af-heima, gen. pl. n. [heima], from home, out of doors, abroad; fara til afheirna, to go abroad, opp. to at heimili, at home, N. G. L. i. 158.

af-helgast, að, dep. to become unholy, to be profaned, Sks. 782 B.

af-hellir, m. side-cave, Fms. iii. 570, Fas. ii. 152, Brandkr. 62.

af-henda, d and t, to hand over, Lv. 6, Dipl. ii. 14, 16; a. skuld, to pay a debt, Vápn. 41; a. heit, to pay a vow, Bs. i. 121.

af-hending, f. a metrical term, a subdivision of the samhenda, when the final assonance of a verse is repeated in the next one, e. g. seim þverrir gefr seima | seim örr …, Edda (Ht. 47 and 24). In mod. Icel. metric, afhenda is quite different, viz. a short metre in only two lines.

af-hendis, adv. off one’s hand, N. G. L. i. 180.

af-hendr, adj. out of one’s hand, in the phrase, segja e-n sér afhendan, to give one up, of a client or the like; leitt er mér at segja þik afhendan, því at þat hefi ek aldri gert ef ek hefi við manni tekit, Fs. 34, Fms. iii. 51 (of the poet Hallfred and king Olaf). II. n. afhent impers., e-m er e-t afhent, unfit for, unable to, Fms. viii. 21.

af-heyrandi, part. act. out of bearing, absent, Grág. ii. 143.

af-heyris, adv. out of bearing, opp. to áheyris, Bs. i. 771.

af-hlaðning, f. unloading, N. G. L. i. 410.

af-hlaup, n. surphis, Fms. iv. 336; til afhlaups, to spare, Alg. 370. COMPD: afhlaups-korn, n. surplus corn, Gþl. 352.

af-hlutr, m. share of a thing, v. fjár-afhlutr.

af-hlýðast, dd, to disobey, D, N. ii. 173.

af-hrapi, a, m. offscourings, outcasts, (an άπ. λεγ.,—afhrak being now used); ok ræðr hann sér einum á hendr afhrapa hans, Grág. i. 294 (of the consequences of harbouring a vagabond).

af-hroð, n. destruction, v. afráð, Fas. iii. 169.

af-huga, adj. ind. averse, having turned one’s mind from; verða a. e-u or við e-t, to forget, mind no more, Ísl. ii. 274, Stj. 202, Fs. 47, Bs. i. 78, 655 xi. 3.

af-hugast, að, dep. gov. dat. to forget, Fms. viii. 252; part. afhugaðr við e-t = afhuga, having put it out of one’s mind, ii. 336.

af-hus, n. out-house, side-apartment, Eb. 10.

af-hvarf, n. [hverfa], a diversion, turning aside, Hm. 33, in which passage it is opp. to gagnvegr, the straight path, Lâ. 204.

af-hýða, dd, to scourge thoroughly, ‘hide,’ Grett. 135, Sturl. iii. 295.

af-höfða, að, to behead, Fms. i. 217, Stj. 464.

af-högg, n. a law term, ‘off-hewing,’ mutilation, maiming, N. G. L. i. 170, Bs. i. 675, H. E. i. 237. II. chips, splinters, Fms. ii. 290.

AFI, a, m. [cp. Lat. avus, Ulf. avô = μάμμα, and aba = ανήρ, vir], grandfather: it is now frequent, but occurs very rarely in old writers, who almost always use móðurfaðir or föðurfaðir. Yet it occurs in the poem Rm. 16—afi ok amma—and Vþm. 29, where it = föðurfaðir. It is curious to observe that in the poem Skm.—whence it is again transferred into the Grógaldr—it is used in the sense of a boy or a son; cp. as an illustration of this use the Norse phrase—D. N. iv. 848—afi eptir afa = son after father, man after man in uninterrupted succession, in accord- ance to the Gothic aba; Edda 108, Fms. iv. 288, vi. 346, xi. 6. We also say lang-afi, great-grandfather, and langamma, great-grandmother. COMPD: afa-systir, f. great aunt, Landn. 317.

af-kaup, n. bad bargain, Fms. v. 255.

af-káraligr, v. afkárligr.

af-kárligr, adj. = afkárr, Lex. Poët.; now freq. afkáralegr, adj. and -lega, adv. of manners, odd, like a madman.

af-kárr, adj. [af- intens.; kárr does not occur; cp. the modern kári, a gale, tempest, (poët.)], strange, prodigious; er hér nokkut afkárt inni, of a giant pulling a bear out of his den by the ears, Fas. ii. 237; it occurs repeatedly in Lex. Poët. = very strong, remarkable; afkárr söngr, discordant song, of shouting, Akv. 38; cp. launkárr.

af-kleyfi, n. in the COMPD afkleyfis-orð, n. a metric. term, a superfluous word, syllable, in a verse, an enclitic syllable preceding the höfuðstafr in a verse. COMPD: afkleyfis-samstafa, u, f. syllaba hypermetra, Edda (Ht.) 137.

af-klæða, dd, to undress, Stj. 194. β. reflex, to undress oneself, Eg. 420, Fms. x. 294.

af-komandi, part. descendant, Hkr. iii. 170.

af-kvremi, n. [kvám], ‘off-coming,’ offspring, in a collect. sense, Fms. i. 212, Hkr. i. 325, Orkn. 142, Stj. 39. COMPD: afkvæmis-maðr, m. descendant, Stj. 39, 160.

af-kymi, a, m. nook, Ísl. ii. 471 (paper MS.); kymi, id., is now freq.

AFL, s, m. hearth of a forge, Edda 69, 70, Stj. 312, Fms. viii. 8; in N. G. L. i. 328 it seems to mean hearth (in general).

afl, m. [Grimm mentions an O. H. G. aval; abal is a dub. άπ. λεγ. in A. S. poetry, Ormul. avell], strength, esp. physical force; afreksmaðr at afli ok áræði, Eg. 1; styrkr at afli, Fms. i. 19; ramr at afli, 155; fullkominn at afli ok hyggju, bodily and mental vigour, Ld. 256; stillt þú þó vel aflinu, at þú verðir eigi kendr, Nj. 32; hafa afl til e-s, be a match for, be able to do, Gþl. 411. β. virtue; afl dauðfærandi grasa, virtue of poisonous herbs, 623. 26. 2. metaph. strength, power, might, Th. 19. 3. a law term, force, validity; dæmdu vér þetta boð Bjarna úlögligt ok ekki afl hafa, void, Dipl. iii. 3. 4. a law term, majority, odds, in the phrase, ok skal afl ráða, plurima vota valeant; ef gerðarmenn (umpires) verða eigi ásáttir ok skal a ráða, Grág. i. 493; nú verða fjórðungsmenn eigi ásáttir, þá skal afl ráða með þeim, i. l, cp. 44, 531 (where it is used of a jury); en ef þeir verða eigi ásáttir er í lögréttu sitja hvat þeir vilja lofa eðr í lög leiða, þá skolu þeir ryðja lögréttu (viz. divide) ok skal ráða a. með þeim, Nj. 150. 5. force, violence; taka með afli, Stj. 4. 30; bjóða e-m afl, Bs. ii. 106. COMPDS: afls-munr, m. odds, superiority of strength, esp. in the phrase, kenna aflsmunar, where there is a short struggle, the one being soon overcome, Eb. 182, Eg. 508, Hkr. i. 286: β. kenna aflsmuna = kosta afls, to exert oneself to the utmost; varð hann at kenna a. (to exert the whole of his strength) áðr hann kæmi honum undir, Eb. 172. afls-raun = aflraun.

AFLA, að, [cp. Swed. afvel, breed, slock: Dan. avling, farming; avlsgaard, farm; faareavl, qvægavl, breed of sheep or cattle. In Norse (mod.) avle is to harvest; Swed. afla, to beget. In the Icel. verb afla the idea of producing or gathering prevails, whereas the nouns branch off; the weak afli chiefly denotes produce, means, stores, resources, troops, forces; the strong one—afl—force alone. Yet such phrases as ramr at afli indicate something besides the mere notion of strength. In the mod. Scandin. idioms—Dan., Swed., Norse—there are no traces left of the idea of ‘force:’ cp. the Lat. opes and copiae. The Icel. spelling and pronunciation with bl (abl) is modern, perhaps from the time of the Reformation: cp. the words efla etc. with a changed vowel. The root is OP-, as shown in Lat. ope, ŏpes, the ŏ being changed into a?]. I. with gen. of the thing, to gain, acquire, earn, procure; vandara at gæta fengins fjár en afla þess (a proverb); þá bjöggu þeir skip ok öfluðu manna til, got men to man it, Eg. 170. β. the phrase, afla sér fjár ok frægðar, to earn fame and wealth, of young heroes going sea-roving; fóru um sumarit í víking ok öfluðu sér fjár, Eg. 4; afla sér fjár ok frama, Fs. 5; fjár ok virðingar, id.; hann hafði aflat sér fjár (made money) í hólmgöngum, Eg. 49; aflaði þessi bardagi honum mikillar frægðar, brought him great fame, Fms. ii. 307; kom honum í hug, at honum mundi mikillar framkvæmdar afla, bring him great advantage, Eb. 112. 2. as a law term, to cause, inflict a wound; ef maðr aflar einum blóðs eðr bens af heiptugri hendi, N. G. L. i. 387. II. with acc., mostly in unclassical writers, but now rare, to earn; aflaði hann þar fé mikit, Fms. vii. 80; aflandi þann thesaur er, 655 xxxii. i; hafit ér ok mikit í aflat, Al. 159; mun ek til hafa atferð ok eljun at afla mér annan við, to contrive, Ld. 318, where, however, the excellent vellum MS. A. M. 309, 4to, has gen.—annars viðar—more classically, as the Saga in other passages uses the gen., e. g. afla sér manna ok hrossa, to procure horses and men, l. c. little below. β. reflex., e-m aflask e-t, gains, Fb. 163. γ. absol., njót sem þú hefir aflat, of ill-earned means, Nj. 37. δ. part. aflandi, Njarð. 366. 2. now used absol. to fish, always with acc.; a standing phrase in Icel., the acc. only being used in that particular connection. III. with dat. in the sense of to perform, manage, be able to; hann aflaði brátt mikilli vinnu, ok var hagr vel, Fms. i. 289; fyr mun hann því afla en ek færa honum höfuð mitt, it will sooner happen, Fms. iv. 291, where the Hkr. reads orka; bauð út leiðangri, sem honum þótti landit mestu mega afla, to the utmost that the country could produce, Fms. x. 118; ekki aflar harm því at standa í móti yðr, he is not man enough to stand against you, Fas. iii.

af-lag, n. [leggja af], gen. aflags. I. used as adv. = afgangs, sparingly, Fas. iii. 477. In modern Icel. hafa aflögum or aflögu, to have to spare. II. slaughtering of cattle, killing off; leggja af margan fénað … minti biskup enn á um aflögin, the slaughtering, Bs. i.

af-laga, adv. unlawfully, Grág. i. 473, ii. 367, Gþl. 294, 432, 473, Hkr. ii. 246, Al. 153; ganga a., Stj. 430. 2. now used in the sense to be out of joint, things going wrong.

af-lagliga, adv. = aflögliga, 655 xxxii. 4.

aflan and öflun, f. gain, acquisition, Hkr. ii. 218, Sks. 233. COMPD: öflunar-maðr, m. a good steward, Sturl. iii. 130.

af-langr, adj. oblong, Ann. year 1414; formed from the Lat. (?), new common.

af-lausn, f., Lat. absolutio. 1. some small release, ransom, compensation, Sturl. iii. 142, 239; gjöra a. urn e-t, to relieve, release oneself in regard to a thing: Ólafr konungr mælti, ‘Framar hefir þú þá gert urn vígin á Grænlandi, en fiskimaðrinn kallar a. vera fiskinnar; því at hann kallast leysa sik, ef hann dregr fisk fyrir sik, enn annan fyrir skip sitt, þriðja fyrir öngul, fjórða fyrir vað,’ king Olaf said, ‘Thou hast done more then in the matter of manslayings in Greenland, than what the fisherman calls the ransom of his fishing; for he says that he has freed himself (of his fishing), if he draws (up) a fish for himself, but another for his boat, a third for his angle, a fourth for his line,’ (this way of reckoning their catch is still common with fishermen in many parts of England and Scotland), Fbr. 154: cp. a stanza in a Scottish ballad, ‘I launched my boat in Largo Bay, | And fishes caught I three; | One for wad and one for hook, | And one was left for me.’ 2. eccles. = absolution, K. Á. 226, Hom. 137, Grett. 162, Fms. x. 18.

af-lát, n. leaving off, relinquishing; a. synda, Stj. 567, Sks. 612 B; án afláti, used adverb. incessantly, 625, p. 77, Th. 20. β. remission, pardon; aflát misgörninga, Hom. 160; a. synda, 159. COMPD: afláts-korn, n. surplus corn, store corn, Gþl. 352, v. l. aflaupskorn.

af-látr, adj. negligent, lazy, Hom. 152.

af-leiðing, f. ‘off-leading:’ 1. now generally used in the pl. consequences, result; 2. in old writers, on the contrary, it seldom occurs, and then in a peculiar sense. So Sturl. iii. 128, góðar afleiðingar eru með e-m, they are on good terms, things go on pretty well between them. 3. metric. continuation; her er hinn fyrri vísuhelmingr leiddr af þeirri vísu, er áðr var kveðin ok fylgir þat málsorð, er afleiðing (continuation) er kölluð, Edda (Ht.) 126.

af-leiðingr, s, m., skilja góðan afleiðing, used adverb. to part on friendly terms, Sturl. iii. 134: cp. the preceding word, 128; both passages are taken, from the Þorgils S. Skarða, to which the phrase seems to be peculiar.

af-leiðis, adv. 1. loc. astray, out of the path, Sd. 146, 655 xvii. 4. 2. metaph., færa a., to pervert, Stj. 227, 519; þeir lugu á okkr, en þú færðir orð þeirra a., you perverted their words, Bs. i. 7, Glúm. 327; Snúa e-m a., to seduce, Andr. 625. 75. β. impers., e-u þokar a., turns out wrong, Bs. i. 340.

af-leifar, f. pl. scraps, remnants, leavings, Stj. 383, Bs. i. 237; f. búsafleifar, Grág. i. 299.

af-leitinn, adj. = afleitr, of odd appearance, Fas. ii. 329.

af-leitliga, adv. perversely, Stj. 55; illa ok a., 173.

af-leitligr, adj. = afleitr, perverse, deformed, Stj. 274, Al. 96.

af-leitr, adj. [líta, cp. also -leitr in compounds], strange, hideous; neut., hversu afleitt (how disgusting) oss virðist um þeirra háttu, Hks. iii. 435; hversu afleitir (stupid) oss sýnast þeirra hættir, Fms. vii. 296, l. c.; þeir fyrirlíta ok halda alla sauðahirða sem afleita, odd, peculiar, Stj. 293; afleitt eðr eligt, vile, 1 Sam. xv. 9. β. abandoned, the face turned from, deserted by, with dat.; afleita hamingjunni, luckless, Stj. 421. Ruth i. 12.

af-lendis, adv. = erlendis, abroad, N. G. L. i. 244.

af-lendr, adj. far from land, in open sea, Bs. ii. 47.

af-letja, latti, to dissuade: α. with infin., Bs. i. 39. β. with acc., aflatti hann mjök fyrir sér ferðina, Fms. ix. 437. γ. or witn an acc. of the person and gen. of the thing; a. e-n e-s, v. letja.

af-létta, tt, to cease, Fr.

af-léttr, prompt, ready, v. ofléttr.

afl-fátt, n. adj. short of strength; verða a., to fail in strength, Fms. i. 55. iii. 150.

afl-gróf, f. [afl, m.], hole below the forge, cinder-pit, or a water-pit wherein to cool the iron (?); cp. Vkv. 22, Þiðr. 72.

afl-hella, u, f. hearth-stone in a forge; er hann hafði þau (viz. the bones) niðrgrafit undir sína aflhellu, Þiðr. 95.

afli, a, m. I. means, acquisition, gain, produce, stores, fruits; afli ok herfang, Fms. ii. 106; hafði þórir einn forráð þess liðs ok svá afla þess alls er verðr í ferðinni, iv. 297; eignir … með öllum afla ok ávexti, increase and interest, K. Á. 54. 2. now used, α. partic. of fishing stores, fishing, and β. gener. of provisions and stores of any kind. II. metaph.: 1. might, power; hafa afla til eingis, have might or means for nothing, be unable to do anything, to be powerless, Nj. 27. 2. forces, troops, body, Lat. copiae, opes; Ásgrímr sagði þat mikinn afla, great support, Nj. 210; en þat sýnist mér þó ráðligast at biðja sér liðs, þvíat þeir draga afla at yðr, they gather forces against you, 222; munu vér skjótt eiga af honum ván hins mesta úfriðar ef hann fær nokkurn afla, troops, resources, Fms. i. 188; at herja á þá feðga með allmikinn afia, strong body, 184; ok er hirð Sverris konungs sá, at aflinn Magnúss konungs (the main body) flýði allr, viii. 119. COMPDS: afla-brögð, n. pl. [bragð], stores of fish, A. A. 276. afla-fátt, n. adj. = aflfátt, Fms. iii. 133. afla-fé, n. acquired property, N. G. L. i. 448. afla-lítill, adj. having little power, Finnb. 320 (compar. aflaminni). afla-maðr, m. powerful, strong, Lv. 12, 109. afla-mikill, adj. opp. to aflalítill, powerful, strong, Ld.; harðgjörr ok aflamikill, Bs. i. 635; var Sæmundr afiamestr, the strongest in men, Sturl. ii. 44: β. (= aflmikill), used of physical strength, Stj. Judg. iii. 29; verða menn eigi ásáttir hvárr sterkari er, en þó ætîa flestir Gísla aflameira (= aflmeira), GÍsl. 26. afla-munr, m. odds, Sturl.; at etja við aflamuninn, to fight against odds, Al. 110. afla-skortr, m. shortcoming in power, opp. to aflamunr, Bs. i. 525. afla-stund, f. fishing season, Bs. ii.

af-lima, adj. ind., verða e-m a., to be cut off, separated from, Post. 95, Am. 26.

af-lima, að, to ‘off-limb,’ to dismember, maim, mutilate, Js. 37, Ann. 1342.

af-liman, f. ‘off-limbing,’ mutilation, Bs. ii. 75.

afl-lauss, adj. weak, strengthless, a medical term, palsied, paralytic, Bs. i. 351.

afl-leysi, n. palsy, v. Fél. ix.

afl-lítill, adj. weak, Fms. ii. 201, vii. 208.

afl-mikill, adj. of great strength, Sturl. i. 23, Fms. i. 261.

af-lofa, að, to refuse, Fr.

afl-raun, f. trial (proof) of strength; in plur. bodily exercises; Skallagrímr hendi mikit gaman at aflraunum ok leikum, Eg. 187; er þat flestra manna ætlan, at Grettir hafi verit sterkastr hérlandsmanna, síðan þeir Ormr ok þórálfr lögðu af aflraunir, Grett. 133; þótti þetta mikil a., Fms. iii. 210, Finnb. 274: cp. aflsraun.

afl-skortr, m. failing of strength, Fms. ii. 149.

aflugr, adj. strong, v. öflugr.

afl-vani, adj. ind. deficient in strength; verða a., to succumb; taka þeir fang, ok verðr Gunnarr mjök a., Fms. ii. 75 (in wrestling); enda varð hann a. fyrir liðs sakir, was overpowered, got the worst of it, Ísl. ii. 172; Eustachius sá sik aflvani (acc.) í móti þeim, 655 x. p. 2.

afl-vöðvi, a, m. [vöðvi, a muscle], the biceps muscle, Sturl. 51, Ld. 220, Fas. ii. 344.

af-lögliga, adv. = aflaga, unlawfully, D. N. i. 80, Stj, 154.

af-má, ð, to ‘mow off,’ to blot out, destroy, Fms. ii. 238, Stj. 208, 346.

af-mán, f. [af, má], degradation, shame, v. the following.

af-mána, að, = afmá, to degrade, pollute.

af-mánaðr, part. polluted, defiled, Rb. 332.

afmor, m. = amor, a Fr. word, amour, freq. in the Ballads (Rimur).

af-mynda, að, to deform; dep. afmyndask, to be deformed, Fas. i. 425 (paper MS.); the word is now very freq.

af-mœðing, f. [móðir], right of weaning lambs, by taking them from the mother; kirkja á lamba a. (perhaps wrongly for afmæðring) í Mölvíkrhöfða, Vm. 164.

af-nám, n. gener. taking away, removal, Stj. 2 Sam. iv. II. β. esp. in the phrase, at afnámi, of something reserved, before the division of spoil, property, or inheritance; now, taka af óskiptu, Dan. forlods, Grág, i. 330, 336, Jb. 289 (Ed. af námi); konungr skildi hafa úr hlutskipti þriðjung við liðsmenn, en umfram at afnámi bjórskinn öll ok safala, Eg. 57. 2. metaph. privation, loss; ok hann verðr at skaða þeim mönnum nokkrunn, er oss mun þykkja a. í, Eg. 114, Fms. vii. 244. COMPDS: afnáms-fé, n. a law term, share, which is reserved before the division of property, spoil, inheritance, or the like, Eg. 240, Fms. iv. 28. afnáms-gripr, m. something reserved or set aside, Fms. x. 214.

af-nefja, að, to cut off one’s nose, Sir. 35.

af-neita, að and tt, and afníta, tt, now always afneita, að, to deny, refuse; with dat., hefir afneitað tiltekinni trú, Fms. iii. 166; eigi vil ek því afneita, refuse, Fs. 11; ek afneitta eigi hans orðsending, Stj. 1 Kings xx. 7; en er hann afneitti eigi með öllu (refused not), þá báðu þeir hann því meir, Grett. 146. 2. absol. afnita; en þar es Jökull bróðir minn laust þik högg, þat skaltú hafa bótalaust, því at þú afníttir þú er þér vóru boðnar, Fs. 57.

af-neiting, f. denial, renunciation, Th. 17.

af-neyzla, u, f. use, consumption; a. skógarins, Fs. 125, Nj. 78; a. fjár (pl.), Jb. 404 A, B (Ed. ofnevzlur).

afr, v. áfr, buttermilk.

af-rað, afráð, afroð, and afhroð, n. (Fas. iii. 169), [cp. Swed. afrad; from roð, rud, fundus, ager (?)]. I. prop, a Norse and Swedish law term, tribute, ground tax, payable to the king; a. ok landaura, N. G. L. i. 257, D. N. iii. 408. So also in Vsp. 27, hvárt skyldu æsir a. gjalda, where it is opp. to gildi, league. II. metaph. loss, damage, 1. in the phrase, gjalda a., to pay a heavy fine, suffer a great loss; en þat a. munu vér gjalda, at margir munu eigi kunna frá at segja hvárir sigrast, there will be so heavy a loss in men, such a havoc in killed, Nj. 197 (where most MSS. read afroð, some afrað, Ed. afrauð); töluðu þeir opt um málaferlin, sagði Flosi, at þeir hefði mikit a. goldit þegar, 254 (MSS. afrað, afroð, and afhroð); Lýtingr mun þykjast áðr mikit a. goldit hafa í láti bræðra sinna, 155 (MSS. afrað, afroð, and afhroð), Fms. x. 324. 2. in the phrase, göra mikit a., to make a great havoc; görði hann mikit afhroð í sinni vörn, great slaughter, Fas. iii. 169: cp. Lex. Poët. 3. advice, Vtkv. 5; the verse is spurious and the meaning false.

afraðs-kollr, m. cognom., Germ. ‘steuerkopf,’ cp. nefgildi, Engl. poll-tax, v. the preceding.

af-reizla, u, f. = afgreizla, outlay, payment, Ám. 13.

af-rek, n. [af- intens.], a deed of prowess, a deed of derring do; margir lofuðu mjök afrek Egils, ok sigr þann sem hann vann, Fms. xi. 234; vinna afrek, Fs. 6; ekki a. gerði hann meira í Noregi, Fagrsk. 94; hann lét ok göra þar í Níðarósi naust bæði mörg, ok svá stór, at afrek var í, grand, magnificent, Hkr. iii. 268. COMPDS: afreks-gripr, n. a splendid object, a thing of price, Ld. 144. afreks-maðr, m. a valiant man; a. at afli ok áræðí, Eg. I; en þat hefi ek spurt, at hirð hans er skipuð afreksmönnum einurn, heroes, 19, 84; a. um vöxt eðr afl, Ísl. ii. 190. afreks-verk, n. valiant deed, Fær. 51, Al. 30.

af-reka, að, to achieve, perform; munu þér mikit afreka, Lv. 33; hvat þeir höfðu afrekat, Fas. iii. 221; a. vel, to succeed, Bárð. 175.

af-remma, u, f. [ramr], restriction, encumbrance, obligation; sú er a. meðr þessum tillögum, at prestr skal vera at heimilishúsi ok syngja allar heimilistíðir, Ám. 37.

afrendi, f. [afrendr], strength, prowess, valour, Hym. 28.

afrendr, adj. [frequently or almost constantly spelt afreyndr, as if from ‘af-’ intens. and ‘raun,’ of great prowess; but the derivation from ‘afr- = afar-’ and ‘-endi or -indi’ is better]. I. in the phrase, a. at afli, very strong, valiant, Fms. ii. 87, Finnb. 254; compar. afrendari, Fms. x. 321, Fs. 33, 48 (where the MS. Vh. spells afreyndr, so also does the Fb. i. 341, etc.) II. absol. without adding at afli, Lv. 101 (where written afreyndr).

af-réttr, m. and afrétt, f. (now always f.; cp. rótt), [prgbably akin to reka, viz. afrekt, contr. afrétt], compascuum, common pasture; it is now prop. used of mountain pastures, whither the cattle (sheep) are driven in the summer in order to graze during July and August, and again collected and driven down in the autumn (Sept.); in Norway called almenningr. I. masc., thus defined, en þat er afréttr, er ij menn eigu saman eðr fleiri, hverngi hlut sem hverr þeirra á í, Grág. ii. 303, 330; í afrétt þann, er, i. 397, ii. 303; afréttu, acc. pl., ii. 301, Jb. 198 A, K. Þ. K. 90, Olk. 37; hálfan afrétt, Vm. 29. II. f. afréttinni (dat.), Grug. (Kb.) ii. 301, 325 A; gen. afréttar (gender uncert.), 303 A; afréttin, id., Cod. A; afrétt (dat. f. ?), Ísl. ii. 330, Háv. 39; afrettum, dat. pl. (gender uncert.), Boll. 336. COMPDS: afréttar-dómr, m. court held for deciding causes concerning common pasture, Grág. ii. 323. afrétta-menn, m. pl. owners or partners in common pasture, Grág. ii.

af-roð, v. afráð.

af-róg, n. excuse, justification, Str. 71.

af-ruðningr, m. [ryðja], clearing off, defence, repeal, Pr. 425.

af-runi, a, m. [runi, renna], deviation; metaph. sin, trespasses; umbót ok iðran afruna (gen.), 125. 174; iðrun fyrir görva afruna (acc. pl.), id.; tárfelling er hann hefir fyrir afruna þá, er verða í þessa heims lífi, id. 184. β. injury, offence, D. N. iii. 367 (Fr.)

afr-yrði, n. = afaryrði, insolent words.

af-ræði, n. [af- intens. and ráð], absolute rule, D. N. ii, 336 several times (Fr.)

af-rækja, t and ð, to neglect, contemn, H. E. i. 257; reflex, afrækjast, in the same signification, α. with dat, a. lögunum, to break, neglect the law, Al 4. β. with acc. (now always so), a. sitt höfuðrnerki, Karl. 189. γ. uncert. dat. or acc., a. Guðs hlýðni, Edda (pref.) 144, Stj. 241. δ. with at and a following infin., Gþl. 183; konungar afræktust at sitja at Uppsölum, left off, Hkr. ii. 97. ε. absol., Fms. vii. 221, 188, Gþl. 506.

af-saka, að, to excuse, exculpate, K. Á. 230, Stj. 37. β. pass. afsakast, to be (stand) excused, K. Á. 226, Stj. 125.

af-sakan and afsökun, f. a ‘begging off,’ excuse, exculpation, K. Á. 228, Stj. 152. COMPD: afsakanar-orð, n. pl. excuses, Stj.

af-saki, a, m. excuse, 623. 60.

af-sanna, að, to refute, prove to be false (‘unsooth’), 655 xvii. 1.

af-sáð, n. seed-corn, N. G. L. i. 240.

af-segja, sagði, to resign, renounce; a. sér e-t, Barl. 210. Now used in the sense of to refuse, deny.

af-setja, setti, to depose, put down, v. the following.

af-setning, f. and afsetningr, m. deposition, (off-setting, cp. Scot. ‘aff-set,’ Jam., which means dismissal, the act of putting away), H. E. ii. 74, 523.

af-siða, adj. ind. immoral, of loose manners, Grág. i. 338.

af-sifja, að, [sifjar], a law term, to cut off from one’s ‘sib,’ alienate from one’s family, renounce; gefa má maðr vingjafir at sér lifanda, hest eða yxn, vápn eða þvílíka grfpi, ok afsifjar (Cod. A reads afsitjar, but doubtless wrongly) hann sér þó at sex skynsömum mönnum þyki eigi arfsvik gör við erfingja, Jb. 163, D. N. i. 141, Pál Vidal. p. 84. The word appears to be a Norse law term, and does not occur in the laws of the Icel. Commonwealth, but came into use with the code Jb.

af-síða, adv. aside, apart, Krók. 56.

af-skapligr, adj. [skapligr], misshapen, monstrous, huge, shocking; a. áfelli, shocking accident, Stj. 90; herfiligr ok a., 655 xiii. A. i; a. ok úmannligt, Stj. 272; a. úmenska, Fms. ii. 225, K. Á. (App.) 230.

af-skeiðis, adv. astray, H. E. i. 252, 655 xi. 3, Hom. 99.

af-skipan, f. deposition, dismissal, D. N. (Fr.)

af-skipta, adj. ind. cut off, from an inheritance or the like, Lat. expers; in the phrase, vera görr a., to be wronged, Hrafn. 14.

af-skipti, n. pl. dealing with, intercourse, (cp. the phrase, skipta sér af e-u, to meddle with, care about); ok eingi a. veita heiðnum goðuin, Fms. ii. 160; ef hann veitir súr engi a., does not deal with, Grág. ii. 121. COMPDS: afskipta-lauss, adj. heedless, careless, having nothing to do with, Fb. i. 392. afskipta-lítill, adj. caring little about, Fms. vii. 181, Orkn. 142. afskipta-samr, adj. meddling, partaking, v. úafskiptasamr.

af-skiptinn, adj. meddling, partaking, Ld. 66.

af-skiptr, part. = afskipta, wronged, cheated, Fas. iii. 619. Metaph. void of, having no interest in, Stj. 155, 195.

af-skirrandi, participial noun, [skirrast], an offscouring, outcast; leiði þér þenna a. út ór horgiimi, 656 C. 33.

af-skrámliga, adv. hideously, Hom. 155.

af-skrámligr, adj. [af- intens.; skrámr means a giant; skrimsl, a monster; cp. Engl. to scream], hideous, monstrous; a. illvirki, a sacrilege, K. Á. 222: also spelt askramligr and askramliga, Al. 142, Hom. 155.

af-skræmi, n. a monster, v. the following.

af-skræmiliga, adv. hideously: α. of a scream; þá lét út á stöðli a., howled piteously, of a ghost, Hkr. ii. 312, Eb. 320, of the bellowing of a mad bull. β. of a monstrous shape; þrællinn (of a ghost) rétti inn höfuðit, ok sýndist honum a. mikit, Grett. 83 new Ed. γ. metaph., óttast a., to be shocked at, Stj. 101.

af-skurðr, ar, m. a chip, lappet, Dipl, iii. 3.

af-skyld, f. a law term, due, obligation, encumbrance, several times in the Cartularies and deeds of gift, in the phrase, sú er a. þessa fjár, D. I. i. 273, etc.; með þessi a. fara þessir fjárhlutir, 282, Vm. 108: cp. the still more freq. phrase, sú er afvinna, cp. afvinna.

af-snið, n. a lappet, snip, Pr. 412.

af-sniðning, f. snipping off. afsniðningar-járn, n. a chopper, Fr.

af-sníðis, adv. cut through, across, Bs. i. 388.

af-spraki, a, m. [cp. A. S. sprecan; Germ. sprechen], rumour, hearsay; Hákon jarl hafði fengit afspraka nokkurn (perh. better in two words), Fms. 1. 187.

af-springr, m., Al. 11, Hkr. iii. 277, Edda (pref.) 146, and various other forms; afsprengr, m. and afspringi, n., Gþl. 47, Fms. viii. 237, Sks. 46 B, Stj. 63, Orkn. 176; the form now usual is afsprengi, n., Fms. v. 217, Fas. ii. 391, Bret. 112. 1. gener. offspring, progeny, v. the quotations above. 2. in pl. used of the produce of the earth, Sks. 48 B (rare). 3. metaph.: α. a band, a detached part of a body; þóttist Hrafn þegar vita, at þessi a. mundi vera af ferð þeirra Þorgils, that this detachment must be from the host of Thorgils and his followers, Sturl. iii. 274. β. a branch, ramification; ok er mikil van, at þar verði nokkurr a. (offshoot) af þessum ófriði á Limafirði, Fms. xi. 13. γ. rumour, notice, = afspraki; fá nokkurn a. um e-t, Fms. viii. 160.

af-spurn, f. a ‘speering of,’ news, notice, Fms. i. 187.

af-spýttr, part. spit out of, deprived of, Anecd. 42.

af-standa, stóð, [Germ. absteben], to cede, part with, Sturl. i. 164, v. l. miðla, Fms. iii. 208.

af-stigr, s, m, by-path, Fs. 5, Fær. 102.

af-stúfa, að, or afstýfa, ð, to lop, prune, of trees; a. við, N. G. L. i. 350, Lex. Poët., v. stúfr.

af-stúka, n, f. side-nook, 655 xxxii. 4; a side-room in a temple, Fas. iii. 213; now stúka is almost always used of a sacristy.

af-svar, n. refusal, in pl. in the phrase, veita e-u afsvör, to refuse, Ld. 114, Fas. i. 444, Fbr. 120.

af-svara, að, to deny, refuse, Fas. i. 528; with dat. of pers. and thing, Sturl. iii. 180.

af-sviptr, part. stripped; with dat., afsviptr þinni ásjónu, cut off from thy countenance, Stj. 228. Gen. xlviii. 11, Sks. 342, H. E. i. 457.

af-sýnis, adv. out of sight, Fms. viii. 344.

af-sæll, adj. luckless, in the proverb, a. verðr annars glys jafnan, (another version of the proverb is quoted s. v. afgjarn), coveted wealth, which is eagerly looked for by another, is luckless, difficult to keep safe, Stj. 78.

af-tak, n. 1. gener. taking away, B. K. 108. 2. ‘taking off’ (Shaksp.), slaying, executing; hvat hann vill bjóða fyrir a. Geirsteins, compensation for the slaughter of G., Fms. vii. 360; en a. hans (slaying) segja eigi allir einum hætti, x. 390; með aftaki Ólafs, by slaying him, 195; um manna aftök, executions, Gþl. 137: cp. aftaka, and taka af, to execute, behead. 3. in pl. commonly used of, α. flat denial, in such phrases as, hafa aftök um e-t, to deny flatly. In some compds this signification can be traced, as in aftaka-minni, Fms. i. 139. β. it is also now used in many compds of whatever is excessive, above all measure, e. g. aftaka-veðr, a hurricane. COMPDS: aftaks-skjöldr, m. a huge shield, Fas. i. 415. aftaka-maðr, m. a determined, obstinate person; hón var a. mikill um þetta mál, he was very stubborn in this case, Hkr. ii. 74. aftaka-minni, adj. compar. less obstinate, more pliable; stóð konungr í fyrstu fast á móti, en drottning var allt aftakaminni, the king at first stood fast against it, but the queen was all along less stubborn, Fms. i. 139.

af-taka, n, f. = aftak: 1. gener. loss, privation; a. ok missa, of a personal loss by death, Edda 37. 2. death by violent means, slaughter; til aftöku manna eðr fú upp at taka, for the cutting off of men or the confiscation of their goods, Eg. 73, 252; hann hafði verit at aftöku þorkels fústra, Fms. vii. 201, Orkn. 22 old Ed. Formerly there were no public executions in Icel., except the stoning of wizards or witches, Ld. ch. 98, Eb. ch. 20, Vd. ch. 26; and the hanging of thieves, Fbr. ch. 19, Kb. l. c. Now, however, used in the sense of public execution, and in various compds, e. g. aftöku-staðr, m. place of execution, etc.

af-tekja, u, f. dues, collections, revenues, or the like; til forræðis ok allra aftekna (gen. pl.), Bs. 692; ábúð ok a. staðanna, revenue, 752.

af-tekning, f. taking away, a grammatical term, an apostrophe, Skálda 182.

af-tekt, f. = aftekja, Fms. v. 274, xi. 441, Bs. i. 68.

af-telja, talði, to dissuade, Fms. x. 27.

af-tigna, að, now antigna, v. andtigna, to disgrace, Sks. 225.

af-trú, f. unbelief, heresy, Orkn. 188.

af-trúast, að, dep. to fall into unbelief, Bs. ii. 181.

af-tækiligt, n. adj. advisable, feasible, [cp. taka e-t af, to decide for], Fms. viii. 348.

af-tækt, n. adj. blamable; er þat ok ætlun mín at fátt muni vera aftækt um yðra skapsmuni, I ‘ettle’ that there will be little blameworthy about your turn of mind, Fms. v. 341.

af-tæma, ð, to ‘loom off,’ to empty, Fr.

afugr, backwards, going the wrong way, v. öfugr.

afund, envy, v. öfund.

af-undinn, adj. cross, uncivil.

afusa, gratitude, pleasure, v. aufusa.

af-vega, adv. [afvegar, Bs. ii. 92], off the way, astray, Sd. 149. Metaph. in moral sense; leiða a., to mislead; ganga a., to go astray.

af-vegaðr, part. misled, Mar.

af-vegis = afvega, astray, Skálda 203.

af-velta, adj. [the Scot. awald or awalt], cast, used of cattle, sheep, or horses that have fallen on the back and are unable to rise. Háv. 44.

af-vensla, u, f. expenses, outlay; auðræði (means) urðu brátt eigi mikil, en afvenslur þóttu varla með mikilli stillingu, Bs. i. 136.

af-vik, n. a creek, recess, Stj. 195; metaph. a hiding-place, Þiðr. 137.

af-vikinn, part. secluded, retired; a. staðr = afvik.

af-vinna, u, f. encumbrance, due, fees, outgoings, = afskyld. Freq. in deeds of gift. e. g. D. I. i. 203, 266; þá lágu öngar gjafir til staðarins, en a. varð öngu minni, then no gifts came in to the see, but the outlay was in nothing less, Bs. i. 84; þá görðust fjárhagir úhægir í Skálaholti, urðu afvinnur miklar (great outgoings) en tillög (incomings) eingin, Bs. i. 99.

af-virða, ð and t, to despise, Barl. several times.

af-virðiligr, adj. worthless, poor, despicable, Barl. 75, 154; v. auvirðiligr and auðv., which are the Icel. forms.

af-virðing, f., contr. ávirðing, disrepute, disgrace, fault, Bs. ii. 187.

af-vænn, adj. unexpected, Fas. 11. 552.

af-vöxtr, m. ‘off-wax,’ i. e. decrease, N. G. L. i. 214; opp. to ávöxtr.

af-þerra, ð, and mod. að, to wipe off; metaph. to expunge, Stj. 142.

af-þokka, að, in the phrase, a. e-t fyrir e-m, to throw discredit on, run down, set against, Fms. ii. 145; hann útti fátt við jarl, en afþokkaði heldr fyrir þeim fyrir öðrum mönnum, he had little to do with the earl, but rather ran them down before other men, Orkn. 378.

af-þváttr, m. a washing off, ablution, Fr.

af-æta, u, f. [af and eta], prop, a voracious beast, a glutton, a great bully; ér langfeðgar erut garpar miklir ok afætor, Fms. xi. 111; sterkir menn ok afætur miklar, iii. 143. It is perhaps identical with the present ófóti, n. a vile thing, offscouring.

aga = æja, Fb. iii. 449.

aga, að, to chastise, Bible.

AGG, n. brawl, strife, now freq.

AGI, a, m. [A. S. oga; Dan. ave; Engl. awe: cp. Ulf. agis, n., and perh. άγοϛ or αγοϛ], gener. awe, terror; þá skelfr jörð öll í aga miklum, then all the earth quakes in great awe, Hom. 100; agi ok ótti, awe and terror, Fms. vi. 442. β. metaph. turbulence, uproar, disorder, esp. in the phrase, agi ok úfriðr, uproar and war, Fms. ii. 241, vi. 298, 430. γ. awe, respect; var eigi sá annarr konungr, er mönnum stæði af jafnmikill agi af fyrir vizku sakir, there was not another king who inspired his men with so much awe for his wits’ sake, Fms. x. 406; Guðs a., fear of God, Sks. 354, 667. δ. discipline, constraint, now freq. in this sense; í æskunni meðan hann er undir aga, Sks. 26. II. moisture, wet, now freq., cp. vatnsagi. Also a verb aga, að, to chastise, is now freq. COMPDS: aga-samligr, adj. unruly, Fms. vii. 274. aga-samr, adj. turbulent, in uproar; agasamt mun þá verða í héraðinu, ef allir þorláks synir eru drepnir, there will be uproar in the district if all Thorlak’s sons are slain, Eb. 230.

AGN, n. bait, Barl. 123, Niðrst. 623. 3. There is now in many cases a distinction between agn, bait for foxes and land animals, and beita, bait for fish; but in the poem Hým. 18, 22, at least, agn is used of fishing; ganga á agnið is to nibble or take the bait: cp. egna.

agn-hald, n. a barb of a hook.

agn-sax, n. fishing knife, with which bait for fish is cut, Edda 36, Nj. 19 (arnsax is a false reading), Fas. i. 489.

agn-úi, a, m. the barb of a hook for keeping on the agn; skal a. vera á hverjum þorni, Sks. 419 (B. reads agnör).

agn-ör, f. a barbed hook, Sks. 89 new Ed.

AKA, ók, óku, ekit; pres. ek. It also occurs in a weak form, að, Fagrsk. 104, which form is now perhaps the most common. [Neither Ulf. nor Hel. use this word, which appears also to be alien to the South-Teut. idioms. The Germans say fahren; the English to drive, carry; cp. Engl. yoke. In Latin, however, agere; Gr. άγειν] Gener. to move, drive, transport, carry: I. to drive in harness in a sledge or other vehicle (where the vehicle is in dat.), as also the animal driven; bryggjur svá breiðar, at aka mátti vögnum á víxl, ‘briggs’ (i. e. wharfs or piers,, cp. ‘Filey Brigg’) so broad, that wains might meet and pass each other, Hkr. ii. 11; gott er heilum vagni heim at aka, ‘tis good to drive home with a whole wain, to get home safe and sound, cp. Horace solve senescentem, Orkn. 464, Al. 61; þórr á hafra tvá, ok reið þá er hann ekr, in which he drives, Edda 14, Ób. adds í (viz. reið þá er hekr i), which may be the genuine reading. β. with the prep. í; Freyr ók ok í kerru með gelti, Edda 38. γ. absol. to drive, i. e. travel by driving; þeir óku upp á land, Eg. 543; fóru þeir í sleðann ok óku nóttina alia, drove the whole night, Fms. iv. 317. With the road taken in acc.; aka úrgar brautir, Rm. 36; báðu hennar ok heim óku (dat. henni being understood), carrying a bride home, 37. 20. II. to carry or cart a load, (to lead, in the north of England):—in Iceland, where vehicles are rare, it may perhaps now and then be used of carrying on horseback. The load carried is commonly in dat. or acc.: α. acc.: aka saman hey, to cart hay, Eb. 150; saman ok hann heyit, Ísl. ii. 330; hann ok saman alla töðu sína, Landn. 94; þá tekr Gísli eyki tvá, ok ekr fé sitt til skógar, Gísl. 121; but absol., ok ekr til skógar með fjárhlut sinn, l. c. 36; þá let konungr aka til haugsins vist ok drykk, then the king let meat and drink be carted to the ‘how’ (barrow), Fms. x. 186; vill hann húsit ór stað færa, ok vill hann aka þat, carry it away, Grág. ii. 257; líkin váru ekin í sleða, carried in a sledge, Bs. i. 144. β. dat. more freq., as now; hann ók heyjum sínum á öxnum, carried his hay on oxen, Fbr. 43 new Ed.; einn ók skarni á hóla, carted dung alone on the fields, Nj. 67, Rd. 277. γ. with the animals in dat., Þórólfr let aka þrennum eykjum um daginn, with three yoke of oxen, Eb. 152; or with the prep. á, ríðr Þórðr hesti þeim er hann hafði ekit á um aptaninn, Ísl. ii. 331, Fbr. 43; ef maðr ekr eðr berr klyfjar á, leads or carries on packsaddles, Grág. i. 441. δ. absol., þat mun ek til finna, at hann ok eigi í skegg ser, that he did not cart it on his own beard, Nj. 67. ε. part., ekinn uxi, a yoked, tamed ox, Vm. 152. III. used by sailors, in the phrase, aka segli, to trim the sail; aka seglum at endilöngum skipum, Fms. vii. 94; bað hann þá aka skjótt seglunum, ok víkja út í sund nokkut, 131. In mod. Icel. metaph., aka seglum eptir vindi, to set one’s sail after (with) the wind, to act according to circumstances; cp. aktaumar. IV. metaph. in a great many proverbs and phrases, e. g. aka heilum vagni heim, v. above; aka höllu fyrir e-m, to get the worst of it, Ld. 206; aka undan (milit), to retire, retreat slowly in a battle; óku þeir Erlingr undan ofan með garðinum, Fms. vii. 317; akast undan (reflex.), id., 278; þeir ökuðust undan ok tóku á skógana, they took to the woods, Fagrsk. 174 (where the weak form is used); sumir Norðmenn óku undan á hæli ofan með sjónum, x. 139: aka e-m á bug, the figure probably taken from the ranks in a battle, to make one give way, repel, en ef Ammonite aka, þér á bug, if they be too strong for thee, Stj. 512. 2 Sam. x. 11. Mkv. 7; also metaph., aka bug á e-n, id.; mun oss þat til Birkibeinum, at þeir aki á oss engan bug, to stand firm, with unbroken ranks, Fms. viii. 412. It is now used impers., e-m á ekki ór að aka, of one who has always bad luck, probably ellipt., ór steini or the like being understood; cp. GÍsl. 54, the phrase, þykir ekki ór steini hefja, in the same sense, the figure being taken from a stone clogging the wheels; ok hann af sér fjötrinum, threw it off by rubbing, Fas. ii. 573; þá ekr Oddr sér þar at, creeps, rolls himself thither, of a fettered prisoner, id.; the mod. phrase, að aka sér, is to shrug the shoulders as a mark of displeasure: aka ór öngum, ex angustiis, to clear one’s way, get out of a scrape, Bjarn. 52; aka í moínn, to strive against, a cant phrase. Impers. in the phrase, e-m verðr nær ekit, is almost run over, has a narrow escape, varð honum svá nær ekit at hann hleypti inn í kirkju, he was so hard driven that he ran into the church, Fms. ix. 485; hart ekr at e-m, to be in great straits, ok er þorri kemr, þá ekr hart at mönnum, they were pressed hard, Ísl. ii. 132; ekr mi mjök at, I am hard pressed, GÍsl. 52; er honum þótti at sér aka, when death drew near,, of a dying man, Grett. 119 A. Reflex., e-m ekst e-t í tauma, to be thwarted in a thing, where the figure is taken from trimming the sail when the sheet is foul, Fms. xi. 121. In later Icelandic there is a verb akka, að, to heap together, a. e-u saman, no doubt a corruption from aka with a double radical consonant, a cant word. Aka is at present a rare word, and is, at least in common speech, used in a weak form, akar instead of ekr; akaði = ók; akat = ekit.

AKARN, n. [Ulf. akran = καρπός; Engl. acorn; Germ. ecker; Dan. agern], acorn, Edda 30 and Gl.

ak-braut, n. carriage road, Hkr. ii. 253, Fær. 102, vide Fb. i. 144.

ak-færi, n. driving gear, carriage and harness, Fms. iii. 206, Nj. 153.

akka, u, f. a shaft, Edda (Gl.)

AKKERI, n. [no doubt, like Engl. anchor, of foreign origin; cp. Gr. άγκύρα, Lat. ancora. It occurs, however, in a verse as early as the year 996], ankeri, Lv. 99, is a corrupt form from a paper MS., so is also atkeri, Hkr. i. 311; liggja um akkeri, to lie at anchor, Fbr. 52; leggjast um a., to cast anchor, Fms. iv. 301; heimta upp a., to weigh anchor, 302; a. hrífr við, the anchor holds, Ld. 21, Grág. ii. 397, Jb. 397, Eg. 129, Fms. vii. 264, ix. 44, x. 136, Hkr. i. 311, Lv. 99, Fas. i. 511, 515. Metaph., a. vánar, anchor of hope, 677. 17. COMPDS: akkeris-fleinn, m. the fluke, palm of an anchor, Fms. ix. 387, Orkn. 362. akkeris-lauss, adj. without an anchor, Ann. 1347. akkeris-lægi, n. anchorage, Jb. 396. akkeris-sát, f. id., Grág. ii. 402, 408. akkeris-stokkr, m. an anchor-stock, Orkn. 362. akkeris-strengr, m. an anchor-rope, cable, Fms. ii. 10. akkeris-sæti, n. anchorage, Jb. 397 B.

AKKORDA, að, [for. word], to accord, Rb. 446.

AKR, rs, pl. rar, [Ulf. akrs; A. S. œcer; Engl. acre; Germ. acker; Lat. ager; Gr. άγρός], arable land, ground for tillage: α. opp. to engi, a meadow; cp. the law term, þar er hvárki sé a. ne engi, Grág. i. 123, Hrafn. 21. β. opp. to tún, the ‘town’ or enclosed homefield; bleikir akrar en slegin tún, the corn-fields are white to harvest and the ‘town,’ i. e. the ‘infield,’ is mown, Nj. 112; helgi túns ok akra ok engja, Bs. i. 719; teðja akra, Rm. 12. 2. metaph. the crop; þeir höfðu niðrbrotið akra hans alla, destroyed all the crop in the fields, Fms. v. 50; ok er hann óð rúgakrinn fullvaxinn, þá tók döggskórinn á sverðinu akrinn uppstandanda, and when he (Sigurd Fafnir’s bane) strode through the full-waxen rye-field, the tip of his sword’s sheath just touched the upstanding ears. Fas. i. 173; sá hinn góði akr (crop) er upp rann af þeirri hinni góðu jörð, Hom. 68. β. name of several farms. COMPDS: akra-ávöxtr, m. produce of the fields, Ver. i. akra-gerði, n. a ‘field-garth,’ enclosure of arable land, N. G. L. i. 22. akra-karl, m. cognom. ‘Acre-carle,’ Lv. 40. akra-spillir, m. cognom. destroyer of fields, Glúm. 333, Fas. ii. 362, better askaspillir, q. v.

akr-dai, n. (?), wild gourds; veit ek eigi hvat þat heitir (adds the translator) þat var því líkast sem a., Stj. 615. 2 Kings iv. 39.

akr-deili, n. a plot of arable land, D. N. ii. 123 (Fr.)

akr-gerði, n. enclosure of arable land, Fms. vii. 178.

akr-görð, f. agriculture, akrgörðar-maðr, m. ploughmen, Nj. 54.

akr-hæna, u, f. a ‘field-hen,’ quail, opp. to heiðarhæna or lynghæns, Stj. 292.

akri, a, m. a bird, Edda (Gl.)

akr-karl, m. a ‘field-carle,’ ploughman or reaper, Stj. 273, 441, El. 4, 19.

akr-kál, n. ‘field-kale,’ potherbs, Stj. 615. 2 Kings iv. 39.

akr-land, n. land for tillage, Grág. ii. 258, D. I. i. 268, Bs. i. 348, Fms. iii. 18. akrlands-deild, f. division of a field, Grág. ii. 260.

akr-lengd, f. a field’s length (now in Icel. tunlengd, i. e. a short distance); svá at a. var í milli þeirra, so that there was a field’s length between them, Bev. 14 (Norse).

akr-maðr, m. ploughman, tiller of ground, Fms. vi. 187.

akr-neyttr, part. used as arable land, tilled, Sks. 630, v. l.

akr-plógsmaðr, m. ploughman, Stj. 255.

akr-rein, f. a strip of arable land, D. N. ii. 561.

akr-skipti, n. a division of afield, Fms. xi. 441.

akr-skurðr, ar, m. reaping, akrskurðar-maðr, m. a reaper, Stj. Ruth ii. 21 (young men).

akr-súra, u, f. field-sorrel, Hom. 82, 83.

akr-tíund, f. tithe paid on arable land (Norse), N. G. L. i. 391.

akr-verk, n. field-work, harvest-work, Bret. 6, Fms. vi. 187, Stj. Ruth ii.

akrverks-maðr, m. ploughman, tiller of the ground, Ver. 5. Gen. iv. 2.

ak-stóll, m. probably a chair on wheels or castors; Ketilbjörn sat á akstóli injök við pall, in the banquet at Flugumýri in the year 1253, Sturl. iii. 182.

AKTA, að, [for. word, which therefore does not observe the contraction into á, which is the rule with genuine words; it appears esp. in eccl. writers and annalists at the end of the 13th and 14th centuries, Arna b. S., K. Á., Stj., the Norse Gþl., etc.: cp. A. S. eahtan; Hel. ahton, censere, considerare; Germ. achten; mid. Lat. actare, determinare et actare, Du Cange in a letter of the year 1284.] I. to number, tax, value, take a census; akta fólkið, Stj. 2 Sam. xxiv. 10; fóru þeir víða um land ok öktuðu vísaeyri konungs, taxed, Bs. i. 707; nú byggir maðr dýrra en vandi hefir á verit, akti (tax) því fremr dýrra ok fremr til leiðangrs ok landvarnar, he shall be taxed in due proportion, Gþl. 337. 2. to examine, enquire; aktið inniliga öll þau leyni sem hánn má í felast, to take diligent heed of all the lurking-places, Stj. 479. 1 Sam. xxiii. 23; aktið þó áðr, and look, that, id. 2 Kings x. 23; hann aktaði eptir (looked after) urn eignir staðarins, Bs. i. 778. 3. to devote attention to, study; hann aktaði mjök bókligar listir, Bs. i. 666, 680. II. a law term, esp. in the Arna b. S., to debate, discuss in parliament; mú er þetta var aktað (debated) gengu menn til lögréttu, Bs. i. 719; var þá gengit til lögréttu, ok lesit bréf konungs ok drottningar ok aktað (stated) af leikmanna hendi hversu prestar höfðu af stöðum gengit, 735; lögbók öktuð á alþingi, the code of law debated at the althing, H. Ann. 419. 19. Now only used in the sense of to care for, feel respect for, but a rare and unclassical

ak-tamr, adj. tame under the yoke; griðungr a., Grág. ii. 122.

aktan, f. [Germ. achtung], heed, consideration, H. E. i. 410.

ak-taumr, m. esp. in pl. ar, lines (taumar) to trim (aka) the sail, distinguished from höfuðbendur, the stays of the mast, perhaps the braces of a sail (used by Egilsson to transl. ύπέραι in Od. 5. 260), Þórarinn stýrði ok hafði aktaumana um herðar sér, þvíat þröngt var á skipinu, had the braces round his shoulders, because the boat was blocked up with goods, Ld. 56; the phrase, sitja í aktaumum, to manage the sail; ef ek sigli með landi fram, ok sit ek í aktaumum, þá skal engi snekkja tvítugsessa sigla fyrir mér, eða ek vilja svipta (reef the sail) fyr en þeir, Fms. v. 337; reiði slitnaði, svá at bæði gékk í sundr höfuðbendur ok aktaumar, Fas. iii. 118; reki segl ofan, en a. allir slitni, 204; slitnuðu höfuðbendur ok aktaumar, Bær. 5, Edda (Gl.) That the braces were generally two may be inferred from the words við aktaum hvárntveggja hálf mörk, N. G. L. i. 199. 2. metaph., sitja í aktaumum, to have the whole management of a thing; mun yðr þat eigi greitt ganga ef þér erut einir í aktaumum, if you are alone in the management of it, Ísl. ii. 49; einir um hituna is now used in the same sense. (The Engl. yoke-lines, as aktaumar is sometimes interpreted (as in the Lat. transl. of the Ld.), are now called stjórntaumar. Aktanmr is obsolete. See ‘Stones of Scotland,’ tab. liv. sqq.)

AL- [A. S. eal-; Engl. all, al-; Germ. all-], a prefix to a great many nouns and participles, but only a few verbs, denoting thoroughly, quite, perfectly, completely, answering to Lat. omni- and Gr. παν- or παντο-. If followed by a u or v it sometimes changes into öl, e. g. ölúð, benignitas; ölværð, laetitia: ölteiti, hilaritas, is irregular, instead of alteiti. The prefixed particle al- differs from all-, which answers to Lat. per-, A. S. eall-, Engl. very: v. the following compds.

ALA, ól, ólu, alið; pres. el, [Ulf. a single time uses the partic. alans = εντρεφόμενος, and twice a weak verb aliþs = σιτευτός, a fatling. The word seems alien to other Teut. idioms, but in Lat. we find alere; cp. the Shetland word alie, to nourish.] Gener. to give birth to, nourish, support, etc. I. to bear, esp. of the mother; but also of both parents; rarely of the father alone, to beget: börn ólu þau, they begat children, Rm. 12; þat barn er þau ala skal eigi arf taka, Grág. i. 178: of the father alone, enda eru börn þau eigi arfgeng, er hann elr við þeirri konu, which be begets by that woman, 181; but esp. of the mother, to bear, give birth to; jóð ól Amma, Rm. 7; þóra ól barn um sumarit, Eg. 166, Fms. iv. 32, i. 14; hon fær eigi alit barnit, Fas. i. 118. β. metaph. to produce, give rise to; en nú elr hverr þessara stafa níu annan staf undir sér, Skálda 162. 2. pass. to be born, begotten; börn þau öll er alin eru fyrir jól, who are born, N. G. L. i.; 377; the phrase, alnir ok úbornir, born and unborn, present and future generations, has now become aldir ok óbornir; eigu þau börn er þar alask (who are born there) at taka arf út hingat, Grág. i. 181; barn hvert skal færa til kirkju sem alit er, every child that is born, K. Þ. K. 1; ef barn elsk svá naer páskum, is born, 16. β. of animals (rarely), justus heitir forað, þat elsk (is engendered) í kviði eins dýrs, 655 xxx. 4. II. to nourish, support, Lat. alere: 1. esp. to bring up, of children; the Christian Jus Eccl., in opposition to the heathen custom of exposing children, begins with the words, ala skal barn hvert er borit verðr, every child that is born shall be brought up, K. Á. ch. 1. β. adding the particle upp; skal eigi upp ala, heldr skal út bera barn þetta, this bairn shall not be brought up, but rather be borne out (i. e. exposed to perish), Finnb. 112. 2. to feed, give food to, harbour, entertain; ala gest ok ganganda, guests; ala þurfamenn, the poor, D. I. in deeds of gift; en sá maðr er þar býr skal ala menn alla þá er hann hyggr til góðs at alnir sé, he shall harbour them, D. I. i. 169; ala hvern at ósekju er vill. to harbour, 200; Guð elr gesti (a proverb), God pays for the guests, Bs. i. 247; sótt elr sjúkan, fever is the food of the sick; utanhrepps göngumenn skal enga ala, ok eigi gefa mat, hvárki meira né minna, gangrels of an outlying district shall none of them be harboured, nor have meat given them, neither more nor less, Grág. i. 293, 117. β. of animals, to nourish, breed; einn smásauð er hann ól heima í húsi sínu, one pet lamb which he had reared at home in his own house, Stj. 516; segir allæliligan, ok kvað verða mundu ágæta naut ef upp væri alinn, of a live calf, Eb. 318. 2. pass. to be brought tip, educated; ólusk (grew up) í ætt þar, æstir kappar (or were born), Hdl. 18; alask upp, to be brought up; hence uppeldi, n. III. metaph. in such phrases as, ala aldr sinn, vitam degere, to pass one’s days, Bárð. 165: the phrase, ala e-t eptir e-m, to give one encouragement in a thing, bring one tip in, esp. in a bad sense; ól hann eptir engum manni ódáðir, Joh. 625. 93: ala á mál, to persist in, urge on a thing; karl elr á málið (begs hard) at Gunnar mundi til hans fara, Sd. 172, Ísl. ii. 133, 163:—the present phrase is, að ala e-t við e-n, to bear a grudge against…; and in a negative sense, ala ekki, to let bygones be bygones: ala önn fyrir, to provide for: a. öfund, sorg, um e-t, to grudge, feel pang (poët.), etc.

alaðs-festr, ar, f. [obsolete alaðr, alimentum, Ýt. 13, v. l.], a law term in the Icel. Commonwealth, viz. the eighth part of the sum fjörbaugr (life-money), amounting to an ounce, a fee to be paid by a convict in the Court of Execution (féránsdómr); if a convict, liable to the lesser outlawry, failed in paying off the alaðsfestr, he thereby became a complete outlaw, úalandi; hence the name life-money or blood-money. It is thus defined: þar skal gjaldast mörk lögaura at féránsdómi, goða þeim er féránsdóminn nefndi; þat fé heitir fjörbaugr, en einn eyrir (ounce) þess fjár heitir a. ef þat fé (the alaðsf. or the whole fjörb.?) gelzt eigi, þá verði hann skógarmaðr úæll, Grág. i. 88; nú gelzt fjörbaugr ok a. þá skal dæma svá sekðarfé hans sem skógarmanns, 132: Njála uses the less classic form, aðalfestr (per metath.), Nj. 240; cp. Johnsonius (Lat. transl.), p. 529, note 8.

al-auðn, f. devastation, Þiðr. 233.

al-auðr, adj. altogether waste, Bret. 168.

al-bata and al-bati, adj. ind. completely cured, quite well, Ísl. ii. 469.

al-baztr, adj., superl. to al-góðr, best of all, Pd.

al-berr, adj., now allsberr, quite bare, stark-naked, metaph. manifest, Sturl. iii. 118.

al-bitinn, adj. part. bitten all over, Rd. 298.

al-bjartr, adj. quite bright, brilliant, Eluc. 10, Fas. i. 663.

al-blindr, adj. stone-blind, Post. 745. 87.

al-blóðugr, adj. all-bloody, Nj. 62, Fms. i. 121, Ísl. ii. 271.

al-bogi = alnbogi, elbow, v. ölnbogi and ölbogi.

al-breiðr, adj. of the full breadth of stuff; a. lérept, Jb. 348.

al-brotinn, adj. part. all-broken, shattered, Fms. ii. 246.

al-brynjaðr, part. cased in mail, Hkr. ii. 26, Fms. vii. 45, Fas. i. 91.

al-búa, bjó, to fit out, furnish or equip completely, at albúa kirkju, N. G. L. i. 387; but spec. in part. albúinn, completely equipped, esp. of ships bound for sea [where bound is a corruption of boun, the old English and Scottish equivalent of buinn. Thus a ship is bound for sea or outward bound or homeward bound, when she is completely fitted and furnished for either voyage; windbound is a different word, where bound is the past part. of bind. Again, a bride is boun when she has her wedding dress on; v. below, búa and búask, which last answers to busk]: nú byst hann út til Íslands, ok er þeir vóru albúnir, Nj. 10; ok er Björn var a. ok byrr rann á, Eg. 158, 194: a. sem til bardaga, all-armed for the battle, Fms. xi. 22. β. in the phrase, a. e-s, quite ready, willing to do a thing; hann kvaðst þess a., Nj. 100, Eg. 74: also with infin., a. at ganga héðan, ready to part, Fms. vii. 243.

al-búinn, ready, v. the preceding word.

al-bygðr, part. completely inhabited, taken into possession, esp. used of the colonisation of Iceland; þorbjörn súrr kom út at albygðu landi, after the colonisation was finished, Landn. 142, several times, Hrafn. 3, Eg. 191, etc.

ALDA, u, f. a wave, freq. as a synonyme to bylgja, bára, etc.; it is esp. used of rollers, thus undiralda means the rollers in open sea in calm weather, Edda (Gl.) 2. metaph. in the phrase, skil ek, hvaðan a. sjá rennr undan (whence this wave rolls), hafa mér þaðan jafnan köld ráð komið, veit ek at þetta eru ráð Snorra goða, of deep, well-planned schemes, Ld. 284. Now used in many COMPDS: öldu-gangr, m. unruly sea; öldu-stokkr, m. bulwarks of a ship, etc.

alda- and aldar-, v. old, time, period; (poët. = people.)

al-dauði and aldauða, adj. ind. dead and gone, extinct, of families, races, esp. in the neg. phrase, vera enn ekki a., to be still in full vigour; ok óru (váru) eigi þeir a., Ísl. ii. 310; eptir dauða Haralds var a. hin forna ætt Danakonunga, died out with king H., Fms. xi. 206; aldauða eru þá Mosfellingar ef ér Sigfússynir skuluð ræna þá, Nj. 73; ella eru mjök a. várir foreldrar, Fms. vi. 37; opt finn ek þat, at mér er a. Magnús konungr, I often feel that for me king M. is dead and gone, Hkr. iii. 107. COMPD: aldauða-arfr, m. a law term, an inheritance to which there is no heir alive, Gþl. 282, N. G. L. i. 49; cp. Hkv. Hjörv. 11, where aldauðraarfr is a mis-reading; the meaning of the passage hyggsk a. ráða is, that he would destroy them to the last man.

ALDIN, n., dat. aldini, [Dan. olden; a Scandinavian radical word (?) not found In Ulf.], gener. fruit of trees, including apples, nuts, acorns, and sometimes berries; gras ok aldin ok jarðar ávöxtr allr, herbs, fruits, and earth’s produce, K. Þ. K. 138; korn ok öllu aldini (dat.), K. Á. 178; þá verðr þegar eitr í öllu aldini á því tré, Rb. 358. It originally meant wild fruits, nuts and acorns; hafði hann enga aðra fæðu en aldin skógar ok vatn, Hom. 105; af korninu vex rót, en vöndr af rótinni, en af vendi a., 677. 14; lesa a., to gather nuts, acorns, Dropl. 5; úskapligt er at taka a. af trénu fyr en fullvaxið er, unripe fruit, Al. 18; epli stór ok fíktrés aldin, great apples and the fruit of fig-trees, Stj. 325. Numb. xiii. 23. β. of garden fruit; allt þat a. er menn verja með görðum eðr gæzlu, Gþl. 544; akr einn harla góðr lá til kirkjunnar, óx þar it bezta aldini, the finest fruits, Fms. xi. 440. γ. metaph., blezað sé a. kviðar þíns, the fruit of thy womb, Hom. 30. Luke i. 42. COMPD: aldins-garðr, m. a fruit-garden, orchard, Gþl. 543.

aldin-berandi, part. bearing fruit, Sks. 630.

aldin-falda, n, f. a lady with an old-fashioned head-dress, Rm. 2.

aldin-garðr, m. garden, orchard, Lat. hortus; víngarða, akra ok aldingarða, Stj. 441. 1 Sam. viii. 14, where aldingarða answers to olive-yards, Fms. iii. 194.

aldini, fruit, v. aldin.

aldin-lauss, adj. without fruit, sterile, barren; a. tré, Greg. 48.

aldinn, adj. [Engl. old; Germ. alt; Ulf. alþeis = αρχαιος]. In Icel. only poët. The Scandinavians say gamall in the posit., but in compar. and superl. ellri, elztr, from another root ald: it very seldom appears in prose authors: v. Lex. Poët.; Sks. 630; cp. aldrænn.

aldin-skógr, ar, m. wood of fruit-trees, Stj. Judg. xv. 5, where víngarðar, olivatré ok aldinskógar answer to the Engl. vineyards and olives.

aldin-tré, n. fruit-tree, Stj. 68.

aldin-viðr, ar, m. fruit-trees, a poët. paraphrase, Fms. ix. 265, Sks. 105.

aldor-maðr, m. [from the A. S. ealdorman], an alderman, Pd.

ALDR, rs, pl. rar, m. [Ulf. alþs = αιών or Lat. aevum; Engl. old; Germ. alter], age, life, period, old age, everlasting time. 1. age, life-time, Lat. vita, aetas; hniginn at aldri, stricken in years, Eg. 187; hniginn á aldr, advanced in years, Orkn. 216; ungr at aldri, in youth, Fms. iii. 90; á léttasta aldri, in the prime of life, v. 71; á gamals aldri, old, iii. 71; á tvítugs, þrítugs aldri, etc.; hálfþrítugr at aldri, twenty-five years of age, Eg. 84; vera svá aldrs kominn, at that time of life, Fs. 4; hafa aldr til e-s, to be so old, be of age, Fms. i. 30; ala aldr, to live, v. ala, Fs. 146; allan aldr, during the whole of one’s life, Ver. 45; lifa langan a., to enjoy a long life, Nj. 252. 2. old age, senectus; aldri orpinn, decrepid, lit. overwhelmed by age, Fms. iv. 233, xi. 21; vera við aldr, to be advanced in years. 3. manns aldr is now used = generation; lifa marga manns aldra, to outlive many generations: sometimes denoting a period of thirty to thirty-three years. 4. seculum, aevum, an age, period; the time from the creation of the world is divided into six such ages (aldrar) in Rb. 134: cp. öld. 5. eternity; in the phrase, um aldr, for ever and ever; mun ek engan mann um aldr (no man ever) virða framar en Eystein konung, meðan ek lifi, as long as I live, Fms. vii. 147, Th. 25; af aldri, from times of yore, D. N. ii. 501; um aldr ok æfi, for ever and ever, Gþl. 251, N. G. L. i. 41.

aldraðr, adj. elderly, Fms. i. 70, 655 xiv. B. I; öldruð kona, Greg. 27.

aldr-bót, f. fame, honour, Lex. Poët.

aldr-dagar, m. pl. everlasting life; um a., for ever and ever, Vsp. 63.

aldr-fremd, f. everlasting honour, Eluc. 51.

aldri qs. aldri-gi, [dat. from aldr and the negative nominal suffix -gi; Dan. aldrig], with dropped neg. suffix; the modern form is aldrei; unusual Norse forms, with an n or t paragogical, aldregin, aldregit: aldregin, N. G. L. i. 8, Sks. 192, 202 B, Hom. ii. 150, Stj. 62 (in MS. A. M. 227. Ed. aldri), O. H. L. 17, 79, and several times; aldregit, N. G. L. i. 356. The mod. Icel. form with ei indicates a contraction; the old aldri no doubt was sounded as aldrí with a final diphthong, which was later (in the 15th century) changed into ei. The contr. form aldri occurs over and over again in the Sagas, the complete aldregi or aldrigi is more rare, but occurs in Grág. i. 220 A, 321 A, ii. 167, etc.; aldrei appears now and then in the Edd. and in MSS. of the I5th century, but hardly earlier. I. never, nunquam: 1. temp., mun þik a. konur skorta, Ísl. ii. 250; koma aldregi til Noregs síðan, Nj. 9; verðr henni þat aldregi rétt, Grág. ii. 214; ella liggr féit aldregi, in nowise, i. 220; sú sök fyrnist aldregi, 361; ok skal aldregi í land koma síðan, ii. 167. 2. loc. (rare), mörk var svá þykk upp fra tungunni at aldri (nowhere) var rjóðr í (= hvergi), Sd. 170. II. ever, unquam, after a preceding negative, appears twice in the Völs. kviður; en Atli kveðst eigi vilja mund aldregi (eigi aldregi = never), Og. 23; hnékat ek af því til hjálpar þér, at þú værir þess verð aldregi (now, nokkurrt tíma), not that thou ever hadst deserved it, II. β. following a comparative, without the strict notion of negation; verr en a. fyr, worse than ever before, Stj. 404; framar en a. fyr, l. c. Cod. A; meiri vesöld en áðr hafði hann aldregi þolat, greater misery than he ever before had undergone, Barl. 196. III. aldr’ = aldri = semper; aldr’ hefi ek frétt…, I have always heard tell that…, in a verse in Orkn.

aldr-lag, n. laying down of life, death, destruction, a poët. word, in the phrase, verða e-m at aldrlagi, to bring to one’s life’s end, Fms. viii. 108, Al. 106; esp. in pl. aldrlög, exititim, Bret. 59, 66, 67.

aldr-lok, n. pl. close of life, death, Hkv. 2. 10.

aldr-máli, a, m. tenure for life, D. N., unknown in Icel., Dan. livsfæste.

aldr-nari, a, m. [A. S. ealdornere, nutritor vitae,], poët, name of fire, Vsp. 57, Edda (Gl.)

aldr-rúnar, f. pl. life-runes, charms for preserving life, Rm. 40.

aldr-rúttr, adj. on terms of peace for ever, D. N. in a law phrase, a. ok æfinsáttr, Fr.

aldr-slit, n. pl. death, in the phrase, til aldrslita, ad urnam, Sturl. iii. 253.

aldr-stamr (perh. aldrscamr), adj. = fey, only in Akv. 42.

aldr-tili, a, m. [cp. as to the last part, Germ. ziel], death, loss of life, exitium; rather poët.; or in prose only used in emphatic phrases; hefir þó lokit sumum stöðum með aldrtila, has ended fatally, Fms. viii. 153; ætla ek þær lyktir munu á verða, at vér munim a. hljóta af þeim konungi, he will prove fatal to our family, Eg. 19; mun ek þangað sækja heldr yndi en a. (an alliterative phrase), Bret. 36; údæmi ok a., 38:—the words, Acts ix. I, ‘breathing out tbreatenings and slaughter,’ are in the Icel. translation of the year 1540 rendered ‘Saul blés ógn og aldrtila.’

aldr-tjón, n. loss of life, Lex. Poët.

aldr-tregi, a, m. deadly sorrow; etr sér aldrtrega, Hm. 19.

ald-rænn, adj. elderly, aged (rare), Lex. Poët.; hinn aldræni maðr, Fms. vi. 65, but a little below aldraðr; a. kona, Bs. i. 201, v, 1. öldruð.

aldur-maðr, m. alderman [A. S. ealdorman], Pd. 13.

al-dyggiliga, adv. truly, with perfect fidelity, Hom. 135.

al-dyggr, adj. faithful, Barl. 5.

al-dæli, adj. very easy to treat, Jv. 24, Mag. 115.

al-dæll, adj. easy to deal with, gentle, Grett. 108; A and B dæll.

ald-öðli, n. time immemorial, Vídal. ii. 181.

al-efli, n. all one’s might; af alefli, by might and main.

al-eiga, u, f. a person’s entire property, Gþl. 543, Hkr. ii. 344, iii. 141, Bs. ii. 66. COMPD: aleigu-mál, n. a suit involving a person’s whole property, Gþl. 550:—so also aleigu-sök, f., Hkr. ii. 163.

al-eyða, n, f. devastation, esp. by fire and sword; göra aleyðu, to turn into a wilderness, Fms. xi. 42, Hkr. iii. 141.

al-eyða, adj. ind. altogether waste, empty, void of people; a. af mönnum, Hkr. i. 98, ii. 197; brennir ok görir a. landit, burns and makes the land an utter waste, Hkr. i. 39; sumir lágu úti á fjöllum, svá at a. vóru bæirnir eptir, some lay out on the fells, so that the dwellings were utterly empty and wasted behind them, Sturl. iii. 75.

al-eyða, dd, to devastate, Karl. 370.

al-faðir, m. father of all, a name of Odin, v. alföður.

al-far, n., better álfar [áll], channel, B. K. 119.

al-fari, adj. ind., now alfarinn; in phrases like fara, koma alfari, to start, set off for good and all, Fms. iii. 92, Bret. 80, Fas. i. 249; ríða í brott a., Nj. 112, Bs. i. 481; koma til skips a., Grág. ii. 75. [Probably an obsolete dat. from alfar.]

al-farinn, adj. part. worn out, very far gone, Stj. 201, of the kine of Pharaoh, ‘ill-favoured and lean-fleshed,’ Gen. xli. 3. β. now = alfari.

al-feginn, adj. very glad (‘fain’), Lex. Poët.

al-feigr, adj. very ‘fey,’ i. e. in extravagant spirits, in the frame of mind which betokens speedy death, a. augu, Eg. in a verse.

alfr, alfheimr, etc., elves etc., v. álfr etc.

al-framr, adj. (poët.) excellent, Lex. Poët.

al-fríðr, adj. very fair, Lex. Poët.

al-frjáls, adj. quite free, Sks. 621.

al-frjóvaðr, part. in full flower. Lex. Poët.

alft, f. swan, v. álpt.

al-fullr, adj. quite full, Greg. 26.

al-fúinn, adj. quite rotten, Fms. vi. 164.

al-færr, adj. quite fit, quite good, Vm. 177, v. ölforr.

al-fært, n. of weather, fit for travelling, Sd. = fært.

al-föðr, m. father of all, the name of Odin as the supreme god in Scandinavian mythology, Edda i. 37 (Ed. Havn.) Now used (theol.) of God.

al-gangsi and algangsa, adj. ind. quite common, current, Sks. 199, 208 B.

al-geldr, adj. part. quite gelded, of cattle, Grág. i. 503. β. now also= giving no milk.

al-gildi, n. a law term, full value, Gþl. 392. COMPD: algildis-vitni, n. a law term, lawful testimony, competent witness; defin., N. G. L. i. 211.

al-gildr, adj. of full value, in a verse in Fs. 94; now common, opp. to hálfgildr, of half value, or ógildr, valueless.

al-gjafi, prob. a false reading, N. G. L. i. 347 = frjálsgjafi.

al-gjafta, adj. ind. stall-fed, of cattle, Ísl. ii. 38.

al-gleymingr, m. [glaumr], great glee, great mirth, in the phrase, slá á algleyniing, to be in great glee, to be very merry, Sturl. iii. 123. The Icel. now say, að komast í algleyrning, to run high, to the highest point.

al-góðr, adj. perfectly good, now used of God. β. albeztr kostr, by far the best match (Germ. allerbester), Ld. 88.

al-grár, adj. quite grey, þorf. Karl. 424.

al-gróinn, adj. part. perfectly healed, Eluc. 57.

al-grænn, adj. quite green, flourishing, Lex. Poët.

al-gullinn, adj. (poët.) all-golden, Hým. 8.

al-gyldr, adj. all-gilt, Vm. 52.

al-göra, ð, to finish, of buildings, Hkr. iii. 180, Ld. 114. Metaph. to fulfil Fms. iii. 49, Hom. 8, Stj. 18. Reflex, to become completed, Post. 626 B. II. Part. algörr, perfect; perfectam fortitudinem is rendered by algorvan styrkleik, thorough strength, Fms. viii. (pref.), i. 96, Sks. 44, 274, Stj. 563, 114; hið algörvasta, 677. 7.

al-görlega, adv. altogether, quite, Fms. ii. 42, Greg. 34, etc.

al-görleikr, now algörlegleikr, s, m. (theol.) perfectness, perfection, Stj. 21, Fms. x. 337, Rb. 316.

al-görr, adj. part. perfect, finished, v. algöra.

al-görvi, f. I. perfection, maturity, Stj. 376, Hom. 25. II. full dress [v. görvi, dress], Sks. 298.

al-heiðinn, adj. altogether heathen; landit (Iceland) var a. nær hundraði vetra, the land was utterly heathen near a hundred (i. e. one hundred and twenty) winters, Landn. 322.

al-heilagr, adj. all-hallowed, N. G. L. i. 141.

al-heill, adj. 1. completely whole, entire, Lat. integer, Stj. 439. I Sam. vii. 9 (wholly), Sks. 604, translation from Lat. individua. 2. perfectly healthy, safe and sound, Fms. xi. 38, ii. 232, Magn. 516.

al-heilsa, u, f. complete restoration to health, Bs. i. 313, v. l.

al-henda, u, f. a metrical term, a subdivision of dróttkvætt, a metre having two rhymed couplets in every line; if one of these be half rhyme it is called a. hin minni (the minor alhenda), if both be full rhymes it is a. meiri (complete alhenda), Edda (Ht.) 132, Sturl. ii. 56: thus harð-múla varð Skúli is a complete alhenda.

al-hending, f. = alhenda.

al-hendr, adj. used of a metre in alhenda, Edda 132; drápa alhend, Sturl. ii. 56.

al-hnepptr, adj. part. (metric.) an apocopate (hneppt) species of the metre dróttkvætt w ith masculine rhymes, v. hnept and hálfhnept. Thus defined, Edda (Ht.), verse 78; it is called alhneppt, where all the rhymes are masculine; but hálfhneppt, where feminines and masculines are used alternately.

al-hreinn, adj. quite pure, clean, Hom. 107.

al-huga and ölhuga or öluga, by eliding the h and changing the vowel through the following u, adj. ind. [hugr], whole-hearted, in full earnest, Sturl. iii. 272, v. l.; ölhuga ́st, sincere love, Greg. 17.

al-hugat, alugat, or alogat, n. part. in real earnest, whole-hearted, having made one’s mind up; ef þér er þat alhugat, if thou be in earnest, Nj. 49; föður hans var alogat at drepa Davíd, his father’s heart was set on slaying David, Stj. 473. I Sam. xx. 33. β. used substantively, serious matters; blanda hégóma við alhugat (now alvara), to blend trifles with serious things. γ. adverb. steadfastly, earnestly; iðrast a., to repent sincerely, Hom. 166; en ef þú sér at alogat (really) tekr fé þitt at vaxa, Sks. 34, 339; þá er hann alogat úsekr, really guiltless, 677. 9.

al-hugi and alogi, a, m. earnest; þetta er a. minn en engi hégómi, I am in full earnest, Ísl. ii. 214; hvárt er þessa leitað með alhuga, in earnest, Eb. 130; er hitt heldr a. minn, I am determined, Fms. ii. 94; með enum mesta alhuga, with the most steadfast will, Hkr. i. 258, Fms. viii. 186, Bs. i. 732.

al-hugligr, adj. sincere; ekki þótti mér Ólafr frændi várr a., methought our kinsman Olaf was not quite sincere, Sturl. i. 81.

al-hungraðr, adj. part. very much an-hungered, Barl. 200.

al-húsa, að, to ‘house,’ roof in, Fms. x. 153.

al-hvítr, adj. quite white, Fms. xi. 16, Stj. 260.

al-hýsa, t, = alhúsa. Part. alhýst, when all the buildings are finished, in a complete state, Sturl. i. 68.

al-hýsi, n. farm-buildings, homestead, Gísl. 38, Bs. i. 144, Fas. iii. 15.

al-hægð, f. perfect ease, Sturl. i. 56, v. 1. and dub.

al-hægr, adj. perfectly easy, smooth; a. tungubragð, a smooth, glib tongue, Skálda 170, Fas. ii. 65.

ali-, used of household or tame animals in some COMPDS: ali-björn, m. a tame bear, Grág. ii. 118, cp. Fms. vi. 297–307, Bs. i. 61. ali-dýr, n. a domestic animal, cattle; alidýr þat sem vér köllum búsmala, house-lamb, Stj. 18, Finnb. 226, of a tame bear. ali-fe, n. fatlings, Matth. xxii. 4, in the transl. of 1540. ali-fiskr, m. fish fattened in a stew or pond, in the local name Alifiskalækr, m. the brook of fattened trout, Gþl. 4. ali-fugl and -fogl, m. tame fowl, Stj. 560, Þiðr. 79; öxn mín ok alifoglar, Greg. 43. Matth. l. c. ali-gás, f. a fattened goose, Fms. vi. 347. ali-karl, m. a nickname, cp. in familiar language fat carle, Sturl. i. 123. ali-sauðr, m. a pet sheep, Stj. 516. 2 Sam. xii. 3.

ALIN, f. A dissyllabic form alun appears in old poetry, v. Lex. Poët. In early prose writers a monosyllabic form öln prevails in nom. dat. acc. sing., D. I. i. 310. l. 22 (MS. of the year 1275), 314. l. 16 (MS. year 1250), 311, 312. l. 16, 313. l. 7, 89. l. 1. Nom. pl., α. the old, alnar; β. the later, alnir: the former in -ar, in D. I. i. 309 (a MS. of the year 1275), 310–312 (MS. year 1370), 313, 316. l. 19, 318. 1. 15. The pl. in -ir, D. I. i. 89 sqq., in MSS. of the 13th and 14th centuries. In the contracted form aln- the simple radical vowel soon became a diphthongal á, viz. álnar, álnir, álnum, álna, and is at present so spelt and pronounced. We find an acute accent indeed in álna (gen pl.), D. I. i. 313. l. 25 (MS. year 1375), and dinar, id. l, 7; álnom, 1. 28; ölnum with changed vowel, N. G. L. i. 323 (in an Icel. transcript). The present declension is, nom. acc. alin, gen. álnar; pl. nom. acc. álnir, gen. álna, dat. alnum. I. properly the arm from the elbow to the end of the middle finger [Gr. ώλένη, Lat. ulna, cp. A. S. el-boga, Engl. el-bow, etc.]; almost obsolete, but still found in the words ölbogi qs. öln-bogi, ‘elbow,’ and úlf-liðr, prop. uln- or óln-liðr, wrist, commonly pronounced unl-liðr [false etymol., v. Edda, p. 17]; cp. Ísl. Þjóðs. ii. 19, where tungl (luna) and unl- rhyme. Freq. in poetry in such compounds as alun-leygr, -brandr, ölun-grjót, alnar-gim, alin-leygr, the standing poët, name of gold and gems being ignis or lapis cubiti. II. mostly metaph.: 1. an ell, [Ulf. aleina; A. S. eln; Engl. ell; O. H. G. elina; Dan. alen; Lat. ulna, cp. cubitum] ; the finger, arm, foot were the original standards for measure. The primitive ell measured the length from the elbow to the point of the second finger, and answered to about half a yard Engl. = 18 inches. The Icel. ell before the year 12OO measured just half a yard. About this year, by a law of bishop Paul, the ell was doubled into a stika, a stika being precisely = two ells = an Engl. ell of that time. To prevent the use of bad measure, a just and lawful stika (yard) was marked on the walls of the churches, esp. that at Thingvellir, as an authorised standard, Páls S. ch. 9, Bs. i. 135, D. I. i. 309, 316, Jb. Kb. 26; ensk lérept tveggja álna, English linen of two ells measure, id.; þat er mælt, at at graftar kirkju hverri skal mæla stiku lengd, þá er rétt sé at hafa til álna máls, ok megi menn þar til ganga ef á skilr um alnar, 309. During the whole of the 15th century the Icel. trade was mainly in British hands; thus the Engl. double ell probably prevailed till the end of the 15th or beginning of the 16th century. The Hanse Towns ell = 21 1/11 inches was then introduced, and abolished in the year 1776, when the Dan. ell = 24 inches came into use. At present the Hanse Towns ell is called Íslenzk alin (Icel. ell), and the original half-yard ell is quite obsolete; cp. Jón Sigurðsson in D. I. i. 306–308, and Pál Vidal. s. v. alin. 2. a unit of value, viz. an ell (half-yard measure) of woollen stuff (vaðmál); the vaðmál (Halliwell wadmal, Engl. woadmal, Orkn. and Shell, wadmaal and vadmel) was in Icel. the common medium of payment, whence an ell became the standard unit of value or property, whether in land or chattels; 120 ells make a hundred, v. that word. In D. I. i. 316 we are told that, about the year 1200, three ells were equal in value to one ounce of ordinary silver, whence the expression þriggja álna eyrir (a common phrase during the 13th century). The value of the ell of vaðmal, however, varied greatly; during the 11th and 12th centuries six ells made an ounce, D. I. i. 88. In Norway we find mentioned níu, ellifu álna aurar (nine, eleven ells to an ounce). In Grág. (Kb.) ii. 192, § 245, it is said that, about the year 1000, four ells in Icel. made an ounce, and so on; vide Dasent, Essay in 2nd vol. of Burnt Njal., and Pal Vidal. s. v. alin. COMPDS: álnar-borð, n. a board an ell long, N. G. L. i. 100. álnar-breiðr, adj. an ell broad, Fas. ii. 118. alnar-kefli, n. a stajf an ell long, Grág. ii. 339, Ld. 318. álnar-langr, adj. ell-long, Grág. ii. 359. álnar-tíund, f. tithe of the value of an ell, K. Á. 100. álnar-virði, n. equal in value to an ell, K. Á. 194. álna-sök, f. action for bad measure, Grág. i. 472.

al-jafn, adj. quite equal, 677. 12, 655 A. 2.

al-járnaðr, adj. part. shod all round, shod on all four feet, Mag. 5.

alka, alca, the awk, v. álka.

al-keypt, n. part. dearly bought, in a metaph. sense, Fms. ix. 302, Eb. 266, Glúm. 36s, = fullkeypt.

al-kirkja, u, f. a parish church, Pm. 41.

al-klæðnaðr, m. a full suit of clothes, Nj. 73, Eg. 518, Bs. 5. 655, 876.

al-kristinn, adj. completely christianised, Fms. i. 279, Hkr. i. 259.

al-kristnaðr, part. id., Hkr. ii. 178, Fms. x. 273.

al-kunna, adj. ind. α. of a thing or event, notorious, universally known; sem a. er orðit, Fms. xi. 201; en sem vinátta þeirra görðist a., but tvhen their friendship was noised abroad, Hkr. ii. 281. β. of a person, knowing, fully informed; unz a., until I know the whole, Vtkv. 8, 10, 12.

al-kunnigr, adj. notorious, Hkr. iii. 26, Stj. Gen. iv. 10, 655 xxxi. I, Fms. vii. 5, Hkr. ii. 328.

al-kunnr, adj. id., Fms. v. 40.

al-kyrra, adj. ind. completely calm, tranquil, Fms. xi. 72.

ALL- may in old writers be prefixed to almost every adjective and adverb in an intensive sense, like Engl. very, Lat. per-, Gr. οια-, ζα-. In common talk and modern writings it is rare (except after a negative), and denotes something below the average, viz. tolerably, pretty well, not very well; but in the Sagas, something capital, exceeding. In high style it may perhaps be used in the old sense, e. g. allfagrt ljós oss birtist brátt, a transl. of the Ambrosian hymn, Aurora lucis rutilat. The instances in old writers are nearly endless, e. g. all-annt, n. adj. very eager, Fms. ii. 41; ironically, 150. all-apr, adj. very sore, very harsh, v. apr. all-auðsóttligt, n. adj. very easy, Fs. 40. all-auðveldliga, adv. very easily, Fms. iv. 129. all-auðveldligr, adj. very easy, Fms. v. 331. all-auðveldr, adj. id., Fbr. 158: neut. as adv., Hkr. ii. 76. all-ágætr, adj. very famous, Fms. ii. 76. all-áhyggjusamliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very careful, Fms. vi. 184. all-ákafliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very hot, impetuous, Hkr. i. 234, ii. 32. all-ákaft, adj. very fast, Nj. 196. all-áræðiliga, adv. very likely, Fær. 183. all-áræðislítill, adj. very timid, Fms. vi. 217. all-ástúðligt, n. adj. very hearty, intimate, Fms. ii. 20. all-banvænn, adj. very likely to prove mortal, Orkn. 148. all-beinn, adj. very hospitable, Fms. ii. 84, Eb. 286: neut. as adv., Fær. 259. all-beiskr, adj. very harsh, bitter, Sturl. iii. 167. all-bert, n. adj. very manifest, Lex. Poët. all-bitr, adj. very biting, sharp, Sks. 548. all-bitrligr, adj. of a very sharp appearance, Vígl. 20. all-bjartr, adj. very bright, Fms. viii. 361. all-bjúgr, adj. very much bent, curved, Ölkofr. 39. all-blár, adj. very blue, Glúm. 394. all-blíðliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very blithely, kindly, Fær. 132. all-blíðr, adj. very mild, amiable, Sd. 158, Fms. i. 202. all-bráðgörr, adj. very soon mature, Eb. 16. all-bráðliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very hastily, Orkn. 72. all-bráðr, adj. very hot-headed, Njarð. 370: neut. as adv. very soon, Fms. xi. 51: dat. pl. all-bráðum, as adv. very suddenly, 139. all-bros-ligr, adj. and -liga, adv. very funny, laughable, Fms. iii. 113. all-dasigr, adj. very sluggish, Lex. Poët. all-digr, adj. very big, stout; metaph. puffed up, Nj. 236. all-djarfliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very boldly, Fms. ii. 313, Orkn. 102. all-djúpsettr, adj. very deep, thoughtful, Bret. 158. all-drengiliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very bold, gallant, Lv. 110. all-dræmt, n. adj. very boastfully, from dramb, superbia, (the modern word is dræmt = slowly, sluggishly); þeir létu a. yfir sér, boasted, Sturl. ii. 56. MS. Mus. Brit. 1127; Cod. A. M. has allvænt, prob. wrongly. all-dyggr, adj. very doughty, Lex. Poët. all-dýrr, adj. very dear, Fms. iii. 159. all-eiguligr, adj. very worth having, Sd. 146. all-eina (theol.), á Guð alleina (a hymn), alone: Hkr. iii. 339 (in a spurious chapter). all-einarðliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very sincere, candid, open, Ld. 334. all-eldiligr and -elliligr, adj. of a very aged appearance, Fms. iii. 125. all-fagr, adj. very bright, fair, Orkn. 296 old Ed.: neut. as adv. very fairly, Sturl. i. 72. all-fast, n. adj. very firmly, steadfastly, Eb. 290, Fær. 259. all-fastorðr, adj. very ‘wordfast,’ very true to his word, Fms. vii. 120. all-fálátr, adj. very taciturn, close, Fas. iii. 408. all-fáliga, adv. on very cold terms, Sturl. iii. 298. all-fámáligr, adj. very close, of very few words, Fms. iii. 85, iv. 366. all-fámennr, adj. followed by very few people, Sturl. ii. 122, Magn. 386. all-far, adj. very few, Eg. 512, Ld. 272, Ísl. ii. 356: neut. on very cold terms, Fms. xi. 55. all-fáræðinn, adj. of very few words, Fms. iv. 312. all-feginn, adj. very ‘fain,’ glad, Eg. 240, Ld. 330. all-feginsamliga, adv. very ‘fain,’ gladly, Eg. 27. all-feigligr, adj. having the mark of death very plain on one’s face, v. feigr, Sturl. iii. 234. all-feitr, adj. very fat, Fms. x. 303. all-ferliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very rudely, Fms. iv. 263. all-fémikill, adj. very costly, Ld. 298. all-fjarri, adv. very far, far from, metaph., Hkr. ii. 246; eigi a., not improper, Fbr. 15. all-fjartekit, part. very far-fetched, Skálda 166. all-fjölgan, adj. acc. very numerous (does not exist in nom.), Sks. 138 A. all-fjölkunnigr, adj. very deeply versed in sorcery, Fms. ii. 175, Fas. i. 412. all-fjölmeðr and -mennr, adj. followed, attended by very many people, much frequented, Eg. 724, 188, Hkr. i. 215: n. sing. in very great numbers, Fms. i. 36. all-fjölrætt, n. adj. very heedful, much talked of, Nj. 109. all-forsjáll, adj. very prudent, Hom. 115. all-framr, adj. very famous, Lex. Poët.; very far forward, Grett. 161 A. all-frekliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very daringly, impudently, Fas. i. 24. all-frekr, adj. too eager, too daring, Fms. vii. 164. all-friðliga, adv. in very great peace, Lex. Poët. all-fríðr, adj. very beautiful, Eg. 23, Hkr. i. 225, ii. 354, Fms. i. 2. all-frjáls, adj. very free, independent, v. alfrjáls. all-fróðligr, adj. and -liga, adv. very wise, learned, Sks. 306 B. all-fróðr, adj. very learned, Sks. 30. all-frægr, adj. very famous, Fms. ii. 324, Hkr. i. 232, ii. 187, Ld. 122. all-frækiliga, adv. and -ligr, adj., and all-frækn, adj. and -liga, adv. very bold, boldly, Ísl. ii. 267, Hkr. i. 239, Fms. i. 121. all-fúss, adj. and -liga, adv. very eager, eagerly, Eg. 488, Fms. xi. 89. all-fýsiligr, adj. and -liga, adv. very desirable, Eg. 19, 468. all-fölr, adj. very pale, Lex. Poët. all-gagnsamr, adj. very profitable, gainful, Ísl. ii. 56. all-gamall, adj. very old, Hkr. i. 34. all-gegniliga and -gegnliga, adv. very fittingly, Sturl. ii. 63. all-gemsmikill, adj. very wanton, frolicsome, Sturl. ii. 57. all-gerla and -görviligr, v. -görla, -görviligr. all-gestrisinn, adj. very hospitable, Háv. 40. all-geysilegr, adj. and -liga, adv. very impetuous, Fms. x. 81. all-gildliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. with a very grand air, Grett. 121. all-gildr, adj. very grand, Lex. Poët. all-giptusam-liga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very lucky, Fms. x. 53. all-glaðliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very joyfully, joyful, Fms. iii. 143, Lv. 55. all-glaðr, adj. very joyful, Eg. 163, Ld. 176. all-gleymr, adj. very gleeful, mirthful, in high spirits, [glaumr], verða a. við e-t, Sturl. iii. 152, Eb. 36. all-glæsiliga, adj. and -ligr, adv. very shiny, Eb. 34, Fas. iii. 626, Fms. ix. 430. all-glöggsær, adj. very transparent, dearly visible, metaph., þorf. Karl. 380. all-glöggt, n. adj. very exactly, Hkr. iii. 253, Fas. iii. 13. all-góðmannliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very kindly, kind, Mag. 6. all-góðr, adj. very good, Nj. 222, Eg. 36, 198. all-greiðliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very easy, easily, Eb. 268: neut. as adv., Eb. l. c. all-grimmliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very grimly, fiercely, Fas. iii. 414. all-grimmr, adj. very cruel, fierce, Hkr. iii. 167. all-grun-samliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very suspiciously, Ísl. ii. 364. all-göfugr, adj. very distinguished, Eg. 598, Bs. i. 60. all-görla, adv. very clearly, precisely, Hkr. iii. 133, Fms. xi. 15. all-görviligr, adj. very stout, manly, Fms. ii. 28. all-hagstæðr, adj. with a very fair wind, Sturl. iii. 109. all-harðligr, adj. and -liga, adv. very hard, stern, Fas. i. 382. all-harðr, adj. very hard, stern, Fms. i. 177: n. sing. severely, Nj. 165, Grág. i. 261. all-háskasamligr, adj. and -liga, adv. very hazardous, Fms. v. 135. all-heiðinn, adj. quite heathen, Fs. 89 (in a verse). all-heilagr, adj. very sacred, Lex. Poët. all-heimskliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very foolish, frantic, Hkr. ii. 190, Fas. iii. 293. all-heimskr, adj. very silly, stupid, Eg. 376, Grett. 159. all-heppinn, adj. very lucky, happy, Lex. Poët. all-herðimikill, adj. very broad-shouldered, Eg. 305. all-hermannliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very martial, Fms. xi. 233. all-hjaldrjúgr, adj. very gossipping, chattering, Lv. 57: neut. as adv., Vápn. 10. all-hógliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very gently, Fms. xi. 240, vi. 274. all-hóleitr and -háleitr, adj. very sublime, Hom. 23. all-hór and -hár, adj. very high, tall, v. -hár. all-hratt, n. adj. in all speed, Lex. Poët. all-hraustliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very bravely, Fms. viii. 289, Eb. 34. all-hraustr, adj. very valiant, Fms. viii. 267. all-hreystimannliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very valiantly, Fms. xi. 95. all-hrumliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very infirmly from age, Fas. ii. 91. all-hræddr, adj. very much afraid, Fbr. 94. all-hræðinn, adj. very timid, Fms. vi. 155. all-huml;mgsjúkr, adj. very grieved, heart-sick, Hkr. i. 243, Fms. vi. 133. all-hvass, adj. of the wind, blowing very sharp, Fms. ix. 20, Lex. Poët. all-hyggi-ligr, adj. and -liga, adv. very carefully, Fas. iii. 610. all-hýrliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very blandly, with a very bright face, Fas. iii. 636. all-hæðiligr, adj. and -liga, adv. very ridiculous, Finnb. 312. all-hældreginn, adj. walking very much on one’s heels, dragging the heels very much in walking, of an aged or beggarly person, Band. 9. all-hœgliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very softly, meekly, Fms. xi. 389. all-hœlinn, adj. very bragging, Lex. Poët. all-iðinn, adj. very diligent, laborious, Bs. i. 278. all-illa, adv. and -illr, adj. very badly, bad, wicked, Nj. 242, cp. ilia; ill-willed, Eg. 542: compar., vera allver um, to be worse off, Nj. 221 (Ed. allvant); angry, Lv. 145; disgraceful, Eg. 237; unfortunate, Sturl. ii. 47. all-jafnlyndr, adj. very calm, even-tempered, Fms. vi. 287. all-kaldr, adj. very cold, Vápn. 21. all-kappsamliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. with very much zeal, liberally, Hkr. i. 271; veita a., of hospitality, Ld. 292; mæla a., frankly, peremptorily, 296. all-kappsamr, adj. very eager, vehement, Eg. 187. all-karlmannliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very manfully, Fms. x. 141. all-kaupmannliga, adv. in a very businesslike, tradesmanlike way, Fms. v.255. all-kátligr, adj. and -liga, adv. very funny, Grett. 112. all-kátr, adj. very joyful, Nj. 18, Eg. 44, 332. all-keppinn, adj. very snappish, Lex. Poët. all-kerskiligr and -keskiligr, adj. and -liga, adv. very sarcastic, biting, Sturl. ii. 196. all-klókr, adj. very shrewd, Hkr. iii. 317. all-knáliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very stoutly, vigorously, Rd. 312. all-kostgæflliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very earnestly, in a very painstaking way, Stj. all-kostigr, adj. very excellent, Lex. Poët. all-kviklatr, adj. very quick, lively, Ld. 270. all-kynliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very strangely, strange, Ísl. ii. 58, Fms. ii. 227, Grett. 160. all-kyrrligr, adj. very quiet, tranquil, Háv. 49. all-kærr, adj. very dear, beloved, Eg. 139, Fms. i. 48; very fond of, Hkr. i. 194: neut., Eg. 116, of mutual love. all-langr, adj. very long, Háv. 49. all-laust, n. adj. very loosely, Fms. xi. 103. all-lágr, adj. very low, short of stature, Fbr. 68. all-lengi, adv. very long, K. Þ. K. 158. all-léttbrúnn, adj. of very brightened, cheerful countenance, Ld. 94. all-léttiliga, adv. very lightly, Fas. iii. 612. all-léttmælt, n. adj., vera a. um e-t, to speak in a very lively way, Fms. iv. 261. all-léttr, adj. very light (in weight), Fas. iii. 487. all-líkliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. in very agreeable, courteous terms, Fas. i. 84. all-likligr, adj. very likely, Fas. ii. 247, Sks. 669. all-líkr, adj. very like, Fas. iii. 579, Sd. 160, Korm. 142. all-lítilfjörligr, adj. and -liga, adv. very puny, prop. having little life in one, Háv. 54. all-lítill, adj. very little, Fær. 268: n. sing. all-lítt, as adv. very little, Nj. 108, 130, Korm. 172; poorly, Grett. 116. all-lyginn, adj. very given to lying, Fbr. 157. all-makligr, adj. and -liga, adv. very deserving, fitting, Sturl. iii. 127, Bjarn. 22. all-mann-fátt, n. adj. with very few people, Gísl. 31. all-mannhættr, adj. very dangerous, Fas. iii. 34. all-mannskæðr, adj. very full of manskathe, very murderous, Fms. ii. 512. all-mannæenligr, adj. a very promising man, Fms. iv. 254. all-mannvænn, adj. a man of very great promise, Hkr. ii. 182. all-margliga, adv. very affably, Sturl. iii. 27. all-margmæltr, part. very talkative, Sturl. ii. 179. all-margr, adj. very numerous, pl. very many, Nj. 32, Grág. ii. 176, Sks. 328, Gþl. 329. all-margrætt, n. adj. part. very much spoken of, Fms. viii. 275. all-málugr, adj. very loquacious, Hkr. iii. 152, 655 xi. 2. all-máttfarinn, adj. very much worn out, with very little strength left, Fas. ii. 356. all-máttlítill, adj. very weak, Fms. i. 159. all-meginlauss, adj. very void of strength, Fms. xi. 103. all-mikilfengligr, adj. very high and mighty, very imposing, Fs. all-mikill, adj. very great, Ísl. ii. 269, Nj. 193, Eg. 29, 39: neut. as adv. greatly, Fms. i. 24, vii. 110. all-mikilmannliga, adv. very nobly, Sturl. i. 33. all-misjafn, adj. very variously, unfavourably, in such phrases as, mæla a. um e-t, there were very different stories about the matter, leggja a. til, ganga a. undir, taka a. á, Eg. 242, Hkr. ii. 123, Fms. i. 86, vii. no, Ld. 166. all-mjór, adj. very slim, slender, narrow, Hkr. iii. 117, Gþl. 173. all-mjök, adv. very much, Nj. 134, Ld. 196, Eg. 19; féllu þá a. menn, in very great numbers, Fms. i. 173. all-myrkr, adj. very dark, Fms. ix. 23. all-mæðiliga, adv. with very great effort, heavily, Fms. ix. 16. all-nauðigr, adj. and -liga, adv. very reluctant, unwilling, Grett. 153; a. staddr, dangerously, Fms. v. 212. all-náinn, adj. very near, nearly related, Sks. 330. all-náttförull, adj. very much given to wandering by night, Lex. Poët. all-níðskárr, adj. of a poet, given to mocking, satirical verse, [níð and skáld (?)], Fms. ii. 7. all-nóg, adv. very abundantly, Sd. 182. all-nær, adv. very near, Fms. vii. 289; metaph., lagði a. at, pretty nearly, well-nigh, Fs., Sks. 684 B. all-nærri, adv. very near, Ld. 202, Fas. iii. 339. all-opt, adv. very often, Anecd. 38, Gþl. 169. all-orðfátt, n. adj. in the phrase, göra a. urn, to be very short of words as to, Bjarn. 31. all-ógurligr, adj. and -liga, adv. very frightful, Edda 41. all-ólmliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very furiously, Fas. iii. 546, Bárð. 177. áll-óttalaust, n. adj. with very little to fear, Eg. 371, v. l. all-ramskipaðr, adj. part. very strongly manned, Fms. iii. 13. all-rauðr, adj. very red, Ld. 182. all-ráðligr, adj. very expedient, advisable, Grett. 145. all-reiðiligr, adj. looking very wrathful, Fms. iv. 161. all-reiðr, adj. very wroth, angry, Edda 57, Nj. 135, Eg. 139. all-ríkmarmligr, adj. and -liga, adv. very grand, pompous, magnificent, Fms. i. 213. all-ríkr, adj. very powerful, Fms. i. 115. all-rýrliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very feebly, puny, Fbr. 28. all-röskliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very smart, brisk, Fms. viii. 317. all-sannligr, adj. and -liga, adv. very likely, ‘soothlike,’ Fms. iv. 270. all-sáttgjarnliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very placable, of mild disposition, Sturl. iii. 288. all-seinn, adj. very slow, Bs. i. 192: neut. as adv. slowly, Grett. 151 A. all-sigrsæll, adj. very victorious, having very good luck in war, Hkr. i. 28. all-skammr, adj. very short, very scant, Nj. 264: neut. substantively, a very short way, Finnb. 324; short distance, Fms. iv. 329. all-skapliga, adv. very fittingly, properly, Grett. 120. all-skapværr, adj. of a very gentle, meek disposition, Sturl. all-skapþungt, n. adj., vera a., to be in a very gloomy, depressed state of mind, Fms. iv. 26. all-skarpr, adj. very sharp, Lex. Poët. all-skeinuhættr, adj. very dangerous, vulnerable, Sturl. ii. 139. all-skemtiligr, adj. very amusing, Sturl. ii. 77. all-skillítill, adj. very slow-witted, dull, Sturl. j. 89. all-skjallkænliga, adv. [skjalla, to flatter], very coaxingly, Grett. 131 A. all-skjótt, n. adj. as adv. very soon, Nj. 236. all-skrautligr, adj. and -liga, adv. very smart, splendid, Fas. ii. 366, Mag. 11. all-skygn, adj. very sharp-sighted, Hrafn. 33. all-skyldr, adj. bound to, very obligatory; neut. = bounden duty, Sks. 484; deserved, Gþl. 61: β. nearly related, near akin, Fms. xi. 75. all-skyndiliga, adv. very quickly, Blas. 40. all-skynsamliga, adv. very judiciously, Sturl. iii. 161. all-skyrugr, adj. all curd-besprent, Grett. 107 A. all-sköruliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very frankly, boldly, dignified, Sturl. iii. 39, Fms. ix. 5, Ld. 94 C, 226, Bs. i. all-sljáliga, adv. very slowly, sluggishly, Grett. 101 A. all-smár, adj. very small, Fms. v. 55, xi. 61. all-snarpliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very sharply, smartly, Fms. viii. 346. all-snarpr, adj. very sharp, Fms. i. 38, Nj. 246. all-snemma, adv. very early, Fms. ii. 223. all-snjallr, adj. very shrewd, clever, Fms. viii. 367. all-snúðula, adv. very quickly, Lex. Poët. all-snæfr, adj. very brisk, id. all-snöfurmannligr, adj. and -liga, adv. very brisk and energetic looking, of a man, Fms. xi. 79. all-spakliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very mildly, moderately, wisely, Hkr. ii. 41. all-spakr, adj. very gentle, wise, Fms. vi. 298. all-starsýnn, adj. who stares very hard at a thing, looking fixedly upon, Fms. vi. 203. all-sterkliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very briskly, strongly, Ld. 158, Fas. iii. 612. all-sterkr, adj. very strong, Hkr. i. 238, Eg. 285; Ísl. ii. 461 (very vehement); as a pr. name, Fms. iii. 183. all-stilliliga, adv. very calmly, in a very composed manner, Ld. 318. all-stirðr, adj. very stiff, Háv. 46. all-stórhöggr, adj. dealing very hard blows, Fms. i. 171. all-stórliga, adv. very haughtily, Hkr. ii. 63, Ld. 168. all-stórmannliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very munificently, nobly, Fas. iii. 45; haughtily, Sd. 146. all-stórorðr, adj. using very big words, Eg. 340, Ld. 38 (very boisterous). all-stórr, adj. very great, metaph. big, puffed up, Ld. 318; dat. all-stórum, as adv. very largely, Edda 32. all-strangr, adj. very rapid, Lex. Poët. all-styggr, adj. very ill-humoured, cross, Grett. 103 A. all-styrkliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very stoutly, Stj. 402. all-styrkr, adj. very strong, Fms. i. 177. all-svangr, adj. very hungry, Lex. Poët. all-svinnliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very wisely, prudently, wise, Fas. i. 95, ii. 266. all-sættfúss, adj. very placable, peace-loving, very willing to accept an atonement, Sturl. iii. 19. all-sœmiliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very seemly, decorous, honourable, Hkr. i. 215, Ísl. ii. 163. all-tiginn, adj. very princely, Lex. Poët. all-tillátsamr, adj. very indulgent, lenient, Þórð. 12. all-tíðrætt, n. adj. very much talked of, much spoken of, Eg. 99, Sturl. i. 199. all-tíðvirkr, adj. very quick at work, Fms. xi. 377. all-torfyndr, adj. very hard to find, Fms. vii. 356. all-torfært, n. adj. very hard to pass, cross, Eg. 546. all-torsótt, n. adj. part. very difficult to reach, Eg. 546. all-tortryggiliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very suspiciously, Sturl. ii. 47. all-torveldligr, adj. and -liga, adv. very difficult, Str. all-trauðr, adj. very slow, unwilling, Fms. xi. 39. all-tregr, adj. very tardy, Fær. 114, Bárð. 178. all-trúr, adj. very true. Fms. vi. 377. all-tryggr, adj. very trusty, Hkr. iii. 167. all-tvítugr, false reading, instead of eigi alls t., not quite twenty, Sturl. i. 181. all-undarligr, adj. and -liga, adv. very odd, wonderful, Fms. ii. 150. all-ungr, adj. very young, Eg. 268, Fms. i. 14, Ld. 274. all-úbeinskeyttr, adj. shooting very badly, Fms. ii. 103. all-úblíðr, adj. very harsh, unkind, Fas. ii. all-úbragðligr, adj. very ill-looking, Sturl. iii. 234. all-údæll, adj. very spiteful, untractable, Sturl. i. 99. all-úfagr, adj. very ugly, metaph., Fms. iii. 154. all-úfimliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very awkwardly, Fas. ii. 543. all-úframliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very backward, shy, timid, Fbr. 38 C. all-úfríðr, adj. very ugly, Fms. xi. 227. all-úfrýnn, adj. very sullen, ‘frowning,’ sour, Eg. 525. all-úfrægr, adj. very inglorious, Fms. iv. 259. all-úglaðr, adj. very gloomy, sad, Hkr. iii. 379. all-úhægr, adj. very difficult, Eg. 227. all-úhöfðingligr, adj. very low-looking, very plebeian, Finnb. 222. all-úkátr, adj. very sorrowful, Edda 35, Eg. 223, Fms. i. 37. all-úknár, adj. very weak of frame, Grett. 119 A, very badly knit; Bs. i. 461 (of boys). all-úkonungligr, adj. very unkingly, Fms. viii. 158. all-úkunnigr, adj. quite unknown, Ísl. ii. 412. all-úlífligr, adj. very unlikely to live, Hkr. ii. 200. all-úlíkliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very unlikely, Gísl. 24, Sd. 123, Finnb. 310. all-úlíkr, adj. very unlike, Glúm. 364. all-úlyginn, adj. not at all given to lie, truthful, Fbr. 157. all-úmáttuliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. weakly, very weak, tender, Fms. iv. 318. all-úráðinn, adj. part. very ‘unready’ (cp. Ethelred the ‘unready’), undecided, Lv. 9. all-úráðliga, adv. very unadvisedly, rashly, Odd. 12 old Ed. all-úsannligr, adj. and -liga, adv. very untruthful, unjust; also, unlikely, Fms. vii. 141. all-úsáttfúss, adj. very implacable, unwilling to come to terms, Sturl. iii. 275. all-úskyldr, adj. very strange to, not at all bound to…, Eg. 10. all-úspakr, adj. very unruly, Sturl. ii. 61. all-úsváss, adj. very uncomfortable, of weather, cold and rainy, Bs. i. 509. all-úsýnn, adj. very uncertain, doubtful, Glúm. 358, Sturl. i. 105. all-úsæligr, adj. of very poor, wretched appearance, Niðrst. 109. all-úvinsæll, adj. very unpopular, Fms. iv. 369, Fas. iii. 520. all-úvísliga, adv. very unwisely, Niðrst. 6. all-úvænliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. of very unfavourable prospect, Fas. ii. 266; n. adj. very unpromising, Grett. 148 A. all-úvænn, adi. very ugly, Fas. i. 234; very unpromising, unfavourable, Ísl. ii. 225: neut. as adv. unfavourably, Fms. xi. 134. all-úþarfr, adj. very unthrifty, very unprofitable, something that had better be prevented, Eg. 576, Hkr. ii. 245. all-vandlátr, adj. very difficult, hard to please, Fms. vi. 387. all-vandliga, adv. with very great pains, exactly, carefully, Sks. 658 B. all-vant, n. adj., vera a. um e-t, to be in a very great strait, Nj. 221. all-varfærr, adj. very careful, solicitous, Eg. 63. all-vaskligr, adj. and -liga, adv. very brisk, smart, gallant, Hkr. i. 104; compar. v. alvaskligr. all-vaskr, adj. very brisk, gallant, Fms. viii. 226. all-vandr, adj. very bad, of clothes, much worn, Pm. 11. all-vápndjarfr, adj. very bold, daring in arms, Hkr. iii. 63. all-veðrlítið, n. adj. very calm, with little wind, Fms. vi. 360. all-vegliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very grand, princely, nobly, Fms. i. 20, Eg. 332, Hkr. i. 15. all-vel, adv. very well, Nj. 12, Eg. 78, 198; compar. albetr, v. alvel. all-vesall, adj. very puny, wretched, Nj. 97. all-vesalliga, adv. very wretchedly, Ölk. 35. all-vesalmannliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. id., Ísl. ii. 416. all-vesæll, adj. very miserable, base, vile, Nj. 97. all-vingjarnliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very friendly, amicable, Sturl. ii. 168. all-vingott, n. adj. on very friendly terms, Fbr. 129. all-vinsæll, adj. very popular, used of a man blessed with many friends, Fms. i. 184, ii. 44, Orkn. 104 old Ed. all-virðuligr, adj. and -liga, adv. very worthy, dignified, Fms. x. 84, Bs. i. 83. all-vitr, adj. very wise, Sks. 29 B (superl.) all-vitrliga, adv. very wisely, Fas. ii. 66. all-víða and all-vítt, n. adj. very widely, Hkr. iii. 141, Lex. Poët. all-vígliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. in a very warlike manner, Fms. ix. 488, Fas. ii. 112. all-vígmannliga, adv. very martially, Fas. iii. 150. all-vígmóðr, adj. quite wearied out with fighting, Introd. to Helgakviða (Sæm.) all-víss, adj. very wise, sure, Sks. 520, Lex. Poët.: neut. to a dead certainty, Lex. Poët. all-vænliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very promising, handsome, Glúm. 349, Fms. v. 260, Fbr. 114. all-vænn, adj. id., Clem. 24, Bs. i. 340: neut., þykja a. um, to be in high spirits, Ísl. ii. 361; make much of, Fms. ii. 76; as adv. favourably, Fms. iv. 192. all-vörpuligr, adj. of a very stout, stately frame, Hkr. ii. 254. all-vöxtuligr, adj. very tall, of large growth, Fas. iii. 627. all-þakkligr, adj. very pretty, = þekkiligr, Lex. Poët. all-þakksamliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very thankfully, Fms. i. 120, Ld. 298. all-þarfliga, adv. very thriftily, very pressingly; biðja a., to beg very hard, Edda 45. all-þarfr, adj. very thrifty, Lex. Poët. all-þéttr, adj. very crowded, cp. Lex. Poët. all-þrekligr, adj. of a very robust frame, Hkr. ii. 2. all-þröngr, adj. as neut. in a very great crowd, Edda 24. all-þungliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very hard, unwilling, reluctant, Sturl. ii. 120; taka a. á e-m, to be very hard upon, Mag. 1. all-þungr, adj. very unfavourable, Hkr. ii. 358; hostile, badly disposed towards, Eb. 108, Eg. 332; þykja a., to dislike, Fms. viii. 441; a. orð, to blame, Sturl. ii. 62. all-þykkr, adj. very thick, Fas. i. 339: n. sing. as adv. thickly, Fms. vii. 70 (of great numbers slain on the battle-field). all-æfr, adj. very furious, wrath, Ísl. ii. 258, Lv. 60, Fas. i. 404. all-ægiligr, adj. very terrible, Dropl. 18. all-æstr, adj. very incited, vehement, Nj. 231. all-örorðr, adj. very quick-tongued, frank, outspoken, Eg. 340. all-öruggliga, adv. very steadfastly, very firmly, Grett. 153 A. all-öruggr, adj. very unflinching, Bs. i. 624.

alla-jafna, adv. = alltént, (mod.)

all-föðr, m. father of all, Edda 2, 6, 13 (a name of Odin), v. alföðr.

al-ljóss, adj. quite light; dagr a., broad daylight, Eg. 219; n. sing., vera alljóst, in broad daylight, Grett. 95 A, 112 A, Fms. ix. 35, Sturl. ii. 108; metaph. quite clear, Sks. 490.

al-loðinn, adj. very hairy, shaggy all over, Fms. iii. 125.

al-lokit, n. part., a. allri ván, when all hope is gone, Bs. i. 198.

ALLR, öll, allt, and alt, adj. [Ulf. alls = πας, άπας, όλος; A. S. eall; Engl. and Germ. all].

A. In sing. as adj. or substantively, cunctus, totus, omnis: I. all, entire, the whole; hón á allan arf eptir mik, she has all my heritage after me, Nj. 3; um alla þingsafglöpun, every kind of þ., 150; gaf hann þat allt, all, 101; at öllum hluta, in totum, Grág. i. 245; allr heilagr dómr, the whole body of Christians, ii. 165; á öllu því máli, Fms. vii. 311; allu fólki, thewhole people, x. 273; hvitr allr, white all over, 655 xxxii. 21; bú allt, thewhole estate, Grág. i. 244; fyrir allt dagsljós, before any dawn of light, Hom. 41: with the addition of saman = άπας—Icel. now in fem. sing. and n. pl. say öll sömun, and even n. sing. allt samant; in old writers saman is indecl.,—the whole, Germ. sänmtlich, zusammen; allt saman féit, thewhole amount, entire, Grág. ii. 148; þenna hernað allan saman, all together, Fms. i. 144; fyrir allan saman ójafnað þann, Sd. 157. Metaph. in the phrase, at vera ekki allr þar sem hann er sénn (séðr), of persons of deep, shrewd characters, not to be seen through, but also with a feeling of something ‘uncanny’ about them, Fms. xi. 157 (a familiar phrase); ekki er oil nótt úti enn, sagði draugrinn, the night is not all over yet, said the ghost, ‘the Ides are not past’ (a proverb), v. Ísl. þjóðs. 2. all, entire, full; allan hálfan mánuð, for the entire fortnight, Nj. 7; þar til er Kjartani þykir allt mál upp, until Kjartan thought it was high time, of one nearly (or) well-nigh drowned, Hkr. i. 286. II. metaph. past, gone, dead, extinct; perh. ellipt., vera allr í brottu, quite gone, Eb. 112 new Ed.; var Hrappr þá allr í brottu, Nj. 132; then by an ellipsis of ‘brottu,’ or the like, allr simply = past, gone: α. past, of time; seg þú svá fremi frá því er þessi dagr er allr, when this day is past, Nj. 96, Fms. ii. 38, 301; var þá öll þeirra vinátta, their friendship was all gone, Fms. ix. 428; allt er mi mitt megin, my strength is gone, exhausted, Str. β. dead; þá er Geirmundr var allr, gone, dead, Landn. (Hb.) 124; síz Gunnarr at Hlíðarenda var allr, since G. of Lithend was dead and gone (v. l. to lézt), Nj. 142; sem faðir þeirra væri allr, after his death, Stj. 127; þá er Nói var allr, 66; en sem hann var allr, 100; eptir þat er Sara var öll, after all Sara’s days were over, 139, 140, 405; á vegum allr hygg ek at at ek verða munu, that I shall perish on the way, Gg. verse 5; með því at þú ert gamlaðr mjök, þá munu þeir eigi út koma fyr en þú ert allr, Háv. 57; still freq. in Swed., e. g. blifwa all af bekumring, be worn out with sorrow; vinet blev alt, fell short; tiden er all, past. III. used almost adverbially, when it may be translated by all, quite, just, entirely; klofnaði hann allr í sundr, was all cloven asunder, Nj. 205; er sá nú allr einn í þínu liði er nú hefir eigi höfuðs, ok hinn, er þá eggiaði hins versta verks er eigi var fram komit, where it seems, however, rather to mean one and the same … or the very same …, thus, and he is now one and the same man in thy band, who has now lost his head, and he who then egged thee on to the worst work when it was still undone, or the very same, … who, Nj. 213; vil ek at sú görð häldist öll, in all its parts, 256; kváðu Örn allan villast, that he was all bewildered, Ld. 74. IV. neut. sing. used as a subst. in the sense of all, everything, in every respect; ok for svá með öllu, sem …, acted in everything as…, Nj. 14, Ld. 54; ok lát sem þú þykist þar allt eiga, that you depend upon him in all, Fms. xi. 113; eigi er enn þeirra allt, they have not yet altogether won the game, Nj. 235: í alls vesöld, in all misery, Ver. 4; alls mest, most of all, especially, Fms. ii. 137 C, Fs. 89 (in a verse); in mod. usage, allra mest, cp. below. The neut. with a gen.; allt missera, all the year round, Hom. 73; allt annars, all the rest, Grág. ii. 141; at öllu annars, in all other respects, K. Þ. K. 98; þá var allt (all, everybody) við þá hrætt, Fas. i. 338. In the phrases, at öllu, in all respects, Fms. i. 21, Grág. i. 431; ef hann á eigi at öllu framfærsluna, if he be not the sole supporter, 275: úreyndr at öllu, untried in every way, Nj. 90; cp. Engl. not at all, prop. not in every respect, analogous to never, prop. not always: fyrir alls sakir, in every respect, Grág. ii. 47, Fas. i. 252: í öllu, in everything, Nj. 90, 228: með öllu, wholly, quite, dauðr með öllu, quite dead, 153; neita með öllu, to refuse outright, Fms. i. 35, 232, Boll. 342: um allt, in respect of everything, Nj. 89; hence comes the adverb ávalt, ever = of allt = um allt, prop. in every respect, v. ávalt. V. the neut. sing. allt is used as an adv., right up to, as far as, all the way; Brynjólfr gengr allt at honum, close to him, Nj. 58; kómu allt at bænum, 79; allt at búðardyrunum, right up to the very door of the booth, 247; allt norðr urn Stað, all along north, round Cape Stad, Fms. vii. 7; suðr allt í Englands haf, iv. 329; verit allt út í Miklagarð, as far out as Constantinople, ii. 7, iv. 250, 25; allt á klofa, Bárð. 171. 2. everywhere, in all places; at riki Eireks konungs mundi allt yfir standa í Eyjunum, might stretch over the whole of the Islands, Eg. 405; Sigröðr var konungr allt um Þrændalög, over all Drontheim, Fms. i. 19; bjoggu þar allt fyrir þingmenn Runólfs goða, the liegemen of R. the priest were in every house, ii. 234 ( = í hverju húsi, Bs. i. 20); allt norðr um Rogaland, all the way north over the whole of R., Fms. iv. 251; vóru svirar allt gulli búnir, all overlaid with gold, vi. 308; hafið svá allt kesjurnar fyrir, at ekki megi á ganga, hold your spears everywhere (all along the line) straight before you, that they (the enemy) may not come up to you, 413; allt imdir innviðuna ok stafnana, vii. 82. 3. nearly = Lat. jam, soon, already; vóru allt komin fyrir hann bréf, warrants of arrest were already in his way, Fms. vii. 207; var allt skipat liðinu til fylkingar, the troops were at once drawn up in array, 295; en allt hugðum vér (still we thought) at fara með spekt um þessi héruð, Boll. 346. 4. temp. all through, until; allt til Júnsvöku, Ann. 1295; allt um daga Hákonar konungs, all through the reign of king Hacon, Bs. i. 731. 5. in phrases such as, allt at einu, all one, all in the same way, Fms. i. 113. In Icel. at present allt að einu means all the same: allt eins, nevertheless; ek ætla þó utan a. eins, Ísl. ii. 216; hann neitaði allt eins at…, refused all the same, Dipl. iii. 13; allt eins hraustliga, not the less manly, Fms. xi. 443. The mod. Icel. use is a little different, namely = as, in similes = just as; allt eins og blómstrið eina (a simile), just as the flower, the initial words of the famous hymn by Hallgrim. 6. by adding ‘of’ = far too …, much too …, Karl. 301 (now freq.) 7. with a comparative, much, far, Fms. vi. 45 (freq.) VI. neut. gen. alls [cp. Ulf. allis = όλως; A. S. ealles], used as an adv., esp. before a negative (ekki, hvergi), not a bit, not at all, no how, by no means; þeir ugðu alls ekki at sér, they were not a bit afraid, Nj. 252; hræðumst vér hann nú alls ekki, we do not care a bit for him, 260; á hólmgöngu er vandi en alls ekki (none at all) á einvigi, Korm. 84; en junkherra Eiríkr þóttist ekki hafa, ok kallaði sik Eirík alls ekki (cp. Engl. lackland), Fms. x. 160; alls hvergi skal sök koma undir enn þriðja mann, no how, in no case, by no means, Grág. i. 144: sometimes without a negative following it; ær alls geldar, ewes quite barren, Grág. i. 502; hafrar alls geldir, id.; alls vesall, altogether wretched, Nj. 124; alls mjök stærist hann nú, very much, Stj.; a. mest, especially, Fs. 89, Fms. ii. 137. In connection with numbers, in all, in the whole; tólf vóru þau alls á skipi, twelve were they all told in the ship, Ld. 142; tíu Íslenzkir menn alls, 164; alls fórust níu menn, the slain were nine in all, Ísl. ii. 385; verða alls sárir þrír eða fleiri, Grág. ii. 10; alls mánuð, a full month, i. 163; þeir ala eitt barn alls á aefi sinni, Rb. 346. β. with addition of ‘til’ or ‘of’ = far too much; alls of lengi, far too long a time, Fms. i. 140; hefnd alls til lítil, much too little, vi. 35.

B. In pl. allir, allar, öll, as adj. or substantively: 1. used absol. all; þeir gengu út allir, all men, altogether, Nj. 80; Síðan bjoggust þeir heiman allir, 212; Gunnarr reið ok beir allir, 48; hvikit þér allir, 78, etc. 2. as adj., alla höfðingja, all the chiefs, Nj. 213; ór öllum fjórðungum á landinu, all the quarters of the land, 222; at vitni guðs ok allra heilagra manna, all the saints, Grág. ii. 22; í allum orrostum, in all the battles, Fms. x. 273; Josep ok allir hans ellifu bræðr, Stj., etc. 3. by adding aðrir, flestir, etc.; allir aðrir, all other, everyone else, Nj. 89, Fms. xi. 135: flestir allir, nearly all, the greatest part of, v. flestr; in mod. use flestallir, flest being indecl.: allir saman, altogether, Nj. 80. 4. adverb., Gregorius hafði eigi öll fjögr hundruð, not all, not quite, four hundred, Fms. vii. 255. 5. used ellipt., allir (everybody) vildu leita þér vegs, Nj. 78. 6. gen. pl. allra, when followed by superl. neut. adj. or adv., of all things, all the more; en nú þyki mér þat allra sýnst er …, all the more likely, as …, Ld. 34; allra helzt er þeir heyra, particularly now when they hear, Fms. ix. 330; allra helzt ef hann fellr meir, all the rather, if …, Grág. ii. 8; allra sízt, least of all, 686 B. 2; bæn sú kemr til þess allra mest, especially, Hom. 149: very freq. at present in Icel., and used nearly as Engl. very, e. g. allra bezt, the very best; a. hæst, neðst, fyrst, the very highest, lowest, foremost, etc.

C. alls is used as a prefix to several nouns in the gen., in order to express something common, general, universal. COMPDS: alls-endis or alls-hendis, adv.—scarcely to be derived from ‘hönd’—in every respect, quite, thoroughly, used almost exclusively in connection with a preceding negative, eigi, eingi, or the like, and giving additional force to the negation; er þat hugboð mitt, at vér berim eigi agæfu til um vár skipti, it is my foreboding, that we shall not carry luck with us to the very end of our dealings, Ld. 160; eigi til allsendis, id., Eg. 75; þat er reynt at eingi maðr heldr sínum þrifnaði til allsendis, it is proved that no man holds his thriving thoroughly, Fms. i. 295. alls-háttar, adv. [háttr], of every sort, kind; a. kurteysi, thoroughly good manners, Fms. i. 17 (freq.) alls-herjar, an old, obsolete gen. from herr; Drottinn Sabaoth is in the Icel. transl. of the Bible rendered by Drottinn Allsherjar, the Lord of Hosts. It is esp. used as an adv. in some political and legal terms, denoting something general, public, common. allsherjar-búð, f. the booth in the parliament (alþingi) belonging to the allsherjargoði. Its site is fixed, Sturl. ii. 44, 126 (referring to events in the year 1215). allsherjar-dómr, m. a doom of the supreme court, a lawful public sentence, judgment of the full court; þér rufuð allsherjardóm, violated lawful judgment, the law of the land, Fms. iv. 205. allsherjar-fé, n. public property, a domain, Íb. ch. 3, viz. the ground of the Icel. alþingi. allsherjar-goði, a, m. (v. goði), the supreme priest, pontifex maximus. As the alþingi (q. v.) was within the jurisdiction of the great temple (hof) in Kjalarnes, the keeper or priest of that temple—the descendant of its founder Thorstein Ingolfsson—had the title of supreme priest, and opened the alþingi during the heathen age. At the introduction of Christianity this office remained with the supreme priest, who retained his name; and he, and not the bishop of Skalholt, opened the alþing every year; Þorsteinn Ingólfsson lét setja fyrstr manna þing á Kjalarnesi áðr alþingi var sett, ok fylgir þar enn (still, viz. in the 13th century) sökum þess því goðorði (viz. the priesthood of Kjalarnes, aliter allsherjar goðorð) alþingis helgun, Landn. 336 (the text as found in the Melabók), Landn. 39, Þórð. 94 (Ed. 1860), and Landn. Mantissa. allsherjar-lið, n. public troops, army (Norse), Fms. x. 411. allsherjar-lýðr, pl. ir, m. the people, commonalty, Hkr. iii. 194. allsherjar-lög, n. pl. public law, statute law of the land, in the phrase, at alþingis máli ok allsherjar lögum, Nj. 14, 87. allsherjar-þing, n. general assembly, Fms. i. 224. In Icel. at present allsherjar- is prefixed to a great many other words in order to express what is public, general, universal. alls-konar [Old Engl. alkyn], prop. an obsolete gen. from a masc. konr: α. as adj. ind. of every kind; a. fanga, Eg. 65; a. ár, good season in all respects, Hkr. 1. 15: β. used simply as adv.; hinn ágætasti a., in every respect, Fms. xi. 157 (rare). alls-kostar, adv. [kostr], in all respects, quite, altogether; a. illa, bad altogether, Ld. 232; þykjast nú a. hafa unninn mikinn sigr (a full victory), Fms. xi. 147; frjáls ok a. geymandi, to be observed in every respect, K. Á. 50; hann lofaði a., made a full allowance, Bs. i. alls-kyns, adv. [kyn] = allskonar, Fms. x. 380. II. 2, 25, where it is spelt allskuns. alls-staðar, adv. [staðr], freq. alstaðar or allstaðar in a single word, everywhere, ubique; cp. margstaðar, in many places; sumstaðar, in so me places; einhversstaðar, somewhere; nokkursstaðar, anywhere; allstaðar þar sem, Fms. ii. 81, x. 182. Metaph. in every way (rare); a. mun ek gera at þínu skapi, nema þar, in everything, except that…, Nj. 17. alls-valdandi, part. [A. S. ealwalda], ‘all-wielding,’ of God, Almighty, Dipl. iv. 8, Fms. i. 121, Bs. several times. allra-handa = allskonar, a mod. word. allra-heilagra in compds, a. messa, -dagr, -kirkja, All-Saints’-day, -church, Bs., K. Á., Fms., etc.

ALLS and als, conj. [Ulf. allis = γάρ; Engl. as, contr. = als; cp. the consecutive als in Grimm D. W. sub voce, col. 257 sqq.], as, while, since; freq. in Lex. Poët. in old poets, less freq. in old prose writers, rare in the classics of the 13th century: used four times in the treatise of Thorodd,—alls hann sjálfr er hebreskr stafr, Skálda 167; alls vér erum einnar tungu, 161; alls engi grein er enn á gör, 162; alls þeir höfðu áðr allir eitt hljóð, 166,—and as often in the old Heiðarv. S.—alls þú ert góðr drengr kallaðr, Ísl. ii. 366; alls Barði var eigi bítr á fébætr, 386; alls þú rekr þitt erendi, 483; alls þú hefir þó hér til nokkorar ásjá ætlað, Ld. 42; alls þeir máttu ekki sínum vilja fram koma, Boll. 348; alls hann trúir mér til, Fs. (Hallfr. S.) 90: alls þú hefir þó áðr giptu til mín sótt, Fms. v. 254; alls þeir höfðu frítt lið, viii. 362 . With the addition of ‘er’ (at); en þó, alls er þú ert svá þráhaldr á þínu máli, Fms. i. 305; alls er ek reyni, at…, as I …, ii. 262, (Grág. i. 142 is a false reading = allt), Fas. ii. 283: with addition of ‘þó,’ alls þó hefir þetta með meirum fádæmum gengið, heldr en hvert annara, þá vil ek …, but considering that…, Band. 32 new Ed.; cp. Lex. Poët.

all-tént, adv. always, a corruption of alltjamt = alltjafnt, all-even, quite even, mt also being changed into nt, as in kondu for komdu, or kunda from koma, (mod.)

all-tíð, adv. at all times, Fas. i. 505 (paper MS.), freq. in mod. use.

al-lúsigr, adj. all-lousy, Fbr. 156.

all-vald, n. absolute power. allvalds-konungr, m. sovereign, Fms. x. 378.

all-valdr, pl. ar, m. = alvaldr (poët. word), sovereign king, Lex. Poët., Hkr. i. 432; heilir allvaldar báðir, a poetical salute, Fms. vi. 195; mikil er allvalds raun (a proverb), ‘tis hard to strive against the powerful, Lv. 111.

allyngis, quite, altogether, v. öllungis.

al-manna-, gen. pl. from an obsolete almenn [cp. Alemanni], a prefix to some nouns, denoting general, common, universal, Ad. 21. Freq. now in Icel., e. g. almanna-rómr, m. public opinion, in the proverb, sjaldan lýgr a., vox populi vox Dei. COMPDS: almanna-bygð, f. an inhabited country, Fas. iii. 3. almanna-gjá, f. local name of the great lava rift close to the alþing, where all the people met; vide Nj. 244, Sturl. i. 206, etc. almanna-leið, f. a public road, Lv. 29. almanna-lof, n. praise of all, Nj. 251. almanna-skript, f. general confession, Hom. 74. almanna-stofa, u, f. the common hall, a large room in the Icel. dwellings of the 12th and 13th centuries; opp. to litla stofa, Sturl. ii. 153, iii. 194, 198; it seems to be identical with skáli. almanna-tal, n. common reckoning, Íb. 18: β. (Norse), general census, with a view to making a levy, N. G. L. i. 98; Fr. = almannaþing. almanna-vegr, m. a high road, Nj. 261, Fms. ii. 99, = þjóðvegr, þjóðleið. almanna-þing, n. (Norse), a public meeting, = alþing, Fr.

al-máttigr, adj. [A. S. ealmeathig; Hel. ala-; Germ. allmächtig], almighty, seems to be a Christian (eccl.) word, translated from the Latin omnipotens; but the phrase ‘hinn almáttki áss’ in the heathen oath (used of Thor) implies its use in very early times. The old form is contracted before -ir, -ar, -an, -um, etc., and changes g into k; almáttkan, -kir, -kum (now almáttugan, -ugir, -ugum, through all cases), v. máttigr: used of God, Fms. i. 231, Eluc. 10, Sks. 305, etc.: heathen use, Landn. 258, cp. p. 335.

al-máttr, ar, m., dat. -mætti, almightiness, omnipotence (eccl.), of God, 671. 3; sinn alm́tt (acc.), Ísl. i. (Hom.) 386, Fms. i. 226, 655 vi. 2; vide almætti, n.

al-menni, n. the people, public, Fr. (Norse).

al-menniliga, adv. generally, H. E. i. 465, K. Á. 80.

al-menniligr, adj. [Germ. allgemein], general, common, rare in old writers, Stj.; a. (catholic) trú, Mar. 656 B. 8, 623. 18; a. þing, concilium oecumenicum, Rb. 338; a. Kristni, 390, 208, Gþl., etc. Freq. in mod. Icel., = common, good, real.

al-menning, f. and almenningr, m. I. in Icel. almost always fem. in the sense of fundus communis, ager compascuus, common land, belonging to a whole ‘fjórðungr’ (quarter) of the country, and thus wider than the mod. ‘afrétt.’ It still remains in the local name of the deserts round Cape Horn at the north-west point of Icel., cp. Fbr. and Landn. 124; cp. also the passage in Íb. ch. 3. The word is now seldom used except of wastes belonging to nobody: þat er almenning er fjórðungs menn eigu allir saman, Grág. ii. 392–394, Js. 107, Íb. ch. 3, Grág. ii. 345, 352, 359, 385, K. Þ. K. 26, Fbr. 41, Landn. 124, in all those cases fem. II. masc. (Norse), [cp. Swed. almänning, pascuum, and Germ. almeinde, via publica or ager compascuus, Grimm R. A. p. 498], common or public pasture (answering nearly to the Icel. afrétt), where cattle are grazed during the summer months, cp. the Norse setr, Icel. sel: rarely used in Icel. writers. In Ó. H., ch. 114, used of Grímsey, an island off the north coast of Iceland, Gþl. 450, Jb. 299, 311. 2. the high-street, in a Norse town, N. G. L. ii. 241. 3. the people, the public in general, common now in Icel. in this sense, Stj. 292, 493, Fbr. 194; almennings matr, common food, Bs. ii. 5, 179. 4. a levy, conscription; fullr, allr, hálfr a., a full, half levy of men and ships; fullr a. in Norway meant a levy of one in every seven male adults, N. G. L. ii. 199, Fms. iv. 142, i. 165, D. I. i. 66 (of the milit. duties of Icelanders when residing in Norway). Metaph. (as a phrase) in Nj. 207, of raising the country, the institution being unknown in the Icel. Commonwealth. COMPDS: almennings-bréf, n. a proclamation, Sturl. iii. 29. almennings-drykkja, u, f. a public banquet, Bs. i. 108. almennings-far, n. a public ferry, Gþl. 415. almennings-mörk, f. a public forest, Gþl. 454. almennings-stræti, n. a public street, Grett. 158 A. almennings-tollr, m. a public toll, tax, 126 C. 173 (?). almennings-vegr, m. a public way.

al-mennr, adj. common, public, Grett. 115, where MSS. A and B have almælt. Now freq.

ALMR, elm-tree, v. álmr.

almusa, u, f. = ölmusa, alms, [Scot. almous, Germ. almosen, (έλεημοςύνη.)]

al-múgi, a, and almúgr, s, m., at present the first form is always used [cp. múgi and múgr, Dan. almue, plebs], prop. the commons, people; konungrinn ok almúginn, king and commons, Stj.; eigi vissi almúginn (people in general) hvat fram fór í sóttinni, Bs. i. 74; almúgrinn (the people) geystist, Bret. 37, 94; allvinsælir við almúgann, having very many friends among the commonalty, Fms. i. 184. β. now in Icel. = plebs, the masses, opp. to the higher classes; so in many compds, e. g. almúga-maðr, m., almúga-legr, adj., etc.

al-mæli, n. what all people say, a common saying, general report; þat er a. at…, all people say, agree that…, Fms. xi. 326, Hkr. iii. 398; þat vóru almæli um dalinn, at …, Sd. 155, Ld. 332. β. a saying, proverb; þat er a. (common saying) at menn sjóði þau ráð, er þeir hafa lengi í hug sér, Hom. 83; þótt almælit sannaðist, at móðurbræðrum verði menn líkastir, though the saying proved sooth, that men are likest to their uncles by the mother’s side, Ísl. ii. 29.

al-mæltr, adj. part. spoken by all, what all say; esp. in the phrase, almælt tíðindi, news; spyrjast almæltra tíðinda, what news? Nj. 227, Ld. 80, Fms. xi. 118 (a standing phrase). β. of a child that has learnt to talk; en þá er sveinninn var tvævetr, þá rann hann einn saman ok var a. sem fjögra vetra gömul börn, but when the boy was two years old, then he ran alone and could say everything as well as bairns of four years, Ld. 34, (altalandi is the word now used.)

al-mætti, n. omnipotence, Skálda 161; esp. theol., now more freq. than the masc. almáttr.

al-naktr, adj. part. quite naked, Rd. 295; now alnakinn.

aln-bogi, a, m. = ölbogi, elbow, Edda 110.

al-nýr, adj. quite new, Fms. viii. 61, Grág. i. 491.

al-ogaðr, adj. quite in earnest, = alhugaðr.

ALPT, swan, v. álpt.

ALR, s, m. pl. ir, awl, Edda 71. β. in the phrase, ‘leika á als oddi,’ skjálfa þótti húsit, sem á als oddi léki (MS. allsolla), the house quivered, as if it were balanced on the point of an awl, Fas. i. 89; the Icel. now use the phrase, að leika á als oddi, of the excitement produced by joy, to be merry, in high spirits, full of life and vigour, (cp. the Engl. to be on pins and needles.)

al-rauðr, adj. quite red, Rd. 298.

al-ráðinn, adj. part. quite determined, Fms. viii. 145.

al-ránn, adj. utterly plundered; þeir munu görvir fyrst alránir er næstir eru, Ísl. ii. 93 (dub.)

al-reyndr, part. fully proved, Fms. xi. 441, Mirm. 74.

alri, elder-tree, v. elri.

al-roskinn, adj. quite grown up, Fms. i. 5, Ld. 256.

al-rotinn, adj. all rotten, Stj. Exod. xvi. 20.

al-ræmdr, adj. part. α. neut. rumoured of all, of bad news; a. er, all people say, Nj. 76, Fms. vii. 113, Stj. β. in mod. Icel. both masc. and fem. in a bad sense, e. g. a. þjófr, a noted thief.

al-sagðr, adj. part. spoken of by all, Fms. ii. 50.

al-satt, f. in the phrases, sáttr alsáttum, completely reconciled, atoned with a full atonement, Dipl. ii. II; sættast alsáttum, Grág. ii. 141.

al-sáttr, adj. fully reconciled, Nj. 120, Boll. 362.

al-sekr, adj. a law term, an utter felon, an outlaw of the greater degree, = -skógarmaðr, opp. to fjörbaugsmaðr, Nj. 240, Hrafn. 18, Grág. i. 463.

al-siða, adj. ind. [siðr, faith], en er Kristni var a., but when the Christian faith was universally accepted, Hkr. ii. 97; en þó Kristnin vaeri nú a. þá …, Grett. 150 (the old Ed. wrongly á landi).

al-skipaðr, adj. part. fully manned: α. of a ship; skúta, tvítugsessa, langskip a., Nj. 280, Eg. 13, Fms. iv. 70, Hkr. i. 176. β. a law term, bekkr, pallr a., full court, Grág. i. 7. γ. of a bench in a banquet-hall, quite full, Eg. 43.

al-skjaldaðr, adj. part. lined, covered with shields: α. of ships lined with shields along the bulwarks from stem to stern, as a ship of war, Landn. 156, Sturl. iii. 61. β. of troops in full armour, Sturl. ii. 47.

al-skrifaðr, adj. part. written all over, of vellum, Th. 76.

al-skyldr, adj. quite binding, Sks. 636.

al-slitinn, adj. part. quite ragged, worn out, Vm. 161.

al-slíkr, adj. quite the same, Fms. iv. 157.

al-smíðaðr, part. completely built, Fms. xi. 436.

al-snjóa, adj. all covered with snow, all-snowy.

al-snotr, adj. all-wise, Hin. 54: very clever, Þkv. 26, 28.

al-spakr, adj. all-wise, cognom., Eg. 466.

al-staðar, everywhere, v. alls-staðar, sub allr.

al-stirndr, adj. star-bright, without a speck of cloud; a. himinn.

al-stýfðr, part. a metre in masculine rhymes (stýfa), Edda (Ht.) 134. Masculine final rhymes are called stýft.

al-stýfingr, m. an animal with close-cropped ears; he who marked sheep in this way was liable to the lesser outlawry, unless it were publicly announced in the lögrétta, Grág. i. 426.

al-svartr, adj. quite black, Nj. 80.

al-sveittr, adj. all-sweaty, Al. 22.

al-sveitugr, adj. reeking with sweat, now kófsveittr, Gísl. 137.

Al-sviðr, m. the all-swift, name of the sun-horse, Gm.: of a constellation, Sdm.

al-sýkn, adj. a law term, altogether free, released from all punishment, Grág.;. ii. 160.

al-sýkna, u, f. complete immunity from punishment, pardon, Grág. i. 359.

al-sætt, f. complete reconciliation, Nj. 101, Js. 40, B. K. 126.

ALTARI, n. and rarely altara, n. or altari, a, m.; mod. heteroclite altari, n. pl. öturu; the forms -eri, -era [altare] also appear:—an altar, a Christian word, the altar in heathen temples being called ‘stallr,’ Nj. 279, K. Á. 28, 208, Stj. freq.; altaris, 625. 84; altari þín, 655 xxiii. 2; altari (nom. pl.), xiv B. 2, Pm. 47: masc., altara (acc.) fim alna langan …, but þat (neut.) skal með eiri búa, a little below, altarans (gen.), altarann (nom. sing.), altaris (gen. neut.), altarit (neut. nom.), Stj. 307, 308, indifferently neut. or masc., Symb. 24; alteri, 1812. 17; altera (dat. neut.), 655 iii. 2, 623. 54. COMPDS: altaris-blæja, u, f. an altar-cloth, Am. 33, Vm. 37, 15. K. 83; altara-blæja, D. I. i. 404. altaris-bók, f. an altar-book, Vm. 6, Dipl. v. 18. altaris-brík, f. an altar-piece, Vin. 12. altaris-búnaðr, m. altar-furniture, H. E. i. 489. altaris-dagr, m. anniversary of the foundation of an altar, H. E. i. 310. altaris-dúkr, m. an altar-cloth, Vm. i, D. I. i. 244. altaris-fórn, f. a victim offered on an altar, Mart. 122. altaris-gólf, n. the floor round an altar, N. G. L. i. 160. altaris-horn, n. the horn of an altar, Fms. xi. 444. altaris-hús, n. a chapel, Bs. ii. 80. altaris-klæði, n. an altar-cloth, Hkr. iii. 81, D. I. i. 266; altara-, Fms. iii. 28, Vm. 1. altaris-líkneski, n. an image placed on an altar, Pm. 61. altaris-messa, u, f. mass at an altar, Bs. ii. 81. altaris-plata, u, f. a candlestick, Pm. 93. altaris-skrá, f. an altar-book, Pm. 109. altaris-staðr, m. the place where an altar stands, Eg. 768. altaris-steinn, m. an altar-slab, D. I. i. 266, 443, K. Á. 28. Vm. 31, Am. 55, Pm. 106. altaris-stika, u, f. a candlestick for an altar, Vm. 3. altaris-þjónusta, u, f. altar-service, 655 xxxii. I.

al-téligr, adj. very friendly, very civil, (mod.)

al-tiliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. civilly, Bs. i. 812.

altingis = alþingis, adv. [þing, res], quite, altogether, Pm. 24.

al-tjaldaðr, adj. part. hung with tapestry all round, Fms. xi. 17, Sturl. iii. 193, Háv. 52.

al-ugaðr, sincere, v. alhugaðr.

al-úð, f. and in old writers almost constantly ölúð (with changed vowel), alyð, Clem. 43, [a contracted form from al-hugð, -hugr], affection, sincerity, freq. in mod. Icel. in this sense. But in old writers prop. used of hospitality, in such phrases as, taka við e-m með ö., to give a hearty reception to, Ld. 196, Fær. 156, Fs. 15; veita með ö., to give hospitable treatment, Fms. vi. 120. β. affection; hann gaf mér hringinn með mikilli ö., Fms. ii. 171; sakir gæzku þeirrar ok alúðar (affection) er Guð hafði við Abraham, for the sake of that kindness and love which God had toward Abraham, Ver. 78; Björn spyr tíðinda heldr tómliga af engri a., coolly, Bjarn. 53. Mod. also alúðliga, adv. heartily; alúðligr, adj. kind, hearty. COMPDS: alúðar-maðr, m. devoted friend, Fms. vi. 34. alúðar-vinr, m. sincere friend, Hkr. ii. 210, Ver. 15; ölúðarvinr, Fms. iv. 287.

al-valdr, almighty; alvald, omnipotence; v. allv-.

al-vangr, m. a public field, Ísl. ii. (in a verse).

al-vara, u, f. [appears neither in Engl. nor Germ.; Dan. alvor]. 1. seriousness, earnestness; Gunnarr segir sér þat alvöru, Nj. 49, þorst. Stang. 50; áhyggjusamliga ok með mikilli a., with much earnestness, Fms. i. 141; taka e-t fyrir a., to take it in earnest, x. 77; vissa ek eigi at þér var a. við at taka, that you were in earnest, Band. 3. 2. affection = alúð (not used at present in that sense); hverigir lögðu fulla alvöru til annarra, Bs. i. 288; elskulig a. til e-s, hearty love, Fms. iii. 63; með alvöru ok blíðu, 144; er öll hans a. (inclination) til Ólafs konungs, vi. 32. COMPDS: alvöru-liga, adv. earnestly, Fms. ii. 211. alvöru-ligr, adj. earnest, devoted; a. vinátta, Fms. ii. 144. alvöru-samligr, adj. earnest looking, devoted; a. þjónosta, Fms. i. 261.

al-varliga, adv. (-ligr, adj.), seriously, earnestly, 655 xxxii. 21. β. intimately, devotedly; fagna e-m a., to receive heartily, Grett. 98 A.

al-vaskligr, m. brisk, martial, Ld. 196, (Ed. allvaskligr.)

al-vaxinn, adj. part. quite grown up, Ld. 132.

al-vápnaðr, adj. part. in full armour, Eg. 422, 460, Fms. i. 81.

al-vatr, adj. thoroughly wet, Fær. 184, Fbr. 23, K. Þ. K. 10.

al-vel = allvell, adv. very well; albetr at sér, of much better appearance, Ld. 332, Glúm. 353: so the vellum MS. A. M. 132 in both these passages.

al-vepni = alvæpni, full armour.

al-verki and alverkja, adj. ind. aching, feeling pains all over the body [cp. the Scot. wark and werk and the provincial Engl. wark in the sense of ache, racking pain], Fms. v. 223, Bs. i. 615.

al-virkr and alyrkr, adj. [verk], a. dagr, a working day, opp. to a holy day, N. G. L. i. 429, 153; cp. virkr.

al-vista, adj. ind. paralysed, Fél. I. ix. 186.

al-vitr, adj. all-wise, now partic. used of God, Clem. 33; superl. alvitrastr, of greatest wisdom, used of a man of science, Sturl. i. 167. MS. Brit. Mus. 1127.

al-vizka, u, f. all-wisdom.

al-víss, adj. all-wise: the name of a dwarf, hence the name of a lay.

al-vænn, adj. fair.

al-væpni, n. [vápn], complete arms; hafa a., to be in full armour, fully armed, Nj. 93, 107, Eg. 46, 74, 88; með a., fully armed, Íb. ch. 7.

al-værð, f., almost constantly ölværð (the change of vowel being caused by the following v), Bs. i. 593. l. 19, even spelt ölbærð, probably akin with alvara; hospitality, hearty reception, good treatment; taka við e-m með ö., Fms. xi. 52, 27, Fas. iii. 79; var þar uppi öll ö. af Gríms hendi, i. 172; bjóða honum með allri ö., kindness, hospitality, ii. 510; cp. also Bs. i. l. c., where full er ölbærð öllum means there is open house; the word is now obsolete.

al-værliga and ölværliga, adv. hospitably, Ísl. ii. 348.

al-yrkr, adj., a. dagr, a working day, v. alvirkr.

al-þakinn, adj. part. thatched all over, Fms. i. 89; older form -iðr.

al-þiljaðr, adj. part., old form -þilðr, completely wainscotted, Sturl. iii. 193: the vellum MS. has -þilðir, the Ed. -þiljaðir.

al-þingi, n. [þing], mod. form alþing, by dropping the inflective i; the gen., however, still remains unchanged, alþingis. The parliament or general assembly of the Icel. Commonwealth, invested with the supreme legislative and judicial power, consisting of the legislative lögrétta (q. v.), and the courts, v. dómr, fimtardómr, fjórðungsdómar; v. also goði, goðorð, lügsögumaðr, lögsaga, lögberg, and many other words referring to the constitution and functions of the alþingi. It was founded by Ulfljot about A. D. 930, Ib. ch. 3; and reformed by Thord Gellir A. D. 964, who instituted the courts and carried out the political divisions of Icel. into goðorð, fjórðungar, and þing, ch. 5. In the years 1272 and 1281 the alþing, to some extent, changed its old forms, in order to comply with the new state of things. In the year 1800 it was abolished altogether. A kind of parliament, under the old name alþingi, was again established in the year 1843, and sat at Reykjavík. Before the year 930 a general assembly was held in Kjalarnes, whence it was removed under the name of alþingi to the river Öxará, near to the mountain Ármannsfell. The much-debated passage in Hænsaþ. S. ch. 14—en þingit var þá undir Ármannsfelli—therefore simply means that the events referred to happened after the removal of the Kjalarnesping. The parliament at first met on the Thursday beginning the tenth week of the summer, which fell between the 11th and the 17th of June; by a law of the year 999 its opening was deferred to the next following Thursday, between the 18th and 24th of June, old style; after the union with Norway, or after A. D. 1272 or 1281, the time of meeting was further deferred to June 29. July 2 (Vis. B. V. M.) is hence called Þing-Maríumessa. The parliament lasted for a fortnight; the last day of the session, called vápnatak, because the weapons having been laid aside during the session were again taken (cp. Engl. wapentake), thus fell on the first or second Wednesday in July. As to the rules of the alþingi, vide esp. the first chapter of the Þ. Þ. Grág. (Kb.) i. p. 38 sqq. The most eventful years in the history of the alþingi are, A. D. 930 (foundation), 964 (reform), 1000 (introduction of Christianity), 1004 (institution of the Fifth Court), 1024 (repudiation of the attempt of the king of Norway to annex Iceland), 1096 (introduction of tithes), 1117 (first codification of laws), 1262–1264 (submission to the king of Norway), 1272 and 1281 (new codes introduced). In the year 1338 there was no alþing held because of civil disturbances, eytt alþingi ok þóttu þat údærni, Ann. s. a., Grág. (Þ. Þ.) Íslend. bók, Kristni S., Njála, Sturl., Árna b. S., Ó. H. (1853), ch. 114; of modern writers, vide esp. Maurer, Entsteh. des Ísl. Staates; Dasent, Introd. to Burnt Njal; some of the Introductions by Jón Sigurðsson in D. I., esp. that to the Gamli Sáttmáli of the year 1262. COMPDS: alþingis-dómr, m. the court of justice in the a., Grág. i. 87, 130. alþingis-för, f. a journey to the a., Js. 6. alþingis-helgun, f. hallowing, inauguration of the a., cp. allsherjar goði, Landn. 336. alþingis-lof, n. permission, leave given by parliament; ef… sættist á víg fyrir a. fram, against the rules of the a. = unlawfully, Grág. ii. 173. alþingis-mál, n. parliamentary rules, proceedings of parliament; ef þeir taka eigi af alþingismáli, do not infringe the parliamentary rules, Grág. i. 103: in the legal phrase, at alþingismáli réttu ok allsherjar lögum, where the first rather denotes the form, the last the substance of the law. alþingis-nefna, u, f. nomination to the legislative body and the courts, including dómnefna and lögréttuskipan, Grág. i. 5; cp. Íb. ch. 5. alþingis-reið, f. a journey to the a., Nj. 100, Grág. ii. 78. alþingis-sátt, f. an agreement entered into at the a. alþingissáttar-hald, n. the keeping of sucb an agreement, Grág. i. 217, Sturl. i. 66. alþingis-sekt, f. a conviction in the courts. alþingissektar-hald, n., Sturl. i. 66 (seems to be a false reading); v. the preceding word.

al-þingis, adv. = öllúngis or öldungis, quite, altogether, D. N. (not Icel.); ok var nú eigi a. þausnalaust, Fas. iii. 229.

al-þjóð, f. rare and obsolete = alþýða, the commons, Ad. verse 17, Sonatorr. 9, 15; a. manna, Sturl. iii. 229, 125, Fms. vii. 240.

al-þykkr, adj. quite thick, foggy, Stj. 1 Kings xviii. 45.

al-þýða, u, f. the public, people; svá at a. vissi, Sd. 167; sagði þá allri alþýðu, told all people, Eg. 271. β. people assembled in a body; er þat bænarstaðr minn til allrar alþýðu, all the assembled commons, Nj. 189, Fms. i. 33. γ. í alþýðu lífi, in common life, 655 xxi. 3. With gen., a. manna = öll a., everybody, the overwhelming majority, bulk of people assembled, Eg. 193, where it is used of the household; a. manna var á brott farin, nearly all people had left, 220; a. manna gerðu (pl.) góðan róm at máli hans, the whole meeting cheered his speech, Fms. vii. 242. It is now almost solely used of the common people, allt fólk, bæði ríka menn (wealthy) ok alþýðu, Fms. v. 113; cp. alþýðis-fólk. COMPDS: alþýðu-drykkja, u, f. a common banquet, Sturl. ii. 245. alþýðu-leið, f. a high road, Eg. 579, Bjarn. 49. alþýðu-lof, n. popularity, general praise, Hkr. iii. 31. alþýðu-maðr, m. a working man, Vd. 172 old Ed., wrongly instead of alþýða manna, Fs. 67. alþýðu-mál, n. common, general report, þat er a. at, Hkr. iii. 34. alþýðu-skap, n., in the phrase, vera ekki við a., to be unpopular, úvinsæll ok lítt við a., Fs. 63. alþýðu-tal, n. reckoning, common calculation, Íb. ch. 7, Rb. 18. alþýðu-vápn, n. common weapons, Fas. iii. 620. alþýðu-vegr, m. a public road, Sturl. i. 36, Hkr. iii. 54. alþýðu-virðing, f. public opinion, consensus popularis, Bs. i. 158. alþýðu-vitni, n. universal testimony, Sks. 12. alþýðu-þyss, m. a general tumult, Bs. i. 46, Hom. 46.

al-þýðask, dd, dep. in the phrase, a. til e-s, to incline towards, attach oneself to, Fms. vi. 135.

al-þýði, n. = alþýða, and alþýðis-fólk, id., Bs. i. 805.

al-þýðligr, adj. common, general; a. maðr = menskr maðr, a common man, Fas. ii. 251; í alþýðligri ræðu, common parlance, Skálda 185; hitt væri alþýðlegra (more plain), at segja, 208; a. fyrir sakir siðferðis, of plain manners, Finnb. 298.

al-þægr, adj. [þiggja], quite acceptable, pleasant to, Hom. 75.

al-æstr, adj. part. excited, stirred up, Sks. 230.

AMA, að, to vex, annoy, molest; with dat. of the person, eigi skuluð þér a. Ruth, Stj. 423, Fms. i. 244. β. dep. (more freq.), amast við e-n, to annoy, molest, in order to get rid of one, Landn. 66, Nj. 130, 199, v. l.; ömuðust liðsmenn lítt við hana, Fms. v. 305, vii. 166, Fs. 32; at hann mundi eigi a. við (object to) bygð hans, Sd. 139: absol. to dislike, Nj. 167. ami, a, m. vexation, annoyance, is now used in the phrase, að vera e-m til ama, to become a cause of vexation to: ama-samr, adj. and ama-semi, f. bad humour; cp. also ömurligr, distressing; amatligr, loathsome.

amallera, að, to enamel (Fr. word émailler), Fms. xi. 427, Vm. 152, 165.

amathysti, a, m. amethyst (for. word), Str.

amatligr or ámátligr, adj. loathsome, hideous (freq. at the present day), Hkv. 1. 38.

amban, f., ambana, að, and ambun, ambuna, recompense (Norse); v. ömbun, ömbuna.

AMBÁTT, pl. ir, f. [cp. Ulf. andbahts = διάκονος, ύπηρέτης; A. S. ambight; Hel. ambaht, servitium; O. H. G. ampaht; hence the mod. Germ. amt, Dan. embede, Icel. embætti; the mod. Rom. ambassador, ambassade are of the same stock; Ital. ambasciadore, nuntius; cp. Caes. Bell. Gall. 6. 15—circum se ambactos clientesque habent, v. Diez on this root. The Icel. am- is an assimilated form from and-], a bondwoman, handmaid; þræll eðr a., Grág. ii. 152, 156. (where the older form ambótt), N. G. L. i. 76; konungs a., freq. of a royal concubine, Fms. i. 14, Fagrsk. ch. 21: cp. embætta and embætti. Cp. also mod. ambaga, u, f. an awkward person; amböguligr, adj. and ambögu-skapr, m. clumsy manners, perh. all of them related to ambótt. COMPDS: ambáttar-barn, n. child of an a., Fms. i. 72. ambáttar-dóttir, f. daughter of an a., Eg. 345. ambáttarligr, adj. vile, like an a., Fas. i. 244. ambáttar-mót, n. expression of an a., Fas. i. 147. ambáttar-sonr, m. son of an a., Grág. i. 363, Ld. 70, 98. ambátta-fang, n. a term of contempt, a woman’s tussle, as it were between two bondswomen, Sd. 162 (of wrestling).

amb-höfði, a, m. a nickname of uncertain signification. Egilsson supposes that of bi-ceps: most probably amb- denotes some animal; cp. Hjart-höfði, Hart-head, and Orkn-höfði, Seal-head, Sturl. i. 35 (in a verse).

amboð, n. utensils, v. andboð.

ami, a, m. vexation, discomfort, Stef. Ól.

AMLÓÐI, a, m. 1. the true name of the mythical prince of Denmark, Amlethus of Saxo, Hamlet of Shakespeare. 2. now used metaph. of an imbecile, weak person, one of weak bodily frame, wanting in strength or briskness, unable to do his work, not up to the mark. It is used in phrases such as, þú ert mesti Amlóði, what a great A. you are, i. e. poor, weak fellow. In a poem of the 10th century (Edda 67), the seashore is called the flour-bin of Amlode (meldr-lið Amlúða, navis farinae Amlodif), the sand being the flour, the sea the mill: which recals the words of Hamlet in Saxo,—‘sabulum perinde ac farra aspicere jussus eadem albicantibus maris procellis permolita esse respondit.’ From this poem it may be inferred that in the 10th century the tale of Hamlet was told in Icel., and in a shape much like that given it by Saxo about 250 years later. Did not Saxo (as he mentions in his preface) write his story from the oral tradition of Icelanders? In Iceland this tale was lost, together with the Skjöldunga Saga. The Icel. Ambales Saga MS. in the Brit. Mus. is a modern composition of the 17th century. COMPDS now in freq. use: amlóðaligr, adj. imbecile; amlóða-skapr, m., or amlóða-háttr, imbecility; also amlóðast, dep. Torfaeus, in his Series Reg. Dan. p. 302, quotes an old Swedish rhyme running thus: ‘Tha slog konungen handom samman | och log fast och gorde aff gamnian | rett some han vore en Amblode | then sig intet godt forstode,’ where it means a fool, simpleton, denoting a mental imbecility. [No one knows the origin of this name: an etymology attempted by Prof. Säve of Upsala is, we believe, equally inadmissible.]

AMMA, u, f. [cp. afi], grandmother; now in freq. use, but rarely in the Sagas, which use föður-móðir and móður-móðir, Hým. 7, Rm. 16, Edda 109, Nj. 119, Ld. 328. In compds, ömmu-bróðir, ömmu-systir, etc.; lang-amma, u, f. is a great-grandmother. [In Germ. amme means a nurse.]

amorligr, adj. dismal, Landn. (in a verse).

ampli, a, m. and hömpull, s, m. [ampulla], a jug, Vm. 6, 47, Dipl. iii. 4, B. K. 31. COMPD: ömpuls-brot, n. a potsherd, Pm. 93.

amra, að, to howl piteously, Fs. 45 (of cats); cp. ömurligr, piteous, and ömruligr, adj. id.

amstr, n. [cp. Germ. amsteig = palearium], a rick, Orkn. 448, an απ. λεγ.: amstr now means toil: cp. amstrast, að, to toil.

AN, conj. than, Lat. quam, is the old form, and constantly used in MSS. of the 12th century, instead of ‘en’ or ‘enn,’ q. v.

ANA, að, to rush on, now freq.

AND-, a prefixed prep. [Ulf. uses a separate prep. and; A. S. and-; Germ. ant-, ent-, empf-; it exists in Engl. in an-swer; Lat. ante-; Gr. ἀντι-], denoting whatever is opposite, against, towards, and metaph. hostile, adverse; freq. spelt and pronounced an- or ann-; it is used in a great many compds, v. below. If followed by v, the a changes into ö, e. g. öndverðr, adversus; in andvirði, prize, however, the a is unchanged.

ANDA, að, [Ulf. has us-anan = ἐκπνειν; cp. Gr. ανεμος, wind, and Lat. animus, anima, spirit, breath: the Germans say geist, spirit, and athmen, spirare: Ulf. translates πνευμα by ahma, νους by aha; Hel. spiritus by gêst and athom, whence Germ. athmen: cp. Swed. ånd, ånde, spiritus, spirare.] I. act. to breathe, and of the wind, to waft; meðan þeir megu anda ok upp standa, Bs. i. 224, Karl. 95; Þórðr andar nú handan, Sturl. i. 21 (in a verse). II. dep. andast, to breathe one’s last, expire; Mörðr Gígja tók sótt ok andaðist, Fiddle Mord ‘took sick’ and breathed his last, Nj. 29; en ef svá ferr at ek öndumk, but if it fares so that I die. Eg. 127; þar hefir andast faðir minn, Fas. iii. 619. Part. andaðr, dead; hón var þá onduð, had breathed her last, Ld. 16; jarlinn vai þá a., Fms. i. 149.

anda- and andar-, the compds belonging to önd, anima, and önd, a duck, v. sub voce önd.

and-blásinn, adj. part. [önd], inflated, Skálda 169.

and-dyri and anndyri, n. [Lat. atrium; from önd, atrium, q. v.], a porch; hón dró hann fram yfir dyrnar ok svá í anddyrit, Grett. 140, Nj. 140, Fms. ii. 148, Bs. i. 804.

and-fang, n. esp. pl. [Germ. empfang], reception, hospitality, Vþm. 8.

and-fælur, f. pl. [önd], ‘the horrors,’ in the phrase, vakna með andfælum, of one suddenly awakening from a bad dream, or from being frightened when asleep, Fas. iii. 256, Fél. ix. 188.

and-fætingr, s, m. [and-], transl. of Antipodes in Pliny, Stj. 94. Now used in the mod. sense of Antipodes; also in the phrase, sofa andfætis, or andfæting, of two sleeping in a bed ‘heads and heels.’

and-hlaup, n. suffocation, Eg. 553.

and-hrimnir, m. the cook’s name in Walhall, Gm.

and-hvalr, s, m. balaena rostrata, now called andarnefja, u, f., Edda (Gl.), Sks. 123 A.

and-hæli, n. monstrosity, absurdity; medic. the heels being in the place of the toes, Fél. ix. 188. andhælisligr, adj. absurd.

andi, a, m. 1. prop. breath, breathing; af anda fisksins, Edda 19; cp. hverr andalauss lifir, who lives without breathing, in the Riddles of Gestumblindi, Fas. i. 482; af anda hans, Greg. 20, Sks. 41 B; andi er Ingimundar, ekki góðr á bekkinn, of foul breath, Sturl. i. 21 (in a verse). 2. a current of air; andi handar þinnar, air caused by the waving of the hand, 623. 33: now freq. of a soft breeze. 3. (gramm.) aspiration; linr, snarpr a., Skálda 175, 179. II. metaph. and of Christian origin, spirit. In the Icel. translation of the N. T. andi answers to πνευμα, sál to ψυχή (cp. Luke i. 46, 47); Guð skapaði líkamann ok andann, Mar. 656; taki þér við líkamanum en Drottinn við andanum, id.; gjalda Guði sinn anda, Mar. 39 (Fr.); hjarta, andi ok vizka, id. In some of these cases it may answer to ψυχή, but the mod. use is more strict: as a rule there is a distinction between ‘önd,’ f. anima, and ‘andi,’ m. animus, yet in some cases both are used indifferently, thus Luke xxiii. 46 is translated by ‘andi,’ yet ‘önd’ is more freq., Pass. 44. 21, 45. I. 2. spirit, spiritual being (önd is never used in this sense); John iv. 24, Guð er andi, and, tilbiðja í anda, ἐν πνευματι. 3. the Holy Ghost, Nj. 164, Rb. 80. 4. angels; þessháttar eldr brennir andana, Stj. 41. 5. in a profane sense; álfr eða a., Fas. i. 313. 6. spiritual gift; í krapti ok í anda Heliæ, Hom. 104. Luke i. 17, Sks. 565. COMPDS: anda-gipt, f. inspiration, gift of the Holy Ghost, Fms. iv. 48. anda-kast, n. breathing, Fas. iii. 348. andaliga, adv. spiritually, = andliga, Fms. v. 230. anda-ligr, adj. spiritual, = andligr, Stj. 8, Dipl. ii. 11.

and-keta, u, f. an obscene word, Völs. þ. (Fb. ii. 334).

and-kostr = annkostr, purpose.

and-langr, m. (poët.) name of one of the heavens, Edda (Gl.)

and-lauss, adj. [önd], breathless, lifeless, exanimis; a. hlutir, Eluc. 9.

and-lát, n. [önd, anima; lát, damnum], ‘loss of breath,’ death; þá er þú fregn a. mitt, 623. 43; a. Magnúss konungs, Gizurar biskups, etc., Bs. i. 65, 70, Eg. 119, 367. β. the last gasp, the very moment of death; þá var konungr nær andláti, Hkr. i. 160; var hann þá beint í andláti, Fms. vi. 230; ok er hann fann at nær dró at andláti hans, his last moments drew near, viii. 446: andlát has the notion of a quiet, easy death; líflát, a violent death; but both are only used in a dignified sense. COMPDS: andláts-dagr, m. day of death, Bs. i. 466. andláts-dægr, n. id., 686 B. andláts-sorg, f. grief for a death, Stj. 196. andláts-tíð, f. and -tími, a, m. time of death, Greg. 78, Stj. 9.

andliga, adv. spiritually, Sks. 614, 649, Stj. 27, 34, Hom. 57.

andligr, adj. [Hel. translates spiritualis by gëstlic, Germ. geistlich, Ulf. πνευματικός by ahmeins], spiritual; in the N. T. πνευματικός is translated by andligr, 1 Cor. xv. 44: a. fagnaðr, 656 C; a. herklæði, 656 A. ii. 18; a. skilning, Greg. 23; a. líf, Skálda 199; biskup hefir andligt vald til andligra hluta, a bishop has spiritual power in spiritual things (opp. to veraldligr, κοσμικός), Gþl. 73; andlig skírn, Hom. 52.

and-lit, n. and annlit, [and-, adversus, and líta; Ulf. andavleizns = πρύσωπον; A. S. andvlite; Germ. antlitz], a face, countenance; á andliti þeirra, 623. 61; sá ek annlit þitt, id., Nj. 16; þangat horfi anlit er hnakki skyldi, N. G. L. i. 12; Hom. 7 renders in faciem by í andliti. Metaph. auglit is used as more dignified; í augliti Guðs (not andliti), ενώπιον του Θεου, in the eyes or sight of God. COMPDS: andlits-björg, f. visor, Sks. 406. andlits-farinn, adj. in the phrase, vel a., of fair, well-formed features, better in two words (andliti farinn), Sturl. iii. 178 C. andlits-mein, n. cancer in the face, Sturl. ii. 185. andlits-sköp, n. pl. lineaments of the face, N. G. L. i. 339; vel andlits sköpum, of well-formed features, Fms. viii. 238.

and-marki, ann-, and an-, a, m. [and-, mark], a fault, flaw, blemish; ókostir eðr andmarkar, Grág. i. 313; ef annmarkar þeir verða á búfénu, 429; þú leyndir anmarka á honum, Nj. 8. β. metaph. in moral sense, trespasses; iðran annmarka, 625. 90; used as a nickname, Gísl. 32. COMPDS: annmarka-fullr, adj. full of faults, Fms. vi. 110. annmarka-lauss, adj. faultless, Grág. i. 287.

and-máligr, adj. contentious, quarrelsome, Fms. ii. 154, Magn. 448.

and-mæli, n. contradiction, 4. 25.

and-nes, n. and annes, [and-, nes], a promontory or point of land, Hkr. i. 313, Fms. viii. 147, Fær. 83.

and-orða, adj. ind. [cp. Ulf. andavaurd; Germ. antwort], the Icel. use svar or andsvar (Engl. answer) in this sense; andorða only appears in the phrase, að verða a., to come to words with, Rd. 300, Korm. 110 (rare).

and-óf, n. prob. = and-þóf, prop. a paddling with the oars, so as to bring the boat to lie against wind and stream. Metaph., við nokkuru andófi, after a somewhat hard struggle, Fbr. 84. 2. a division in a ship, fremsta rúm í skipi kallast a., Fél. ix. 3.

and-ramr, adj. (andremma, u, f.) having foul breath, Sturl. i. 20.

ANDRAR, m. pl. [Ivar Aasen a wander], snow shoes, in sing. prob. öndurr, cp. the compds öndor-dís and öndor-goð, used of the goddess Skaði, in the Edda; found only in Norway, where the word is still in use; in Icel. only remaining in the proverb snæliga snuggir kváðu Finnar, áttu andra fala, Fms. vii. 20, of a silly act, to sell one’s snow shoes just when it begins to snow. Prob. a Finnish word; v. skíð.

and-rá, f. [contr. = anddrag (?), mod. word], breath, in the phrase, í sömu a., at the very same breath, instantly.

and-róði, a, and andróðr, rs, m. the later form more freq. [and-, róa], pulling against stream and wind; Einarr átti gildan andróða, E. had a hard pull, Fms. vi. 379, v. l. andróðr; róa andróða, vii. 310, (andróðr, Hkr. iii. 440); þeir tóku mikinn andróða, they had a hard pull, Fms. viii. 438, v. l. andróðr; ok er þá sem þeir hafi andróða, Greg. 31; taka andróðra (acc. pl.), Fms. viii. 131, Hkr. iii. 440: cp. the proverb bíðendr eigu byr en bráðir andróða, those who bide have a fair wind, those who are hasty a foul, festina lente, ‘more haste worse speed;’ the last part is omitted in old writers when quoting this proverb.

and-saka, að, (annsaka, Bret. 162), [A. S. andsäc], to accuse, with acc., Al. 23; hann andsakaði (reprimanded) sveinana harðliga, Sturl. iii. 123.

and-skjól, n. the vane on a chimney-pot, Ísl. Þjóðs. i. 133.

and-skoti and annskoti, a, m. [and-, adversus; skjóta, skoti], prop. an opponent, adversary, one who ‘shoots from the opposite ranks;’ a. lýðs várs ok laga várra, 655 xvi. B; þeir höfðu heyrt at andskotar þeirra vildi verja þeim vígi þingvöllinn, they had heard that their adversaries would keep them by a fight from the parliament field, Íb. ch. 7; eigi mun ek vera í andskota flokki móti honum, Fms. v. 269. 2. metaph. a fiend, devil, transl. of Satan, now only used in that sense and in swearing; nú hefir a. fundit færi á at freista yðvar, Post. 656; far í brott a., ϋπαγε Σατανα, 146; a. ok þeir englar er eptir honumhurfu, Ver. I; dökvir þik, anskoti (voc.), 623. 31, Hom. 108, 109, K. Á. 20. COMPD: andskota-flokkr, m. a band of enemies, Fms. v. 269, Grág. ii. 19.

and-spilli and andspjall, n. colloquy, discourse, Skm. 11, 12.

and-spænis, adv., a. móti e-m, just opposite, the metaph. being taken from a target (spánn), Snót 127.

and-stefna, d, to stem against, Fas. iii. 50 (rare).

and-streymi, n. prop. against the tide or current; metaph. adversity, Fr.

and-streymr, adj. running against stream; metaph. difficult, cross; Sighvatr var heldr a. um eptirmálin, hard to come to terms with, Sturl. ii. 42; andstreym örlög, ill-fate, Al. 69; kvað Svein jafnan andstreyman verit hafa þeim frændum, had always set his face against, Orkn. 390.

and-stygð, f. disgust; vera a. af e-u (now, at e-u), dislike, Róm. 265.

and-styggiligr, adj. odious, abominable, Hkr. iii. 273.

and-styggr, adj. id., Hom. 102, 623. 31, Sks. 539.

and-svar and annsvar, n. [A. S. andsvaru; Hel. uses andvordi and andvordian = respondere; Ulf. andavaurd], an ‘answer,’ response, but in old writers esp. a decision; vera skjótr í andsvörum, prompt in deciding, Fms. i. 277; sagðist til hans hafa vikit um ansvarit, put the case under his decision, vi. 354; munu vit tala fleira áðr ek veita því andsvör, before I decide, Ld. 80; in N. G. L. i. 86 it seems to mean protest, intervention: used of the echo in Al. 35. COMPD: andsvara-maðr, m. a law term, a respondent, defender, Jb. 30.

and-svara and annsvara, að, to answer; þá annsvarar konungrinn, Fms. xi. 56, rare, and in a more formal sense than the simple verb svara. β. answer, to be responsible for; sem ek vil a. fyrir Guði, as I will answer before God, Gþl. 66; v. anza or ansa.

and-syptir, m. [önd, anima, or and-?], sobbing, sighing, hysterical fit, Hom. 121; [Engl. sob; Germ. seufzen].

and-sælis, in common talk andhælis, adv. [sól], against the course of the sun (cp. the Scot. ‘widdershins,’ that is, going against the sunshine or the sun’s light, a direction universally considered both in England and Scotland to be most unlucky; see the quot. in Jamieson sub voce), Ísl. ii. 154, Rb. 134; esp. used of witches and ‘uncanny’ appearances; þat gékk öfugt um húsit ok a., it went backwards about the house and against the sun’s course, Eb. 268, Gísl. 33, cp. Fs. (Vd.) 43, 59; hon gékk öfug a. um tréit, ok hafði þar yfir mörg röm ummæli, Grett. 151. β. ansælis or andhælis is used of everything that goes backwards, wrong, or perversely; cp. andærr and andæris.

and-vaka, u, f. sleeplessness, ἀγρυπνία, caused by care or grief, Fms. i. 82; mostly used in pl. β. medic. agrypnia, Fél. ix. 189, Bs. i. 251. γ. wakefulness, Hom. 108. In the Máfhlíð. vísur, Eb. ch. 19, andvaka unda = a sword, the ‘awakener’ of wounds; (cp. vekja blóð.)

and-vaki, adj. ind. sleepless, now andvaka; liggja a., to lie awake, Al. 71, Barl. 10, Mag. 80.

and-vana and andvani, adj. ind., and now andvanr, adj. I. [and- and vanr, solitus], destitute, wanting; with gen., a. átu, lífs a., auðs ok alls gamans a., Hkv. 2. 31, Völs. kviður, Lex. Poët.; alls a. nema víls ok vesaldar, Fms. iii. 95; a. heilsu, Magn. 512; alls a., of the beggar Lazarus, Greg. 24; a. þeirrar þjónustu, in want of, Post. 656 B; margs a., Bret. 174; a eigna várra, having lost our lands, 208. II. [önd, anima], now = exanimis; andvana lík, a lifeless corpse, Pass. 4. 23.

and-varða, að, to hand over [cp. Dan. overantvorde], rare, Fr.

and-vari, a, m. I. a fish of prey, gurnard, Lat. miluus, Edda (Gl.); the name of the gurnard-shaped dwarf, Edda 72; the owner of a fatal ring, hence called andvara-nautr: cp. Skv. 1. 2, Andvari ek heiti … margan hefi ek fors um farit;—ótti svá mikill ok andvari, Hom. (St.); cp. Pass., andvara öngan hefir umhyggju-lítill sést. II. in mod. usage, a soft breeze, and metaph. watchfulness, vigilance, in such phrases as, hafa andvara á sér, Pass. 15. 6: andvara-lauss, adj. heedless; andvara-leysi, f. mostly in a theol. sense, etc. COMPD: andvara-gestr, m. an unwelcome guest, in the phrase, vera e-m a., Fbr. 7, 24 new Ed. (now freq.)

and-varp, n. the act of heaving a sob, sigh, 655 xx. 4, Sks. 39, 688. Freq. in theol. writers, Pass. 40. 7.

and-varpa, að, to sob, sigh, breathe deeply, Fms. x. 338, Hom. 155, Sks. 225 (freq.)

and-varpan, f. sobbing, Hom. 124, Stj. 149.

and-vegi, throne, v. öndvegi.

andverðr, adverse, v. öndverðr.

and-viðri, n. [veðr], head wind, Fbr. 67, Eg. 87, Fms. i. 203.

and-virði, n. [verð], worth, equivalent, value, price; þá skal þat kaup ganga aptr en hinn hafi a. sitt, Gþl. 491; haf þú nú allt saman, skikkjuna ok a., Lv. 50; allt a. hvalsins, the whole value of, Greg. ii. 375; hann tekr þar á móti ofdrykkjuna ok hennar a., reward, Fms. viii. 251.

and-virki and annvirki, n. [önn, labour (?); cp. old Germ. antwerk = machina]. I. in Icel. writers esp. used of bay and bay-stacks; ef eldr kemr í hús manns eðr a., K. Þ. K. 78, 82; færa, reiða a., to carry into the barn, Grág. ii. 122, Lv. 211; nema fé gangi í akr, engi, töður eðr a., Grág. ii. 299; nautafjöldi var kominn í tún ok vildi brjóta a., … throw down the cocks, Glúm. 342, Boll. 336; sendi Úlfarr menn upp á hálsinn at sjá um a. sitt þat er þar stóð; cp. little below, stórsæti, large ricks, Eb. 152. II. in Norway more generally used of crop, tillage, agricultural implements; garð þann sem um a. (barley ricks?) stendr, Gþl. 381; ef menn brenna a. manna, N. G. L. i. 244; a. (produce) manna hvatki sem er, 251, Jb. 312; þá skal hann þar etja öllu sinu a. á, 357; viðarköst, timbr, grindr, sleða eðr önnur a., implements (some MSS. read amboð), 258, v. l. Metaph., legit hafa mér a. nær garði, en at berjast við þik fyrir sakleysi, business more urgent than to …, Grett. 110 A.

and-vitni, n. a law term. I. Icel. contradictory testimony, such as was contrary to law. Thus defined: þat er a. er menn bera gegn því sem áðr er borit, vætti í gegn kvið, eðr kviðr í gegn vætti, svá at eigi má hvárttveggja rétt vera, Grág. i. 59, 60; it was liable to the lesser outlawry, skoluð menn a. bera ok hér á þingi, en ef menn bera, ok varðar þat útlegð, enda á þat einskis at meta, id.; en ef menn bera þat a. varðar þat fjörbaugsgarð, ii. 272; bera þeir a. guðunum, false witness against the gods, 655 xiii. B. I. II. Norse, where it appears to mean contradictory testimony, such as was usually admissible; ok koma eigi a. móti, N. G. L. ii. 89, v. l.; svá er ef einn ber vitni með manni sem engi beri, en tveir sem tíu, ef maðr uggir eigi a. móti, if one bears witness for a man it is as though no man bore witness for him, but two are as good as ten, if a man doth not fear that contradictory evidence will be brought against him, 150.

and-vígr, adj. in the phrase, vera e-m a., a match for …, as good a swordsman as…; hann var eigi meirr enn a. einum þeirra bræðra, Fms. ii. 165; sagði Gellir sik fleirum mönnum a. en einum, Bs. i. 649.

and-yrði, n. pl. [v. andorða], objection, Sks. 76.

and-æfa, ð, [v. andóf; Ivar Aasen andöva and andov], a boating term, to paddle against tide, current, and wind, so as to prevent the boat from drifting astern; þá féll á stormr svá mikill, at þeir fengu eigi betr en andæft, had nothing better than to lay to, Sturl. ii. 121; the vellum MSS. wrongly andhætt. 2. metaph. in the corrupt form andæpta, to reply feebly against; with dat., ekki er þess getið at Þórðr andæpti þessari vísu, Th. returned no reply to this libel, Sturl. i. 22. Now absol. to speak in a disjointed way, to ejaculate; andæpti skáld upp úr móðu, fram eru feigs götur; skilja sköp, skamt er að landi, brosir bakki mót, of rhymed incoherent words of a poet in the act of sinking beneath the waves, vide Espól. Ísl. Árb. the year 1823, Sigurðr Breiðfjörð in a poem in the Smámunir.

and-æris, adv. [ár, remus], crossly, perversely, a figure taken from pulling, Lex. Poët.; freq. in the corrupt form andhælis.

and-ærligr, adj. cross, odd, Lex. Poët.; now andhælislegr.

ang, n. sweet savour, fragrance; með unað ok ang, Bs. ii. 10.

ANGA, að, [Norse aanga; Swed. ånga], to give out a sweet scent, odour; ilmr angar mjök sætliga, Mar. Fr.; now freq.

angan, f. sweet odour; angan Friggjar, the love of Frigga, Vsp. 54; some MSS. read angantýr, the sweetheart, husband of Frigga.

angan-týr, n. a lover, Vsp.: a pr. name, A. S. Ongenþeow.

angi, a, m. [Norse angie]. I. sweet odour; þvílíkan ilm ok anga sem cedrus, Stj. 73, etc. II. [cp. A. S. anga = aculeus, stimulus], a spine or prickle, in the phrase, þetta mál hefir anga, has a sting, is not good to touch, Bs. ii. 52. Now often used in pl. and used of a sprout, fibre in fruits or plants; metaph. a spoilt boy is called angi, ‘a pickle:’ as to the root, cp. öngull, hamus, and the English angle: angilja, u, f. is, according to Björn, one of the bones of a fish.

angist, f. [Lat. angustia; Fr. angoisse; Engl. anguish; Germ. angst], anguish, esp. in theol. writers, Stj. 31, 51, 55, 106, 114. COMPDS: angistar-ár, n. a year of misery, Stj. angistar-neyð, f. distress, Stj. angistar-tími, a, m. an hour of pain, Stj.

angistast, að (?), dep. to be vexed, Stj. 121.

ANGR, m. (now always n., Pass. 1. 4, and so Bs. i. 195); gen. rs, [cp. Engl. anger, Lat. angor.] I. grief, sorrow; þann angr, Bær. 12; upp á minn a. ok skaða, Stj. 215; minn harm ok a., Bær. 14; með margskonar angri, Fms.x.401; sorg eðr a., Háv. 51; ekki angr(s), Hkv. Hjörv. 10. II. in Norse local names freq. = bay, firth, e. g. Staf-angr, Harð-angr, etc. etc. (never in Icel.): all these local names are better derived from vangr (q. v., p. 678); kaupangr in Norway means a town, village, sinus mercatorius, [cp. the English ‘Chipping’ in Chipping Norton, Chipping Ongar, etc., and in London, ‘Cheapside,’] these places being situated at the bottom of the firths: fjörðr hardly ever occurs in local names in Norway, but always angr; cp. the pun on angr, moeror, and angr, sinus, Fas. ii. 91. The word is obsolete in the historical age and scarcely appears as a pure appellative, Edda (Gl.), Fms. xii, Munch’s Map and Geogr. of Norway. [Root probably Lat. ang- in ango, angustus, angiportus.]

angra, að, to anger, grieve, vex, with acc., Fms. xi. 393; mik hefir angrað hungr ok frost, Fms. ii. 59: with dat., hvárt sem mér a. reykr eða bruni, Nj. 201, Stj. 21: impers. to be grieved, a. honum mjök, Fas. ii. 296: more freq. with acc., Finnb. 234, Bs. i. 289; mik angrar mart hvað, Hallgrím. β. reflex., angrask, to be angered; a. af e-u, to take offence at, Bs. i. 280; við e-t, Fas. iii. 364. γ. part. angraðr, used as adj. sorrowful, angry; reiðr ok a., El. 14; pronounced angráðr, concerned; in the phrase, göra sér angrátt, um, to feel a pang, Gísl. 85.

angran, f. sorrow. Fas. iii. 364.

angr-boða, u, f. the name of a giantess, Hdl.

angr-fullr, adj. full of care, Str. 55.

angr-gapi, a, m. a rude, silly fool, [the French gobemouche], Bs. i. 806, Mag. 64 (Ed.); sem a. at svara fólsku tignum mönnum, Sturl. iii. 138.

angr-lauss, adj. free from care, Lat. securus, Hkv. 2. 45.

angr-ligr, adj. sad, Bs. ii. 163.

angr-ljóð, n. pl. funeral songs, dirges, neniae, Hkv. 2. 44.

angr-lyndi, n. [lund], concern, low spirits, Gísl. 85.

angr-mæðask, dd, dep. to be in low spirits, Fr.

angr-samligr, adj. and angr-samliga, adv. sorrowful, sorrowfully, Stj. 655 xxxii.

angr-samt, adj. full of grief, depressed, downcast, Stj., Barl., Vápn. 17; neut., e-m er a., to be in low spirits, Fms. viii. 29. β. troublesome, Stj. (of gnats).

angr-semd and angrsemi, f. grief, Mar., Ver. 2.

angr-vaðill, m. the name of a sword, Eg.

angr-væri, f. dejection, Hkr. iii. 253; now also angr-vær, adj. dejected.

angr-æði, f. moody temper, sullenness, Fr.

an-könn, f. [and-kenna], a flaw, fault, = anmarki, only as gen. pl. in the COMPDS ankanna-fullr, adj. full of faults, Sks. 76 new Ed., v. l. ankanna-laust, n. adj. a law term, uncontested, used of an inheritance or possession where there is no legal claimant; skal hann eignast a. allt Noregs konungs veldi, he s hall hold as his own all the power of Norway’s king without a rival, Fagrsk. 97; Magnús konungr hafði þá ríki einnsaman ok a., i. e. there were no pretenders, Fms. x. 413.

ann- in several compds, v. and-.

ANNA, að, [önn, labor; Ivar Aasen anna: the root is not found in Goth.] I. act. but rare; with dat. in the sense to be able to do; eg anna því ekki, I cannot manage that: absol., geldingar svá holdir, at þeir anni á degi ofan í Odda, ellipt. = anni at ganga, that they can walk, Vm. 28. II. dep. freq.: 1. with acc., α. a law term; in cases involving support, to take care, provide for, to support; þá skal móðirin þau börn annast, Grág. i. 240; a. úmaga, 243, 294; a. sik, to support oneself, Fms. vi. 204; úmegð, Rd. 234. β. more generally to take care of; mál þetta mun ek a., Glúm. 358. γ. to engage in battle; tveir skyldi annast einnhvern þeirra; þeir Barði ok Steinn skyldi a. Ketil brúsa, Ísl. (Hvs.) ii. 356. 2. a. um e-t, to be busy about, trouble oneself about; a. um matreiðu, to cook, Nj. 75; hann a. ekki um bú, Glúm. 342, 359.

annarligr, adj. strange, alien, Stj. 188; metaph., Skálda 193.

ANNARR, önnur, annat, adj.; pl. aðrir; gen. pl. annarra; dat. sing. f. annarri, [Ulf. anþar; A. S. oþar; Engl. other; Germ. andere; Swed. andra and annan: in Icel. assimilated, and, if followed by an r, the nn changes into ð.] I. = ετερος, alter: 1. one of two, the other; tveir formenn þeirra, hét annarr, the one of them, Fms. ix. 372; sá er af öðrum ber, be that gets the better of it, Nj. 15; a. augat, Fms. ii. 61; á öðrum fæti, Bs. i. 387, Edda 42; annarri hendi…, en annarri, with the one hand …, with the other, Eb. 250, 238; á aðra hönd, on the one side, Grág. i. 432, Nj. 50; a. kné, Bs. i. 680; til annarrar handar, Nj. 50; annarr—annarr, oneother; gullkross á öðrum en ari af gulli á öðrum, Fms. x. 15. Peculiar is the phrase, við annan, þriðja, fjórða … mann, = being two, three, four … altogether; við annan, oneself and one besides, Eb. 60; cp. the Greek τρίτον ήμιτάλαντον, two talents and a half, Germ. anderthalh. 2. secundus, a cardinal number, the second; sá maðr var þar a. Íslenzkr, Fms. xi. 129; í annat sinn, for the second time, Íb. ch. 1, 9; a. vetr aldrs hans, Bs. i. 415; höggr harm þegar annat (viz. högg), a second blow, Sturl. ii. 118. β. the next following, Lat. proximus; á öðru hausti, the next autumn, Ísl. ii. 228; önnur misseri, the following year, Bs. i. 437, 417; a. sumar eptir, 415, Fms. i. 237. Metaph. the second, next in value or rank, or the like; annat mest hof í Noregi, the next greatest temple, Nj. 129; a. mestr höfðingi, the next in power, Ísl. ii. 202; fjölmennast þing, annat eptir brennu Njáls, the fullest parliament next to that after the burning of N., 259; vitrastr lögmanna annarr en Skapti, the wisest speaker next after S., Bs. i. 28; a. mestr maðr í Danmörk, the next greatest man, Fms. xi. 51; annat bezt ríki, v. 297; var annarr sterkastr er hét Freysteinn, the next strongest champion, Eb. 156; mestrar náttúru a. en Þorsteinn, Fs. 74, Fms. iv. 58. II. = αλλος, alius, one of many, other, both in sing. and pl.; hon lék á gólfinu við aðrar meyjar, Nj. 2; mart var með henni annara kvenna, i. e. many women besides, 50; jafnt sekr sem aðrir menn, as guilty as anybody else, Grág. i. 432; einginn annarra Knúts manna, none besides, Fms. x. 192; ef þeir gerði lönd sín helgari enn aðrar jarðir, … than all other grounds, Eb. 20; er Þórólfr hafði tignað um fram aðra staði, … more than any other place, id.; kalla þá jörð nú eigi helgari enn aðra, id.; tók Börkr þann kost er hann hafði öðrum ætlað, 40; Þórarinn vann eið … ok tíu menn aðrir, Th. and ten men besides, 48; þeir þóttust fyrir öðrum mönnum, … over all other people, 20; góðr drengr um fram alla menn aðra, 30; af eyjum ok öðru sjófangi, other produce of the sea, 12; hann skal tvá menn nefna aðra en sik, … besides himself, Grág. i. 57; hann var örvari af fé enn nokkurr annarr, … than anybody else, Bret.; jafnt sem annat fúlgufé, as any other money, Grág. i. 432. 2. other, different, in the proverb, öl er annarr maðr, ale (a drunken man) is another man, is not the true man, never mind what he says, Grett. 98; the proverb is also used reversely, öl er innri (the inner) maðr, ‘in vino veritas:’ annað er gæfa ok görfuleiki, luck and achievements are two things (a proverb); önnur var þá æfi, viz. the reverse of what it is now (a proverb), Grett. 94 (in a verse); ætla ek þik annan mann en þú segir, Fms. xi. 192; hafi þér Danir heldr til annars gört, you deserve something different, worse than that, id.; varð þá annan veg, otherwise, Hkr. ii. 7; Björn varð þess víss at þau höfðu annan átrúnað, … different religion, Eb. 12. 3. like οι αλλοι, reliqui, the rest, the remains; þá er eigi sagt hversu öðrum var skipað, Nj. 50; at hönd b. sé fyrir innan n., en annarr líkami hans (the rest of his body) fyrir utan, 1812. 18. III. repeated in comparative clauses: annarr—annarr, or connected with einn, hvárr, hverr, ymsir: gékk annarr af öðrum at biðja hann, alius ex alio, one after another, Bs. i. 128; hverja nótt aðra sem aðra, every night in turn, Mag. 2; annat var orð Finns harðara enn annat, every word of Finn was harder than that which went before it, of a climax, Fms. v. 207: einn—annarr, alius atque alius, one and another, various; eina hluti ok aðra, Stj. 81; einar afleiðingar ok aðrar, Barl. 36; einir ok aðrir, various, Stj. 3; ef maðr telr svá, at hann var einn eðr annarr (that he was anybody, this or that man, viz. if he does not give the name precisely), ok er hinn eigi þá skyldr at rísa ór dómi, Grág. i. 28: ymsir—aðrir, in turn, now this, now the other; ymsir eiga högg í annars garð (a proverb); heita á helga menn, ok nefna ymsa ok aðra (now one, now another), Mar. 35: þágu þessir riddarar veizlur ymsir at öðrum, gave banquets one to another in turn, id.; færðu ymsir aðra niðr, now one was under water and now the other, of two men struggling whilst swimming, Fms. ii. 269: hvárr—annan, hverir—aðra, each other; mæltu hvárir vel fyrir öðrum; hétu hvárir öðrum atförum: of a rapid succession, hvert vandræði kom á bak öðru, misfortunes never come singly, but one on the back of the other, Fr.; við þau tiðindi urðu allir glaðir ok sagði hverr öðrum, one told the news to another, man to man, Fms. i. 21; þóttust hvárirtveggju meira vald at hafa í borginni en aðrir, 655 xvii. 1; hvárirtveggja—aðrir, αλλελοις, mutually, reciprocally; skulu nú h. ganga til ok veita öðrum grið, Nj. 190. IV. annat, n. used as a subst.; þetta sem annat, as other things, Fas. i. 517; skaltu eigi þora annat, en, Nj. 74; ef eigi bæri a. til, unless something happened, Bs. i. 350: at öllu annars, in everything else, Grág. ii. 141, K. Þ. K. 98: annars simply used adverb. = else = ella; now very freq. but very rare in old writers; stendr a. ríki þitt í mikilli hættu, Fas. i. 459, from a paper MS. and in a text most likely interpolated in the 17th century. COMPDS: annars-konar, gen. as adv. of another kind, Hkr. i. 148. annars-kostar, adv. else, otherwise; hvárt er hann vill… eðr a. vill hann, either he should prefer …, K. Á. 58. annars-staðar, adv. elsewhere, in other places; sem a., as in other similar cases, Grág. i. 228. annars-vegar, adv. on the other hand, Fms. viii. 228, those on the opposite side. annarra- gen. pl. is used in annarra-bræðra, -bræðri, pl. fourth cousins, Grág. i. 285, ii. 172; cp. D. I. i. 185; v. næsta-bræðra = third cousins, þriðja-bræðra = fifth cousins.

annarr-hvárr (or in two words), adj. pron. in dual sense, [A. S. oþar-hveða], Lat. alteruter, either, one of the two; with gen., annan hvern þeirra sona Skallagríms, Eg. 256; væntir mik at aðra hvára (acc. sing. fem., now aðra hverja) skipan taki brátt, Fms. viii. 444. Dual, aðrir hvárir, in a collect. sense, either party, Sd. 138; neut. used as adv., annaðhvárt—eða, either—or (Lat. aut—aut), Fms. i. 127, Skálda 171, Nj. 190.

annarr-hverr, adj. pron. every other alternately; annan hvern dag, Fms. iv. 81, Symb. 57; annathvert orð, every other (second) word, Nj. 33, Fas. i. 527: at öðruhverju, used as adv., every now and then, Eg. 52, Sturl. i. 82, Hkr. ii. 292.

annarr-tveggja and annarr-tveggi, adj. or used adverbially, [-tveggja is a gen. form, -tveggi a nom.], plur. (dual) aðrirtveggju, dat. plur. -jum; in other cases tveggja, tveggi are indecl.:—one of twain, either; annattveggja þeirra, Grág. i. 236; ok er annattveggja til, at vera hér, hinn er annarr, there is choice of two, either to stay here, or …, Fms. xi. 143, N. G. L. i. 117; ef annarrtveggi hefir haldit öðrum, Grág. i. 29: with gen., a. þeirra, either of them, 149: dual, either of two sides, en þá eru þeir skildir er aðrirtveggju eru lengra í burt komnir en ördrag, but then are they parted when either of the twain is come farther away than an arrow’s flight, of combatants on the battle-field, Grág. ii. 19: neut., annattveggja, used as adv.; annattveggja—eðr, either—or; a. vestna eðr batna, Clem. 50. The word is rare in old writers, and is now quite out of use; as adv. annaðhvort—eða, either—or, is used.

annarsligr = annarligr; annarstaðar, elsewhere, v. annarsstaðar.

ANNÁLL, s, m. [Lat. annalis], an annal, record, chronological register, Bs. i. 789, 415. 13. It sometimes, esp. in deeds, appears to mean histories in general (cp. Lat. annales); annálar á tólf bókum norrænir, Vm. in a deed of the 14th century, where it probably means Sagas: fróðir annálar ok vísindabækr, histories, Pr. 402, Al. 29. The true old Icel. annalists cease in the year 1430, and were again resumed in the middle of the 16th century.

ann-boð, n. pl., rare in sing., proncd. amboð, [old Swed. ambud; Ivar Aasen ambo’, from önn, labor (?)], agricultural implements, tools; a. nokkur, Dipl. v. 18, Jb. 258.

ann-fetlar, m. pl. a sword belt or shield belt, = handfetlar, Lex. Poët.

ann-friðr, ar, m. [önn], ‘work-peace,’ work-truce, commonly during April and May, the time when there were to be no lawsuits (Norse), N. G. L. iii. 19, 94, 95.

ann-kostr, m., also spelt öndkostr and önnkostr [önn], used only in the adverbial phrase, fyrir annkost (önn-önd-kost), wilfully, on purpose, Fms. viii. 367; en þó hafa ek fyrir önnkost (on purpose) svá ritað, Skálda 164; en þat er illvirki, er maðr vill spilla fé manna fyrir ö., Grág. i. 5, 130, 416, ii. 93, 94.

ann-kvista, t, (= ann-kosta?), to take care (önn) of, Grág. ii. 251, απ. λεγ. spelt anquista; the word is somewhat doubtful.

ann-laust, n. adj. easily, without toil, Lex. Poët.

ann-ríkt, n. adj. and annríki, n., eiga a., to be very busy, Rd. 283.

ann-samligr, adj. toilsome, laborious, Sks. 549, 550.

ann-samt, n. adj. in the phrase, eiga a., to be busy, Rd. 283: v. l. for angrsamt, full of cares, Fms. viii. 29.

ann-semð, f. business, trouble, concern; fá a. af e-u and bera a. fyrir e-u, to be troubled, concerned about, Bs. i. 686, 690.

annt, n. adj. [önn], in such phrases as, vera a. um e-t, to be busy, concerned, eager, anxious about, Hkr. i. 115; mörgum var a. heim, many were eager to get home, Fms. xi. 278; hví mun honum svá a. at hitta mik, why is he so eager? Eg. 742; ekki er a. um þat, it is not pressing, Sd. 174; Hánefr kvad sér a. um daga (had so much to do) svá at hann mátti þá eigi at vera, Rd. 241; vera annt til e-s, to be in a very great hurry, eager for, Fms. ii. 150, 41. Compar. annara, in impers. phrases, to be more eager, Fms. ii. 38; mér er ekki a. at vita forlög mín en fram koma, Fs. 19. Superl., vera annast til e-s, to be most eager, Fms. iii. 187: without prep., hvat er nú annt minum eingasyni, what hath my darling son at heart? Gg. 2.

antifona, u, f. antiphon (Gr. word), Hom. 137.

an-tigna, að, qs. aftigna, to disparage, with dat.; a. engum ílla allra sízt þó á bak, Hallgr.

anti-kristr, m. Anti-Christ, Hom. 132, 71.

antvarða, að, to hand over (Germ. word), H. E. i. 435, in a Norse deed.

anugr, adj., commonly önugr, cross, uncivil, froward; also önug-lyndi, f. freaks, ill-temper.

anz, n. reply, now freq. in common language, v. following word.

anza, að, contr. form = andsvara, to pay attention to, take notice of; with dat., (þeim) sem hón a. minnr ok vanrækir, cares less about, Stj. 95, 81, 195. 2. to reply, answer (now freq.); a. e-u and til es; illu mun furða, ef nokkurr a. til, where it means to reply, but without the notion of speaking, Fms. i. 194; Oddr anzaði ok heldr stutt, where it seems to mean to return a greeting, but silently by signs, Fb. i. 254; konungr a. því ekki, a reply to a letter, Fms. ix. 339; hann sat kyrr ok a. engu, Bárd. 180; Mirmant heyrði til ræðu hennar ok a. fá, Mirm. 69.

apa, að, [Engl. to ape; Germ. äffen = deludere], to mock, make sport of; margan hefir auðr apat (a proverb), ‘auri sacra fames,’ Sl. 34, cp. Hm. 74: pass., apask at e-u, to become the fool of, Sl. 62. Now, a. e-t epter, to mock or imitate as an ape: also, a. e-n útúr, to pervert one’s words in a mocking way.

apaldr, rs, m. pl. rar, [O. H. G. aphaltrâ; A. S. apuldre; Dan. abild; Swed. apel], doubtless a southern word, the inflective syllable dr being a mutilation of ‘tré,’ arbor, a word now almost extinct in Germany, (for a homely, common word such as ‘tré’ could not have been corrupted in the native tongue);—apaldr thus, etymologically as well as properly, means an apple-tree; fruits and fruit-trees were doubtless imported into Scandinavia from abroad; the word appears only in the later heroic poems, such as the Hkv. Hjörv. 6; the verses in Sdm. 5 are in a different metre from the rest of the poem, and probably interpolated, Fas. i. 120; epli á apaldri, Sks. 106; tveir apaldar (with the radical r dropped), Fas. iii. 60; apaldrs flúr, Karl. 200, 311: as the etymological sense in the transmuted word soon got lost, a fresh pleonastic compound was made, viz. apaldrs-tré. COMPDS: apaldrs-garðr, m. [Dan. abild-gaard], orchard of apple-trees, Þiðr., D. N. apaldrs-klubba, u, f. club made of an a., El. 22. apaldrs-tré, n. apple-tree, Þiðr. 58.

apal-grár, adj. dapple-gray, i. e. apple-gray, having the streaky colour of an apple (cp. Fr. pommelé), of a horse, Nj. 274, Karl. 426, Landn. 93 (where it is used of a river horse); of an ox, uxi a. at lit, Ld. 120.

API, a, m. [A. S. apa; Erse apa; Bohem. op; Germ. affe; all of them dropping the initial guttural tenuis: Sanskr. kapi], an ape. It appears in early times in the metaph. sense of a fool in the old poem Hm. and even in a proverb; so also in the poems Fm. 11 and Gm. 34, vide Lex. Poët. A giant is in Edda (Gl.) called api, no doubt because of the stupid nature of the giants. Apavatn, a farm in Icel., probably got its name from a nickname of one of the settlers, at the end of the 9th century. In Hým. 20 a giant is called áttrunnr apa, the kinsman of apes. The passage in the Hm. verse 74 appears to be corrupt, and ought to be restored thus, margr verðr af aurum api, the fool of earthly things, cp. the passage in Sl. 34, margan hefir auðr apat, which is another version of the very same proverb. It is esp. used in the connection, ósvinns-api or ósviðra-api, a baboon, big fool, Gm. l. c., Fm. l. c.; (the passage in Hm. 123 ought perhaps to be restored to ósvinns-apa or ósvinnra-apa in a single word; the sense is no doubt the same in all these passages.) Rare in old prose in the proper sense of ape, vide however 673. 55. COMPD: apa-mynd, n. form of an ape, Th. 76.

APLI, a, m. in Edda (Gl.), α. an ox, or β. a horse, hackney: apli according to Björn s. v. means the embryo of animals, e. g. apla-kálfr and apla-lamb, n. abortive lamb or calf; apalgengr, adj. a hackney, a rough goer. Björn also mentions apalgrýti, n. aspretum, (an unknown and dubious word.)

appella and appellera, að, to cite, summon to the pope (eccles. Lat.), Fms. ix. 339, 486 (v. l.), x. 99, Bs. i. 776, K. Á. 218.

APR, adj. gen. rs (and thus not akin to api), cold, sharp, chilly; en aprasta hríð, sharp fighting, Ó. T. 59; sterkastr ok aprastr við at eiga, the worst to deal with, Þiðr. 183; erida vóru allöpr tilbrigðin (cold, malignant), 89; því föru vér aprir, we feel sad, chilly, a verse written in 1047, Lex. Poët.: a word quite obsolete. (Björn however mentions it as a living word.) Mod. Icel. napr, adj. nearly in the same sense, cold, chilly, of weather; cold, spiteful, snappish, of temper: nepja, u, f. a chill, piercing cold: nepringr, m. id.: [are these words identical (?).]

aprligr, adj. cold, chilly, of weather; a. veðr, Vápn. 11. MS.

APTAN and aftan, s, m., dat. aptni, pl. aptnar, sometimes spelt apni and apnar, [Hel. aband; Germ. abend; Engl. even, evening; in Ulf. we only find andanahti = Gr. οψέ, οψία; Swed. afton, Dan. aften,—as it is often spelt], evening; not very freq. in prose, where kveld is the common word. It prop. meant the time from 3 till 9 o’clock, like the Old English ‘even;’ miðraptan (middle-eve) is 6 o’clock; at 9 o’clock the night sets in, v. náttmál: a distinction is made between aptan and kveld, einn aptan at kveldi, an afternoon when the kveld (twilight) sets in, Edda 35: but gener. = kveld, um aptaninn síð er myrkt var orðit, Fms. iv. 308, viii. 228, xi. 113; at aptni, 623. 55, Fms. viii. 201, Grág. i. 146; of aptna (apna), Grág. ii. 224; á öptnum, Bjarn. 23; miðraptan, Hrafn. 9, Nj. 153; aptans bíðr óframs sök, a laggard’s suit bides till even (a proverb).

aptan and aftan, adv. prop. from behind, behind, opp. to framan; augu a. í hnakka, N. G. L. i. 339; a. á milli herða, Vígl. 26; þá greip hann a. undir hendr honum (from behind), Eg. 747; hala sem leo, ok gadd í a., … at the tip of the tail, Al. 168: now aptan í is opp. to framan í. II. fyrir a., as prep. with acc., behind, opp. to fyrir framan; ek hjó varginn í sundr fyrir a. bóguna, I hewed the wolf in sunder, just behind the withers, Nj. 95; standa fyrir a., to stand behind, Fas. ii. 516. β. a. at, with dat.; ganga, koma a. at e-m, to approach from behind.

aptan-drykkja, u, f. an evening carouse, Pr. 419.

aptan-langt, n. adj. even-long, all the evening, Karl. 95.

aptan-skæra, u, f. twilight, Lat. crepusculum (cp. morginskæra, dawn, aurora), Sighvat (in a verse).

aptan-stjarna, u, f. the evening star, Al. 54, Stj. 92; now kveld-stjarna.

aptan-söngr, m. even-song, evening service, Fms. vii. 152, K. Þ. K. 58.

aptan-tími, a, m. eventide, Post. 25.

aptari and aptastr, compar. and superl. latter, posterior, and last, v. eptri, epztr.

aptarla and aptarliga, adv. behind, far in the rear, Lex. Poët. (freq.)

aptna, að, to become evening; þartil at aptnaði, Fms. iii. 181. Dep., þá aptnaðisk, Greg. 51; now kvelda.

APTR and aftr (aptar, N. G. L. i. 347), adv., compar. aptar, superl. aptast, [Ulf. aftra = πάλιν], the spelling with p is borne out by the Gr. αψ. I. Loc. back, back again: 1. WITH MOTION, connected with verbs denoting to go or move, such as fara, ganga, koma, leiða, senda, snúa, sækja, etc., where aptr almost answers to Lat. re-, remittere, reducere, reverti …; gefa a., reddere; bera a., refellere; kalla a., revocare; reka a., repellere: a. hverfr lygi þá er sönnu mætir (a proverb), a lie turns back when it meets truth, Bs. i. 639. ‘aptr’ implies a notion a loco or in locum, ‘eptir’ that of remaining in loco; thus skila a. means remittere; skilja eptir, relinquere; taka a., recipere, in a bad sense; taka eptir, animum attendere; fara a., redire; vera e., remanere, etc.; fara, snúa, koma, senda, sækja, hverfa a., Nj. 260, 281, Fms. x. 395, iv. 300, Edda 30, Eg. 271, Eb. 4, Fs. 6; færa a., to repay, N. G. L. i. 20; snúast a., Lækn. 472. Without actual motion,—as of sounds; þeir heyrðu a. í rjóðrit óp, they heard shouting behind them, Fms. iv. 300; nú skal eigi prestr ganga svá langt frá kirkju at hann heyri eigi klokkur hljóð aftar (= aftr), he shall not go out of the sound of the bells, N. G. L. i. 347. β. backwards; fram ok a., to and fro (freq.); reið hann suðr aptr, rode back again, Nj. 29; aptr á bak, supine, bent or turned back, Eg. 380; þeir settu hnakka á bak sér a., bent their necks backwards in order to be able to see, Edda 30; skreiðast a. af hestinum, to slip down backwards from the croup of a horse, to dismount, Fs. 65. γ. connected with many verbs such as, láta, lúka a., to close, shut, opp. to láta, lúka upp, Fær. 264, Eg. 7, Landn. 162; in a reverse sense to Lat. recludere, reserere, rescindere, resolvere. 2. WITHOUT MOTION = aptan, the hind part, the back of anything; þat er maðr fram (superne), en dýr a., the fore part a man, the hind part a beast, 673. 2; síðan lagði hann at tennrnar a. við huppinn, he caught the hip with his teeth, Vígl. 21. The English aft when used of a ship; breði a. ok fram, stern and stem (of a ship), Fms. ix. 310; Sigurðr sat a. á kistunni, sate aft on the stern-chest, vii. 201; a. ok frammi, of the parts of the body (of a seal), Sks. 179. Compar. aptarr, farther back, Fms. vi. 76. II. TEMP. again, πάλιν, iterum: this use of the word, general as it is at present, hardly appears in old writers; they seem to have had no special expression for again, but instead of it said síðan, enn, or used a periphrase, á nýja leik, öðru sinni, annat sinn, or some other substitute. It is, however, very freq. in Goth. aftra = πάλιν, Swed. åter, Dan. atter; some passages in the Sagas come near to the mod. use, e. g. bæta a., restituere, to give back (but not temp.); segja friði a., to recal, N. G. L. i. 103; hann maelti at engi mundi þann fald a. falda, El. 20, uncertain whether loc. (backward) or iterum, most likely the former. It is now used in a great many compounds, answering to Lat. re-, cp. also endr.

aptra, að, to take back, hinder, withdraw; with dat., a. ferð sinni, to desist from, delay, Fms. x. 17; Þorgrímr bað þá niðr setjast, ok skal eigi boði a., i. e. you shall be welcome as before, Valla L. 217; eigi mun ek a. mér (hesitate) at þessu, Grett. 116 A; hversu þeir öptruðu sér þá er þeir kómu á þingit, how they hesitated, wavered, withdrew, Bs. i. 741, Flor. 7: now a. e-u is to hinder, prohibit.

aptran and öptrun, f. a revoking, renouncing, keeping back, 655 xxvii.

aptr-á-bak, adv. backwards, Skíða R.

aptr-bati, adj. ind. convalescent, on the road to recovery, Al. 150, Korm. 220: now used as a masc. (-bati, a, m.), vera í aptrbata, to be getting better, Fas. iii. 524.

aptr-beiðiligr, adj. reciprocal, Skálda 195.

aptr-borinn, adj. part. regenerate, born again; þars hón aptrborin aldri verði, the sense is doubtful, it seems to mean = endrborin, regenerate; it will suit the context only if we suppose that suicides could not be born again; they certainly could walk again, v. aptrganga. Högni seems to fear that, if she died a natural death, Brynhilda would perhaps be endrborin, Skv. 3. 44.

aptr-byggi, ja, m., esp. in pl. stern-sitters (opp. to frambyggjar) in a ship of war, Fms. ii. 312, Hkr. iii. 243.

aptr-dráttr, m. the undertow, outward suck of the tide, Barl. 130.

aptr-drepa, u, f. relapse, shock, adversity; meðan þeir vissu sér enga ván a., Bs. i. 752, Finnb. 312.

aptr-elding, f. = elding, dawning, Anal. 193.

aptr-ferð and aptr-för, f. return, Eg. 279.

aptr-færsla, u, f. bringing back, Gþl. 361.

aptr-ganga, u, f. [ganga aptr], a ghost, apparition, the French revenant; about this superstition vide Ísl. Þjóðs. i. 222–317, Grett. ch. 34–37 (the ghost Glám), Eb. ch. 34, 50–55, 63 (Thorolf Bægifót), Ld. ch. 17, Sd. ch. 17–22, 30 (Klaufi), Háv. 41, Flóam. ch. 28, etc. etc.

aptr-gangr, m. = aptrganga, Grett. ch. 78 new Ed.

aptr-gjald, n. repayment, Bs. i. 734.

aptr-hald, n. a checking, holding back. COMPD: aptrhalds-maðr, m. who impedes a thing, Bs. i. 733.

aptr-hlaup, n. a hurling back, recoil, Fs. 158.

aptr-hnekking, f. a bending backwards, metaph., Fms. ix. 509.

aptr-hryggr, m. the chine, the lower part of the back, of a slaughtered animal, Dipl. vi.

aptr-hvarf, n. a turning back, return, Sturl. ii. 16; illr aftrhvarfs, disinclined to face the enemy again, Fms. vii. 325. β. relapse, Fms. ii. 47, where it is used of apostasy. Since the Reformation always used by theologians in a good sense, repentance, turning away from sin; iðran ok a. are freq. used together, iðran being repentance, the internal condition, aptrhvarf the movement away from sin, or the repentance put into act.

aptr-kall, n. withdrawal, recalling, Fr.

aptr-kast, n. a hurling back, repulse, Stj. 288.

aptr-kemba, u, f. one whose hair is combed back, Finnb. 250.

aptr-kváma and later form aptrkoma, u, f. return, coming back, Sks. 550 B; Fms. xi. 312, a vellum MS. of the end of the 15th century, has aptrkoma.

aptr-kvæmt, n. adj. return from exile, used substantively as a law term in the phrase, eiga (eigi) a., of a temporary or lifelong exile; þat varðar skóggang… eigi eigi a. nema lof biskupa ok lögréttumanna fáist framar, … not to be suffered to return from exile unless the leave of the bishops and the legislature be first got, Grág. i. 347: in a gener. sense, sýnist mér sem engum várum sé a., ef hans er eigi hefnt, it seems to me that not one of us can shew his face again, if he be not revenged, Glúm. 332.

aptr-lausn, f. redemption, ransom, Hom. 118; a law term, right of redeeming, Gþl. 304: hence COMPD aptrlausnar-jörð, f. land which is redeemable, N. G. L. i. 344.

aptr-mjór, adj. tapering behind, Edda 40 (of the salmon’s tail).

aptr-mundr, m. [munr], in the phrase, vera a. at e-u, to want a thing back again, Fas. iii. 278.

aptr-reka and aptr-reki, adj. ind. (navig.), verðr a., to be driven back by stress of weather, Landn. 148, Bs. i. 76, Grág. i. 274; a. skip, Ann. 1347, Bs. Laur. S.

aptr-rekstr, rs, m. a driving back, repulse, Grág. ii. 230 (of cattle grazing).

aptr-sjá, f. regret, longing, v. eptirsjá.

aptr-skipan, f. a replacement, Thom.

aptr-velting, f. recoil, rolling back, Stj. 49.

ap-ynja, u, f. [old Swed. epin], a she-ape, Stj. 68, 95, Sks. 115.

AR, n. (qs. arð?), an atom in a sunbeam, mote; hvernig viltú þekkja syndina nema Guðs orð sýni þér hana … arið eðr agnirnar í loptinu fáum vér ekki séð nema í sólar-geislanum? Vídal. i. 276; Germ. sonnenstäubchen, vide Vídal. Post. 276 (Ed. 1829), Njóla.

arða, u, f. medic. scabrum, a little wart.

arðga, að, to make upright, and arðigr, adj. erect, arduus, v. örð-.

ARÐR, rs, m. [Lat. aratrum; Gael. arad; cp. erja, Ulf. arjan, arare; A. S. erian; Old Engl. ear, etc.; in Norse ar or al is a small plough], a sort of plough, probably different in size and shape from plógr, which is a later word, of foreign stamp, as are all that have p for their initial letter. The poem Rm. distinguishes between both, göra arðr (acc.) and keyra plóg, 19. The first colonisers of Iceland used arðr, as shewn by Landn. 35 (relating events of the year 875); hann átti einn oxa, ok lét hann þrælana draga arðrinn; eykr fyrir plógi eðr arðri (plough or ard), N. G. L. ii. 115; ef maðr stel jarni af arðri eðr plógi, id.; höggva má maðr sér til plógs eðr arðs (gen. dropping the radical r), id.; draga arðr, Al. 52; arðri (dat.), Karl. 471, Mar. (Fr.), Stj.: um allt þat er miklu varðar er betri sígandi arðr en svífandi (emend. of Dr. Hallgrim Scheving), a proverb, better a slow but deep trenching plough than a quick and shallow one, Bs. i. 139; the old arðr was probably bulky and heavy. 2. metaph. in Icel. at present arðr (gen. arðs, arðar, Snót 90), as well as plógr, means gain, produce, profit: arðsamr, adj. profitable. COMPD: arðs-geldingr, m. a plough-ox, Fms. vii. 21.

arðr-för, f. a plough-furrow, trench, Stj. 593, 1 Kings xviii. 32.

arðr-gangr, m. a coulter, goad, N. G. L. iii. 198.

arðr-járn, n. a coulter, ox goad, Stj. 386, Judges iii. 31.

arðr-oxi, a, m. a plough-ox, Grág. i. 502, Jb. 346.

arfa, u, f. [Ulf. arbio], an heiress, N. G. L. i. 191 (rare).

arf-borinn, adj. part., prop. a legitimate son or daughter, Fms. i. 86; defined, sá er a. er kominn er til alls réttar, N. G. L. ii. 211. Freq. spelt árborinn by suppressing the f (so N. G. L. ii. 50), and used in Norse law of a freeman, v. the quotation above from N. G. L., which clearly shews the identity of the two words, i. 171; algildis vitni tveggja manna árborinna ok skilvænna, ii. 211: the alliterated phrase alnir ok árbornir (the phrase aldir og óbornir may be a corruption from arb.), freeborn and freebred, 310. The passage in Stor. verse 2 is in Lex. Poët. explained by olim ablatus: the poet probably meant to say genuine, pure, in a metaph. sense, of the true poetic beverage, not the adulterated one, mentioned in the Edda 49; the cup from the right cask.

arf-gengr, adj. entitled to inherit, legitimate heir, Grág. i. 178, Eg. 345.

arfi, a, m. [Ulf. arbia; O. H. G. arpis, erpo; Germ. erbe; Hel. abaro = filius; A. S. eafora, afora per metath.], an heir, heiress (and poët. a son in gener.): with gen. pers., arfar veganda, his heirs, Gþl. 131; þar næst var Ósk hennar a., her heiress, heir to her property, Ld. 58; Guðríðr ok Þorgerðr lögligir arfar (heiresses) Sölva, Dipl. v. 1: with gen. of the thing, er hann þá a. hvársttveggja, heir of both things, Grág. i. 221; a. óðala, Gþl. 294; a. at e-u, heir to a property, Sturl. ii. 197. Not freq., erfingi being the common word. II. an ox, bull, Edda (Gl.), vide arfr.

ARFI, sometimes spelt arbi, a, m. chickweed, alsine media; arfa-sáta, u, f. a weed rick, Nj. 194.

arfingi, ja, m. an heir, Eg. (in a verse), vide erfingi.

arf-kaup, n. sum paid for inheritance, Grág. i. 200.

arf-leiða, dd, to adopt as an heir, = ættleiða, Jb. 144 A.

arf-leiðing, f. adoption, Ann. 1271.

arf-nyti, ja, m. (poët.) an heir, Eb. (in a verse).

ARFR, s, m. [Ulf. arbi, neut.; A. S. yrfe.] It originally meant cattle, pecus, pecunia, as may be inferred from the A. S. orf = pecus, cattle, and yrfe = opes; Hel. arf and urf; Ormul. errfe; v. Ihre, Glossar., and Grimm R. A. p. 467. Edda (Gl.) also mentions an arfi or arfr, bos, v. above. I. inheritance, patrimony; taka arf eptir e-n, Grág. i. 170, 178; hon á allan arf eptir mik, is my sole heir, Nj. 3, Eb. 162, Gþl. 252. II. a bull, v. above. COMPDS: arfs-skipti, n. and arfs-sókn, f., v. arf- below, Gþl. 267, Grág. i. 170. arfa-þáttr, m. section of law treating of inheritance, Grág. i. 170.

arf-rán, n. injustice, cheating in matters of inheritance, Háv. 52.

arf-ræning, f. id., Mar. 656.

arf-ræningr, m. one stripped of his inheritance, Al. 105.

arf-sal, n. cession of right of inheritance, Grág. i. 205, 225, 227, (cp. branderfð, Dan. fledföre, mod. Icel. prófenta, and gefa prófentu sína); a law term, to hand over one’s own property to another man on condition of getting succour and support for life. In the time of the Commonwealth, arfsal had a political sense, and was a sort of ‘clientela;’ the chiefs caused rich persons, freedmen, and monied men of low birth to bequeath them all their wealth, and in return supported them in lawsuits during life. Such is the case in Vápn. 13, Hænsaþór. S. ch. 7, Eb. ch. 31; eptir þat handsalaði Ulfarr (a wealthy freedman) Arnkatli fé sitt allt, ok gerðist hann (viz. Arnkell) þá varnaðarmaðr (protector) Úlfars: v. also Þórð. S., hann bjó á landi Skeggja ok hafði görzt arfsalsmaðr hans (his client), 50: it was humiliating; engar mátti hann (the bishop) ölmusur gefa af líkamlegri eign, heldr var hann haldinn sem arfsalsmaðr, Sturl. ii. 119. To the chiefs in olden times it was a source of wealth and influence, often in an unfair way. COMPDS: arfsals-maðr, m., v. above. arfsals-máldagi, a, m. a deed concerning arfsal, Grág. i. 227.

arf-skipti, n. sharing of arfr, Grág. i. 172, Gþl. 266, Fas. iii. 39.

arf-skot, n. fraud, cheating in matters of inheritance, Eb. 178, Grág. i. 202, 203, 267.

arf-sókn, f. a suit in a case of arfr, Gþl. 263.

arf-stóll, m. an hereditary throne, Eg. (in a verse).

arf-svik, n. pl. fraud, cheating in matters of arfr, Eb. 178, Gþl. 254, 292.

arf-svipting, f. disinheriting, cheating in matters of arfr, Stj. 425.

arf-tak, n. and arf-taka, u, f. the act of receiving arfsal; taka e-n arftaki, Grág. i. 267, 268, 187, 229. COMPD: arftöku-maðr, m. an heir, successor to an inheritance, Grág. i. 62, Sturl. i. 98, Fms. v. 53.

arf-takari, a, m. and arf-taki, a, m. = arftökumaðr, Jb. 148 A, N. G. L. i. 234, Barl. 199.

arf-tekinn, adj. part. taken by inheritance, Fms. xi. 306.

arf-tekja, u, f. = arftaka, Grág. i. 219. COMPD: arftekju-land, n. land taken by inheritance, patrimony, Fms. i. 117.

arf-tæki, n. = arftaka, Stj. 232.

arf-tækr, adj. = arfgengr, Eg. 343.

arfuni, a, m. [an old obsol. form], an heir, Edda 108 and in the compd skaporfoni (the vowel change is caused by the following o), legal heir, q. v.

arf-ván, f. hereditary expectancy, Grág. i. 200, Jb. 177, Sturl. i. 94.

arf-vörðr, m. [A. S. yrfeveard; Hel. erbivard], (poët.) an heir, Lex. Poët.

arf-þegi, ja, m. [cp. Ulf. arbinumja], (poët.) an heir, Id. 28.

arga-fas, n. [argr, craven, and fas = flas by dropping the l (?); flas, n. means praecipitatio, and flasa, að, precipitare, which are common words; this etymology is confirmed by the spelling of the word in Gþl. 188, where some of the MSS. have faas or fias, the last is perh. a false reading = flas; fas, n. gait, manner, is a modern word: v. Pál Vídal. in Skýr.; his etymology, however, is doubtless bad], a law term, a feint, a cowardly assault, an aiming at one’s body and drawing deadly weapons without carrying the threat into effect, termed ‘a coward’s assault;’ in Icel. it was punishable by fjörbaugsgarðr, cp. Grág.; ef maðr mundar til manns ok stöðvar sjálfr, ok varðar fjörbaugsgarð, ok á hinn eigi vígt í gegn (the injured party must not kill the offender on the spot) skal stefna heiman ok kveðja til níu heimilisbúa þess á þingi er sóttr er, Vsl. ch. 90: ef maðr hleypr at manni, ok heldr hann sér sjálfr; þat er a. ok er þat sektalaust (liable to no punishment, only a dishonourable act; so the Norse law), N. G. L. i. 164, Gþl. 188.

arga-skattr, m. an abusive word, a dog’s tax, Ölkofr. 36.

arg-hola, u, f. scortum, Hb. 31 (1865).

ARGR, adj. [Paul Diac. inertem et inutilem et vulgari verbo ‘arga,’ 6. 24; A. S. earg, ignavus; the Scottish arch or argh, v. Jamieson sub voce; and the mod. Engl. arch, archness; Germ. arg; Gr. αργός], emasculate, effeminate, an abusive term; hefir þú börn borit, ok hugða ek þat args aðal, Ls. 24; mik munu æsir argan kalla, ef ek bindast læt brúðarlíni, Þkv. 17: it is more abusive than thrall, cp. the proverb, þrællinn hefnir en argr aldri, a thrall takes revenge, but not the a., Grett. 92; and, argr er sá sem engu verst (a proverb), he is truly an ‘argr’ who does not defend himself; argr and ragr are synonymous, vide the Grág.: þau eru orð þrjrú er skóggang varða öll, ef maðr kallar mann ragan eðr stroðinn eðr sorðinn, ii. 147. 2. metaph. a wretch, craven, coward; örg vættr, Fas. ii. 254, Fs. 147: cp. ergi and úargr.

arg-skapr, m. cowardice, cowardliness, Fas. i. 487 (in a verse).

arg-vítugr, adj. infamous, (cant.)

ARI, a, m. [Ulf. ara; O. H. G. aro; cp. Germ. adler = edel-aro; cp. also the lengthened Icel. form örn, A. S. earn, Engl. earn], an eagle, rare and mostly in poetry; örn is the common word; Hom. 89, Stj. 71, Al. 160. In the Gloss. Royal Libr. Old Coll. Copenh. 1812 aquila is translated by ari. COMPD: ara-hreiðr, n. an eyrie, nest of an eagle, Fagrsk. 146. Ari is also a common pr. name.

arin-dómr m. gossip, ‘judgment at the hearth-side,’ Greg. 10; now palldómr.

arin-eldr, m. hearth-fire, Lat. focus; þeir eru a., there are three hearths (in a Norse dwelling), Gþl. 376.

arin-elja, u, f. a concubine if kept at home, med. Lat. focaria; the sense defined in N. G. L. i. 356, 16 (Norse).

arin-greypr, adj. occurs thrice in poetry as an epithet of the benches in a hall and of a helmet, encompassing the hearth, or shaped as an eagle’s bill, Akv. 1, 3. 17.

arin-haukr, m. a chimney-sitter, an old man; in the phrase, áttræðr er a. ok eldaskári, an octogenarian is an a. and a poker, Lex. Run.

arin-hella, u, f. [Norse aarhelle or aarstadhyll, the pavement around the hearth], hearth-stone; í a. þar í stofunni, Bs. i. 680. Now in Icel. used in nursery tales of treasures or the like hidden under the arinhella.

arin-kjóll, m. the ‘hearth-keel,’ a house, Yt.

ARINN s, m., dat. aarni = árni, Fs. 42, Rm. 2, [a word still freq. in Denmark and in Norway; Dan. arne, arnested; Norse aarstad, Ivar Aasen: in Icel. it is very rare], a hearth, Fs. (Vd.) 42; kom maðr um nóttina ok tók glæðr af árni, Sturl. ii. 101; þrjá vissa ek elda (fires), þrjá vissa ek arna (hearth-stones), Gh. 10; mæli malts af arni hverjum, viz. three for each farm (cp. arineldar, Gþl. 376), Hkr. ii. 384, Fms. x. 398, v. 101. 2. as a law term, used in the phrase, fara eldi ok arni, to remove one’s homestead, fire and hearth together, Grág. ii. 253, 334 (where iarni is a corrupt reading). Now in Icel. eldstó. 3. metaph. an elevated balcony, pavement, story, scaffold; stafir fjórir stóðu upp ok syllur upp í milli, ok var þar a. á, Fms. viii. 429; í miðju húsinu var a. víðr (raised floor) … en uppi á arninum var sæng mikil, v. 339, Karl. 190, Stj. 308. β. of a ship, a hatchway, Edda (Gl.) COMPDS: arins-horn, n. chimney-piece, chimney-corner; hann á mold at taka sem í lögum er mælt, taka at arinshornum fjórum ok í öndvegis sæti, of an act of conveyance, N. G. L. i. 96, cp. Eb. ch. 4, Landn. 254: arinn is symbolical of the sacredness of home, just as stalli is of a temple, or an altar of a church: the phrase, at drekka at arinshorni, Hkr. i. 43, reminds one of the large chimney-corners in old English farms. arins-járn, n. iron belonging to a hearth, a poker, used in ordeals (járnburðr); karlmaðr skal ganga til arinsjárns en kona til ketiltaks, the man shall betake him to the poker and the woman shall grasp the kettle, N. G. L. i. 389.

arin-nefja, u, f. eagle-nose, name of an ogress, Rm.

ARKA, að, to limp, hobble, of a sluggish gait; láta arka at auðnu, to let matters take their own course, slow and sure like fate, Nj. 185. v. l., Am. 96.

arka- or arkar-, what belongs to a chest, v. örk.

arma, u, f. misery (απ. λεγ.), Mart. 123; Martinus sá örmu á héranum; now, sjá aumr á e-m, to feel pity for: cp. Germ. arm (poor, wretched).

arm-baugr, m. an armlet, Ls. 13.

arm-brysti, n. [Engl. armbrust; old Dan. arburst], a cross bow, Fas. i. 503 (for. word).

arm-fylking, f. a wing (armr) of an army, Fms. x. 403; more freq. fylkingar armr.

armingi, ja, m., in Norse sense, a poor fellow, Hom. 117, 119: in Icel. a wretch.

arm-leggr, jar, and s, m. the arm, lacertus; hann fékk hvergi sveigt hans armleggi, Grett. 61; ofan eptir a. mjök at ölnboga, Sturl. i. 71, Symb. 25, Stj. 265. Exod. vi. 1 (with a strong band), Anecd. 4 (where it is opp. to handleggr, the fore arm). Sometimes armleggr and handleggr are used indifferently; ek mun bera þik á handlegg mér, I will carry thee on my arm; but below, ok bar þær í vinstra a. sér, Grett. ch. 67, Karl. 517.

armliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. pitifully, Fms. iv. 56, Gkv. 3. 11.

ARMR, s, m. [Lat. armus; Ulf. arms; Engl. arm; A. S. earm; Germ. arm]. 1. Lat. brachium in general, the arm from the shoulder to the wrist; sometimes also used partic. of the upper arm or fore arm; the context only can decide. It is rare in Icel.; in prose armleggr and handleggr are more common; but it is often used in dignified style or in a metaph. sense; undir brynstúkuna í arminn, lacertus (?), Fms. viii. 387; gullhringr á armi, in the wrist, Odd. 18; þá lýsti af höndum hennar bæði lopt ok lög, Edda 22, where the corresponding passage of the poem Skm. reads armar, armar lýsa, her arms beamed, spread light. β. poët. phrases; sofa e-m á armi, leggja arma um, to embrace, cp. Germ. umarmen; koma á arm e-m, of a woman marrying, to come into one’s embraces, Fms. xi. 100, Lex. Poët. Rings and bracelets are poët. called armlog, armblik, armlinnr, armsól, armsvell, the light, snake, ice of the arm or wrist; armr sólbrunninn, the sunburnt arms, Rm. 10. 2. metaph. the wing of a body, opp. to its centre; armar úthafsins, the arms of the ocean … the bays and firths, Rb. 466; armar krossins, Hom. 103; a wing of a house or building, Sturl. ii. 50; borgar armr, the flanks of a castle, Fms. v. 280; the ends, extremities of a wave, Bs. ii. 50; the yard-arm, Mag. 6; esp. used of the wings of a host in battle (fylkingar armr), í annan arm fylkingar, Fms. i. 169, 170, vi. 406, 413, Fær. 81; in a sea-fight, of the line of ships, Fms. vi. 315; the ends of a bed, sofa upp í arminn, opp. to til fóta; and in many other cases.

ARMR, adj. [Ulf. arms; A. S. earm; Germ. arm], never occurs in the sense of Lat. inops, but only metaph. (as in Goth.), viz.: 1. Norse, poor, in a good sense (as in Germ.); þær armu sálur, poor souls, Hom. 144; sá armi maðr, poor fellow, 118. 2. Icel. in a bad sense, wretched, wicked, nearly always used so, where armr is an abusive, aumr a benevolent term: used in swearing, at fara, vera, manna armastr; þá mælti hann til Sigvalda, at hann skyldi fara m. a., Fms. xi. 141; en allir mæltu, at Egill skyldi fara allra manna a., Eg. 699; enn armi Bjarngrímr, the wretch, scoundrel Bjarngrim, Fær. 239; völvan arma, the accursed witch, Fms. iii. 214; þetta arma naut, Fas. iii. 498; örm vættr, Gkv. 1. 32, Þkv. 29, Sdm. 23, Og. 32; en arma kerling, the vile old witch, Grett. 154, Fas. i. 60; Inn armi, in exclamations, the wretch!

arm-skapaðr, adj. part. [A. S. earmsceapen], poor, miserable, misshapen, Hom. 114, 107 (Norse).

arm-vitugr, adj. (in Mart. 123 spelt harmv.), charitable, compassionate; Glúmr er a. ok vel skapi farinn, Rd. 308; er hann lítt a., hard-hearted, Sturl. iii. 209; a. við fátækja menn, Bs. i. 356.

ar-mæða, u, f. (qs. ör-mæða), distress, toil, Fas. i. 405, Bs. i. 849.

arnar-, belonging to an eagle, v. örn.

arn-höfði, a, m. eagle-head, a name of Odin, Edda (Gl.)

arning, f. [erja, arare], earing, tillage, ploughing, Bs. i. 350, 732. 17.

arn-kell, m. an eagle, Edda (Gl.): a pr. name, Eb., Landn.

arn-súgr, m. (an απ. λεγ.) periphr. from the poem Haustlöng, the ‘sough’ (Scot.) or rushing sound caused by the flight of an eagle (örn), Edda 16.

ARR, n. [Sanskr. arus, Engl. and Scot. arr], a scar, v. örr.

ars, m. podex, (later by metath. rass, Bs. i. 504. l. 2, etc.), Sturl. ii. 17, 39 C; ekki er þat sem annarr smali, engi er skaptr fyrir a. aptr hali, not like other cattle, having no tail, in a libel of the year 1213, Sturl. ii. 17. COMPD: ars-görn, f. gut of the anus, Nj. rass.

ARTA, u, f. a bird, = Swed. årta, anas querquedula Linn., Edda (Gl.)

articulera, að, to articulate (Lat. word), Stj.

asalabia, u, f. an animal, perh. the sable; mjúkt skinn af dýri því er a. heitir, Bær. 19.

ASI, a, m. hurry (mod. word); cp. yss and ös.

ASKA, u, f. [a common Teut. word], ashes, lit. and metaph., Fms. i. 9, Stj. 208; mold ok aska, Nj. 161, 208; dust eitt ok a., 655 xi. 3: pl. öskum, Stj. 74 (transl. from Latin). COMPDS: ösku-bakaðr, part. baked in ashes, Stj. 393. Judg. vii. ösku-dagr, m. Ash-Wednesday, Fms. viii: also ösku-óðinsdagr, Stj. 40. ösku-dreifðr, part. besprinkled with ashes, Sturl. ii. 186. ösku-dyngja, u, f. a heap of ashes, Fas. iii. 217. ösku-fall, n. a fall of ashes (from a volcano), Ann. 1300. ösku-fölr, adj. ashy-pale, pale as ashes, Mag. 4. ösku-haugr, m. a heap of ashes, Eb. 94. ösku-stó, f. ash-pit.

ask-limar, f. pl. branches of an ash, Hkv. 2. 48.

ask-maðr, m. [A. S. äscmen, vide Adam Brem. below], a viking, pirate, a cognom., Eg., Fms., Hkr.

ASKR, s, m. [A. S. äsc, whence many Engl. local names; Germ. esche], an ash, fraxinus, Edda (Gl.); a. ygdrasils, Edda 10, 11, Pr. 431. 2. anything made of ash: α. a spear, prop. ashen spear shaft (cp. δόρυ μείλινον, εϋμμελίης), Þiðr. 304, Edda (Gl.) β. a small ship, a bark (built of ash, cp. δόρυ, abies); en þeir sigla burt á einum aski, Fas. ii. 206, i. 421: it appears only two or three times in Icel. prose writers; hence may be explained the name of ascmanni, viking, pirate, in Adam Brem. ch. 212 [A. S. äscmen], cp. askmaðr. γ. a small vessel of wood (freq. in Icel., and used instead of deep plates, often with a cover (asklok) in carved work); stórir askar fullir af skyri, Eg. 549, 550; cp. kyrnu-askr, skyr-askr. δ. a Norse measure for liquids, equal to four bowls, or sixteen justur, Gþl. 525, N. G. L. i. 328, H. E. i. 396, Fms. vii. 203. COMPDS: aska-smiðr, m. ship-wright (vide β.), Eg. 102. aska-spillir, m. a ship-spoiler, i. e. a pirate, a cognom., Glúm., Landn.; v. l. akraspillir, less correctly.

askraki, a, m. probably a Finnish word; bjór (beaver), savala (sable) ok askraka (?), some animal with precious fur, Eg. 57; an απ. λεγ.

askran, f. [askrast, to shudder, Ivar Aasen], horror, v. afskr-, B. K. 107.

ask-viðr, ar, m. ash-tree, Str. 17.

asna, u, f., Lat. asina, a she-ass, Stj. 183. COMPD: ösnuligr, adj., ö. steinn, 655. Matth. xviii. 6, transl. of ονικος λίθος, the upper millstone.

ASNI, a, m., Lat. asinus, an ass, Mart. 131, Fas. iii. 416, Band. 12, = asellus, 1812. 16. COMPDS: asna-höfuð, n. donkey-head, Stj. asna-kjálki, a, m. jawbone of an ass, Stj., Greg. 48.

aspiciens-bók, f. a service-book, Vm. 6, 117, 139, Am. 35, Pm. D. I., etc.

aspiciens-skrá, f. id., Pm. 104, 75, etc.

ASSA, u, f. (qs. arnsa), an eagle.

AT and að, prep., often used ellipt. dropping the case and even merely as an adverb, [Lat. ad; Ulf. at = πρός and παρά, A. S. ät; Engl. at; Hel. ad = apud; O. H. G. az; lost in mod. Germ., and rare in Swed. and Dan.; in more freq. use in Engl. than any other kindred language, Icel. only excepted]:—the mod. pronunciation and spelling is (); this form is very old, and is found in Icel. vellum MSS. of the 12th century, e. g. aþ, 623. 60; yet in earlier times it was sounded with a tenuis, as we may infer from rhymes, e. g. jöfurr hyggi at | hve ek yrkja fat, Egill: Sighvat also makes it rhyme with a t. The verse by Thorodd—þar vastu at er fjáðr klæðið þvat (Skálda 162)—is hardly intelligible unless we accept the spelling with an aspirate (), and say that þvað is = þvá = þváði, lavabat; it may be that by the time of Thorodd and Ari the pure old pronunciation was lost, or is ‘þvat’ simply the A. S. þvât, secuit? The Icelanders still, however, keep the tenuis in compounds before a vowel, or before h, v, or the liquids l, r, thus—atyrða, atorka, athöfn, athugi, athvarf, athlægi; atvinna, atvik; atlaga, atlíðanði (slope), atriði, atreið, atróðr: but aðdjúpr, aðfinsla (critic), aðferð, aðkoma, aðsókn, aðsúgr (crowding), aðgæzla. In some words the pronunciation is irregular, e. g. atkvæði not aðkv-; atburðr, but aðbúnaðr; aðhjúkran not athjúkran; atgörvi not aðgörfi. At, to, towards; into; against; along, by; in regard to; after.

Mostly with dat.; rarely with acc.; and sometimes ellipt.—by dropping the words ‘home,’ ‘house,’ or the like—with gen.

WITH DAT.

A. LOC. I. WITH MOTION; gener. the motion to the borders, limits of an object, and thus opp. to frá: 1. towards, against, with or without the notion of arrival, esp. connected with verbs denoting motion (verba movendi et eundi), e. g. fara, ganga, koma, lúta, snúa, rétta at…; Otkell laut at Skamkatli, O. louted (i. e. bowed down) towards S., Nj. 77, Fms. xi. 102; sendimaðrinn sneri (turned) hjöltum sverðsins at konungi, towards the king, i. 15; hann sneri egginni at Ásgrími, turned the edge towards A., Nj. 220; rétta e-t at e-m, to reach, hand over, Ld. 132; ganga at, to step towards, Ísl. ii. 259. 2. denoting proximity, close up to, up to; Brynjólfr gengr … allt at honum, B. goes quite up to him, Nj. 58; Gunnarr kom þangat at þeim örunum, G. reached them even there with his arrows, 115; þeir kómust aldri at honum, they could never get near him, to close quarters, id.; reið maðr at þeim (up to them), 274; þeir höfðu rakit sporin allt at (right up to) gammanum, Fms. i. 9; komu þeir at sjó fram, came down to the sea, Bárð. 180. 3. without reference to the space traversed, to or at; koma at landi, to land, Ld. 38, Fms. viii. 358; ríða at dyrum, Boll. 344; hlaupa at e-m, to run up to, run at, Fms. vii. 218, viii. 358; af sjáfarganginum er hann gekk at landinu, of the surf dashing against the shore, xi. 6; vísa ólmum hundi at manni, to set a fierce hound at a man, Grág. ii. 118; leggja e-n at velli, to lay low, Eg. 426, Nj. 117; hníga at jörðu, at grasi, at moldu, to bite the dust, to die, Njarð. 378; ganga at dómi, a law term, to go into court, of a plaintiff, defendant, or bystander, Nj. 87 (freq.) 4. denoting a motion along, into, upon; ganga at stræti, to walk along the street, Korm. 228, Fms. vii. 39; at ísi, on the ice, Skálda 198, Fms. vii. 19, 246, viii. 168, Eb. 112 new Ed. (á is perh. wrong); máttu menn ganga bar yfir at skipum einum, of ships alone used as a bridge, Fas. i. 378; at höfðum, at nám, to trample on the slain on the battle-field, Lex. Poët.; at ám, along the rivers; at merkiósum, at the river’s mouth, Grág. ii. 355; at endilöngu baki, all along its back, Sks. 100. 5. denoting hostility, to rush at, assault; renna at, hlaupa at, ganga, fara, ríða, sækja, at e-m, (v. those words), whence the nouns atrenna, athlaup, atgangr, atför, atreið, atsókn, etc. β. metaph., kom at þeim svefnhöfgi, deep sleep fell on them, Nj. 104. Esp. of weather, in the impers. phrase, hríð, veðr, vind, storm görir at e-m, to be overtaken by a snow storm, gale, or the like; görði þá at þeim þoku mikla, they were overtaken by a thick fog, Bárð. 171. 6. denoting around, of clothing or the like; bregða skikkju at höfði sér, to wrap his cloak over his head, Ld. 62; vefja motri at höfði sér, to wrap a snood round her head, 188; sauma at, to stick, cling close, as though sewn on; sauma at höndum sér, of tight gloves, Bs. i. 453; kyrtill svá þröngr sem saumaðr væri at honum, as though it were stitched to him, Nj. 214; vafit at vándum dreglum, tight laced with sorry tags, id.; hosa strengd fast at beini, of tight hose, Eg. 602; hann sveipar at sér iðrunum ok skyrtunni, he gathers up the entrails close to him and the skirt too, Gísl. 71; laz at síðu, a lace on the side, to keep the clothes tight, Eg. 602. β. of burying; bera grjót at einum, to heap stones upon the body, Eg. 719; var gör at þeim dys or grjóti, Ld. 152; gora kistu at líki, to make a coffin for a body, Eb. 264, Landn. 56, Ld. 142. γ. of summoning troops or followers; stefna at sér mönnum, to summon men to him, Nj. 104; stefna at sér liði, Eg. 270; kippa mönnum at sér, to gather men in haste, Ld. 64. 7. denoting a business, engagement; ríða at hrossum, at sauðum, to go looking after after horses, watching sheep, Glúm. 362, Nj. 75; fara at fé, to go to seek for sheep, Ld. 240; fara at heyi, to go a-haymaking, Dropl. 10; at veiðum, a-hunting; at fuglum, a-fowling; at dýrum, a-sbooting; at fiski, a-fishing; at veiðiskap, Landn. 154, Orkn. 416 (in a verse), Nj. 25; fara at landskuldum, to go a-collecling rents, Eg. 516; at Finnkaupum, a-marketing with Finns, 41; at féföngum, a-plundering, Fms. vii. 78; ganga at beina, to wait on guests, Nj. 50; starfa at matseld, to serve at table, Eb. 266; hitta e-n at nauðsynjum, on matters of business; at máli, to speak with one, etc., Fms. xi. 101; rekast at e-m, to pursue one, ix. 404; ganga at liði sér, to go suing for help, Grág. ii. 384. β. of festivals; snúa, fá at blóti, veizlu, brullaupi, to prepare for a sacrificial banquet, wedding, or the like, hence at-fangadagr, Eb. 6, Ld. 70; koma at hendi, to happen, befall; ganga at sínu, to come by one’s own, to take it, Ld. 208; Egill drakk hvert full er at honum kom, drained every horn that came to him, Eg. 210; komast at keyptu, to purchase dearly, Húv. 46. 8. denoting imaginary motion, esp. of places, cp. Lat. spectare, vergere ad…, to look or lie towards; horfði botninn at höfðanum, the bight of the bay looked toward the headland, Fms. i. 340, Landn. 35; also, skeiðgata liggr at læknum, leads to the brook, Ísl. ii. 339; á þann arminn er vissi at sjánum, on that wing which looked toward the sea, Fms. viii. 115; sár þau er horft höfðu at Knúti konungi, xi. 309. β. even connected with verbs denoting motion; Gilsáreyrr gengr austan at Fljótinu, G. extends, projects to F. from the east, Hrafh. 25; hjá sundi því, er at gengr þingstöðinni, Fms. xi. 85. II. WITHOUT MOTION; denoting presence at, near, by, at the side of, in, upon; connected with verbs like sitja, standa, vera…; at kirkju, at church, Fms. vii. 251, K. f). K. 16, Ld. 328, Ísl. ii. 270, Sks. 36; vera at skála, at húsi, to be in, at home, Landn. 154; at landi, Fms. i. 82; at skipi, on shipboard, Grág. i. 209, 215; at oldri, at a banquet, inter pocula; at áti, at dinner, at a feast, inter edendum, ii. 169, 170; at samförum ok samvistum, at public meetings, id.; at dómi, in a court; standa (to take one’s stand) norðan, sunnan, austan, vestan at dómi, freq. in the proceedings at trials in lawsuits, Nj.; at þingi, present at the parliament, Grág. i. 142; at lögbergi, o n the hill of laws, 17, Nj.; at baki e-m, at the back of. 2. denoting presence, partaking in; sitja at mat, to sit at meat, Fms. i. 241; vera at veizlu, brullaupi, to be at a banquet, nuptials, Nj. 51, Ld. 70: a law term, vera at vígi, to be an accessory in manslaying, Nj. 89, 100; vera at e-u simply means to be about, be busy in, Fms. iv. 237; standa at máli, to stand by one in a case, Grág. ii. 165, Nj. 214; vera at fóstri, to be fostered, Fms. i. 2; sitja at hégóma, to listen to nonsense, Ld. 322; vera at smíð, to be at one’s work, Þórð. 62: now absol., vera at, to go on with, be busy at. 3. the law term vinna eið at e-u has a double meaning: α. vinna eið at bók, at baugi, to make an oath upon the book by laying the band upon it, Landn. 258, Grág., Nj.; cp. Vkv. 31, Gkv. 3. 3, Hkv. 2. 29, etc.: ‘við’ is now used in this sense. β. to confirm a fact (or the like) by an oath, to swear to, Grág. i. 9, 327. γ. the law phrase, nefna vátta at e-u, of summoning witnesses to a deed, fact, or the like; nefna vátta at benjum, to produce evidence, witnesses as to the wounds, Nj., Grág.; at görð, Eg. 738; at svörum, Grág. i. 19: this summoning of witnesses served in old lawsuits the same purpose as modern pleadings and depositions; every step in a suit to be lawful must be followed by such a summoning or declaration. 4. used ellipt., vera at, to be about, to be busy at; kvalararnir er at vóru at pína hann, who were tormenting him; þar varstu at, you were there present, Skálda 162; at várum þar, Gísl. (in a verse): as a law term ‘vera at’ means to be guilty, Glúm. 388; vartattu at þar, Eg. (in a verse); hence the ambiguity of Glum’s oath, vask at þar, I was there present: var þar at kona nokkur (was there busy) at binda sár manna, Fms. v. 91; hann var at ok smíðaði skot, Rd. 313; voru Varbelgir at (about) at taka af, þau lög …, Fms. ix. 512; ek var at ok vafk, I was about weaving, xi. 49; þeir höfðu verit at þrjú sumur, they had been busy at it for three summers, x. 186 (now very freq.); koma at, come in, to arrive unexpectedly; Gunnarr kom at í því, G. came in at that moment; hvaðan komtú nú at, whence did you come? Nj. 68, Fms. iii. 200. 5. denoting the kingdom or residence of a king or princely person; konungr at Danmörk ok Noregi, king of…, Fms. i. 119, xi. 281; konungr, jarl, at öllum Noregi, king, earl, over all N., íb. 3, 13, Landn. 25; konungr at Dyflinni, king of Dublin, 25; but í or yfir England!, Eg. 263: cp. the phrase, sitja at landi, to reside, of a king when at home, Hkr. i. 34; at Joini, Fms. xi. 74: used of a bishop; biskup at Hólum, bishop of Hólar, Íb. 18, 19; but biskup í Skálaholti, 19: at Rómi, at Rome, Fbr. 198. 6. in denoting a man’s abode (vide p. 5, col. 1, l. 27), the prep. ‘at’ is used where the local name implies the notion of by the side of, and is therefore esp. applied to words denoting a river, brook, rock, mountain, grove, or the like, and in some other instances, by, at, e. g. at Hofi (a temple), Landn. 198; at Borg (a castle), 57; at Helgafelli (a mountain), Eb. constantly so; at Mosfelli, Landn. 190; at Hálsi (a hill), Fms. xi. 22; at Bjargi, Grett. 90; Hálsum, Landn. 143; at Á (river), 296, 268; at Bægisá, 212; Giljá, 332; Myrká, 211; Vatnsá, id.; þverá, Glúm. 323; at Fossi (a ‘force’ or waterfall), Landn. 73; at Lækjamoti (waters-meeting), 332; at Hlíðarenda (end of the lithe or hill), at Bergþórshváli, Nj.; at Lundi (a grove), at Melum (sandhill), Landn. 70: the prep. ‘á’ is now used in most of these cases, e. g. á Á, á Hofi, Helgafelli, Felli, Hálsi, etc. β. particularly, and without any regard to etymology, used of the abode of kings or princes, to reside at; at Uppsölum, at Haugi, Alreksstöðum, at Hlöðum, Landn., Fms. γ. konungr lét kalla at stofudyrum, the king made a call at the hall door, Eg. 88; þeir kölluðu at herberginu, they called at the inn, Fms. ix. 475. 7. used ellipt. with a gen., esp. if connected with such words as gista, to be a guest, lodge, dine, sup (of festivals or the like) at one’s home; at Marðar, Nj. 4; at hans, 74; þingfesti at þess bóanda, Grág. i. 152; at sín, at one’s own home, Eg. 371, K. Þ. K. 62; hafa náttstað at Freyju, at the abode of goddess Freyja, Eg. 603; at Ránar, at Ran’s, i. e. at Ran’s house, of drowned men who belong to the queen of the sea, Ran, Eb. 274; at hins heilaga Ólafs konungs, at St. Olave’s church, Fms. vi. 63: cp. ad Veneris, εις Κίμωνος.

B. TEMP. I. at, denoting a point or period of time; at upphafi, at first, in the beginning, Ld. 104; at lyktum, at síðustu, at lokum, at last; at lesti, at last, Lex. Poët., more freq. á lesti; at skilnaði, at parting, at last, Band. 3; at fornu, in times of yore, formerly, Eg. 267, D. I. i. 635; at sinni, as yet, at present; at nýju, anew, of present time; at eilífu, for ever and ever; at skömmu, soon, shortly, Ísl. ii. 272, v. l. II. of the very moment when anything happens, the beginning of a term; denoting the seasons of the year, months, weeks, the hours of the day; at Jólum, at Yule, Nj. 46; at Pálmadegi, on Palm Sunday, 273; at Páskum, at Easter; at Ólafsvöku, on St. Olave’s eve, 29th of July, Fms.; at vetri, at the beginning of the winter, on the day when winter sets in, Grág. 1. 151; at sumarmálum, at vetrnáttum; at Tvímánaði, when the Double month (August) begins, Ld. 256, Grág. i. 152; at kveldi, at eventide, Eg. 3; at því meli, at that time; at eindaga, at the term, 395; at eykð, at 4 o’clock p. m., 198; at öndverðri æfi Abra hams, Ver. II; at sinni, now at once, Fms. vi. 71; at öðruhverju, every now and then. β. where the point of time is marked by some event; at þingi, at the meeting of parliament (18th to the 24th of June), Ld. 182; at féránsdómi, at the court of execution, Grág. i. 132, 133; at þinglausnum, at the close of the parliament (beginning of July), 140; at festarmálum, eðr at eiginorði, at betrothal or nuptials, 174; at skilnaði, when they parted, Nj. 106 (above); at öllum minnum, at the general drinking of the toasts, Eg. 253; at fjöru, at the ebb; at flæðum, at flood tide, Fms. viii. 306, Orkn. 428; at hrörum, at an inquest, Grág. i. 50 (cp. ii. 141, 389); at sökum, at prosecutions, 30; at sinni, now, as yet, v. that word. III. ellipt., or adding ‘komanda’ or ‘er kemr,’ of the future time: 1. ellipt., komanda or the like being understood, with reference to the seasons of the year; at sumri, at vetri, at hausti, at vári, next summer, winter…, Ísl. ii. 242; at miðju sumri, at ári, at Midsummer, next year, Fas. i. 516; at miðjum vetri, Fms. iv. 237, 2. adding ‘komanda’ or ‘er kemr;’ at ári komanda, Bárð. 177; at vári er kemr, Dipl. iii. 6. IV. used with an absolute dat. and with a pres. part.: 1. with pres. part.; at morni komanda, on the coming morrow, Fms. i. 263; at sér lifanda, in vivo, in his life time, Grág. ii. 202; at þeim sofundum, illis dormientibus, Hkr. i. 234; at öllum ásjándum, in the sight of all, Fms. x. 329; at úvitanda konungi, illo nesciente, without his knowledge, 227; at áheyranda höfðingjanum, in the chief’s bearing, 235. 2. of past time with a past part. (Lat. abl. absol.); at hræjum fundnum, on the bodies being found, Grág. ii. 87; at háðum dómum ok föstu þingi, during the session, the courts being set, i. 484; at liðnum sex vikum, after six weeks past, Band. 13; at svá búnu, so goru, svá komnu, svá mæltu (Lat. quibus rebus gestis, dictis, quo facto, dicto, etc.), v. those words; at úreyndu, without trial, without put ting one to the test, Ld. 76; at honum önduðum, illo mortuo. 3. ellipt. without ‘at;’ en þessum hlutum fram komnum, when all this has been done, Eb. 132. V. in some phrases with a slight temp, notion; at görðum gildum, the fences being strong, Gþl. 387; at vörmu spori, at once, whilst the trail is warm; at úvörum, unawares, suddenly, Nj. 95, Ld. 132; at þessu, at this cost, on that condition, Eb. 38, Nj. 55; at illum leiki, to have a narrow escape, now við illan leik, Fms. ix. 473; at því, that granted, Grág. ii. 33: at því, at pessu, thereafter, thereupon, Nj. 76. 2. denoting succession, without interruption, one after another; hverr at öðrum, annarr maðr at öðrum, aðrir at öðrum; eina konu at annarri, Eg. 91, Fms. ii. 236, vi. 25, Bs. i. 22, 625. 80, H. E. i. 522.

C. METAPH. and in various cases: I. denoting a transformation or change into, to, with the notion of destruction; brenna at ösku, at köldum kolum, to burn to ashes, to be quite destroyed, Fms. i. 105, Edda 3, Sturl. ii. 51: with the notion of transformation or transfiguration, in such phrases as, verða at e-u, göra e-t at e-u, to turn it into: α. by a spell; verða at ormi, to become a snake, Fms. xi. 158; at flugdrekum, Gullþ. 7; urðu þau bönd at járni, Edda 40. β. by a natural process it can often be translated by an acc. or by as; göra e-n at urðarmanni, to make him an outlaw, Eg. 728; græða e-n at orkumlamanni, to heal him so as to maim him for life, of bad treatment by a leech, Eb. 244: in the law terms, sár görist at ben, a wound turning into a ben, proving to be mortal, Grág., Nj.; verða at ljúgvætti, to prove to be a false evidence, Grág. i. 44; verða at sætt, to turn into reconciliation, Fms. i. 13; göra e-t at reiði málum, to take offence at, Fs. 20; at nýjum tíðindum, to tell as news, Nj. 14; verða fátt at orðum, to be sparing of words, 18; kveðr (svá) at orði, to speak, utter, 10; verða at þrifnaði, to geton well, Fms. vii. 196: at liði, at skaða, to be a help or hurt to one; at bana, to cause one’s death, Nj. 223, Eg. 21, Grág. ii. 29: at undrum, at hlátri, to become a wonder, a laughing-stock, 623. 35, Eg. 553. II. denoting capacity, where it may be translated merely by as or for; gefa at Jólagjöf, to give for a Christmas-box, Eg. 516; at gjöf, for a present; at erfð, at láni, launum, as an inheritance, a loan; at kaupum ok sökum, for buying and selling, Ísl. ii. 223, Grág. i. 423; at solum, ii. 204; at herfangi, as spoil or plunder; at sakbótum, at niðgjöldum, as a compensation, weregeld, i. 339, ii. 171, Hkr. ii. 168; taka at gíslingu, to take as an hostage, Edda 15; eiga e-n at vin, at óvin, to have one as friend or foe, illt er at eiga þræl at eingavin, ‘tis ill to have a thrall for one’s bosom friend (a proverb), Nj. 77; fæða, eiga, at sonum (syni), to beget a son, Edda 8, Bs. i. 60 (but eiga at dóttur cannot be said); hafa möttul at yfirhöfn, Fms. vii. 201; verða nökkut at manni (mönnum), to turn out to be a worthy man; verða ekki at manni, to turn out a worthless person, xi. 79, 268. 2. in such phrases as, verða at orðum, to come towards, Nj. 26; var þat at erindum, Eg. 148; hafa at veizlum, to draw veizlur (dues) from, Fms. iv. 275, Eg. 647; gora e-t at álitum, to take it into consideration, Nj. 3. III. denoting belonging to, fitting, of parts of the whole or the like; vóru at honum (viz. the sword) hjölt gullbúin, the sword was ornamented with a hilt of gold, Ld. 330; umgörð at (belonging to) sverði, Fs. 97 (Hs.) in a verse; en ef mór er eigi at landinu, if there be no turf moor belonging to the land, Grág. ii. 338; svá at eigi brotnaði nokkuð at Orminum, so that no harm happened to the ship Worm, Fms. x. 356; hvatki er meiðir at skipinu eðr at reiðinu eðr at viðum, damage done t o …, Grág. ii. 403; lesta (to injure) hús at lásum, við eðr torfi, 110; ef land hefir batnað at húsum, if the land has been bettered as to its buildings, 210; cp. the phrase, göra at e-u, to repair: hamlaðr at höndum eðr fótum, maimed as to hands or feet, Eg. 14; heill at höndum en hrumr at fótum, sound in band, palsied in foot, Fms. vii. 12; lykill at skrá, a key belonging, fitting, to the latch; hurð at húsi; a key ‘gengr at’ (fits) skrá; and many other phrases. 2. denoting the part by which a thing is held or to which it belongs, by; fá, taka at…, to grasp by …; þú tókt við sverði hans at hjöltunum, you took it by the bill, Fms. i. 15; draga út björninn at hlustum, to pull out the bear by the ears, Fas. ii. 237; at fótum, by the feet, Fms. viii. 363; mæla (to measure) at hrygg ok at jaðri, by the edge or middle of the stuff, Grág. i. 498; kasta e-m at höfði, head foremost, Nj. 84; kjósa e-n at fótum, by the feet alone, Edda 46; hefja frændsemi at bræðrum, eða at systkynum, to reckon kinship by the brother’s or the sister’s side, Grág. i. 28; kjósa at afli, at álitum, by strength, sight, Gs. 8, belongs rather to the following. IV. in respect of, as regards, in regard to, as to; auðigr at fé, wealthy of goods, Nj. 16, 30, 51; beztir hestar at reið, the best racehorses, 186; spekingr at viti, a man of great intellect, Ld. 124; vænn (fagr) at áliti, fair of face, Nj. 30, Bs. i. 61; kvenna vænst at ásjónu ok vits munum, of surpassing beauty and intellect, Ld. 122; fullkominn at hyggju, 18; um fram aðra menn at vinsældum ok harðfengi, of surpassing popularity and hardihood, Eb. 30. 2. a law term, of challenging jurors, judges, or the like, on account of, by reason of; ryðja (to challenge) at mægðum, guðsifjum, frændsemi, hrörum …; at leiðarlengd, on account of distance, Grág. i. 30, 50, Nj. (freq.) 3. in arithm. denoting proportion; at helmingi, þriðjungi, fjórðungi, tíunda hluta, cp. Lat. ex asse, quadrante, for the half, third… part; máttr skal at magni (a proverb), might and main go together, Hkr. ii. 236; þú munt vera at því mikill fræðimaðr á kvæði, in the same proportion, as great, Fms. vi. 391, iii. 41; at e-s hluta, at… leiti, for one’s part, in turn, as far as one is con cerned, Grág. i. 322, Eg. 309, Fms. iii. 26 (freq.): at öðrum kosti, in the other case, otherwise (freq.) More gener., at öllu, öngu, in all (no) respects; at sumu, einhverju, nokkru, partly; at flestu, mestu, chiefly. 4. as a paraphrase of a genitive; faðir, móðir at barni (= barns); aðili at sök (= sakar a.); morðingi at barni (= barns), faðerni at barni (barns); illvirki at fé manna (cp. Lat. felo de se), niðrfall at sökum (saka), land gangr at fiskum (fiska), Fms. iv. 274, Grág. i. 277, 416, N. G. L. i. 340, K. Þ. K. 112, Nj. 21. 5. the phrase ‘at sér,’ of himself or in himself, either ellipt. or by adding the participle görr, and with the adverbs vel, ilia, or the like; denoting breeding, bearing, endowments, character …; væn kona, kurteis ok vel at sér, an accomplished, well-bred, gifted lady, Nj. I; vitr maðr ok vel at sér, a wise man and thoroughly good in feeling and bearing, 5; þú ert maðr vaskr ok vel at þér, 49; gerr at sér, accomplished, 51; bezt at sér görr, the finest, best bred man, 39, Ld. 124; en þó er hann svá vel at sér, so generous, Nj. 77; þeir höfðingjar er svá vóru vel at sér, so noble-minded, 198, Fms. i. 160: the phrase ‘at sér’ is now only used of knowledge, thus maðr vel að sér means clever, a man of great knowledge; illa að sér, a blockhead. 6. denoting relations to colour, size, value, age, and the like; hvitr, svartr, grár, rauðr … at lit, white, swarthy, gray, red … of colour, Bjarn. 55, 28, Ísl. ii. 213, etc.; mikill, lítill, at stærð, vexti, tall, small of size, etc.; ungr, gamall, barn, at aldri, young, old, a child of age; tvítugr, þrítugr … at aldri, twenty, thirty … years of age (freq.): of animals; kyr at fyrsta, öðrum … kálfi, a cow having calved once, twice…, Jb. 346: value, amount, currency of money, kaupa e-t at mörk, at a mark, N. G. L. 1. 352; ok er eyririnn at mörk, amounts to a mark, of the value of money, Grág. i. 392; verðr þá at hálfri murk vaðmála eyrir, amounts to a half a mark, 500. β. metaph. of value, connected with verbs denoting to esteem, hold; meta, hafa, halda at miklu, litlu, vettugi, engu, or the like, to hold in high or low esteem, to care or not to care for (freq.): geta e-s at góðu, illu, öngu, to mention one favourably, unfavourably, indifferently … (freq.), prop. in connection with. In many cases it may be translated by in; ekki er mark at draumum, there is no meaning in dreams, no heed is to be paid to dreams, Sturl. ii. 217; bragð er at þá barnið finnr, it goes too far, when even a child takes offence (a proverb): hvat er at því, what does it mean? Nj. 11; hvert þat skip er vöxtr er at, any ship of mark, i. e. however small, Fms. xi. 20. V. denoting the source of a thing: 1. source of infor mation, to learn, perceive, get information from; Ari nam ok marga fræði at Þuríði, learnt as her pupil, at her hands, as St. Paul at the feet of Gamaliel, (just as the Scotch say to speer or ask at a person); Ari nam at Þorgeiri afraðskoll, Hkr. (pref.); nema kunnáttu at e-m, used of a pupil, Fms. i. 8; nema fræði at e-m, xi. 396. 2. of receiving, acquiring, buying, from; þiggja e-t at e-m, to receive a thing at his hands, Nj. 51; líf, to be pardoned, Fms. x. 173; kaupa land at e-m, to buy it from, Landn. 72, Íb. II, (now af is more freq. in this sense); geta e-t at e-m, to obtain, procure at one’s hands, impetrare; þeirra manna er þeir megu þat geta at, who are willing to do that, Grág. i. I; heimta e-t at e-m (now af), to call in, demand (a debt, money), 279; fala e-t at e-m (now af), to chaffer for or cheapen anything, Nj. 73; sækja e-t at e-m, to ask, seek for; sækja heilræði ok traust at e-m, 98; leiga e-t at e-m (now af), to borrow, Grág. ii. 334; eiga e-t (fé, skuld) at e-m, to be owed money by any one, i. 399: metaph. to deserve of one, Nj. 113; eiga mikit at e-m, to have much to do with, 138; hafa veg, virðing, styrk, at, to derive honour, power from, Fms. vi. 71, Eg. 44, Bárð. 174; gagn, to be of use, Ld. 216; mein, tálma, mischief, disadvantage, 158, 216, cp. Eg. 546; ótta, awe, Nj. 68. VI. denoting conformity, according to, Lat. secundum, ex, after; at fornum sið, Fms. i. 112; at sögn Ara prests, as Ari relates, on his authority, 55; at ráði allra vitrustu manna, at the advice of, Ísl. ii. 259, Ld. 62; at lögum, at landslögum, by the law of the land, Grág., Nj.; at líkindum, in all likelihood, Ld. 272; at sköpum, in due course (poet.); at hinum sama hætti, in the very same manner, Grág. i. 90; at vánum, as was to be expected, Nj. 255; at leyfi e-s, by one’s leave, Eg. 35; úlofi, Grág. ii. 215; at ósk, vilja e-s, as one likes…; at mun, id. (poet.); at sólu, happily (following the course of the sun), Bs. i. 70, 137; at því sem …, as to infer from …, Nj. 124: ‘fara, láta, ganga at’ denotes to yield, agree to, to comply with, give in, Ld. 168, Eg. 18, Fms. x. 368. VII. in phrases nearly or quite adverbial; gróa, vera græddr, at heilu, to be quite healed, Bárð. 167, Eb. 148; bíta at snöggu, to bite it bare, Fms. xi. 6; at þurru, till it becomes dry, Eb. 276; at endilöngu, all along, Fas. ii; vinnast at litlu, to avail little, 655 x. 14; at fullu, fully, Nj. 257, Hkr. i. 171; at vísu, of a surety, surely, Ld. 40; at frjálsu, freely, 308; at líku, at sömu, equally, all the same, Hom. 80, Nj. 267; at röngu, wrongly, 686 B. 2; at hófi, temperately, Lex. Poët.; at mun, at ráði, at marki, to a great extent; at hringum, utterly, all round, (rare), Fms. x. 389; at einu, yet, Orkn. 358; svá at einu, því at einu, allt at einu, yet, however, nevertheless. VIII. connected with comparatives of adverbs and adjectives, and strengthening the sense, as in Engl. ‘the,’ so much the more, all the more; ‘at’ heldr tveimr, at ek munda gjarna veita yðr öllum, where it may be translated by so much the more to two, as I would willingly grant it to all of you; hon grét at meir, she grat (wept) the more, Eg. 483; þykir oss at líkara, all the more likely, Fms. viii. 6; þess at harðari, all the harder, Sturl. iii. 202 C; svá at hinn sé bana at nær, Grág. ii. 117; at auðnara, at hólpnara, the more happy, Al. 19, Grett. 116 B; þess at meiri, Fms. v. 64; auvirðismaðr at meiri, Sturl. ii. 139; maðr at vaskari, id.; at feigri, any the more fey, Km. 22; maðr at verri, all the worse, Nj. 168; ok er ‘at’ firr…, at ek vil miklu heldr, cp. Lat. tantum abest… ut, Eg. 60. β. following after a negation; eigi at síðr, no less, Nj. 160, Ld. 146; eigi… at meiri maðr, any better, Eg. 425, 489; erat héra at borgnara, any the better off for that, Fms. vii. 116; eigi at minni, no less for that, Edda (pref.) 146; eigi at minna, Ld. 216, Fms. ix. 50; ekki at verri drengr, not a bit worse for that, Ld. 42; er mér ekki son minn at bættari, þótt…, 216; at eigi vissi at nær, any more, Fas. iii. 74. IX. following many words: 1. verbs, esp. those denoting, a. to ask, enquire, attend, seek, e. g. spyrja at, to speer (ask) for; leita at, to seek for; gæta, geyma at, to pay attention to; huga, hyggja at; hence atspurn, to enquire, aðgæzla, athugi, attention, etc. β. verbs denoting laughter, play, joy, game, cp. the Engl. to play at …, to laugh at …; hlæja, brosa at e-u, to laugh, smile at it; leika (sér) at e-u, to play at; þykja gaman at, to enjoy; hæða, göra gys at …, to make sport at … γ. verbs denoting assistance, help; standa, veita, vinna, hjálpa at; hence atstoð, atvinna, atverk:—mode, proceeding; fara at, to proceed, hence atför and atferli:—compliance; láta, fara at e-u, v. above:—fault; e-t er at e-u, there is some fault in it, Fms. x. 418; skorta at e-u, to fall short of, xi. 98:—care, attendance; hjúkra at, hlýja at, v. these words:—gathering, collecting; draga, reiða, flytja, fá at, congerere:—engagement, arrival, etc.; sækja at, to attack; ganga at, vera at, to be about; koma at, ellipt. to arrive: göra at, to repair: lesta at, to impair (v. above); finna at, to criticise (mod.); telja at, id.: bera at, to happen; kveða at e-m, to address one, 625. 15, (kveða at (ellipt.) now means to pronounce, and of a child to utter (read) whole syllables); falla at, of the flood-tide (ellipt.): metaph. of pains or straits surrounding one; þreyngja, herða at, to press hard: of frost and cold, with regard to the seasons; frjósa at, kólna at, to get really cold (SI. 44), as it were from the cold stiffening all things: also of the seasons themselves; hausta, vetra að, when the season really sets in; esp. the cold seasons, ‘sumra at’ cannot be used, yet we may say ‘vára að’ when the spring sets in, and the air gets mild. δ. in numberless other cases which may partly be seen below. 2. connected ellipt. with adverbs denoting motion from a place; norðan, austan, sunnan, vestan at, those from the north, east…; utan at, innan at, from the outside or inside. 3. with adjectives (but rarely), e. g. kærr, elskr, virkr (affectionate), vandr (zealous), at e-m; v. these words.

WITH ACC.

TEMP.: Lat. post, after, upon, esp. freq. in poetry, but rare in prose writers, who use eptir; nema reisi niðr at nið (= maðr eptir mann), in succession, of erecting a monument, Hm. 71; in prose, at þat. posthac, deinde, Fms. x. 323, cp. Rm., where it occurs several times, 2, 6, 9, 14, 18, 24, 28, 30, 35; sonr á at taka arf at föður sinn, has to take the inheritance after his father, Grág. i. 170 new Ed.; eiga féránsdóm at e-n, Grág. i. 89; at Gamla fallinn, after the death of G., Fms. x. 382; in Edda (Gl.) 113 ought to be restored, grét ok at Oð, gulli Freyja, she grat (wept) tears of gold for her lost husband Od. It is doubtful if it is ever used in a purely loc. sense; at land, Grág. (Sb.)ii. 211, is probably corrupt; at hönd = á hönd, Grág. (Sb.) i. 135; at mót = at móti, v. this word.

☞ In compounds (v. below) at- or að- answers in turn to Lat. ad- or in- or con-; atdráttr e. g. denotes collecting; atkoma is adventus: it may also answer to Lat. ob-, in atburðr = accidence, but might also be compared with Lat. occurrere.

AT and að, the mark of the infinitive [cp. Goth. du; A. S. and Engl. to; Germ. zu]. Except in the case of a few verbs ‘at’ is always placed immediately before the infinitive, so as to be almost an inseparable part of the verb. I. it is used either, 1. as, a simple mark of the infinitive, only denoting an action and independent of the subject, e. g. at ganga, at hlaupa, at vita, to go, to run, to know; or, 2. in an objective sense when following such verbs as bjóða segja…, to invite, command …; hann bauð þeim at ganga, at sitja, be bade, ordered them to go, sit, or the like; or as gefa and fá; gefa e-m at drekka, at eta, to give one to drink or to eat, etc. etc. β. with the additional notion of intention, esp. when following verba cogitandi; hann ætlaði, hafði í hyggju at fara, he had it in his mind to go (where ‘to go’ is the real object to ætlaði and hafði í hyggju). 3. answering to the Gr. ινα, denoting intention, design, in order to; hann gékk í borg at kaupa silfr, in order to buy, Nj. 280; hann sendi riddara sína með þeim at varðveita þær, 623. 45: in order to make the phrase more plain, ‘svá’ and ‘til’ are frequently added, esp. in mod. writers, ‘svá at’ and contr. ‘svát’ (the last however is rare), ‘til at’ and ‘til þess at,’ etc. II. in the earlier times the infin., as in Greek and Lat., had no such mark; and some verbs remain that cannot be followed by ‘at;’ these verbs are almost the same in Icel. as in Engl.: α. the auxiliary verbs vil, mun (μέλλω), skal; as in Engl. to is never used after the auxiliaries shall, will, must; ek vil ganga, I will go; ek mun fara, (as in North. E.) I mun go; ek skal göra þat, I shall do that, etc. β. the verbs kunna, mega, as in Engl. I can or may do, I dare say; svá hygginn at hann kunni fyrir sökum ráða, Grág. ii. 75; í öllu er prýða má góðan höfðingja, Nj. 90; vera má, it may be; vera kann þat, id.: kunnu, however, takes ‘at’ whenever it means to know, and esp. in common language in phrases such as, það kann að vera, but vera kann þat, v. above. γ. lata, biðja, as in Engl. to let, to bid; hann lét (bað) þá fara, he let (bade) them go. δ. þykkja, þykjast, to seem; hann þykir vera, he is thought to be: reflex., hann þykist vera, sibi videtur: impers., mér þykir vera, mibi videtur, in all cases without ‘at.’ So also freq. the verbs hugsa, hyggja, ætla, halda, to think, when denoting merely the act of thinking; but if there be any notion of intention or purpose, they assume the ‘at;’ thus hann ætlaði, hugði, þá vera góða menn, he thought them to be, acc. c. inf.; but ætlaði at fara, meant to go, etc. ε. the verbs denoting to see, bear; sjá, líta, horfa á … (videre); heyra, audire, as in Engl. I saw them come, I heard him tell, ek sá þá koma, ek heyrði hann tala. ζ. sometimes after the verbs eiga and ganga; hann gékk steikja, be went to roast, Vkv. 9; eiga, esp. when a mere periphrasis instead of skal, móður sína á maðr fyrst fram færa (better at færa), Grág. i. 232; á þann kvið einskis meta, 59; but at meta, id. l. 24; ráða, nema, göra …, freq. in poetry, when they are used as simple auxiliary verbs, e. g. nam hann sér Högna hvetja at rúnum, Skv. 3. 43. η. hljóta and verða, when used in the sense of must (as in Engl. he must go), and when placed after the infin.of another verb; hér muntu vera hljóta, Nj. 129; but hljóta at vera: fara hlýtr þú, Fms. 1. 159; but þú hlýtr at fara: verða vita, ii. 146; but verða at vita: hann man verða sækja, þó verðr (= skal) maðr eptir mann lifa, Fms. viii. 19, Fas. ii. 552, are exceptional cases. θ. in poetry, verbs with the verbal neg. suffix ‘-at,’ freq. for the case of euphony, take no mark of the infinitive, where it would be indispensable with the simple verb, vide Lex. Poët. Exceptional cases; hvárt sem hann vill ‘at’ verja þá sök, eða, whatever he chooses, either, Grág. i. 64; fyrr viljum vér enga kórónu at bera, en nokkut ófrelsi á oss at taka, we would rather bear no crown than …, Fms. x. 12; the context is peculiar, and the ‘at’ purposely added. It may be left out ellipt.; e. g. þá er guð gefr oss finnast (= at finnast), Dipl. ii. 14; gef honum drekka (= at drekka), Pr. 470; but mostly in unclassical writers, in deeds, or the like, written nastily and in an abrupt style.

AT and að, conj. [Goth. þatei = οτι; A. S. þät; Engl. that; Germ. dass; the Ormul. and Scot. at, see the quotations sub voce in Jamieson; in all South-Teutonic idioms with an initial dental: the Scandinavian idioms form an exception, having all dropped this consonant; Swed. åt, Dan. at]. In Icel. the Bible translation (of the 16th century) was chiefly based upon that of Luther; the hymns and the great bulk of theol. translations of that time were also derived from Germany; therefore the germanised form það frequently appears in the Bible, and was often employed by theol. authors in sermons since the time of the Reformation. Jón Vidalin, the greatest modern Icel. preacher, who died in 1720, in spite of his thoroughly classical style, abounds in the use of this form; but it never took root in the language, and has never passed into the spoken dialect. After a relative or demonstr. pronoun, it freq. in mod. writers assumes the form eð, hver eð, hverir eð, hvað eð, þar eð. Before the prep. þú (tu), þ changes into t, and is spelt in a single word attú, which is freq. in some MS.;—now, however, pronounced aððú, aððeir, aððið …, = að þú…, with the soft Engl. th sound. It gener. answers to Lat. ut, or to the relat. pron. qui. I. that, relative to svá, to denote proportion, degree, so…, that, Lat. tam, tantus, tot…, ut; svá mikill lagamaðr, at…, so great a lawyer, that…, Nj. 1; hárið svá mikit, at þat…, 2; svá kom um síðir því máli, at Sigvaldi, it came so far, that…, Fms. xi. 95, Edda 33. Rarely and unclass., ellipt. without svá; Bæringr var til seinn eptir honum, at hann … (= svá at), Bær. 15; hlífði honum, at hann sakaði ekki, Fas. iii. 441. II. it is used, 1. with indic, in a narrative sense, answering partly to Gr. οτι, Lat. quod, ut, in such phrases as, it came to pass, happened that …; þat var einhverju sinni, at Höskuldr hafði vinaboð, Nj. 2; þat var á palmdrottinsdag, at Ólafr konungr gékk út um stræti, Fms. ii. 244. 2. with subj. answering to Lat. acc. with infin., to mark the relation of an object to the chief verb, e. g. vilda ek at þú réðist, I wished that you would, Nj. 57. β. or in an oblique sentence, answering to ita ut…; ef svá kann verða at þeir láti…, if it may be so that they might…, Fms. xi. 94. γ. with a subj. denoting design, answering to ϊνα or Lat. ut with subj., in order that; at öll veraldar bygðin viti, ut sciat totus orbis, Stj.; þeir skáru fyrir þá melinn, at þeir dæi eigi af sulti, ut ne fame perirent, Nj. 265; fyrsti hlutr bókarinnar er Kristindómsbálkr, at menn skili, in order that men may understand, Gþl. p. viii. III. used in connection with conjunctions, 1. esp. þó, því, svá; þó at freq. contr. þótt; svát is rare and obsolete. α. þóat, þótt (North. E. ‘thof’), followed by a subjunctive, though, although, Lat. etsi, quamquam (very freq.); þóat nokkurum mönnum sýnist þetta með freku sett… þá viljum vér, Fms. vi. 21: phrases as, gef þú mér þó at úverðugri, etsi indignae (dat.), Stj. MS. col. 315, are unclass., and influenced by the Latin: sometimes ellipt. without ‘þó,’ eigi mundi hón þá meir hvata göngu sinni, at (= þóat) hon hraeddist bana sinn, Edda 7, Nj. 64: ‘þó’ and ‘at’ separated, svarar hann þó rétt, at hann svari svá, Grág. i. 23; þó er rétt at nýta, at hann sé fyrr skorinn, answering to Engl. yetthough, Lat. attamenetsi, K. Þ. K. β. því at, because, Lat. nam, quia, with indic.; því at allir vóru gerfiligir synir hans, Ld. 68; því at af íþróttum verðr maðr fróðr, Sks. 16: separated, því þegi ek, at ek undrumst, Fms. iii. 201; því er þessa getið, at þat þótti, it i s mentioned because …, Ld. 68. γ. svá at, so that, Lat. ut, ita ut; grátrinn kom upp, svá at eingi mátti öðrum segja, Edda 37: separated, so … that, svá úsvúst at …, so bad weather, that, Bs. i. 339, etc. 2. it is freq. used superfluously, esp. after relatives; hver at = hverr, quis; því at = því, igitur; hverr at þekkr ok þægiligr mun verða, Fms. v. 159; hvern stvrk at hann mundi fá, 44; ek undrumst hvé mikil ógnarraust at liggr í þér, iii. 201; því at ek mátti eigi þar vera elligar, því at þar var kristni vel haldin, Fas. i. 340. IV. as a relat. conj.: 1. temp, when, Lat. quum; jafnan er (est) mér þá verra er (quum) ek fer á braut þaðan, en þá at (quum) ek kem, Grett. 150 A; þar til at vér vitum, till we know, Fms. v. 52; þá at ek lýsta (= þá er), when, Nj. 233. 2. since, because; ek færi yðr (hann), at þér eruð í einum hrepp allir, because of your being all of the same Rape, Grág. i. 260; eigi er kynlegt at (though) Skarphéðinn sé hraustr, at þat er mælt at…, because (since) it is a saying that…, Nj. 64. V. in mod. writers it is also freq. superfluously joined to the conjunctions, ef að = ef, si, (Lv. 45 is from a paper MS.), meðan að = meðan, dum; nema að, nisi; fyrst að = fyrst, quoniam; eptir að, síðan að, postquam; hvárt að = hvárt, Lat. an. In the law we find passages such as, þá er um er dæmt eina sök, at þá eigu þeir aptr at ganga í dóminn, Grág. i. 79; ef þing ber á hina helgu viku, at þat á eigi fyrir þeim málum at standa, 106; þat er ok, at þeir skulu reifa mál manna, 64; at þeir skulu með váttorð þá sök sækja, 65: in all these cases ‘at’ is either superfluous or, which is more likely, of an ellipt. nature, ‘the law decrees’ or ‘it is decreed’ being understood. The passages Sks. 551, 552, 568, 718 B, at lokit (= at ek hefi lokit), at hugleitt (= at ek hefi h.), at sent (= at ek hefi sent) are quite exceptional.

AT and að, an indecl. relat. pronoun [Ulf. þatei = ος, ος αν, οστις, οσπερ, οιος, etc.; Engl. that, Ormul. at], with the initial letter dropped, as in the conj. at, (cp. also the Old Engl. at, which is both a conj. and a pronoun, e. g. Barbour vi. 24 in Jamieson: ‘I drede that his gret wassalage, | And his travail may bring till end, | That at men quhilc full litil wend.’ | ‘His mestyr speryt quhat tithings a t he saw.’—Wyntoun v. 3. 89.) In Icel. ‘er’ (the relat. pronoun) and ‘at’ are used indifferently, so that where one MS. reads ‘er,’ another reads ‘at,’ and vice versâ; this may easily be seen by looking at the MSS.; yet as a rule ‘er’ is much more freq. used. In mod. writers ‘at’ is freq. turned into ‘eð,’ esp. as a superfluous particle after the relative pron. hverr (hver eð, hvað eð, hverir eð, etc.), or the demonstr. sá (sá eð, þeir eð, hinir eð, etc.):—who, which, that, enn bezta grip at (which) hafði til Íslands komið, Ld. 202; en engi mun sá at (cui) minnisamara mun vera, 242; sem blótnaut at (quae) stærst verða, Fms. iii. 214; þau tiðendi, at mér þætti verri, Nj. 64, etc. etc.

AT, n. collision (poët.); odda at, crossing of spears, crash of spears, Höfuðl. 8. β. a fight or bait of wild animals, esp. of horses, v. hesta-at and etja.

AT, the negative verbal suffix, v. -a.

ata, u, f. an obscure word, and probably a corrupt reading; nú skýtr maðr á hval í atu ok hnekkir Guðs gáfu, N. G. L. i. 59.

ata, að, to stain, defile, smear; líkþrá Naaman skal atast á þik ok þína ætt, Stj. 618. 2 Kings vi. 27 (now freq.)

atall, ötul, atalt, adj. [at, n.; Ormul. attel = turpis], fierce, Lat. atrox; ötul augu, fierce, piercing eyes, Hkv. i. 3; þetta folk er atalt ok illt, Hkr. iii. 313: ötul, amatlig, fierce and loathsome, used of a witch, Hkv. I. 38: Atli ek heiti, a. skal ek þér vera, where the poet plays on the likeness between the pr. name Atli and the adj. atall, my name is ‘Savage;’ savage shall I prove to thee, Hkv. Hjörv. 15. At the present day, freq. in the changed form ötull, in a good sense, brisk, strenuous.

atan or ötun, f. defiling.

atatata, an onomatopoëtic interj., imitating the chattering of the teeth through cold, Orkn. 326 (in a verse).

at-beini, a, m. assistance, support, Fms. vi. 66; vera í a. með e-m, to assist one, Fas. i. 265.

at-bot, f. repair (now aðgjörð), Vm. 4, Dipl. ii. 13.

at-burðr, ar, m. pl. ir, [bera at, accidere.] 1. a chance, hap, accident; verðr sá a., it so happened, Nj. 54, Vápn. 49; af (með) atburð, accidentally, perchance, Mart. 126, El. 5, 9, Mar. 656 ii. 16; með hverjum atburðum, how, by what chance? Róm. 287, Eluc. 12; slikt kalla ek a. en eigi jartein, such things I call an accident but not a miracle, Sturl. ii. 54; fyrir a. sakir hreysti hans, because of his valour, Skálda 189, Sks. 147. 2. esp. in pl., events, matters, circumstances; dráp Bárðar ok þá atburði er þar höfðu orðit, Bard’s death and the events that had happened, Eg. 222; Ólafr sagði honum alla atburði um sitt mál, O. told him minutely how his matters stood, Hkr. i. 193; þær sem skýra í hverjum atburðum menn fella á sik fullkomið bann, under what circumstances …, H. E. i. 462.

at-búnaðr, ar, m. attention, care, especially of funeral rites; veita a. dauðum mönnum, to lay out dead bodies, Eg. 34, v. 1. 2. now gener. accommodation or assistance in all that regards domestic life, esp. clothing; góðr, illr a.

at-djúp and atdýpi, n. deep water close to shore, Háv. 48.

at-djupt, n. adj. id., 623. 45; superl. aðdjúpast, Fms. xi. 70.

at-dráttr, ar, m. pl. drættir, [draga at], provisions, supplies for household use; hafði hann a. at þeirra búi, he supplied their household, Háv. 39; atdrættir ok útvegar, means and provisions, Fms. xi. 423; a. af fiskum, Hrafn. 22. β. metaph. support, H. E. i. 244. COMPD: atdrátta-maðr, m., mikill a., a good housekeeper, Eb. 26.

at-dugnaðr, m. [at-duga, to assist], assistance, Fas. ii. 296.

at-eggjan, f. egging on, instigation, Al. 5.

at-fall, n. [falla at], ‘on-fall,’ = of the flood-tide, Ld. 56, Orkn. 428.

at-fang, n. [fá at, to provide], only in pl., provisions, victuals, Bs. i. 130. Esp. used with dagr, or kveld, of the eve of great festivals, and partic. that of Yule: atfanga-dagr, pronounced affanga, m., a. Jóla, Yule Eve, Christmas Eve, Grett. 97, 140, Fms. ii. 37, Ísl. ii. 232, Orkn. 186 old Ed., where the new Ed. p. 242 reads atfangs- (in sing.), which is very rare, Þórð. 11. atfangadags-kveld, n. Christmas Eve, Bárð. 176. atfanga-maðr, m. = atdráttamaðr, Grett. 119 A.

at-fara-, v. atför.

at-ferð, f. (neut. 655 xxxii.) α. aggression, incursion, in a hostile sense, Fms. ix. 11, v. l. β. more freq. in a good sense, exertion, activity, Fs. 4; vikjast eptir atferðum enna fyrri frænda þinna, to imitate their good deeds, id.; atferð ok eljun, energy, Ld. 318. γ. a law term, execution; með dómrofum ok atferðum, Gþl. 183. δ. behaviour, proceeding, conduct; hverja a. vér skulum hafa, Nj. 194, Rb. 390, Sks. 239, 655 xxxii. 2;—now freq. in the last sense. COMPDS: atferðar-leysi, n. idleness, inactivity, helplessness, Fær. 232, 544. 23. atferðar-maðr, m. a skilful man, Bs. i. 639.

atferð-ligr, adj. fit or manly, Fms. viii. 53, v. 1.

at-ferli, n. [ferill], action, proceeding, used esp. as a law term, proceeding, procedure; með enu sama a., Grág. ii. 405: plur. skal sá slík atferli hafa öll um lýsingar sem áðr er tint, 27, H. E. ii. 75. β. method; þá eru mörg a. jafnrett til þess, Rb. 38. γ. hann spurðist fyrir um a. héraðsmanna, what they were doing, Grett. 123 A. δ. gramm., a. parta (modi partium orationis) eru tólf, Skálda 185.

at-flutning, f. (now -ingr, m.), purveyance, supply, in plur., Eg. 275, Fms. ii. 68, viii. 179.

at-frétt, f. an asking, enquiry, Mkv.

at-fundull, adj. fault-finding, Hom. (St.); hence mod. að-fyndni, f. criticism, and að-fyndinn, adj.

at-fylgi, n. and atfylgja, u, f. help, backing, support, Fms. ii. 105, Stj. 384, Hom. 139, Fms. x. 60, v. 1.

at-fyndli, f. a fault-finding, Hom. (St.)

at-færsla, u, f. exertion, courage, K. Þ. K. 94 (rare). COMPD: atfærslu-maðr, m. a man of vigour, Bret. 12, 155.

at-för, ar, f. 1. prop. a going to; as a Norse law term, execution, domr ok atför, Gþl. 361, 389: mod. Dan. adfœrd, cp. atferð, γ. 2. in Icel. commonly of an onslaught or armed aggression, Fms. i. 54, Nj. 93, 93, 99, 113, Sturl. iii. 237, Ann. 1252. 3. method = aðferð, Fms. ii. 328. COMPDS: atfarar-dómr, m. sentence of execution for payment, Gþl., N. G. L. i. 154. atfarar-þing, n. court of execution, MS. 302, 172 (Norse). atfara-laust, n. adj. quiet, with no act of violence between tivo hostile parties, Eb. 244, Sturl. ii. 40.

at-ganga, u, f. 1. attack in a fight, onslaught, Fms. i. 36, Nj. 36, Lv. 13, Bret. 6. 2. peaceful help, Fms. xi. 86, Nj. 99, Ísl. ii. 210. COMPD: atgöngu-mikill, adj. unruly, quarrelsome, aggressive, Fs. 41.

at-gangr, m. 1. fighting, combat, aggression, Ísl. ii. 268, Korm. 242: injury, violence, = ágangr, Fms. vi. 239. 2. help, co-operation, Grett. 157, 162, Vígl. 19. 3. now, redress, recovery of a claim. COMPD: atgangs-mikill, adj. = energetic, Grett. 129 A.

at-geirr, m. (false spelling arngeirr), a bill or halberd, undoubtedly a foreign weapon, rarely mentioned in the Sagas, but famous as the favourite weapon of Gunnar of Hlíðarendi; mentioned besides in Sks. 392, Landn. 163, Eb. 120, Fms. iii. 100, v. 249, Fas. iii. 462, but esp. Nj. 44, 45, 84, 95, 97, 108, 114, 119: in the Nj. used generally of thrusting, but also of hewing; Högni hjó í sundr spiót skaptið með atgeirinum, en rekr atgeirinn i gegnum hann, H. hewed in sunder the spearshaft with the bill, and drives the bill through him, Nj. 119; in Landn. 163 mentioned as a javelin.

at-gengiligr, adj. acceptable, inviting, Bs. i. 372.

at-gerð, atgervi, atgeyrð, v. atgörð, -görvi.

at-gœzla, u, f. superintendance, care, caution, Sturl. iii. 58 (now freq.)

atgörð, f. 1. plur. measures, steps taken; litlar atgöðir, small measures, Ísl. ii. 355, Fs. 4; var eigi vaent til atgerða, few expedients, Grett. 124. 2. repair of a building or the like (now freq.), Dipl. v. 145. β. a surgical operation, medical help, Bs. i. 108, 618, 644: Sturl. i. 43 is a bad reading. COMPDS: atgörða-lauss, adj. helpless, lazy, inactive, Al. 25: neut., atgörðarlaust er um e-t, no steps are taken, Fms. vi. 38. atgörða-maðr, m. a ready man, El. 15, Sturl. ii. 127. atgörðar-mikill, adj. active, Nj. 56.

at-görvi, atgerfi, atgjörfi, f.; neut., Fms. x. 293 C. [görr at sér, accomplished] ; endowments, accomplishments derived from good training added to natural gifts; in olden times esp. those of an athletic or physical kind; fríðleik, vöxt, afl, ok alla a., beauty, stature, strength, and all accomplishments whatever, Eg. 29, Fbr. 56, Fms. vi. 5, 268, i. 30, viii 140, x. 293; at íþróttum, a. ok vinsæld, Hkr. i. 212: of spiritual qualities and character (rare in old writers), af Guðs góðgipt ok sjálfs sins a. göfgastr maðr á Íslandi, Bs. i. (Hv.) 70; at lærdómi, vitrleik ok a., 130. Páls S. COMPD: atgörvi-maðr, and more freq. atgörvis-maðr, m. a man of great (physical) accomplishments, Fms. i. 17, Eg. 685 (where it is used of a young promising poet), 22, Ld. 12; used of an artist, Ísl. ii. 171: a. um marga hluti, man of great capacity, 191; used of a musician, Grett. 158.

at-hald, n. constraint, coercion, restraint, Fbr. 2, Fms. xi. 228.

at-hjúkan (now aðhjúkrun), f. [hjuka at e-m], heed, attention, care in the most tender sense of that word, e. g. that of a mother to her sick child; attention to a sick, frozen, shipwrecked, or destitute person, Fms. viii. 444, Finnb. 234, v. 1.

at-hlaup, n. onslaught, assault, Fms. viii. 35, Bjarn. 37; í einu a., in one rush in a battle, Ld. 64; veita manni a. eðr sár, violence or wound, K. Á. 48; tókst nú þegar a., a hand to hand fight, Gullþ. 12.

at-hlátr, m. [hlægja at], a laughing-stock, Fms. ii. 182.

at-hlægi, n. ridicule, mockery; með a. ok sköm, ridicule and shame, Fms. x. 279; ef a. er vert, if it be ridicule, vi. 208; a. eðr úmannan, a laughing-stock and a wretch, Sturl. iii. 240.

at-hlægiligr, adj. ridiculous, Band. 13.

at-huga, að, to heed, bethink oneself, pay attention to, consider; a. sik, to t a ke heed, Sturl. iv. 75 in a mod. MS.; cp. Bs. i. 744 (now freq.)

at-hugall, adj. heedful, careful, Sturl. iii. 125, Sks. 296.

athuga-semd, f. a notice, (mod.)

at-hugi, a, m. heed, care, attention, consideration, Hom. 5 2; af öllum a., carefully, Post. 656 B; hið elzta (barn) hefir ekki a. hit minsta, the eldest bairn has no head on his shoulders, El. 19, Sks. 482; með a. ok áhyggju, with care and concern, Fms. x. 281. COMPDS: athuga-lauss, adj. heedless. athuga-leysi, n. beedlessness, Stj. 6, Fas. i. 245; hlýtr jafnan íllt af a., ‘Don’t care’ comes ever to a bad end (a proverb), Grett. 118 A. athugaliga, adv. attentively, Sks. 360. athuga-lítill, adj. little careful, heedless, Bs. i. 190. athuga-samliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. attentively, attentive, Sks. 600, 360, 6, 472. athuga-samr, adj. heedful, attentive, Hom. 58, Fms. viii. 447. athuga-verðr, adj. worthy of attention, Fms. x. 276.

at-hvarf, n. [hverfa at, to turn towards]: α. in the phrase, göra e-m a., to pay one compliments, pay attention to, Bs. i. 801; hann er vel við þormóð ok görði meir at athvarfi við hann, he treated Th. respectfully or cultivated his friendship, Fbr. 119; Sighvatr görði at athvarfi um sendimenn konungs, ok spurði þá margra tíðenda, he communicated with them or paid themvisits, attended to them, Hkr. ii. 214. β. athvarf is now freq. in the sense of shelter, refuge.

at-hygli, f. [athugall], beedfulness, attention; með a., Sks. 1, 445 B, 564, Fms. vi. 446, (now used as neut.)

at-hyllast, t, dep. (qs. athyglast), to lean towards, be on the side of, do homage to; with acc., af því skolu vér a. þenna engil í beonum varum, to cultivate his friendship, Hom. A. M. 237. 7; at a. ok sækja e-n at ámaðar orði, 655 xiii. B. 4, Bs. i. 202; setlum vér þann yðvarn at a. er mestan görir várn sóma, take his part, who …, Fms. v. 273.

at-hæfi (not athœfi, vide Sks. B., which carefully distinguishes between œ and œ), n. conduct, behaviour; a. kristinna manna, their rites, service, Fms. ii. 37, cp. Ld. 174; í öllu sínu a., conduct, proceeding, Fms. xi. 78, viii. 253: manners, ceremonies, Sks. 301; konunga a., royal manners, Hom.: þetta hefir verit a. (instinct) þessa skrímsls, Sks.: deeds, doings; skal nú þar standa fyrst um a. þeirra, Mag. 11. Now freq. in a theol. sense.

at-hæfiligr, adj. fit, fitting, due, Eg. 103, Finnb. 228.

at-höfn, f. [hafast at, to commit], conduct, behaviour, business; hvat er hann hafði frétt um a. Skota konungs, his doings and whereabouts, Eg. 271; fengin var þeim önnur a., occupation, Fbr. 19; ganga til skripta ok segja sínar athafnir, to go to shrift and confess his behaviour, Fms. i. 301; í athöfnum margir, en sumir í kaupferðum, Orkn. 298; er þat ok likligt at þú fylgir þar eptir þinni a., (ironically) that you will go your own foolish way, Fs. 4. COMPDS: athafnar-lauss, adj. inactive, Fms. iii. 128, 154. athafnar-leysi, n. inactivity. athafnar-maðr and athafna-, m. a busy enterprising man, Hkr. ii. 255, Fær. 209. In a bad sense, a laughing-stock; göra e-n at athafnarmanni, to make a butt of him, Sturl. i. 24, 181, this last sense seems to be peculiar to the first and second part (þáttr) of the Sturl., which were not written by Sturla himself, but by an unknown author.

at-kall, n. demand, call, request, solicitation, Bs. i. 735, Al. 64, Ver. 48.

at-kast, n. a casting in one’s teeth, a rebuke, reproach, Mag. 65.

at-keri, anchor, v. akkeri.

at-kváma, and later form aðkoma or atkoma, u, f. arrival, Ld. 78, Fms. vi. 239; metaph. (eccl.) pain, visitation, Hom. 68, 121. Now used in many compds: aðkomu-maðr, m. a guest, etc.

at-kvæði, n. [kveða at orði]. I. a technical phrase, esp. in law; svá skal sækja at öllu um fjártökuna, sem þjófsök fyrir utan a., the proceeding is all the same with the exception of the technical terms, Grág. ii. 190; at þeim atkvæðum er Helgi hafði í stefnu við þik, the expressions used by Helgi in summoning thee, Boll. 354. β. a word, expression in general; þat er þrífalt a., mannvit, siðgæði ok hæverska, Sks. 431, 303; en þó vér mælim alla þessa hluti með breiðu a., in broad, general terms, Anecd. 21, Þiðr. 1. γ. now used gramm. for a syllable, and in many compds such as, eins atkvæðis orð, a monosyllable; tveggja, þriggja … atkvæða …, etc., a dissyllable, etc.: ‘kveða at’ also means to collect the letters into syllables, used of children when they begin to spell. Old writers use atkvæði differently in a grammatical sense, viz. = pronunciation, sound, now framburðr; þeir stafir megu hafa tveggja samhljóðenda a., hverr einn, Skálda (Thorodd) 165; eins stafs a.; a. nafns hvers þeirra; þá er þat a. hans í hverju máli sem eptir lifir nafnsins (in the last passage = the name of the letter), 168. II. a decision, sentence, almost always in plur.; beið hann þinna atkvæða, Nj. 78; var því vikit til atkvæða (decision) Marðar, 207; bíða atkvæða Magnúss konungs um álög ok pyntingar, Fms. vi. 192: sing., var þat biskups a., his decision, v. 106; hvi gegnir þetta a. (sentence) jarl, rangliga dæmir þú, 656 B; þínu boði ok a., command and decisive vote, Stj. 203; af atkvæði guðanna, by their decree, Edda 9, Bret. 53. β. now a law term = vote, and in a great many compds: atkvæða-greiðsla, division; atkvæða-fjöldi, votes; a. munr, majority, etc. III. a decree of fate, a spell, charm, in a supernatural sense, = ákvæði; af forlogum ok a. ramra hluta, Fs. 23; konungr sagði úhægt at göra við atkvæðum, … to resist charms (MS. akvedni, where it is uncertain whether the reading is ákv- or atkv-); a. Finnunnar, the spell of the Finnish witch, 22; svá mikil a. (pl.) ok ilska fylgði þessum álögum, Fas. i. 404, iii. 239, Fms. x. 172. COMPDS: atkvæða-lauss, adj. [kveða at, to be important], unimportant, of no consequence, Fas. ii. 242. atkvæða-maðr, m. a man of weighty utterance, of importance, Fms. xi. 223. atkvæða-mikill, adj. of weight, note, authority, Nj. 51

atla, að, to ‘ettle’, intend, purpose, Bret. 144; so according to the modern pronunciation of ætla, q. v.

at-laga, u, f. an attack in a sea fight, of the act of laying ships alongside; skipa til a., Fms. i. 169, iv. 103; hörð a., hard fight, xi. 133, Hkr. ii. 272, Nj. 125, Sturl. iii. 63, etc.: more rarely of an attack on land, Fms. vii. 244, Al. 122, Ísl. ii. 83, Bret. 50. β. an advance, landing, without notion of fight, Fms. ix. 430. COMPDS: atlögu-flokkr, m. the name of a poem describing a battle by sea, Sturl. iii. 63. atlögu-skip, n. a ship engaged in battle, Fms. viii. 382.

at-lát, n. [láta at e-u, to comply with], compliance, Hom. 47; synda a., indulgence in sin, Greg. 31. Now, atlæti, n. and atlot, n. pl. treatment; gott atlæti, kindness; ill atlot, harshness, esp. in respect to children.

atláts-samr, adj. pliant, condescending, Magn.

at-lega, u, f. shelter for sheep and cattle on the common pastures; hagbeit á vetrum ok a. fé sínu at selinu, Dipl. v. 4 (rare).

at-mæli, n. abuse, offensive language, Bs. ii. 181.

atoma, u, f. an atom, Rb. 114; a weight, subdivision of an ounce, 532. 1.

at-orka, u, f. energy, activity. COMPDS: atorku-maðr, m. an active man. atorku-samr, adj. active. atorku-semi, f. activity.

at-rás, f. an on-rush, charge, attack, Fms. viii. 413, v. árás.

at-reið, f. (milit.) a riding at, a charge of horse, Fms. vi. 417, in the description of the battle at Stamford Bridge: Hkr. iii. 162 has áreið, but some MSS. atreið, vii. 57. β. the act of riding at or over, Nj. 21; esp. in the translation of French romances of tilting in tournaments, Str. (freq.) COMPD: atreiðar-áss, m. a quintain pole, at which to ride a-tilt, El. 15.

at-rekandi, m. pressing efforts, exertions; svá mikill a. var görr um leitina, the search was carried on so thoroughly, Band. 4 C; cp. reki.

at-renna, u, f. a slip. COMPD: atrennu-lykkja, u, f. a running knot, a noose, Fms. vi. 368.

at-rið, now atriði, n. 1. = atreið, movement, in the phrase, hann hafði allt eitt atriðit, he did both things at once, in the twinkling of an eye, Grett. 95 new Ed. 2. a gramm. term in the compd atriðs-klauf, f. probably = ασύνδετον, Edda (Ht.) 124, cp. Ed. Havn. ii. 154, cp. Skálda 193; atrið would thus mean a word, sentence. It is now very freq. in the form atriði, n. in a metaph. sense, the chief point in a sentence, or a part, paragraph, and used in many compds. Atriðr, m. is one of the poët. names of Odin, the wise (?).

at-róðr, rs, m. a rowing at, i. e. an attack made (by a ship) with oars, Fms. ii. 310, Hkr. ii. 272, etc. β. gener. rowing towards, Jb. 308.

at-samr, adj. [at, n.], quarrelsome, an απ. λεγ., Fms. iv. 205; cp. Hkr. ii. 1. c.

at-seta, u, f. a royal residence; hafa a., to reside, used especially of kings, Fms. i. 23, x. 209, Hkr. i. 63, Eg. 170, Nj. 5, etc.

at-setr, rs, n. id., vide konungs-atsetr.

at-skelking, f. a mocking, Vitae Patr. (Unger).

at-skiljanligr, adj. [Dan. adskellig], various, different, Karl. 206, (an unclass. word.)

at-skilnaðr, ar, m., in mod. Icel. = parting, separation. β. discord, Grett. 88; A, B, C, however, have áskilnaðr.

at-sog, n., see útsog.

at-sókn, f. [sækja at], onslaught, attack, Fms. i. 64, Nj. 100, etc. β. a throng of guests or visitors seeking hospitality; föng vóru lítil en a. mikill, Bs. i. 63 (now freq.) γ. in popular superstition, the foreboding of a guest’s arrival; sleep, drowsiness, or the like, caused, as people believe, by the fylgja or ‘fetch’ of the guest, his sure forerunner; the Icelanders speak of a good, agreeable aðsókn, or a bad, disagreeable one; a man may ‘sækja vel eðr ilia að,’ as he is an agreeable guest or not. Only a ‘fey’ man’s fylgja follows after him. Vide Ísl. Þjóðs. i. 354 sqq. COMPD: atsóknar-maðr, m. aggressor, Fs. 70.

at-spurning, f. [spyrja at], ‘speering’ at, inquiry, in the phrase, leiða atspurningum, which ought, however, to be in two words, Fb. i. 216.

at-staða, u, f., now aðstoð, n. a standing by, backing, support, Bs. i. 846. β. earnest request, Mar. (Fr.)

at-stuðning, f. and -ingr, m. [styðja at], support, Fas. i. 24.

at-súgr, m. prop. pressure [súgr] caused by crowding; now freq. in the phrase, göra a. að e-m, to mob one. β. the phrase, bora frekan atsúg um e-t (where the metaphor is taken from boring), to deal harshly with, pierce through to the marrow, Orkn. 144: cp. Fms. vii. 29.

at-svif, n. incident, bearing, Sks. 682. β. medic. lipothymia, a fainting fit, swoon, Fél. ix. 185; cp. að svífa yfir e-n, to be taken in a fit, Sturl. iii. 286.

at-tú, by assimilation = at þú, that thou, freq. e. g. in the Orkn. new Ed.

at-tönn, f. [at, n.], a tusk, Fas. i. 366.

at-veizla, u, f. [veita at], assistance, Fms. x. 60, v. 1.

at-verknaðr, m. work, especially in haymaking; Þórgunnu var ætlað nautsfóðr til atverknaðar, to toss and dry it, Eb. 26: now, vinna at heyi, to toss it for drying.

at-vik, n. [víkja at], mostly in plur. details, particulars; in the phrases, eptir atvikum, according to the circumstances of each case, Gþl. 403; atvik sakar, the particulars of a case, Sks. 663; með atvikum, circumstantially, chapter and verse, Fas. iii. 330: in Stj. 179 it seems to mean gestures. II. an onset, prob. only another way of spelling atvígi, N. G. L. ii. 65; at ek geta eigi hefnt þessa atviks er mér er gört, that I cannot get this affront avenged which has been done me, Grett. 151 A.

at-vinna, u, f. means of subsistence, support, Grág. i. 294, Jb. 151, Fær. 37, Stj. 143, 291, 623. 41, 656 A, 655. 20, Clem. 56, Jb. 151, Fms. v. 239: labour, occupation, Anecd. 20, Sks. 603, (now very freq.) COMPD: atvinnu-lauss, adj. without means of subsistence, Fms. ii. 97.

at-vist, f. [vesa at], presence, esp. as a law term, opp. to an alibi, the act of being present at a crime: the law distinguishes between ráð (plotting), tilför (partaking), and a. (presence), Grág. ii. 37; vera í atsókn ak a., to be present and a partaker in the onslaught, Nj. 100. β. transl. of the Lat. assiduitas, 677. 12.

at-vígi, n. onset, onslaught, N. G. L. ii. 65, cp. i. 126, Fas. ii. 244.

at-yrði, n. pl. abusive words, Fs. 5, Fms. iii. 154.

AUÐ-, adverbial prefix to a great many adjectives, adverbs, and participles, seldom to subst. nouns, [not found in Ulf.; A. S. eâð, as in eâðmedu, humilitas, and also as a separate adj. eâde. facilis; Old Engl. ‘eath,’ ‘uneath,’ for ‘easy,’ ‘uneasy;’ Hel. ôð and ôði, facilis, unôði, difficilis], easy, opp. to tor-. To this ‘aud’ and not to ‘old’ may perhaps be referred some of the compds of aud and awd in Scottish and provincial English. Thus ‘audie’ in Scotch means an easy careless fellow; ‘aud farand,’ or ‘auld farand,’ may both mean easy going: v. the words in Jamieson and the Craven Glossary.

auða, u, f. desolation, Þiðr. 2.

auð-beðinn, adj. part. [A. S. eâðbede], easily persuaded to do a thing, with gen. of the thing, Eg. 17, 467.

auð-bættr, adj. part. easily compensated for, Glúm. (in a verse).

auð-eggjaðr, adj. part. easily egged on to do, with gen., Fms. v. 62.

auð-fenginn, adj. part. easy to get, Fs. 62, Grett. 113 A, Mag. I, where it is spelt auðu-; cp. toru- = tor-.

auð-fengr, adj. id., Hým. 18; a. var lið, 655 xxviii, Fms. v. 274.

auð-fundinn, adj. part. easy to find, in promptu, Hkr. ii. III; neut. used metaph. easy to perceive, clear, Eg. 54, Ld. 194, v. 1.

auð-fyndr, adj. an older form, id., used only as neut. easily perceived, clear; þat var a., at…, it could easily be seen, that…, Ld. 194.

auðga, að, [Ulf. auþagjan = μακαρίζειν; A. S. eâðigjan = beatum facere], to enrich, Bs. i. 320, Stj. 68; reflex., hafði Noregr mikit auðgast, N. had grown very wealthy, Fms. vi. 448:—to make happy, er alla elskar ok auðgar, i. 281, Th. 77.

auð-gengr, adj. easy to pass; stígr a., 677. 5.

auð-ginntr, adj. part. easily cheated, credulous, Lex. Poët.

auð-gjafi, a, m. a giver of wealth, Lex. Poët.

auð-gætligr, adj. easy to get, common, Fms. i. 261.

auð-gætt, n. adj. easy to get, = auðfundit, Lex. Poët., Hb. 6 (1865).

auð-görr and later form auð-görðr, adj. part. easily done, Fas. i. 74.

auð-heyrt, n. adj. part. easily heard, clear, evident, Ld. 266.

auðigr and auðugr, adj. [Ulf. auþags = μακάριος, auþagei, f. = μακαρισμός; Hel. ódag = beatus, dives; A. S. eâðig, beatus, opulentus; O. H. G. ôtag], contracted before an initial vowel into auðgan, auðgir, auðgum; uncontr. form auðigan = auðgan, Fms. i. 112, etc.; now used uncontracted throughout, auðugir, auðugar, etc.; rich, opulent; ríkr ok a., powerful and opulent, Eg. 22, 83; at fé, wealthy, Fas. i. 49, Ísl. ii. 323, Nj. 16, Post. 656 C; skip mikit ok a., with a rich lading, Fms. xi. 238; a. at kvikfé, Ld. 96; superl. auðgastr, Eg. 25, Ísl. ii. 124; England er auðgast at lausafé allra Norðrlanda, Fms. xi. 203.

AUÐIT, n. part. of an obsolete verb analogous to auka (‘ablaut’ an—jó—au), [cp. Swed. öde, fatum; auðna, luck; auðr, opes, etc.], used in many phrases, and often answering to the Gr. αισα, with dat. pers. and gen. of the thing; e-m er, verðr, auðit e-s, it falls to one’s lot; úlíkligt er at oss verði þeirrar hamingju a., it is unlikely that this good fortune is destined for us, Eg. 107; koma mun til mín feigðin…, ef mér verðr þess a., if that be ordained for me, Nj. 103; þó at mér verði lífs a., though life may be granted to me, Fms. i. 47; konungr lét græða menn sína sem lífs var a., those whose lot it was to live, who were not mortally wounded, Eg. 34; hafði þeim orðit sigrs a., had won the day, Eg. 86; var þeim eigi erfingja a., to them was no heir granted by fate, 625. 83: with ‘at’ and an infin., mun oss eigi a. verða at fá þvílíkan, Fms. x. 339: absol., hafi þeir gagn er a. er, let them gain the day to whom the god of battles grants it, xi. 66: with the addition of ‘til;’ ek ætla okkr lítt til ástafunda a. hafa orðit, we have had bad luck in love, 310: auðinn, masc. appears twice or thrice in poetry, auðins fjár, means possessed, Skv. 3. 37: in prose in Al. 21 (by Bishop Brand), láta auðins bíða, to submit to fate, to be unconcerned; even in compar., hvárt hyggit ér manni nokkuru at auðnara (any more chance), at hann fái knúta þessa leysta, of the Gordian knot, 19, at auðnu, v. auðna [cp. A. S. eâden, datus, concessus; Hel. ôdan, genitus, natus: cp. also jóð, proles, a word perhaps of the same root.]

auð-kendr, adj. part. easy to ‘ken’ or recognise, of distinguished appearance, Al. 21, Fms. i. 44.

auð-kenni, n. (= einkenni), mark, distinction, Karl. 180.

auð-kenniligr, adj. = auðkendr, Hrafn. 13.

auð-kenning, f. a clear mark, sure sign, Sturl. i. 70. MS. A. M. 122 B; áminning suits better, so the Ed. and Brit. Mus. 11, 127.

auð-keyptr, adj. part. easily bought, cheap, Hkr. iii. 246.

auð-kjörinn, adj. part. easily chosen, easy to decide between, Sd. 170.

auð-kumall, adj. (now viðkvæmr), very touchy, tender, sensitive; a. ok lasmeyrr, of a snake’s belly, easy to wound, Stj. 98; öngvær (depressed) ok auðkumul, (fem.) touchy, Bs. i. 323; a. í skapi, irritable, 353.

auð-kvisi, v. aukvisi.

auð-kvæðr, adj. easily talked over, easily moved, obsequious, pliable; eptirlátr ok a., N. G. L. ii. 400; ertú ok eigi a. (hard to move) til fylgðar, Grett. 122 new Ed. = auðbeðinn.

axið-kymli, f. [auðkumall], touchiness, sensitiveness; a. konunnar, a woman’s touchiness or weakness, 623. 36.

auð-kýfingr, m. [kúfa, accumulare], poët. a heaper up of riches, a wealthy man, a Croesus; örr maðr er a., Edda 107; in prose in Sturl. i. 38, Al. 5; ríkismenn ok a., Post. 656 C. 30.

auð-lagðr, adj. part. wealthy, whence auðlegð, Lex. Poët.

auð-lattr, adj. part. docile, easily kept in check, Glúm. 396 (in a verse).

auð-látinn, adj. [lát, manners], of easy affable manners, Str. 36.

auð-legð, f. easy circumstances, wealth, Bs. i. (Laur. S.) 836; now freq.

auð-ligr, adj. happy, lucky, Fms. vi. 420 (in a verse).

auð-maðr, m. a wealthy man, Fms. ii. 21, Ísl. ii. 385, 125.

auð-mjúkliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. humbly, Bs. i. 773, Grett. 207 new Ed.

auð-mjúkr, adj. humble, meek, compar. auðmjúkari, Sturl. i. 45; a. iðran, devoted repentance, H. E. i. 510.

auð-munaðr, adj. part. easily remembered, not to be forgotten, Fms. vi. 249, v. l.

auð-mýkja, t and ð, to humble; a. sik, to humble oneself, Bs. i. 854.

auð-mýkt, f. meekness, humility, Fms. viii. 54, v. 1.; now freq. in theol. writers.

auðn, f. [auðr, adj.], a wilderness, desert; auðn Sinai, Stj. 300. β. land which has no owner or is waste, uninhabited; bygðust þá margar auðnir víða, many wide wastes were then peopled, Eg. 15; alla auðn landsins, Fms. i. 5, viii. 33, Greg. 33: the auðn was claimed as a royal domain; konungr á hér a. alla í landi, Fms. xi. 225; um þær auðnir er menn vilja byggja, þá skal sá ráða er a. á, the owner of the waste, N. G. L. i. 125: different from almenningr, compascuum or common. 2. more specially a deserted farm or habitation; sá bær hét síðan á Hrappstöðum, þar er nú a., Ld. 24; liggja í a., to lie waste, 96, Grág. ii. 214, cp. 278. 3. destruction; auðn borgarinnar (viz. Jerusalem), Greg. 40, Rb. 332, Ver. 43, Sd. 179 (where auðnu, f.); ríki mitt stendr mjök til auðnar, is in a state of desolation, Fms. xi. 320, Bret. 68: insolvency, utter poverty, Grág. i. 62. COMPDS: auðnar-hús, n. deserted huts, on mountains or in deserts, Grág. ii. 158. auðnar-óðal, n. impoverished estates, Sks. 333. auðnar-sel, n. deserted shielings, Orkn. 458.

auðna, u, f. desolation, Sd. 179, bad reading.

auðna, u, f. [auðit], fortune, and then, like αισα, good luck, one’s good star, happiness, (cp. heill, hamingja, gæfa, all of them feminines,—good luck personified as a female guardian), in the phrase, a. ræðr, rules; auðna mun því ráða, Fate must settle that, Nj. 46, Lv. 65; ræðr a. lífi (a proverb), Orkn. 28; arka at auðnu (or perh. better dat. from auðinn), v. arka, Nj. 185, v. 1.; at auðnu, adv. prosperously, Sl. 25; blanda úgiptu við a., Fms. ii. 61; með auðnu þeirri at þorkatli var lengra lífs auðit, by that good fortune which destined Thorkel for a longer life, Orkn. 18 (50). Cp. the Craven word aund in the expression I’s aund to’ot, ‘I am ordained to it, it is my fate.’ COMPDS: auðnu-lauss, adj. luckless, Fas. ii. 240. auðnu-leysi, n. ill fate. auðnu-leysingi, a, m. a luckless man. auðmi-maðr, m. a lucky man, luck’s favourite, Gullþ. 28, Ld. 40, Fas. i. 340. auðnu-samliga, adv. fortunately, Finnb. 344.

auðna, að, impers. to be ordained by fate; ef honum auðnaði eigi aptr at koma, if it was not ordained by fate that he should come back, Fms. ix. 350; sem auðnar, as luck decides, Fb. i. 160, Fas. iii. 601, Lv. 30: with gen., ef Guð vill at þess auðni, that it shall succeed, Bs. i. 159, v. 1., þat is less correct: now freq. in a dep. form, e-m auðnast, one is successful, with following infin.

auð-næmiligr, adj. [nema], easy to learn, teachable, Sks. 16.

auð-næmr, adj. easily learned, soon got by heart, Sks. 247 B; auðnæm er ill Danska, bad Danish is soon learnt (a proverb); auðnæmast þó hið vonda er, Pass. 22. 10.

auð-prófaðr, adj. part. easily proved, Laur. S. MS. 180. 85.

AUÐR, f. [Swed. ôde, fatum], fate, destiny, only used in poetry in the phrase, fá auðar, to die, Ísl. ii. 389 (in a verse); haga til auðar, to avail towards one’s happiness, Gísl. 59 (in a verse). Auðr is also a fem. pr. name.

AUÐR, adj. [Ulf. auþs = ερημος; O. H. G. odi; Hel. odi = inanis: cp. A. S. ydan and édan, vastare; Germ. öde and öden: the root is rare in A. S. and lost in Engl.]:—empty, void, desert, desolate; húsin voru auð, uninhabited, Ld. 96; koma at auðu landi, of the first colonists when coming to Iceland, Landn. 316, opp. to ‘koma at bygðu landi,’ or ‘land numið;’ auð búð, Eg. 727; auð borð, void of defenders, of ships that have lost their men in fight, Fms. ii. 329; auð skip (= hroðin), all the crew being slain or put to flight, Hkr. iii. 126. β. metaph., auðr at yndi, cheerless, distressed, Stj. 421; sitja auðum höndum, now used of being idle: in the Ad. 22, með a. hendr means empty-handed, without gifts; so also in Stj. 437. I Sam. vi. 3, answering to ‘empty’ in the Engl. text.

AUÐR, s, and poët. ar, m. [Goth. auds = μακαρία is suggested; it only appears in Ulf. in compds or derivatives, audags adj. beatus, audagei f. beatitudo, audagian, beare; A. S. eâd, n. means opes; Hel. od = bonum, possessio: it is probably akin to óðal; cp. also feudal (A. S. feoh = fee), alodial]:—riches, wealth, opulence; auð fjár (only in acc.), abundance, is a freq. phrase; also, auð landa ok fjár, Edda 15; oss er þar mikit af sagt auð þeim, Band. 8, Fms. ii. 80, 623. 21; draga saman auð, id. In proverbs, margan hefir auðr apat; auðrinn er valtastr vina, wealth is the ficklest of friends, Hm. 77 etc.

auð-ráðinn, adj. easily to ‘read’ or explain, Fas. iii. 561. β. easy to manage, v. úauðráðinn.

auð-ráðr, adj. easily guided, pliable, yielding, Bs. i. 265.

auðræði, n. pl. means, property, wealth, Bs. i. 146, 129, 136 (where it = income), 158, 68 (where the gen. auðráða = auðræða), Stj. 345, Hom. 68, Fms. iv. 111; not very freq., auðæfi is a more current word.

auð-sagt, part. easily told.

auð-salr, m. treasury (poët.), Fsm. 7.

auð-sénn, part., now auðséðr (cp. however Pass. 6. 4, 7), easily seen, evident, Hrafn. 13, K. Á. 214.

auð-skeptr, part. (in a proverb), Ad. 21, eigi eru a. almanna spjör, it is not easy to make shafts to all people’s spear heads, i. e. to act so that all shall be pleased, cp. Hm. 127; auð-skæf (as given in the Skálda, where this line is cited) may be a better reading = not easily carved or made so as to suit everybody.

auð-skilligr, adj. easy to distinguish, understand, Skálda 167.

auð-skæðr, adj. part. easily injured, Eg. 770; delicate, tender, Stj. 345. Deut. xxviii. 56, Bs. i. 353.

auð-snúit, n. part. easily turned, Hkr. ii. 271.

auð-sóttligr, adj. easy to perform, an easy task, Fms. xi. 282.

auð-sóttr, part. easily won, easy to win; mál a., Eg. 38, 200, in both cases of a happy suitor; a. land, land lightly won, Fms. iii. 49; auðsóttr til bæna, pliable, yielding, Al. 4: eigi a., not easily matched, Valla L. 205.

auð-stafr, m. a wealthy man, Sdm.

auð-sveipr (and now also auðsveipinn, whence auðsveipni, f.), adj. pliable, yielding, now esp. used of good, obedient children, Bs.

auð-sýna, d, to shew, exhibit, Bs. i. 274; má þat vel auðsýnast, to be seen, Stj. 13.

auð-sýniligr, adj. evident, and -liga, adv. clearly, Fms. i. 142, Stj. 14, 26.

auð-sýning, f. show, exhibition, Skálda 199. transl. of Lat. demonstratio; H. E. i. 517. proof, demonstration.

auð-sýnn, adj. easily seen, clear; hon var síðan kölluð Delos svá sem a., Stj. 87, 250: neut. = evident, Hom. 154, Eg. 736, Fms. i. 72.

auð-sæligr, adj. id., Fms. vii. 148.

auð-sær, adj., neut. auðsætt, fem. auðsæ, easily seen, clear, Bjarn. 63, Fms. x. 175, 655 xi. I: metaph. clear, evident, Magn. 436, 625. 174: neut. evident, Fms. i. 42, Hrafn. 13: compar. auðsærri, more conspicuous, Fms. ii. 322: superl. auðsæstr, Ld. 236; auðsæust, Fms. iv. 321.

auð-trúa, adj. ind. credulous, Lex. Poët. (freq.)

auð-tryggi, f. ind., now auðtryggni, f. credulity, Gísl. 62.

auð-tryggr, adj. credulous, Stj. 199. Grett. 130 A, Fms. viii. 447.

Auðunn, a pr. name, Landn. = A. S. Eâdwine, Engl. Edwin: in popular talk Auðunn is = Mr. Nobody, Gr. Οὔτις.

auð-van, n. bad luck, Lex. Poët.

auð-vandr, adj. very painstaking in doing one’s duties, Bs. i. 141, an απ. λεγ.

auð-ván, f. expectancy of fortunes (poët.), Lex. Poët.

auð-velda, d, to take lightly, make easy, Orkn. ch. 68.

auð-veldi, n. easiness, facility, Hom. 7. transl. of Lat. facultas; með a., as adv. easily, Fms. vii. 116, Karl. 131, 142: auðvelda-verk, n. an easy task, Grett. 127 new Ed.

auð-veldliga and -velliga, adv. easily, lightly, Fms. i. 87, Stj. 99, Hkr. i. 200; taka a. á e-u, to make light of a thing, Fms. xi. 124: compar. -ligar, i. 262, Stj. 130.

auð-veldligr and -velligr, adj. easy, Stj. 8, 356. Josh. vii. 2.

auð-veldr, adj. ea s y, Eg. 39: superl. -veldastr, Ld. 14; metaph. compliant, Bs. i. 256, Sturl. i. etc.

auð-vinr, m. (poët.) a charitable friend [A. S. eâðvine] ; in the old poets freq. spelt otvin, v. Lex. Poët. β. as a pr. name Auðunn; the etymology in Hkr. i. 12 is bad; and so is also the popular etymology of this word = none, fr. auðr, vacuus.

auð-virðiligr, etc., v. auvirð-.

auð-vitað, n. part. easy to know, clear, evident, Ld. 78, Finnb. 232: now often adv. = clearly, to be sure.

auð-víst, n. adj. sure, certain, Karl. 181.

auð-þeystr, adj. part. easy to make flow, Stor. 2 (dub. passage).

auð-þrifligr, adj. [probably = ör-þrifligr, fr. ör- priv. and þrifligr, robust, strong], feeble, weakly, Ísl. ii. 456, Fb. i. 275 (of weak frame).

auð-æfi qs. auðöfi, n. pl. [‘auðr,’ opes, and ‘of;’ = ofa-fé, q. v.; Lat. opes], opulence, abundance, wealth, riches, in the Grág. freq. = means of subsistence, emoluments, i. 269, 277 (twice), ii. 213, cp. Íb. 16, where it means emoluments: in the proper sense wealth, Hkr. i. 13, where it means gold and treasures, Sks. 334, 442; veg ok a., power and wealth, Greg. 23; himnesk a., Joh. 21; jarðlig a., Greg. 32. Matth. vi. 19, 20; mörg a., Eluc. 53, Hom. 151, etc.

aufi, interj. [a for. word; Germ. au weh], woe! alas! used with dat., a. mér, Mar. 167; acc., a. mik, 175; absol., 147: after the Reformation ‘áví’ and ‘ó vei’ occur, or ‘vei’ alone.

aufusa, u, f., in Norse MSS. spelt afusa, Dipl. i. 3; avusa, Str. 27, 54, Sks. 775 B; afuusa, N. G. L. i. 446. In Icel. always spelt with au, av, or ö, by changing the vowel, öfusa, aufusa, Ó. H. 155, where, however, some MSS. have aufussa, avfusa, Fms. viii. 39, 250; öfusa, Fs. 123; ofusa, 677. 3, Band. 6; öfussa, Bs. i. 481: the change of vowel is caused by the following f (v). The word is now quite obsolete, and its etymology is somewhat uncertain; it may be qs. á-fúss, or af-fúss, an ‘af-’ intens. and ‘fúss,’ willing, this last suggestion would best suit the Norse form. Its sense is thanks, gratitude, satisfaction, pleasure, and is almost exclusively used either as a supplement to ‘þökk’ or in such phrases as, kunna e-m au., or e-m er au. á e-u, to be pleased, gratified with; þakka með mikilli a., to thank heartily, Str. 27; ef yðr er þar nokkur a. á, if it be any pleasure to you, Fms. ix. 495; kunna e-m au. e-s, or with ‘at,’ to be thankful, Fb. ii. 257, Eg. 111, Ó. H. 56, Fms. viii. 1. c., Bs. i. 481, H. E. i. 432, Eg. 522, Sturl. iii. 125, Fær. 209, 677. 3; leggja at móti þökk ok au., Ó. H. 155; viljum vér au. gefa þeim góðum mönnum, we will thank them, Fms. viii. 250; var mönnum mikil ö. á því, much pleased by it, Fs. 123; hafa í móti þökk ok ö., Band. 19 new Ed. COMPDS: aufusu-gestr, m. a welcome guest, Valla L. 217, Sturl. i. 178. aufusu-orð, n. thanks, Gísl. 100. aufvisu-svipr, m. friendly mien; sýna á sér au., Fs. 14.

au-fúss, adj. in a verse by Arnór, perhaps akin to the above, meaning eager, Orkn. 126: vide, however, Lex. Poët. s. v. ófur.

AUGA, n., gen. pl. augna, [Lat. oculus, a dimin. of an obsolete ocus; Gr. οφθαλμός (Boeot. οκταλμός); Sanskr. aksha: the word is common to Sanskrit with the Slavonic, Greek, Roman, and Teutonic idioms: Goth. augo; Germ. auge; A. S. eâge; Engl. eye; Scot. ee; Swed. öga; Dan. öje, etc. Grimm s. v. suggests a relationship to Lat. acies, acutus, etc. The letter n appears in the plur. of the mod. northern languages; the Swedes say ‘ögon,’ oculi, the Danes ‘öjne;’ with the article ‘ögonen’ and ‘öjnene;’ Old Engl. ‘eyne;’ Scot. ‘een’]:—an eye It is used in Icel. in a great many proverbs, e. g. betr sjá augu en auga, ‘two eyes see better than one,’ i. e. it is good to yield to advice: referring to love, unir auga meðan á sér, the eye is pleased whilst it can behold (viz. the object of its affection), Fas. i. 125, cp. Völs. rím. 4. 189; eigi leyna augu, ef ann kona manni, the eyes cannot bide it, if a woman love a man, i. e. they tell their own tale, Ísl. ii. 251. This pretty proverb is an απ. λεγ. l. c. and is now out of use; it is no doubt taken from a poem in a dróttkvætt metre, (old proverbs have alliteration, but neither rhymes nor assonance, rhyming proverbs are of a comparatively late date): medic., eigi er sá heill er í augun verkir, Fbr. 75; sá drepr opt fæti (slips) er augnanna missir, Bs. i. 742; hætt er einu auganu nema vel fari, he who has only one eye to lose will take care of it (comm.); húsbóndans auga sér bezt, the master’s eye sees best; glögt er gests augat, a guest’s eye is sharp; mörg eru dags augu, the day has many eyes, i. e. what is to be hidden must not be done in broad daylight, Hm. 81; náið er nef augum, the nose is near akin to the eyes (tua res agitur paries quum proximus ardet), Nj. 21; opt verðr slíkt á sæ, kvað selr, var skotinn í auga, this often happens at sea, quoth the seal, when he was shot in the eye, of one who is in a scrape, Fms. viii. 402. In many phrases, at unna (to love) e-m sem augum í höfði sér, as one’s own eye-balls, Nj. 217; þótti mér slökt it sætasta ljós augna minna, by his death the sweetest light of my eyes was quenched, 187: hvert grætr þú nú Skarphéðinn? eigi er þat segir Skarphéðinn, en hitt er satt at súrnar í augum, the eyes smart from smoke, 200: renna, líta augum, to seek with the eyes, to look upon: it is used in various connections, renna, líta ástaraugum, vánaraugum, vinaraugum, trúaraugum, öfundaraugum, girndarauga, with eyes of love, hope, friendship, faith, envy, desire: mæna a. denotes an upward or praying look; stara, fixed; horfa, attentive; lygna, blundskaka, stupid or slow; blína, glápa, góna, vacant or silly; skima, wandering; hvessa augu, a threatening look; leiða e-n a., to measure one with the eyes; gjóta, or skjóta hornauga, or skjóta a. í skjálg, to throw a side glance of dislike or ill-will; gjóta augum is always in a bad sense; renna, líta mostly in a good sense: gefa e-u auga, oculum adjicere alicui; hafa auga á e-u, to keep an eye on it; segja e-m e-t í augu upp, to one’s face, Orkn. 454; at augum, adverb. with open eyes, Hervar. S. (in a verse), etc. As regards various movements of the eyes; ljúka upp augum, to open the eyes; láta aptr augun, to shut the eyes; draga auga í pung, to draw the eye into a purse, i. e. shut one eye; depla augum, to blink; at drepa titlinga (Germ. äugeln, blinzen), to wink, to kill tits with the suppressed glances of the eye; glóðarauga, a suffusion on the eye, hyposphagma; kýrauga. proptosis; vagl á auga, a beam in the eye; skjálgr, Lat. limus; ský, albugo; tekinn til augnanna, with sunken eyes, etc., Fél. ix. 192; a. bresta, in death: hafa stýrur í augum, to have prickles in the eyes, when the eyes ache for want of sleep: vatna músum, ‘to water mice,’ used esp. of children weeping silently and trying to hide their tears. As to the look or expression of the eyes there are sundry metaph. phrases, e. g. hafa fékróka í augum, to have wrinkles at the corners of the eyes, of a shrewd money getting fellow, Fms. ii. 84, cp. Orkn. 330, 188, where krókauga is a cognom.; kvenna-króka, one insinuating with the fair sex; hafa ægishjalm í augum is a metaphor of one with a piercing, commanding eye, an old mythical term for the magical power of the eye, v. Grimm’s D. Mythol. under Ægishjalmr: vera mjótt á milli augnanna, the distance between the eyes being short, is a popular saying, denoting a close, stingy man, hence mjóeygr means close: e-m vex e-t í augu (now augum), to shrink back from, of a thing waxing and growing before one’s eyes so that one dares not face it. As to the shape, colour, etc. of the eye, vide the adj. ‘eygr’ or ‘eygðr’ in its many compds. Lastly we may mention the belief, that when the water in baptism touches the eyes, the child is thereby in future life prevented from seeing ghosts or goblins, vide the words úfreskr and skygn. No spell can touch the human eye; en er harm sá augu hans (that of Loki in the shape of a bird), þá grunaði hann (the giant) at maðr mundi vera, Edda 60; í bessum birni þykist hón kenna augu Bjarnar konungs sonar, Fas. i. 51, vide Ísl. Þjóðs. II. meton. and metaph. auga is used in a great many connections: α. astron.; þjaza augu, the eyes of the giant Thiazi, is a constellation, probably the Dioscuri, Castor and Pollux; the story is told in the Edda 47, cp. Harbarðsljóð 19; (Snorri attributes it to Odin, the poem to Thor.) β. botan., auga = Lat. gemma, Hjalt. 38; kattarauga, cat’s eye, is the flower forget-me-not. γ. the spots that form the numbers on dice, Magn. 530. δ. the hole in a millstone; kvarnarauga, Edda 79, 221, Hkr. i. 121: the opening into which an axe handle is fastened, Sturl. ii. 91: a pit full of water, Fs. 45: nálarauga, a needle’s eye: vindauga, wind’s eye or window (which orig. had no glass in it), A. S. eag-dura (eye-door); also gluggi, q. v.: gleraugu, spectacles. ε. anatom., the pan of the hip joint, v. augnakarl, Fms. iii. 392: gagnaugu, temples. ζ. hafsauga, the bottom of the ocean, in the popular phrase, fara út í hafsauga, descendere ad tartara. η. poët. the sun is called heimsauga, dagsauga, Jónas 119. COMPDS either with sing. auga or pl. augna; in the latter case mod. usage sometimes drops the connecting vowel a, e. g. augn-dapr, augn-depra, augn-fagr, etc. auga-bragð (augna-), n. the twinkling of an eye, Hm. 77; á einu a., in the twinkling of an eye, Ver. 32, Edda (pref.) 146, Sks. 559, Rb. 568: a glance, look, snart a., Fms. ii. 174; mikit a., v. 335; úfagrligt a., Fs. 43; hafa a. af e-u, to cast a look at, Fbr. 49, Fms. xi. 424: in the phrase, at hafa e-n (or verða) at augabragði, metaph. to make sport of, to mock, deride, gaze at, Stj. 627, 567, Hm. 5, 29. auga-brun, f. the eye-brow. auga-staðr, m. an eye-mark; hafa a. á e-u, to mark with the eye. auga-steinn (augna-), m. the eye-ball, Hkr. iii. 365, Fms. v. 152. augna-bending, f. a warning glance, Pr. 452. augna-blik, n. mod. = augnabragð, s. augna-bólga, u, f. ophthalmia. augna-brá, f. the eye-lid, D. N. i. 216. augna-fagr and aug-fagr, adj. fair-eyed, Fas. ii. 365, Fms. v. 200. augna-fró, f. a plant, eye-bright, euphrasia, also augna-gras, Hjalt. 231. augna-fræ, n. lychnis alpina. augna-gaman, n. a sport, delight for the eyes to gaze at, Ld. 202, Bær. 17, Fsm. 5 (love, sweetheart). augna-gróm, n. (medic.) a spot in the eye; metaph., ekki a., no mere speck, of whatever can easily be seen. augna-hár, n. an eye-lash. augna-hvannr, m. the eye-lid. augna-hvita, u, f. albugo. augna-karl, n. the pan of the hip joint; slíta or slitna or augnaköllunum, Fas. iii. 392. augna-kast, n. a wild glance, Barl. 167. augna-kláði, a, m. psorophthalmi. augna-krókr, n. the corner of the eye. augna-lag, n. a look, Ld. 154. augna-lok, n. ‘eye-covers,’ eye-lids. augna-mein, n. a disease of the eye. augna-mjörkvi, a, m. dimness of the eye, Pr. 471. augna-ráð, n. expression of the eye. augna-skot, n. a look askance, Gþl. 286, Fs. 44 (of cats). augna-slím, n. glaucoma. augna-staðr, m. the socket of the eye, Magn. 532. augna-sveinn, m. a lad leading a blind man, Str. 46. augn-tepra, u, f. hippus. augna-topt, f. the socket of the eye. augna-verkr, m. pain in the eye, Hkr. ii. 257, Bs. i. 451, Pr. 471, Bjarn. 58. augna-vik, n. pl. = augnakrókr. augna-þungi, a, m. heaviness of the eye, Hkr. ii. 257.

aug-dapr, adj. weak-sighted, Fms. ii. 8: augdepra, u, f. amblyopia, Fél. ix. 191.

aug-fagr, adj. fair-eyed, Lex. Poët.

aug-lit, n. a face, countenance; fyrir a. alls lýðs, Stj. 326; fyrir Guðs a., before the face of God, Orkn. 170; í a. postulans, 623. 25, Ver. 7. Gen. vii. 1 (‘before me’); fyrir konungs a., Sks. 283. Now much used, esp. theol.

aug-ljós, n. ‘eye light,’ in the phrase, koma í a., to appear. Fas. i. 80.

aug-ljóss, adj. clear, manifest, Fms. i. 229, Hkr. ii. 225.

aug-lýsa, t, to make known, manifest: subst. auglýsing, f.

aug-sjándi, part. seeing ocularily, Mart. 117.

aug-súrr, adj. blear-eyed, Stj. 171 (of Leah): súreygr is more freq.

aug-sýn, f. sight; koma í a. e-m, to appear before him, Eg. 458, 623. 12; í a. e-m, in the face of, Blas. 46.

aug-sýna, d, to shew, Fms. v. 200.

aug-sýniligr, adj. and -liga, adv. evident, visible, Gþl. 42.

AUK, adv. [cp. Goth. auk, freq. used by Ulf. as translation of Gr. γάρ; jah auk = και γάρ; A. S. eâc; Engl. eke; Germ. auch]. I. it originally was a noun = augmentum, but this form only remains in the adverbial phrase, at auk, to boot, besides, Bs. i. 317 (freq.): adverbially and without ‘at’ besides; hundrað manna ok auk kappar hans, a hundred men and eke his champions, Fas. i. 77; þriggja marka fé, en konungr þat er auk er, the surplus, N. G. L. i. 350: cp. also such phrases as, auk þess at, besides that; auk heldr, v. heldr. II. as a conj. also, Lat. etiam, occurs in very old prose, and in poetry; svá mun ek auk bletza þá konu es þú baðsk fyr, 655 ix. B. 2 (MS. of the 12th century), Hkr. ii. 370 (in a poem of Sighvat); this form, however, is very rare, as the word soon passed into ok, q. v. III. used to head a sentence, nearly as Lat. deinde, deinceps, the Hebrew ף, or the like; the Ormulum uses ac in the same way; in MSS. it is usually spelt ok; but it may be seen from poetic assonances that it was pronounced auk, e. g. auk und jöfri fræknum; hitt var auk at eykir, Vellekla, Hkr. i. 216: auk at járna leiki, Lex. Poët.; it is sometimes even spelt so, e. g. auk nær aptni skaltu Óðinn koma, Hm. 97, Hkr. i. 29, v. 1.; it is also freq. in the Cod. Fris. of the Hkr. This use of auk’ or ‘ok’ is esp. freq. in old narrative poems such as the Ynglingatal (where it occurs about thirty-five times), in the Háleygjatal (about six times), and the Vellekla (about ten times): vide ok. IV. simply for ok, and, as spelt on some Runic stones, but seldom, if ever, in written documents.

AUKA, jók, jóku (mod. juku), aukit [Lat. augere; Gr. αυξειν; Ulf. aukan; A. S. eacan or ecan; Engl. to eche or eke; O. H. G. auhon]; pres. ind. eyk; subj. eyki or yki, mod. jyki. A weak form (aukar, aukaði, aukat) also occurs, esp. in Norse, and (as a Norwegianism) in Icel. writers, esp. after the year 1260, e. g. aukaðu, augebant, Barl. 138; aukaðist, augebatur, aukaði, augebat. Barl. 180, Fms. i. 140, 184, x. 21 (MSS. aukuðu or aukaði, and some even jóku), Róm. 234; subj. aukaðist, augeretur, Fms. vii. 158 in three Icel. vellum MSS.; only one has ykist, the strong genuine form. Pres. aukar, auget, and aukast, augetur, instead of eykr, eykst, Stj. 32: part. aukat (= aukit), O. H. L. 46; aukuð, aucta, Fms. x. 236. Even Snorri in the Edda has aukaðist, p. 3, both in the vellum MSS. Ob. and Kb.,—a form which is thoroughly unclassical; the poets use the strong form, and so Ari, who has jókk = jók ek, in the preface to Íb.;—so also the great bulk of the classical literature. Since the Reformation the strong form is the only one used either in speaking or writing. I. Lat. augere, to augment, increase, with acc., eykr hann þar ætt sína, Fms. iii. 82; jók Njáll ekki hjón sín, Nj. 59; hét hann þeim at auka virðing þeirra, Eg. 33; þessi orð jóku mjök sök Adams, Sks. 542; jók nafn hans, Hom. 51, Nj. 33; var þá síðan aukuð (= aukin) veizlan, Fms. x. 236: absol., þat hálft er eykr, that half which is over and above, Js. 75: in the phrase, aukanda ferr um e-t, a thing is increasing, Nj. 139. II. Lat. addere, to add to the whole of a thing; with the thing added in the dat., ok jókk (= jók ek) því es mér varð síðan kunnara, Íb. (pref.): impers., jók miklu við, increased greatly, Ld. 54; þá eykst enn ellefu nóttum við, eleven nights are still added, Rb. 28: followed by ‘við,’ auka e-u við e-t, to add to it, Nj. 41; ‘til’ is rare and unclassical, and seems almost a Danism, as ‘föie til,’ þetta til aukist, Vm. 7: auka synd (dat.) á synd (acc.) ofan, to heap sin upon sin, Stj. 274: aukast orðum við, to come to words, speak, Eg. ch. 58, v. l. (rare); ef þú eykr orði, if tbou say’st a word more, Lex. Poët. β. with acc. (a rare and unclassical Latinism), auka ny vandræði (= nyjum vandræðum) á hin fornu, Bs. i. 751. γ. impers. in the phrase, aukar á, it increases, Róm. 234. III. to surpass, exceed; þat er eykr sex aura, þá á konungr hálft þat er eykr, if it exceeds six ounces, the king takes half the excess, N. G. L. i. 281, Js. § 71; en ármaðr taki þat er aukit er, what is over and above, N. G. L. i. 165. Esp. used adverbially in the part. pass. aukit, aukin, more than, above, of numbers; aukin þrjú hundruð manna, three hundred men well told, Eg. 530, Fms. ix. 524, v. l.; með aukit hundrað manna, x. 184, Ld. 196; aukin hálf vætt, Grett. 141 new Ed. β. in the phrases, þat er (eigi) aukat (aukit), it is no exaggeration, Jd. verse 22, the Ed. in Fms. xi. 169 has ‘árla’ (a false reading); pat er aukat, O. H. L. 1. c.; orðum aukið, exaggerated, Thom. 73.

aukan, f. increase, K. Á. 20.

auki, a, m. eke [A. S. eaca; Old Engl. and Scot. eke or eik], increase, addition; Abram tók þann auka nafns síns, Ver. 14; a. öfundar ok hatrs, Stj. 192: cp. also in the phrase, verða at moldar auka, to become dust, to die, in a verse in the Hervar. S. Fas. i. 580; cp. maðr er moldu samr, man is but dust, Sl. 47; and another proverb, lauki er lítið gæft til auka, used by Sighvat (Lex. Poët.), the leek needs but little care to grow; sárs-auki, pain, Mirm. 47; Danmerkr auki is a poët. name of Zealand used by Bragi, Edda I: the phrase, í miklum auka, in a huge, colossal shape, Glúm. 345 (in a verse); hence perhaps comes the popular phrase, að færast í aukana (or haukana), to exert to the utmost one’s bodily strength, Glámr færðist í alla auka (of one wrestling), Grett. 114 A, (Ed. 1853 has færðist í aukana.) 2. metaph. seed, germs, thou hast given me no seed, Stj. III. Gen. xv. 2; esp. the sperm of whales, amber, Sks. 137. β. produce of the earth, Barl. 193, 200. γ. interest of capital, N. G. L. ii. 380; vide áauki, sársauki, sakauki, i. 187. COMPDS: auka-dagr, m. ‘eke-day,’ dies intercalaris, Rb. 488. auka-hlutr, m. in the phrase, at aukahlut, to boot, Hom. 129. auka-nafn, n. ‘eke-name,’ nickname, or additional name, Sks. 272. auka-smíði, n. a superfluous thing, a mere appendix, Fms. ii. 359. auka-tungl, n. intercalary moon, Rb. 116. auka-verk, n. by-work, Bs. i. 326. auka-vika, u, f. ‘eke-week,’ intercalary week, v. hlaupár.

auk-nafn, n. = aukanafn, ‘eke-name.’

auk-nefna, d, to nickname, Landn. 243.

auk-nefni, n. ‘eke-name,’ a nickname: α. a defamatory name, punishable with the lesser outlawry, Grág. ii. 146. β. in a less strong sense; hann var svartr á hár ok hörund, ok því þótti honum a. gefit er hann var Birtingr kallaðr, he was swarth of hair and skin, and for that it seemed a nickname was given him when he was called ‘Brighting,’ Fms. vii. 157: Helgi átti kenningar nafn, ok var kallaðr hvíti; ok var þat eigi a., því at hann var vænn maðr ok vel hærðr, hvítr á hár, Helgi had a surname (in a good sense), and was called ‘White;’ and that was no nickname, for he was a handsome man and well-haired, white of hair, Fbr. 80: þú hyggr at ek muna vilja giptast einum bastarði,—eigi em ek bastarðr nema at a., of William the Conqueror, Fb. iii. 464. In old times, esp. at the time of the colonisation of Iceland, such nicknames were in freq. use, as may be seen from the index in the Landnama; they gradually went out of use, but still occur now and then throughout the whole of the Saga period in Icel. down to the 14th century.

aukning, f., Old Engl. ‘eeking,’ increase, Stj. 100, 176, Sks. 137.

au-kvisi, a, m. [prop. auð-kvisi, from auð, easy, and kveistinn, touchy; cp. kveisa, f. ulcus, dolor]; in old writers it is spelt with au or av, and sometimes with a double k, ökkvisi, Bs. i. 497 vellum MS. A. M. 499; auðkvisi, Ld. 236 C and the vellum MS. A. M. 122 A to Sturl. ii. 8; aukvisi, MS. 122 B; O. H. (Ed. 1853) reads aucvisi; it means a weakly, irritable, touchy person. Used esp. in the proverb, einn er au. ættar hverrar, cp. the Engl. there is a black sheep in every flock, Hkr. ii. 238: mun ek son minn láta heita Gizur; lítt hafa þeir aukvisar verit í Haukdæla ætt er svá hafa heitið hér til, Sturl. ii. 8, at the birth of earl Gizur. [The name Gizur was a famous name in this family, Gizur hviti, Gizur biskup, Gizur Hallsson, etc.]

AULANDI, an indecl. adj., qs. al-landi, an απ. λεγ. in the proverb Nj. 10, illt er þeim er au. er alinn. [The root is prob. al- (Lat. alius), land, cp. A. S. ellend or elland (Hel. elilendi), alienus, peregrinus; Old Engl. alyant; O. H. G. alilanta (whence N. H. G. elend, miser): there is in Icel. also a form erlendr, prob. a corruption for ellendr. This root is quite lost in the Scandin. idioms with the single exception of the proverb mentioned above, and the altered form er-.] The MSS. of the Nj. l. c. differ; some of them have á úlandi in two words, in terra malâ; Johnsonius has not made out the meaning: the proper sense seems to be exul ubique infelix. In olden times peregrinus and miser were synonymous, the first in a proper, the last in a metaphorical sense: so the Lat. hostis (= hospes) passed into the sense of enemy. The spelling with ö (ölandi) ought perhaps to be preferred, although the change of vowel cannot be easily accounted for.

auli, a, m. a dunce, aulaligr adj., aula-skapr m., aulast dep., etc., do not occur, as it seems, in old writers; prop. a slug (?); cp. Ivar Aasen s. vv. aula, auling.

aum-hjartaðr, adj. tender-hearted, charitable, Stj. 547, Hom. 109.

aumindi, n. painful feeling from a wound or the like, Fél. ix. 192.

aumingi, ja, m. a wretch, in Icel. in a compassionate sense; Guðs a., 655 xxxii. 15, Bs. i. 74, Hom. 87.

aumka, að, to bewail, to complain, esp. in the impers. phrase, a. sik, to feel compassion for, Bær. II, Al. 10, Róm. 182, Bret. 98, Fagrsk. ch. 34; now freq. used in reflex., aumkast yfir e-t, to pity.

aumkan, f. lamentation, wailing. El. 10.

aumleikr, m. misery, Stj. 428, Bs. i. 321; now also used of the sore feeling of a wound or the like, v. aumr.

aumligr, adj. and -liga, adv. [A. S. earmlic], poorly, wretched, Grett. 161, Fms. i. 138, v. 218, Sturl. ii. 13, Bær. 4, Magn. 432, H. E. iii. 366.

aum-neglur, more correctly anneglur, cp. the Engl. agnail, hangnail, or naugnail, Fél. ix. 192; the lunula unguium is in Icel. called anneglur, and so is the skin round the finger-nail, id.

AUMR, adj. [Ulf. has arms = miser; Dan. and Swed. öm], seems with all its compounds to be a Scandin. word. It originally probably meant sore, aching, touchy, tender. In mod. Icel. it is sometimes used in this sense, in Dan. and Swed. only = sore, and metaph. tender. 2. metaph. poorly, miserable, unhappy; styrkstú, aumr, strengthen thyself, wretched man, Orkn. 153, Hom. 15, 16, Th. 6, 16: in a bad sense = armr, Fms. ix. 414.

aum-staddr, adj. part. in a poor, wretched state, Stj. 475.

AUNGR, adj. pron., Lat. nullus, none, v. engi, enginn.

AUNGR, adj. narrow, Lat. angustus, v. ongr.

aung-vit, n., medic. lipothymia, a fainting-fit, Fél. ix. 193.

AURAR, m. pl. money, aura- in compds, v. eyrir.

aur-borð, n. the second plank from the keel of a boat, Vellekla and Edda (Gl.)

aur-falr, s, m. [aurr, lutum, falr], the spike at the butt-end of a spear, Gr. σαυρωτήρ; þeir settu niðr aurfalina er þeir stóðu ok studdust við spjót sín, Fms. i. 280; síðan mældi hann grundvöll húsgörðarinnar fyrir þórhalli með aurfalnum á spjóti sínu, ii. 230; Abner sneri spjótinu í hendi sér ok lagði aurfalnum framan í kviðinn, Stj. 497, 2 Sam. ii. 23 (in Engl. Vers. ‘the hinder end of the spear’), Art. 105. β. used of an arrow, Fb. iii. 406.

aur-gáti, a, m. [qs. ör-gáti, ör- and geta], a tit-bit, good cheer, good treatment, a rare and now obsolete word; mun ekki af sparat, at veita oss allan þann a. er til er, Fms. xi. 341; um tilföng veizlunnar, sem bezt búandi allan a., Mar. 97; af þeim örgáta sem hon hafði framast föng til, 655 xxxi. 2.

aurigr, adj., only in the contr. forms aurgan (acc.), aurgu (dat.), clayey, muddy, Vsp. 31, Ls. 48; cp. úrigr, madidus.

aur-konungr, m. an epithet of Hænir, Edda.

AURR, s, m., prop. wet clay or loam, but also in Eggert Itin. p. 682 of a sort of clay, cp. Ivar Aasen s. v. aur. In A. S. eâr is humus; in the Alvismál one of the names of the earth is aurr (kalla aur uppregin). In the Völuspá the purling water of the well of Urda is called aurr; hence the paraphrase in the Edda, þær taka hvern dag vatn í brunninum, ok með aurinn (the clay, humus) er liggr um brunninn, ok ausa upp yfir askinn. Elsewhere used simply of mud, wet soil, aurr etr iljar en ofan kuldi, Gs. 15; auri trödd und jóa fótum, Gh. 16; ok við aur ægir hjarna, bragnings burs of blandinn varð, his brains were mixed with the mud, Ýt. 16; aurr ok saurr, mud and dirt, Ann. 1362; hylja auri, humo condere, in a verse in the Konn. S.

aurriði, örriði, mod. urriði, a, m. salmo trutta, salmon-trout, Fél. i. II; salmo squamis argenteis, maculis nigris brunneo cinctis, pinna pectorali punctulis sex notata, Eggert Itin. p. 595: deriv. from örr, celer, and -riði, or from aurr (?); the Norse form aure indicates a diphthong, GÞl. 421, Edda (Gl.) COMPDS: aurriða-bekkr, m. a ‘beck’ full of trout, Bolt. aurriða-fiski, f. trout-fishing, Bolt. aurriða-net, n. a trout-net, Gísl. 104. aurriða-vatn, n. a water stocked with trout, Bolt.

aur-skór, m. (prop. ‘mud-shoe’), a horse shoe, an απ. λεγ. in the story Fms. iii. 210, each of the shoes weighing 1½ lb. The story is a pendant to that told of king Augustus of Poland and the blacksmith.

aur-skriða, u, f. a land slip, avalanche, Fbr. 84, Fs. 59.

aurvandils-tá (aurvantá, Ub.), f. Aurvandil’s toe, probably the star Rigel in Orion, v. Edda 59.

aur-vangr, m. a loamy field, Vsp.

AUSA, jós, josu (mod. jusu), ausit; pres. ind. eyss; subj. eysi or ysi, mod. jysi (hauriret), cp. Lat. haurio, haus-it; not found in Goth. or in Germ. I. to sprinkle, with dat. of the liquid, and the object in acc. or with a prep.; þær taka hvern dag vatn í brunninum, ok ausa (viz. Því) upp yfir askinn, …pour it over the ash-boughs, Edda 11; ef maðr eyss eldi (fire, embers,) Grág. ii. 128; a. síld ór netjum, to empty the nets of the herrings, GÞl. 427: a. út, to pour out, fé, Grett. 126. 2. ausa moldu, to sprinkle with mould, bury; hlóðu Þeir at grjóti ok jósu at moldu, Eg. 300; er hann höfðu moldu ausit, Bjarn. II; salr ausinn moldu, his chamber sprinkled with mould (poët.), Hervar. S.; ausinn haugi, Ýt. 26. β. ausa vatni is a standing phrase for a sort of baptism used in the last centuries, at least, of the heathen age. The child when born was sprinkled with water and named, yet without the intervention of a priest; this rite is mentioned as early as in the Hávamál, one of the very oldest mythological didactic poems on record, where it is attributed even to Odin; ef ek skal Þegn ungan verpa vatni á, if I am to throw water on a young thane, 159; Jósu vatni Jarl létu heita, Jóð ól Edda jósu vatni, hörvi svartan, hétu Þræl, Rm. 7, 31; sá var siðr göfigra manna, at vanda menn mjök til at ausa vatni ok gefa nafn; …Sigurðr jarl jós sveininn vatni ok kallaði Hákon, Hkr. i. 118; Eiríkr ok Gunnhildr áttu son er Haraldr konungr jós vatni ok gaf nafn sitt, 122; eptir um daginn jós Hákon konungr Þann svein vatni ok gaf nafn sitt, 135, Fms. i. 66, xi. 2; fæddi Þóra sveinbarn ok var Grimr nefndr er vatni var ausinn, Eb. 26; enn áttu Þau Skallagrímr son, sá var vatni ausinn ok nafn gefit ok kallaðr Egill, Eg. 146, 147, 166, Ld. 108, Gísl. 32 (of Snorre Gode); and so in many instances from Icel., Norway, and the Orkneys, all of them of the heathen age. The Christian term is skíra, q. v. 3. metaph. of scolding or abuse; hrópi ok rógi ef Þú eyss á holl regin, Ls. 4; ausa sauri á e-n, to bespatter with foul language, ausask sauri á (recipr.), Bjarn. 33; a. e-m e-u í augu upp, to throw in one’s face, Eg. 576; hann jós upp (poured out) Þar fyrir alÞýðu öllum glæpum föður síns, Mart. 80; um verka Þann er hverr jós á annan, Bjarn. 42. II. of a horse, to kick or lash out with his hinder feet, opp. to prjóna, to rear up and strike with the fore feet; hestrinn tók at frýsa, blása ok ausa, Greg. 49; at merrin eysi, Sturl. ii. 40 C. III. to pump, esp. a ship, with the ship in acc.; Hallfreðr jós at sínum hlut, Fs. 113, Grett. 95 A, Fbr. 173, N. G. L. i. 102: a. bát sinn, to make water, Fms. vii. 331.

ausa, u, f. a ladle, ekki er sopið kálið Þó í ausuna sé komit (a proverb), many a slip ‘twixt the cup and the lip, Grett. 132, Þórð. 51.

aus-ker, n. = austr-ker, Shetl. auskerrie, a scoop, v. Jamieson Suppl. sub voce, Fs. 147.

ausli, v. auvisli.

austan, adv. [A. S. eastan; Hel. ôstan], from the east, Eg. 183, Eb. 4: of the direction of the wind (cp. vestan, sunnan, norðan), used with a preceding prep. á, á vestan, austan …, blowing from west, east …, Bs. ii. 48. β. fyrir a. used as a prep. with acc. east of; fyrir a. mitt haf, Grág. ch. 85, p. 142 new Ed., Nj. 36, 81, Eg. 100, Landn. 228. γ. with gen. in phrases like austan lands, a. fjarðar, cp. norðan, sunnan, vestan, Hkr. iii. 201. COMPDS: austan-ferð, f. a journey from the east, Fms. vii. 128. austan-fjarðar, gen. loci, used as adverb, in the east of the firth, Hkr. ii. 295, Fms. i. 278, iv. 37. austan-gola, u, f. a light breeze from the east, Sturl. iii. 59 (Ed. austræn). austan-kváma, u, f. arrival from the east, Fms. vi. 23. austan-maðr, m. a man from the east, Old Engl. easterling, Sturl. iii. 248. austan-sjór, m. the east sea, nickname of a man, Fms. ix. 316. austan-veðr, rs, m. an easterly gale, Rb. 438. austan-verðr, adj. eastern (cp. norðan-, sunnan-, vestan-verðr), Landn. 25, Stj. 75, A. A. 286. austan-vindr, m. an east wind, Sks. 38, cp. norðan-, vestan-. sunnan-vindr.

austarliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. easterly, Fms. xi. 389.

austastr, superl. easternmost, v. eystri.

austfirðingr, m., esp. in pl. an eastfirther, one from the east of Iceland, Sturl. ii. 158. COMPDS: austfirðinga-búð, f., v. búð. austfirðinga-dómr, m. the court for the east quarter, v. dómr. austfirðinga-fjórðungr, m. the east quarter of Iceland, v. fjórðungr.

aust-firðir, m. pl. the east firths of Iceland, opp. to vestfirðir, Landn.

aust-firzkr, adj. one from the east firths in Icel., Nj. 54, Lv. 57.

aust-för, f. = austrför.

aust-ker, n. a scoop, bucket, v. auss-ker.

aust-kylfir, m. pl. easterlings, cp. Kylfingar, an old Russian population, Kolbiager, east of the Baltic; in a poem of Hornklofi, Fagrsk. 9.

aust-lægr, adj. easterly, of the wind.

aust-maðr, m., pl. austmenn, in Icel. and in the northern part of the British Islands a standing name of those who came from the Scandinavian continent, esp. Norse merchants, vide the old Irish chronicles, and the Sagas, passim. The English used ‘easterling’ in the same sense, and sterling is an abbreviation of the word from the coin which the ‘easterlings’ brought with them in trade. Eyvindr austmaðr, Landn., Nj. 81, Eg. 744, Ísl. ii. 192, 128, Sturl. ii. 47, Lv. 23, Valla L. 216, Landn. 36, 290, 305, Eb. 104, 196, etc. In the Norse GÞl. 450 it is used of Swedes in Norway: austmanna-skelfir, m. ‘skelper’ (conqueror, terror) of the east men, a nickname, Landn. 305.

aust-marr, m. the east sea, the east Baltic (Estmere of king Alfred, Oros. Ed. Bosworth, p. 22), Ýt. 18.

aust-mál, n. = austrmál, N. G. L. i. 335.

aust-mörk, f. the east mark, i. e. the east, Ýt. 4.

AUSTR, rs, m. [A. S. and Engl. east; Hel. ôstar; Germ. ost, osten], the east; sól í austri, Grág. ii. 224, Rb. 92, Landn. 276; ór austri, Sturl. ii. 25. 2. as adv. towards east, eastward, Nj. 151, Eg. 72, Grág. i. 96, 189.

austr, rs and rar, m. [ausa], the act of drawing water in buckets, pumping; v. dæluaustr and byttuaustr, Grett. ch. 19; standa í austri, to toil hard at the pump, Fas. ii. 520, Sturl. iii. 68; til austrar, Grett. 94 B. β. the water pumped or to be pumped, bilge water, Gr. αντλος, Sturl. iii. 67, 68; skipið fullt af austri, full of bilge water, Fb. ii. 204 (Fbr.), Finnb. 234; standa í a., v. above. COMPD: austrs-ker, austker (N. G. L. i. 59), a scoop, pump-bucket (cp. ausker), GÞl. 424.

austr-álfa, v. austrhálfa.

austr-átt and -ætt, f. eastern region, east; í austr., towards east, in eastern direction, Fms. ii. 49, x. 267, Sks. 38. 655 xiv. B. i.

austr-biti, a, m. a cross-beam nearest the pumping-place in a ship, Fs. 153.

austr-ferð and austr-för, f. voyage to the east, esp. to Russia or the east Baltic, Fb. i. 130, Ls. 60, the last passage in a mythical sense. COMPDS: austrfarar-knörr, m. a vessel bound for the Baltic, Fms. vii. 256. austrfarar-skip, n. id., Fms. viii. 61, Orkn. 274 old Ed., where the new Ed. 334 has útfararskip, a ship bound for the Mediterranean (better).

austr-hálfa, u, f. [Hel. ôstarhalba = oriens], often spelt -álfa by dropping the h; the east, in old writers freq. of the Austria of the peace of Verdun, A. D. 843, including the Baltic and the east of Europe; sometimes also of the true east; um Garðaríki (Russia Minor) ok víða um a. heims, Fms. i. 96; í Görðum austr ok austrhólfunni, x. 275; í a. heims eru Þrjú Indialönd, A. A. 283; Licinius lagði undir sik víða a., Blas. 37; Adam ok Eva bygðu síðan í a. Þar sem Hebron heitir, Ver. 5, Stj. 67, 43: now used in Icel. = Asia, Vestrhálfa = America, Suðrhálfa = Africa, Norðrhálfa = Europe, Eyjaálfa = Australia. COMPDS: austrhálfu-lýðr, m. people of the east, Stj. 392. Judges vi. 33. austrhálfu-þjóð, f. id., Stj. 389.

Austri, a, m. the name of a dwarf, the Eastern, Edda, Vsp.

austr-kendr, adj. part. eastern, of wind, Bs. i. 388.

Austr-konungr, m. a king of the East, Ýt.

austrligr, adj. eastern, Stj, 336.

austr-lönd, n. pl. the east, orient, the eastern part of Europe, in old writers often synonymous to Austr-hálfa, and opp. to Norðrlönd, Scandinavia; Suðrlönd, South Germany, etc.; Vestrlönd, the British Islands, Normandy, Bretagne, etc., Post. 656 C. 39, Fms. ii. 183, Post. 645. 102, Hkr. i. 134 in a poem of the 10th century used of Russia; cp. Brocm. 101.

austr-mál, n. (navig.), the pumping-watch, the crew being told off two and two, to hand the buckets up, one of them standing in the bilge water down below and the other on deck, vide the Fbr. 131, Grett. ch. 19; en hverr Þeirra manna er síðar kemr en a. komi til hans, þá er hann sekr níu ertogum, N. G. L. i. 335 [ausmaal, bilge water, Ivar Aasen].

austr-oka, að, [austr], to lavish, squander, with dat. an απ. λεγ. as it seems, Fas. iii. 198, 202, where a. fé sínu; cp. Gr. αντλέω.

austr-ríki, n. the eastern empire, esp. the east of Europe (Russia, Austria, sometimes also including Turkey of the present time); the term is often vague, and synonymous to Austrvegr, Austrlönd, or referring to the Germany of the year 843; (the mod. sense is = Austria); Ívarr víðfaðmi eignaðist allt Danaveldi, ok mikinn hluta Saxlands ok allt A., Hkr. Yngl. S. ch. 45, Fms. vi. 8; Constantinopolis er æðst borga í A., Ver. 49; Þeodosius inn mikli var sex vetr konungr í A., 50; Licinius hét konungr í A., Blas. 37, in these last passages = the eastern empire (of Rome); þá er ek (viz. king David) lifða ok vask konungr kallaðr í A. (in the east), Niðrst. 4, cp. Baut. nos. 780, 979.

austr-rúm, n. the part of a vessel’s hold near the stern where the pump is, Hkr. i. 82, Stj. 57, Fbr. 158, Edda 35; an aft and fore pumping-place (eptra ok fremra austrrúm) is mentioned Fms. viii. 139.

austr-trog, n. a scoop, bucket,

austr-vegr, s, m. the eastern way, east, esp. Russia, Wenden, the east Baltic; fara í Austrveg is a standing phrase for trading or piratical expeditions in the Baltic, opp. to víking or vestr-víking, which only refer to expeditions to the British Islands, Normandy, Brittany, etc.; austr-víking, Landn. 221, is a false reading; hann var farmaðr mikill (Hólmgarðs-fari) ok kaupmaðr; fór opt í Austrveg (Baltic), Landn. 169, Nj. 41, Eg. 228, Fms. freq., vide vol. xii, s. v. In the Edda fara í A. is a standing phrase for the expeditions of Thor against giants, Þórr var farinn í A. at berja tröll, 26, cp. Ls. 59, where a. means the eastern region of heaven. Sometimes it is used of the east in general, Ver. 9, Rb. 412, 623. 13, Baut. no. 813. COMPDS: austrvegs-konungar, m. pl. the three kings or Magi (‘wise men’) from the east, Stj. 16; a king of Russia, Fms. x. 397. austrvegs-maðr, m. an inhabitant of Austrvegir, Hkr. i. 44.

austr-ætt, v. austrátt.

aust-rœna, u, f. eastern breeze.

aust-rœnn, adj. [Hel. ostroni; A. S. easterne; cp. norrænn, suðrænn], eastern, of the wind; a. gola, eastern breeze, Sturl. iii. 59; vindr, Orkn. (in a verse); viðr, timber from Norway or Scandinavia, Grág. i. 149, the Eistland tymmer of the old Scotch inventories (Jamieson, Suppl. s. v.); Austrænir menn, Norsemen in Iceland, Fms. ix. 276; as a nickname, Eb. 12, and Landn. The name denotes the inhabitants of the Scandinavian continent as opp. to the British Islands and Iceland.

aust-skota, u, f. = austrsker, Grág. ii. 171; Ísl. ii. 382 spelt ausskota.

au-virð and auvirði, mod. auðvirði, n. [af, off, and verð, value; the change of letter caused by the following v; a purely Icel. form, the Norse being ‘afv-;’ the mod. Icel. form is auð-v., as if it were to be derived from auð- and verð]: 1. a worthless wretch, a laggard, bungler; sel þú upp, auvirðit, knálegar bytturnar, Bungler! hand thou up stoutly the buckets, Fbr. 131; hygg ek at eingi maðr eigi jafnmikil a. at frændum sem ek, Hrafn. II; verða at a., Bret. 163, Sturl. i. 73. 2. a law term, damage, anything impairing the value of a thing; hann ábyrgist við þeim auvirðum er þat fær af því skaða, Grág. i. 431. COMPDS: auvirðs-maðr, m. a wretch, laggard, 655, vide Sturl. ii. 139, Fær. 74, Þorf. Karl. 426. auvirðs-skapr, m. naughtiness, Gullþ. 12.

au-virðast, d, to become worthless, Eg. 103, Glúm. 377 C. 2. in the act. to think unworthy, disparage, Barl. 21, 57, 123, 190, Mar. 83: seldom used except in Norse writers, and consequently spelt with an ‘af-:’ in reflex. sense. Stj. 483.

au-virðliga, Norse afvirð-, and mod. Icel. auðvirðil-, adv. despicably, Sturl. iii. 220, Fs. 71.

au-virðligr, etc., adj. worthless, Fas. i. 87, Bret. 31, 72, Sturl. iii. 225, Barl. 75; at skurðarskírn sé afvirðilig (indigna) Kristnum mönnum, 159.

au-visli, and contr. ausli and usli, a, m.; etym. uncertain, ausli, Gþl. 385 A; usli, N. G. L. i. 246, Fms. i. 202, viii. 341, xi. 35, Edda (Gl.) In the Grág. auvisli, spelt with au or av; in the Ed. of 1829 sometimes with ö where the MSS. have au: I. a law term, damages, Lat. damnum; bæta auvisla is a standing law term for to pay compensation for damages done, the amount of which was to be fixed by a jury; bæta skal hann a. á fjórtán nóttum sem búar fimm virða, Grág. i. 383, 418, ii. 229, 121, 223 (Ed. 1853), 225 (twice): hence auvislabót. In Norse law, gjalda a., Gþl. 384; ábyrgi honum garðinn ok allan ausla þann er, 385 A; beiða usla bótar, N. G. L. i. 246. II. metaph. hurt, injury in general; mondi þeim þá ekki vera gjört til auvisla, Ld. 76; ok er þat þó líkast, at þú setir eigi undan öllum avvisla (thou wilt not get off unscathed), ef þú tekr eigi við, Fms. iii. 144. 2. devastation, Fms. xi. 81: esp. by fire and sword in the alliterative phrase, eldr (fire) ok usli; fara með eld ok usla, i. 202; heldr en þar léki yfir eldr ok usli, viii. 341; þá görði á mikit regn, ok slökði þann eld vandliga, svá at menn máttu þá þegar fara yfir usla þann inn mikla (embers and ruins), xi. 35. In the Edda (Gl.) usli is recorded as one of the sixty names of fire: cp. also the mod. verb ösla, to plunge through: auvisli is now an obsolete word, usli a common word, gjöra usla, to desolate, in the metaph. sense. COMPDS: auvisla-bót and usla-bót (N. G. L. i. 246), f. a law term, compensation fixed by a jury of five, cp. above; distinction is made between a. hin meiri and hin minni, first rate or second rate compensation, Grág. ii. 344: in pl. 225: ausla-gjald and usla-gjald, n. compensation, Gþl. 387.

AX, n. [Goth. aks, cp. Goth. asans = harvest], an ear of corn, Stj. 201, Thom. 98.

axar-, v. öx, an axe.

ax-helma, u, f. a blade of corn, ear and stem, Stj. 422, Ruth ii. 2 (Engl. Vers. ‘ears of corn’).

ax-korn, n. an ear of corn, Edda (Ub.) ii. 283.

axla, að, to shoulder, Fms. iii. 228.

axlar-, v. öxl, shoulder.

axl-byrðr, f. a shoulder-load, Orkn. 346, Grett, 177 new Ed.

axl-hár, adj. shoulder high, Js. 101.

axl-limar, m. pl. ‘shoulder-limbs,’ arms, Kormak.

axull, m., v. öxull, axis, an axle-tree.

ay, interj. dolendi, ay mér veslugri, Mar. Fr.

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