Á

Á, á, prep., often used elliptically, or even adverbially, [Goth. ana; Engl. on; Germ. an. In the Scandinavian idioms the liquid n is absorbed. In English the same has been supposed to happen in adverbial phrases, e. g. ‘along, away, abroad, afoot, again, agate, ahead, aloft, alone, askew, aside, astray, awry,’ etc. It is indeed true that the Ormulum in its northern dialect freq. uses o, even in common phrases, such as ‘o boke, o land, o life, o slæpe, o strande, o write, o naht, o loft,’ etc., v. the glossary; and we may compare on foot and afoot, on sleep (Engl. Vers. of Bible) and asleep; A. S. a-butan and on-butan (about); agen and ongean (again, against); on bæc, aback; on life, alive; on middan, amid. But it is more than likely that in the expressions quoted above, as well as in numberless others, as well in old as in modern English, the English a- as well as the o- of the Ormulum and the modern Scottish and north of England o- are in reality remains of this very á pronounced au or ow, which was brought by the Scandinavian settlers into the north of England. In the struggle for supremacy between the English dialects after the Conquest, the Scandinavian form á or a won the day in many cases to the exclusion of the Anglo-Saxon on. Some of these adverbs have representatives only in the Scandinavian tongues, not in Anglo-Saxon; see below, with dat. B. II, C. VII; with acc. C. I. and VI. The prep. á denotes the surface or outside; í and ór the inside; at, til, and frá, nearness measured to or from an object: á thus answers to the Gr. επί; the Lat. in includes á and i together.]

With dat. and acc.: in the first case with the notion of remaining on a place, answering to Lat. in with abl.; in the last with the notion of motion to the place, = Lat. in with acc.

WITH DAT.

A. Loc. I. generally on, upon; á gólfi, on the floor, Nj. 2; á hendi, on the hand (of a ring), 48, 225; á palli, 50; á steini, 108; á vegg, 115; á sjá ok á landi, on sea and land. In some instances the distinction between d and i is loose and wavering, but in most cases common sense and usage decide; thus ‘á bók’ merely denotes the letters, the penmanship, ‘í’ the contents of a book; mod. usage, however, prefers ‘í,’ lesa í bók, but stafr á bók. Old writers on the other hand; á bókum Enskum, in English books, Landn. 24, but í Aldafars bók, 23 (in the book De Mensurâ Temporum, by Bede), cp. Grág. i. 76, where á is a false reading instead of at; á bréfi, the contents of a letter: of clothing or arms, mítr á höfði, sverð á hlið, mitre on head, sword on side, Fms. i. 266, viii. 404; hafa lykil á sér, on one’s person, 655 xxvii. 22; möttull á tyglum, a mantle hanging on (i. e. fastened by) laces, Fms. vii. 201: á þingi means to be present at a meeting; í þingi, to abide within a jurisdiction; á himni, á jörðu, on (Engl. in) heaven and earth, e. g. in the Lord’s Prayer, but í helviti, in hell; á Gimli, Edda (of a heavenly abode); á báti, á skipi denote crew and cargo, ‘í’ the timber or materials of which a ship is built, Eg. 385; vera í stafni á skipi, 177: á skógi, to be abroad in a wood (of a hunter, robber, deer); but to be situated (a house), at work (to fell timber), í skógi, 573, Fs. 5, Fms. iii. 122, viii. 31, xi. 1, Glúm. 330, Landn. 173; á mörkinni, Fms. i. 8, but í mörk, of a farm; á firðinum means lying in a firth, of ships or islands (on the surface of the water), þær eyjar liggja á Breiðafirði, Ld. 36; but í firði, living in a district named Firth; á landi, Nj. 98, Fms. xi. 386. II. á is commonly used in connection with the pr. names or countries terminating in ‘land,’ Engl. in, á Englandi, Írlandi, Skotlandi, Bretlandi, Saxlandi, Vindlandi, Vínlandi, Grænalandi, Íslandi, Hálogalandi, Rogalandi, Jótlandi, Frakklandi, Hjaltlandi, Jamtalandi, Hvítramannalandi, Norðrlöndum, etc., vide Landn. and the index to Fms. xii. In old writers í is here very rare, in modern authors more frequent; taste and the context in many instances decide. An Icelander would now say, speaking of the queen or king, ‘á Englandi,’ ruling over, but to live ‘í Englandi,’ or ‘á Englandi;’ the rule in the last case not being quite fixed. 2. in connection with other names of countries: á Mæri, Vörs, Ögðum, Fjölum, all districts of Norway, v. Landn.; á Mýrum (in Icel.), á Finnmörk, Landn., á Fjóni (a Danish island); but í Danmörk, Svíþjóð (á Svíþjóðu is poët., Gs. 13). 3. before Icel. farms denoting open and elevated slopes and spaces (not too high, because then ‘at’ must be used), such as ‘staðr, völlr, ból, hjalli, bakki, heimr, eyri,’ etc.; á Veggjum, Landn. 69; á Hólmlátri, id.: those ending in ‘-staðr,’ á Geirmundarstöðum, Þórisstöðum, Jarðlangsstöðum…, Landn.: ‘-völlr,’ á Möðruvöllum: á Fitjum (the farm) í Storð (the island), í Fenhring (the island) á Aski (the farm), Landn., Eg.: ‘-nes’ sometimes takes á, sometimes í (in mod. usage always ‘í’), á Nesi, Eb. 14, or í Krossnesi, 30; in the last case the notion of island, νησος, prevails: so also, ‘fjörðr,’ as, þeir börðust á Vigrafirði (of a fight o n the ice), Landn. 101, but orusta í Hafrsfirði, 122: with ‘-bær,’ á is used in the sense of a farm or estate, hón sa á e-m bæ mikit hús ok fagrt, Edda 22; ‘í bæ’ means within doors, of the buildings: with ‘Bær’ as pr. name Landn. uses ‘í,’ 71, 160, 257, 309, 332. 4. denoting on or just above; of the sun, when the time is fixed by regarding the sun in connection with points in the horizon, a standing phrase in Icel.; sól á gjáhamri, when the sun is on the crag of the Rift, Grág. i. 26, cp. Glúm. 387; so, brú á á, a bridge on a river, Fms. viii. 179, Hrafn. 20; taka hús á e-m, to surprise one, to take the house over his head, Fms. i. 11. III. á is sometimes used in old writers where we should now expect an acc., esp. in the phrase, leggja sverði (or the like) á e-m, or á e-m miðjum, to stab, Eg. 216, Gísl. 106, Band. 14; þá stakk Starkaðr sprotanum á konungi, then Starkad stabbed the king with the wand, Fas. iii. 34; bíta á kampi (vör), to bite the lips, as a token of pain or emotion, Nj. 209, 68; taka á e-u, to touch a thing, lay hold of it, v. taka; fá á e-u, id. (poët.); leggja hendr á (better at) síðum, in wrestling, Fms. x. 331; koma á úvart á e-m, to come on one unawares, ix. 407 (rare).

B. TEMP. of a particular point or period of time, at, on, in: I. gener. denoting during, in the course of; á nótt, degi, nætrþeli …, Bs. i. 139; or spec. adding a pron. or an adject., á næsta sumri, the next summer; á því ári, þingi, misseri, hausti, vári, sumri …, during, in that year …, Bs. i. 679, etc.; á þrem sumrum, in the course of three summers, Grág. i. 218; á þrem várum, Fms. ii. 114; á hálfs mánaðar fresti, within half a month’s delay, Nj. 99; á tvítugs, sextugs … aldri, á barns, gamals aldri, etc., at the age of …, v. aldr: á dögum e-s, in the days of, in his reign or time, Landn. 24, Hrafn. 3, Fms. ix. 229. II. used of a fixed recurrent period or season; á várum, sumrum, haustum, vetrum, á kveldum, every spring, summer …, in the evenings, Eg. 711, Fms. i. 23, 25, vi. 394, Landn. 292: with the numeral adverbs, cp. Lat. ter in anno, um sinn á mánuði, ári, once a month, once a year, where the Engl. a is not the article but the preposition, Grág. i. 89. III. of duration; á degi, during a whole day, Fms. v. 48; á sjau nóttum, Bárð. 166; á því meli, during that time, in the meantime, Grág. i. 259. IV. connected with the seasons (á vetri, sumri, vári, hausti), ‘á’ denotes the next preceding season, the last winter, summer, autumn, Eb. 40, 238, Ld. 206: in such instances ‘á’ denotes the past, ‘at’ the future, ‘í’ the present; thus í vetri in old writers means this winter; á vetri, last winter; at vetri, next winter, Eb. 68 (in a verse), etc.

C. In various other relations, more or less metaphorically, on, upon, in, to, with, towards, against: I. denoting object, in respect of, against, almost periphrastically; dvelja á náðum e-s, under one’s protection, Fms. i. 74; hafa metnað á e-u, to be proud of, to take pride in a thing, 127. 2. denoting a personal relation, in; bæta e-t á e-m, to make amends, i. e. to one personally; misgöra e-t á e-m, to inflict wrong on one; hafa elsku (hatr) á e-m, to bear love (hatred) to one, Fms. ix. 242; hefna sín á e-m, to take revenge on one’s person, on anyone; rjúfa sætt á e-m, to break truce on the person of any one, to offend against his person, Nj. 103; hafa sár á sér, 101; sjá á e-m, to read on or in one’s face; sér hann á hverjum manni hvárt til þín er vel eðr illa, 106; var þat brátt auðséð á hennar högum, at …, it could soon be seen in all her doings, that …, Ld. 22. 3. also generally to shew signs of a thing; sýna fáleika á sér, to shew marks of displeasure, Nj. 14, Fs. 14; taka vel, illa, lítt, á e-u, to take a thing well, ill, or indifferently, id.; finna á sér, to feel in oneself; fann lítt á honum, hvárt …, it could hardly be seen in his face, whether …, Eb. 42; líkindi eru á, it is likely, Ld. 172; göra kost á e-u, to give a choice, chance of it, 178; eiga vald á e-u, to have power over …, Nj. 10. II. denoting encumbrance, duty, liability; er fimtardómsmál á þeim, to be subject to …, Nj. 231; the phrase, hafa e-t á hendi, or vera á hendi e-m, on one’s hands, of work or duty to be done; eindagi á fé, term, pay day, Grág. i. 140; ómagi (skylda, afvinna) á fé, of a burden or encumbrance, D. I. and Grág. in several passages. III. with a personal pronoun, sér, mér, honum …, denoting personal appearance, temper, character, look, or the like; vera þungr, léttr … á sér, to be heavy or light, either bodily or mentally; þungr á sér, corpulent, Sturl. i. 112; kátr ok léttr á sér, of a gay and light temper, Fms. x. 152; þat bragð hafði hann á sér, he looked as if, … the expression of his face was as though …, Ld., cp. the mod. phrase, hafa á sér svip, bragð, æði, sið, of one’s manner or personal appearance, to bear oneself as, or the like; skjótr (seinn) á fæti, speedy (slow) of foot, Nj. 258. IV. as a periphrasis of the possessive pronoun connected with the limbs or parts of the body. In common Icel. such phrases as my hands, eyes, head … are hardly ever used, but höfuð, eyru, hár, nef, munnr, hendr, fætr … á mér; so ‘í’ is used of the internal parts, e. g. hjarta, bein … í mér; the eyes are regarded as inside the body, augun í honum: also without the possessive pronoun, or as a periphrasis for a genitive, brjóstið á e-m, one’s breast, Nj. 95, Edda 15; súrnar í augum, it smarts in my eyes, my eyes smart, Nj. 202; kviðinn á sér, its belly, 655 xxx. 5, Fms. vi. 350; hendr á henni, her hands, Gísl. (in a verse); í vörunum á honum, on his lips, Band. 14; ristin á honum, his step, Fms. viii. 141; harðr í tungu, sharp of tongue, Hallfred (Fs. 114); kalt (heitt) á fingrum, höndum, fótum …, cold (warm) in the fingers, hands, feet …, i. e. with cold fingers, etc.; cp. also the phrase, verða vísa (orð) á munni, of extemporising verses or speeches, freq. in the Sagas; fastr á fótum, fast by the leg, of a bondsman, Nj. 27: of the whole body, díla fundu þeir á honum, 209. The pers. pron. is used only in solemn style (poetry, hymns, the Bible), and perhaps only when influenced by foreign languages, e. g. mitt hjarta hví svo hryggist þú, as a translation of ‘warumb betrübst du dich mein Herz?’ the famous hymn by Hans Sachs; instead of the popular hjartað í mér, Sl. 43, 44: hjartað mitt is only used as a term of endearment, as by a husband to his wife, parents to their child, or the like, in a metaphorical sense; the heart proper is ‘í mér,’ not ‘mitt.’ 2. of other things, and as a periphrasis of a genitive, of a part belonging to the whole, e. g. dyrr á husi = húsdyrr, at the house-doors; turn á kirkju = kirkju turn; stafn, skutr, segl, árar … á skipi, the stem, stern, sail … of a ship, Fms. ix. 135; blöð á lauk, á tré …, leaves of a leek, of a tree …, Fas. i. 469; egg á sverði = sverðs egg; stafr á bók; kjölr á bók, and in endless other instances. V. denoting instrumentality, by, on, or a-, by means of; afla fjár á hólmgöngum, to make money a-duelling, by means of duels, Eg. 498; á verkum sínum, to subsist on one’s own work, Njarð. 366: as a law term, sekjast á e-ju, to be convicted upon …, Grág. i. 123; sekst maðr þar á sínu eigini (a man is guilty in re sua), ef hann tekr af þeim manni er heimild (possessio) hefir til, ii. 191; falla á verkum sínum, to be killed flagranti delicto, v. above; fella e-n á bragði, by a sleight in wrestling; komast undan á flótta, to escape by flight, Eg. 11; á hlaupi, by one’s feet, by speed, Hkr. ii. 168; lifa á e-u, to feed on; bergja á e-u, to taste of a thing; svala sér á e-u, to quench the thirst on. VI. with subst. numerals; á þriðja tigi manna, up to thirty, i. e. from about twenty to thirty, Ld. 194; á öðru hundraði skipa, from one to two hundred sail strong, Fms. x. 126; á níunda tigi, between eighty and ninety years of age, Eg. 764, v. above: used as prep., á hendi, on one’s hand, i. e. bound to do it, v. hönd. VII. in more or less adverbial phrases it may often be translated in Engl. by a participle and a- prefixed; á lopti, aloft; á floti, afloat; á lífi, alive; á verðgangi, a-begging; á brautu, away; á baki, a-back, behind, past; á milli, a-tween; á laun, alone, secretly; á launungu, id.; á móti, against; á enda, at an end, gone; á huldu, hidden; fara á hæli, to go a-heel, i. e. backwards, Fms. vii. 70;—but in many cases these phrases are transl. by the Engl. partic. with a, which is then perh. a mere prefix, not a prep., á flugi, a-flying in the air, Nj. 79; vera á gangi, a-going; á ferli, to be about; á leiki, a-playing, Fms. i. 78; á sundi, a-swimming, ii. 27; á verði, a-watching, x. 201; á hrakningi, a-wandering; á reiki, a-wavering; á skjálfi, a-shivering; á-hleri, a-listening; á tali, a-talking, Ísl. ii. 200; á hlaupi, a-running, Hkr. ii. 268; á verki, a-working; á veiðum, a-hunting; á fiski, a-fishing; á beit, grazing: and as a law term it even means in flagranti, N. G. L. i. 348. VIII. used absolutely without a case in reference to the air or the weather, where ‘á’ is almost redundant; þoka var á mikil, a thick fog came on, Nj. 267; niðamyrkr var á, pitch darkness came on, Eg. 210; allhvast á norðan, a very strong breeze from the north, Fms. ix. 20; þá var á norðrænt, a north wind came on, 42, Ld. 56; hvaðan sem á er, from whatever point the wind is; var á hríð veðrs, a snow storm came on, Nj. 282; görði á regn, rain came on, Fms. vi. 394, xi. 35, Ld. 156.

WITH ACC.

A. Loc. I. denoting simple direction towards, esp. connected with verbs of motion, going, or the like; hann gékk á bergsnös, Eg. 389; á hamar, Fas. ii. 517. 2. in phrases denoting direction; liggja á útborða, lying on the outside of the ship, Eg. 354; á annat borð skipinu, Fms. vii. 260; á bæði borð, on both sides of the ship, Nj. 124, Ld. 56; á tvær hliðar, on both sides, Fms. v. 73. Ísl. ii. 159; á hlið, sidewards; út á hlið, Nj. 262, Edda 44; á aðra hönd henni, Nj. 50, Ld. 46; höggva á tvær hendr, to hew or strike right and left, Ísl. ii. 368, Fas. i. 384, Fms. viii. 363, x. 383. 3. upp á, upon; hann tók augu Þjaza ok kastaði upp á himin, Edda 47: with verbs denoting to look, see, horfa, sjá, líta, etc.; hann rak skygnur á land, he cast glances towards the land, Ld. 154. II. denoting direction with or without the idea of arriving: 1. with verbs denoting to aim at; of a blow or thrust, stefna á fótinn, Nj. 84; spjótið stefnir á hann miðjan, 205: of the wind, gékk veðrit á vestr, the wind veered to west, Fms. ix. 28; sigla á haf, to stand out to sea, Hkr. i. 146, Fms. i. 39: with ‘út’ added, Eg. 390, Fms. x. 349. 2. conveying the notion of arriving, or the intervening space being traversed; spjótið kom á miðjan skjöldinn, Eg. 379, Nj. 96, 97; langt upp á land, far up inland, Hkr. i. 146: to reach, taka ofan á belti, of the long locks of a woman, to reach down to the belt, Nj. 2; ofan á bringu, 48; á þa ofan, 91. III. without reference to the space traversed, connected with verbs denoting to go, turn, come, ride, sail, throw, or the like, motion of every kind; hann kastar honum á völlinn, he flings him down, Nj. 91; hlaupa á skip sitt, to leap on board his ship, 43; á hest, to mount quickly, Edda 75; á lend hestinum, Nj. 91; hann gengr á sáðland sitt, he walks on to his fields, 82: on, upon, komast á fætr, to get upon one’s legs, 92; ganga á land, to go a-shore, Fms. i. 40; ganga á þing, vii. 242, Grág. (often); á skóg, á merkr ok skóga, into a wood, Fb. i. 134, 257, Fms. xi. 118, Eg. 577, Nj. 130; fara á Finnmörk, to go travelling in Finmark, Fms. i. 8; koma, fara á bæ, to arrive at the farm-house; koma á veginn, Eg. 578; stíga á bát, skip, to go on board, 158; hann gékk upp á borg, he went up to the burg (castle), 717; en er þeir komu á loptriðið, 236; hrinda skipum á vatn, to float the ships down into the water, Fms. i. 58; reka austr á haf, to drift eastwards on the sea, x. 145; ríða ofan á, to ride down or over, Nj. 82. IV. in some cases the acc. is used where the dat. would be used, esp. with verbs denoting to see or hear, in such phrases as, þeir sá boða mikinn inn á fjörðinn, they saw great breakers away up in the bight of the firth, the acc. being due perhaps to a motion or direction of the eye or ear towards the object, Nj. 124; sá þeir fólkit á land, they saw the people in the direction of land, Fas. ii. 517: in phrases denoting to be placed, to sit, to be seated, the seat or bench is freq. in the acc. where the dat. would now be used; konungr var þar á land upp, the king was then up the country, the spectator or narrator is conceived as looking from the shore or sea-side, Nj. 46; sitja á miðjan bekk, to be seated on the middle bench, 50; skyldi konungs sæti vera á þann bekk … annat öndvegi var á hinn úæðra pall; hann setti konungs hásæti á miðjan þverpall, Fms. vi. 439, 440, cp. Fagrsk. l. c., Sturl. iii. 182; eru víða fjallbygðir upp á mörkina, in the mark or forest, Eg. 58; var þar mörk mikil á land upp, 229; mannsafnaðr er á land upp (viewed from the sea), Ld. 76; stóll var settr á mótið, Fas. i. 58; beiða fars á skip, to beg a passage, Grág. i. 90. V. denoting parts of the body; bíta e-n á barka, to bite one in the throat, Ísl. ii. 447; skera á háls, to cut the throat of any one, Nj. 156; brjóta e-n á háls, to break any one’s neck; brjóta e-n á bak, to break any one’s back, Fms. vii. 119; kalinn á kné, frozen to the knees with cold, Hm. 3. VI. denoting round; láta reipi á háls hesti, round his horse’s neck, 623. 33; leggja söðul á hest, Nj. 83; and ellipt., leggja á, to saddle; breiða feld á hofuð sér, to wrap a cloak over his head, 164; reyta á sik mosa, to gather moss to cover oneself with, 267; spenna hring á hönd, á fingr, Eg. 300. VII. denoting a burden; stela mat á tvá hesta, hey á fimtán hesta, i. e. a two, a fifteen horse load, Nj. 74: metaph., kjósa feigð á menn, to choose death upon them, i. e. doom them to death, Edda 22.

B. TEMP. I. of a period of time, at, to; á morgun, to-morrow (í morgun now means the past morning, the morning of to-day), Ísl. ii. 333. II. if connected with the word day, ‘á’ is now used before a fixed or marked day, a day of the week, a feast day, or the like; á Laugardag, á Sunnudag …, on Saturday, Sunday, the Old Engl. a-Sunday, a-Monday, etc.; á Jóladaginn, Páskadaginn, on Yule and Easter-day; but in old writers more often used ellipt. Sunnudaginn, Jóladaginn …, by dropping the prep. ‘á,’ Fms. viii. 397, Grág. i. 18. III. connected with ‘dagr’ with the definite article suffixed, ‘á’ denotes a fixed, recurring period or season, in; á daginn, during the day-time, every day in turn, Grett. 91 A. IV. connected with ‘evening, morning, the seasons,’ with the article; á kveldit, every evening, Ld. 14; á sumarit, every summer, Vd. 128, where the new Ed. Fs. 51 reads sumrum; á haust, every autumn, Eg. 741 (perh. a misprint instead of á haustin or á haustum); á vetrinn, in the winter time, 710; á várit, every spring, Gþl. 347; the sing., however, is very rare in such cases, the old as well as mod. usage prefers the plur.; á nætrnar, by night, Nj. 210; á várin, Eg. 710; á sumrin, haustin, á morgnana, in the morning (á morgin, sing., means to-morrow); á kveldin, in the evening, only ‘dagr’ is used in sing., v. above (á daginn, not á dagana); but elliptically and by dropping the article, Icelanders say, kveld og morgna, nótt og dag, vetr sumar vor og haust, in the same sense as those above mentioned. V. denoting duration, the article is dropped in the negative phrase, aldri á sinn dag, never during one’s life; aldri á mína daga, never in my life, Bjarn. 8, where a possess. pron. is put between noun and prep., but this phrase is very rare. Such phrases as, á þann dag, that day, and á þenna dag, Stj. 12, 655 xxx. 2. 20, are unclassical. VI. á dag without article can only be used in a distributive sense, e. g. tvisvar á dag, twice a-day; this use is at present freq. in Icel., yet instances from old writers are not on record. VII. denoting a movement onward in time, such as, liðið á nótt, dag, kveld, morgun, sumar, vetr, vár, haust (or nóttina, daginn …), jól, páska, föstu, or the like, far on in the night, day …, Edda 33; er á leið vetrinn, when the winter was well on, as the winter wore on, Nj. 126; cp. áliðinn: also in the phrase, hniginn á inn efra aldr, well stricken in years, Ld. 68.

C. Metaph. and in various relations: I. somewhat metaphorically, denoting an act only (not the place); fara á fund, á vit e-s, to call for one, Eg. 140; koma á ræðu við e-n, to come to a parley with, to speak, 173; ganga á tal, Nj. 103; skora á hólm, to challenge to a duel on an island; koma á grið, to enter into a service, to be domiciled, Grág. i. 151; fara á veiðar, to go a-hunting, Fms. i. 8. β. generally denoting on, upon, in, to; bjóða vöxtu á féit, to offer interest on the money, Grág. i. 198; ganga á berhögg, to come to blows, v. berhögg; fá á e-n, to make an impression upon one, Nj. 79; ganga á vápn e-s, to throw oneself on an enemy’s weapon, meet him face to face, Rd. 310; ganga á lagið, to press on up the spear-shaft after it has passed through one so as to get near one’s foe, i. e. to avail oneself of the last chance; bera fé á e-n, to bribe, Nj. 62; bera öl á e-n, to make drunk, Fas. i. 13; snúinn á e-t, inclined to, Fms. x. 142; sammælast á e-t, to agree upon, Nj. 86; sættast, verða sáttr á e-t, in the same sense, to come to an agreement, settlement, or atonement, 78, Edda 15, Eb. 288, Ld. 50, Fms. i. 279; ganga á mála, to serve for pay as a soldier, Nj. 121; ganga á vald e-s, to put oneself in his power, 267; ganga á sætt, to break an agreement; vega á veittar trygðir, to break truce, Grág. ii. 169. II. denoting in regard to, in respect to: 1. of colour, complexion, the hue of the hair, or the like; hvítr, jarpr, dökkr … á hár, having white, brown, or dark … hair, Ísl. ii. 190, Nj. 39; svartr á brún ok brá, dark of brow and eyebrow; dökkr á hörund, id., etc. 2. denoting skill, dexterity; hagr á tré, a good carpenter; hagr á járn, málm, smíðar …, an expert worker in iron, metals …, Eg. 4; fimr á boga, good at the bow: also used of mastership in science or arts, meistari á hörpuslátt, a master in striking the harp, Fas. iii. 220; fræðimaðr á kvæði, knowing many poems by heart, Fms. vi. 391; fræðimaðr á landnámssögur ok forna fræði, a learned scholar in histories and antiquities (of Are Frode), Ísl. ii. 189; mikill á íþrótt, skilful in an art, Edda (pref.) 148; but dat. in the phrase, kunna (vel) á skíðum, to be a cunning skater, Fms. i. 9, vii. 120. 3. denoting dimensions; á hæð, lengd, breidd, dýpt …, in the heighth, length, breadth, depth …, Eg. 277; á hvern veg, on each side, Edda 41 (square miles); á annan veg, on the one side, Grág. i. 89. β. the phrase, á sik, in regard to oneself, vel (illa) á sik kominn, of a fine (ugly) appearance, Ld. 100, Fas. iii. 74. III. denoting instrumentality; bjargast á sínar hendr, to live on the work of one’s own hands, (á sínar spýtur is a mod. phrase in the same sense); (vega) á skálir, pundara, to weigh in scales, Grág. ii. 370; at hann hefði tvá pundara, ok hefði á hinn meira keypt en á hinn minna selt, of a man using two scales, a big one for buying and a little one for selling, Sturl. i. 91; á sinn kostnað, at one’s own expense; nefna e-n á nafn, by name, Grág. i. 17, etc. The Icel. also say, spinna á rokk, snældu, to spin on or with a rock or distaff; mala á kvern, to grind in a ‘querne,’ where Edda 73 uses dat.; esp. of musical instruments, syngja, leika á hljóðfæri, hörpu, gígju …; in the old usage, leika hörpu …, Stj. 458. IV. denoting the manner or way of doing: 1. á þessa lund, in this wise, Grág. ii. 22; á marga vega, á alla, ymsa vega, in many, all, respects, Fms. i. 114; á sitt hóf, in its turn, respectively, Ld. 136, where the context shews that the expression answers to the Lat. mutatis mutandis; á Þýðersku, after German fashion, Sks. 288. 2. esp. of language; mæla, rita á e-a tungu, to speak, write in a tongue; á Írsku, in Irish, Ld. 76; Norrænu, in Norse, Eb. 330, Vm. 35; a Danska tungu, in Danish, i. e. Scandinavian, Norse, or Icelandic, Grág. i. 18; á Vára tungu, i. e. in Icelandic, 181; rita á Norræna tungu, to write in Norse, Hkr. (pref.), Bs. i. 59:—at present, dat. is sometimes used. 3. in some phrases the acc. is used instead of the dat.; hann sýndi á sik mikit gaman, Fms. x. 329; hann lét ekki á sik finna, he shewed no sign of motion, Nj. 111; skaltú önga fáleika á þik gera (Cod. Kalf.), 14. V. used in a distributive sense; skal mörk kaupa gæzlu á kú, eðr oxa fim vetra gamlan, a mark for every cow, Grág. i. 147; alin á hvert hross, 442; á mann, per man (now freq.): cp. also á dag above, lit. B. VI. connected with nouns, 1. prepositional; á hendr (with dat.), against; á hæla, at heel, close behind; á bak, at back, i. e. past, after; á vit (with gen.), towards. 2. adverbially; á braut, away, abroad; á víxl, in turns; á mis, amiss; á víð ok dreif, a-wide and a-drift, i. e. dispersedly. 3. used almost redundantly before the following prep.; á eptir, after, behind; á undan, in front of; á meðal, á milli, among; á mót, against; á við, about, alike; á frá (cp. Swed. ifrån), from (rare); á fyrir = fyrir, Haustl. 1; á hjá, beside (rare); á fram, a-head, forwards; á samt, together; ávalt = of allt, always: following a prep., upp á, upon; niðr á, down upon; ofan á, eptir á, post eventum, (temp.) á eptir is loc., id., etc. VII. connected with many transitive verbs, answering to the Lat. ad- or in-, in composition, in many cases periphrastically for an objective case. The prep. generally follows after the verb, instead of being prefixed to it as in Lat., and answers to the Engl. on, to; heita kalla, hrópa á, to call on; heyra, hlusta, hlyða á, to hearken to, listen to; hyggja, hugsa á, to think on; minna á, to remind; sjá, líta, horfa, stara, mæna, glápa, koma auga … á, to look on; girnast á, to wish for; trúa á, to believe on; skora á, to call on any one to come out, challenge; kæra á, to accuse; heilsa á, to greet; herja, ganga, ríða, hlaupa, ráða … á, to fall on, attack, cp. ágangr, áreið, áhlaup; ljúga á, to tell lies of, to slander; telja á, to carp at; ausa, tala, hella, kasta, verpa … á, to pour, throw on; ríða, bera, dreifa á, to sprinkle on; vanta, skorta á, to fall short of; ala á, to plead, beg; leggja á, to throw a spell on, lay a saddle on; hætta á, to venture on; gizka á, to guess at; kveða á, to fix on, etc.: in a reciprocal sense, haldast á, of mutual strife; sendast á, to exchange presents; skrifast á, to correspond (mod.); kallast á, to shout mutually; standast á, to coincide, so as to be just opposite one another, etc.

á, interj. denoting wonder, doubt, or the like, eh.

Á, f. [Lat. aqua; Goth. ahva; Hel. aha; A. S. eâ; O. H. G. aha, owa; cp. Germ. ach and aue; Fr. eau, eaux; Engl. Ax-, Ex-, etc., in names of places; Swed.-Dan. å; the Scandinavians absorb the hu, so that only a single vowel or diphthong remains of the whole word]:—a river. The old form in nom. dat. acc. sing. is , v. the introduction to A, page 1, Bs. i. 333 sq., where ́n, ́ (acc.), and ́na; so also Greg. 677; the old fragm. of Grág. ii. 222, 223, new Ed. In the Kb. of the Edda the old form occurs twice, viz. page 75, ́na (acc.), (but two lines below, ána), í ́nni (dat.) The old form also repeatedly occurs in the Kb. and Sb. of the Grág., e. g. ii. 266, 267: gen. sing. ár; nom. pl. ár, gen. á contracted, dat. ám, obsolete form ́m; Edda 43, Eg. 80, 99, 133, 185: proverbs, at ósi skal á stemma, answering to the Lat. principiis obsta, Edda 60; hér kemr á til sæfar, here the river runs into the sea, metaph. = this is the very end, seems to have been a favourite ending of old poems; it is recorded in the Húsdrápa and the Norðsetadrápa, v. Edda 96, Skálda 198; cp. the common saying, oil vötn renna til sævar, ‘all waters run into the sea.’ Rivers with glacier water are in Icel. called Hvítá, White river, or Jökulsá: Hitá, Hot river, from a hot spring, opp. to Kaldá, v. Landn.: others take a name from the fish in them, as Laxá, Lax or Salmon river (freq.); Örriða á, etc.: a tributary river is þverá, etc.: ár in the Njála often means the great rivers Ölfusá and Þjórsá in the south of Iceland. Áin helga, a river in Sweden, Hkr. ii: á is also suffixed to the names of foreign rivers, Tempsá = Thames; Dóná, Danube (Germ. Don-au), (mod.), etc. Vide Edda (Gl.) 116, 117, containing the names of over a hundred North-English and Scottish rivers. COMPDS: ár-áll, m. tie bed of a river, Hkr. iii. 117. ár-bakki, a, m. the bank of a river, Ld. 132, Nj. 234. ár-brot, n. inundation of a river, Bs. ii. 37; at present used of a s hallow ford in a river. ar-djúp, n. a pool in a river, Bs. i. 331. ár-farvegr, m. a water-course, Stj. 353. ár-fors, m. a waterfall or force, Barl. 190. ár-gljúfr, n. a chasm of a river, Fms. viii. 51, Fær. 62. ár-hlutr, m. one’s portion of a river, as regards fishing rights, Fms. x. 489, Sturl. i. 202. ár-megin and ár-megn, n. the main stream of a river, Stj. 251. ár-minni, n. the mouth of a river, Fms. ix. 381. ár-mót and á-mót, n. a ‘waters-meet,’ Lat. cottfluentia, H. E. i. 129. ár-óss, m. the ‘oyce’ or mouth of a river, Eg. 99, 129, 229; whence the corrupt local name of the Danish town Aarhuus, Fms. xi. 208. ár-reki, a, m. drift, the jetsam and flotsam (of fish, timber, etc.) in a river, Jm. 25. ár-straumr, m. the current in n river, Fms. vii. 257, 260. ár-strönd, f. the strand of a river, Stj. 268, 673. 53. ár-vað, n. aford of a river, Stj. 184. ár-vegr = árfarvegr, Fas. i. 533. ár-vöxtr, m. the swelling of a river, Fms. i. 286.

á-auki, a, m. increase, Bs. i. 182. β. interest of money, K. Á. 208, N. G. L. ii. 381.

á-austr, rs, m. out-pouring, foul language, Sturl. i. 21.

á-barning, f. a thrashing, flogging, = barsmíð, Sturl. iii. 237.

á-bati, a, m. profit, gain, Fms. xi. 441 (now freq.)

á-berging, f. a tasting, Barl. 72.

á-beri, a, m. an accuser, prosecutor (bera á, accusare), Jb. 252 A; (a Norse law term.)

á-bersemi, f. a disposition to accuse, Hom. 86.

á-bítr, m. (qs. árbítr), a breakfast, Safn i. 95.

á-blásinn, part. inspired, transl. from Lat.; á. af Heilogum Anda, Fms. x. 373, Hom. 12.

á-blásning, f. a breathing upon; með eldr á., 656 C. 33, Rb. 438: gramm. aspiration, Skálda 175, 179, 180; theol. inspiration, Fms. x. 371.

á-blástr, rs, m., dat. áblæstri, a breathing upon, Fms. x. 210; theol. inspiration, iii. 164, v. 217, Eluc. 4; medic. pustula labiorum, Fél. ix. 184.

á-ból, n. a manor-house, = aðalból, B. K. 40.

á-bót, f. used only in pl. ábætr, of improvements, esp. on a farm or estate; á. jarðar, D. N., D. I. i. 199. COMPD: ábóta-vant, n. adj. shortcoming, imperfect, Hkr. ii. 89, Sturl. i. 162.

ÁBÓTI, a, m. [Lat. abbas, from Hebr. abba], an abbot. abbati, which form is nearer to the Lat., is rare, but occurs, 655 iii, 656 A, i. 30, Hom. 237. 2. The Icel. form ábóti answers to the Engl. abbot, Fms. i. 147, Bs. i. ii. freq., Sks., etc. COMPDS: ábóta-dómr, m. and ábóta-dæmi, n. an abbey, 655 xxxii, Bs. i. 831. ábóta-laust, n. adj. without an abbot, vacant, Ann. 1393. ábóta-sonr, m. son of an abbot, Bs. i. 679. ábóta-stétt, f. and -stéttr, m. the rank, dignity of an abbot, Ann. 1325. ábóta-stofa, u, f. the abbot’s parlour, Vm. ábóta-sæti, n. the seat of an abbot, 655 xxxii. ábóta-vald, n. the power, dignity of an abbot, Ann. 1345.

á-breiða, u, f. a covering, counterpane, Korm. 206, Stj. 304.

á-breizl, n. a bed-covering, quilt, Sir. 5, 22, Vm. 93,—in the last passage of a winding-sheet or pall; á. kápa, Vm. 67.

á-bristir, f. pl. corrupt for ábistir (see p. 481, col. 1), cp. Goth. beist, Engl. beestings; the á- is a gen. pl. from ær, a ewe: the word therefore prop. meant sheep’s beestings, but came to be used as a general term; the word is a household word in Icel., but seems not to be found in ancient poets; Hallgr. Pét. speaks of heitar ‘ábristur.’

á-brúðigr, ábrýða, ábrýði, jealous, jealousy, v. afbr-.

á-brystur, f. pl., v. áfr-.

á-burðr, ar, m. a charge (bera á, accusare’); varði mik eigi þess úburðar, Fms. ii. 57, Rd. 236. β. medic. salve, ointment (bera á, to smear), Bs. ii. 180. γ. pomp or bravery in dress (berast á, to puff oneself up), in the COMPDS aburðar-klæði, n. fine clothes, showy dress, Bar. 5. δ. a horse load: áburðar-hestr, m. a pack-horse, = klyfja hestr. áburðar-maðr, m. a dressy, showy person, a dandy, Fms. iv. 255, Orkn. 208. áburðar-mikill, adj. puffed up, showy, Ld. 248. áburðar-samligr and áburðar-samr, adj. id., Sks. 452, 437.

á-búð, f. [búa á], an abode or residence on an estate or farm, tenancy; fara … á annars manns land til ábúðar (as a tenant), Grág. ii. 253; á. jarðar (possession) heimilar tekju, Gþl. 329; en ef land spillist í a. hans, during his tenancy, K. Þ. K. 170; þá öðlast harm leigu (rent) en hinn á. (tenancy), N. G. L. i. 94: whatever refers to the right and duties of a tenant, landskyld ok alla á. jarðar, Jb. 210, 346, 167. COMPDS: ábúðar-maðr, m. inhabitant, Stj. 368. ábúðar-skylda, u, f. duties of a tenant, Jb. 211.

á-búnaðr, ar, m. = ábúð, N. G, L. i. 240.

á-byrgð, f. responsibility, liability, weight; leggja sína á. á, Grág. i. 208; eiga í á., to have at stake, Band. 18 new Ed., N. G. L. i. 223, Ld. 58; lands á., Grág. ii. 248; vera í á. um e-t, to answer for, Fms. xi. 82, Sks. 762: pl. ábyrgðir, pledges, Bær. II, 686 B. 5. COMPDS: ábyrgðar-hluti, a, m. and -hlutr, ar, m. an object, step involving risk and responsibility, Nj. 199. ábyrgðar-lauss, adj. free from risk, Fms. x. 368; eigi með üllu á., i. e. a weighty, serious step, no trifling matter, Sturl. iii. 234. ábyrgðar-ráð, n. a step involving risk, Nj. 164, Post. 656 B. ábyrgðar-samligr, adj. momentous, important, Sks. 452.

á-byrgja, ð, 1. in the act. form (very rare), to answer for; á. e-m e-t, Gþl. 385; á. e-t á hendi e-m, to place a thing for security in a person’s hands; hann á. þau á hendi Jóhanni postula, 655 ix. A. 2. as a dep.; abyrgjast (very freq.), to answer for, take care of, Gþl. 190, Grág. i. 140; hverr skal sik sjálfr a., 256, ii. 119, Fms. vi. 361; á. e-t við e-u, Grág. i. 410; sá maðr ábyrgist vápn er upp festir, ii. 95; hverr abyrgist bat (warrants) móðir, at góðráðr verði, ek mun abyrgjast (I will warrant) at eigi mun heimskr verða, Fms. iv. 83.

á-byrgja, u, f. = ábyrgð (very rare); halda e-u abyrgiu, to be responsible for, Grág. ii. 335, 399.

á-býli, n. = ábúð, freq. at present and in several compds, as, ábýlis-jörð, a tenant farm; ábýlis-maðr, a tenant, etc.

á-bæli, n. = ábúð, H. E. i. 495.

ÁÐAN, adv. [cp. Ulf. apn = ivtavrós, Gal. iv. 10, and atapni, id.], a little before, a little while ago, erewhile; Kolr for frá seli á., Nj. 55; á. er vit skildum, Lv. 34; slíkt sem á. talða ek, as I said just above (of the Speaker reading the law in the lögrétta), Grág. i. 49, ii. 242; nu a., just now, 656 G. 39.

áðr, adv. [cp. Hel. adro = mane], ere, already, soon; er ek hefi a. (soon) ráðit brullaup mitt, Nj. 4; er Guð hafði á. bannat, Sks. 533; ok vóru þeir því á. (already) heim komnir, Eg. 222; at nú so lægra í horninu en á., than before, Edda 32; litlu ú., a little while ago, Fms. viii. 130; þar sem ek em a. (already) í fullri reiði Gtiðs, Sks. 533. 2. á. en, Lat. prius quam, ante quam: α. with subj.; a. en þeir gengi, Fms. xi. 13; a. en í biskups garð falli, N. G. L. i. 145. β. with indic.; var eigi langt á. en bygðin tók við, Eg. 229. γ. áðr simply = áðr en; þeir höfðu skamma hríð setið, á. þar kom Gunnhildr, they had sat a short while ere G. came thither, Nj. 6; en á. hann reið heiman, 52; en þat var svipstund ein á. (till) stofan brann, Eg. 240; en áðr hann let setja söguna saman, Sturl. iii. 306.

á-dreif, n. a splashing, the spray, Sks. 147.

á-dreifing, f. a sprinkling upon, Stj. 78.

á-drykkir, m. pl. a ‘sea’ or wave dashing over a ship, Sks. 231.

á-drykkja, u, f. [drekka á], prop. a drinking to, pledging, esp. used n the phrase, at sitja fyrir ádrykkju e-s;—a custom of the olden time. The master of the house, for instance, chose one of his guests as his ‘cup-fellow,’ seated him over against himself in the hall, drank to him, and then sent the cup across the hall to him, so that they both drank of it by turns. This was deemed a mark of honour. Thus, Egill at fyrir ádrykkju Arinbjarnar, Egil sale over against Arinbjorn as his cup-mate, Eg. 253; skal hann sitja fyrir á. minni í kveld, in the pretty story of king Harold and the blind skald Stuf, Fms. vi. 391; cp. annat öndvegi var á hinn æðra pall gegnt konungi, skyldi þar itja hinn æðsti ráðgjafi (the king’s highest councillor) konungs fyrir hans á. ok þótti þat mest virðing at sitja fyrir konungs á., 439; sat Gizurr fyrir á. konungs innarr enn lendir menn, Bs. i. 19. See also the description of the banquet in Flugumyri on the 19th Oct. in the year 1253,—drukku þeir af einu silfrkeri ok mintust við jafnan um daginn þá er hvorr drakk til annars, Sturl. iii. 183. COMPD: ádrykkju-ker, u, f. a ‘loving-cup,’ or ‘grace-cup,’ Vígl. 17.

á-eggjan, f. egging on, instigation, Hkr. i. 102, Fms. i. 139; af a. e-s, Landn. 214, Orkn. 416, Ísl. ii. 340, Fms. x. 379. COMPD: áeggjanar-fífl, n. a fool or tool egged on by another; hafa e-n at á., Sturl. i. 81, to use one to snatch the chestnuts out of the fire; cp. the Engl. cat’s-paw.

á-fall, n. ‘on-fall,’ esp. 1. a nautical term, of a ‘sea’ dashing over a ship, Bs. i. 422, Korm. 180, Nj. 267, Sks. 227, Fs. 113, 153; hence the phrase, liggja undir áföllum, of one in danger at sea. 2. a law term, the laying on of a fine or the like; á. sekðar, Grág. i. 138. β. a condemnatory sentence in an Icel. court; ef þeir vilja á. dæma … vér dæmum á. honum, Grág. i. 67, 71, of the formula or summing up and delivering a sentence in court. 3. metaph. and theol. = áfelli, a visitation, calamity, 623. 19, Magn. 470, II. E. i. 236. COMPD: áfalls-dómr, m. a sentence of condemnation, doom, Clem. 50, Eluc. 39, 655 xviii. 2 Corin. xi. 29, Stj. 265 (visitation).

á-fang, n. (áfangi, m., Grág. i. 433), [fá á, to grasp], a grasping, seizing, laying hands upon, esp. of rough bundling; harm hló mjök mót áfangi manna, Fms. vi. 203; varð hann fyrir miklu spotti ok áfangi, 209. 2. a law term, a mulct, fine, incurred by illegal seizure of another man’s goods; ef maðr hleypr á bak hrossi manns úlofat, þat varðar sex aura á., if a man jumps on the back of another man’s horse without leave, that is visited with a fine of six ounces, Grág. i. 432, Gþl. 520; hvatki skip er tekr skal sitt á. gjalda hverr …, á. á maðr á hrossi sínu hvárt er hann ekr eðr ríðr, N. G. L. i. 45; at hann hafi riðit hrossi manns um þrjá bæi … varðar skóggang ok áfanga (where it is used masc. acc. pl.) með, Grág., vide above.

á-fangi, a betting-place, v. ái-fangi.

á-fastr, adj. made fast, fastened to, joined to; ef hapt er a. hrossi, Grág. i. 436; eldhúsit var á. útibúrinu, Nj. 75; þær (the comets) eru á. himni, Rb. 478: metaph., andligum hlutum áfastar, connected with, H. E. i. 511.

á-fátt, n. adj. defective, faulty, Nj. 49, Barl. 74: with gen., mikils er á., H. E. i. 244.

á-felli, n. a hardship, shock, calamity; þat á. (spell) hafði legit á því fólki, at hver kona fæddi dauðan frumburð sinn er hon ól, Mar. 656; afskaplig á., Stj. 90 (also of a spell); þreynging ok á., 121; með hversu miklu á. (injustice) Sigurðr konungr vildi heimta þetta mál af honum, Hkr. iii. 257; standa undir á., to be wider great lordship, Fms. iv. 146, vi. 147; með miklu á. (of insanity), vii. 150; þeir vóru sex vetr í þessu á., viz. in bondage, x. 225; hvert á. jarl hafði veitt honum, what penalties the earl bad laid upon him, Orkn. 284, Fms. iv. 310. β. damnation, condemnation, = áfall; nú vil ek at þú snúir eigi svá skjótt málinu til áfellis honum, Band. 4. COMPD: áfellis-dómr, m. condemnation, Grág. Introd. clxviii, Gþl. 174.

á-fenginn, adj. part. [fá á, to lay hold on, to intoxicate], intoxicating, used of drinks, cp. the Engl. ‘stinging ale;’ mjöðr, Edda 76; drykkr, Fms. viii. 447; vin, Stj. 409, Joh. 84.

á-fengr, adj. now more freq., id., Hkr. i. 244, Bárð. 174.

áf-ergja, u, f. (qs. af-ergja, af- intens.?), eagerness, and -ligr, adj. impetuous.

áfir, f. pl., sounded áir, butter-milk; cp. áfr, freq. in mod. usage.

á-fjáðr, adj. eager, (mod.)

á-flog, n. pl. [fljúgast á], a brawl, fighting, Fms. vi. 361.

á-flutningr, m., Vm. 157, of right of laying up fish.

á-form, n. a design, purpose, H. E. ii. 167, in a deed of the 14th century, (Lat. word.)

á-forma, að, prop. to form, mould; steina sem úðr höfðu þeir áformat, Stj. 562, I Kings v. 17 (‘hewn stones’). In mod. usage only metaph. to design, perform, Fas. iii. 449; verðu vér at á. (design) ok ræða, Fms. vii. 89; á. um e-t, því mundi hann þetta hafa vakit, at hann mundi á. vilja um gleðins … carry it out, vi. 342, Pass. 7. 2.

ÁFR (perh. better afr), m. [the r belongs to the root, cp. áir, f. pl.] 1. a beverage, Eg. 204, translated by Magnaeus by sorbitio avenacea, a sort of common ale brewed of oats; this explanation is confirmed by the Harbarðsljóð, verse 2, where Thor says, át ek í hvíld áðr ek heiman for sildr ok afra (acc. pl.), saðr em ek enn þess; the single vellum MS. (Cod. Reg.) here reads hafra. In the Eg. 1. c., the Cod. Wolf, reads afra, the Cod. A. M. 132 afr, acc. sing.: cp. the passage Ls. 3, where jöll seems to be the Scot. yill (v. Burns’ Country Lassie), and úfo in Cod. Reg. a false spelling for áfr,—jöll ok áfr færi ek ása sonum, ok blend ek þeini svá meini mjöð: áfir, pronounced áir, now means buttermilk (used in Icel. instead of common beer): cp. also ábrystur, f. pl. curds of cow’s milk in the first week after the cow has calved; the milk is cooked and eaten warm and deemed a great dainty; opt eru heitar úbrcstur, Snot 299 (Ed. 1865).

á-fram, adv. α. loc. with the face downward, forward; fell hann á., on the face, Nj. 253, Vd. 52, Grett. 99 new Ed. β. temp. along, forward (rare); haun er nú með jarli sumarit á., he is now with the earl till late in the summer, Finnb. 274. γ. further on; komst aldri lengra á. fyrir honum um skáldskapinn, be never got any further on with his poem, Fms. iii. 102; héldu þeir á. leiðina, they held forward on their way, Ó. T. 31. In mod. usage freq. with verbs denoting to go, move; halda, ganga … áfram, to go on.

áfram-hald, n. a continuation, (mod.)

á-frá = offrá = frá, from, cp. Swed. ifrån.

á-frýja, ð, to reprove, blame; áfrý ek þó engan (better engum) yðar, Fas. i. 103.

á-frýja, u, f. reproach, scolding, Bs. i. 622.

á-fýsa and áfýsi, f. 1. = aufusa, gratification, q. v. 2. in mod. usage = exhortation, and áfýsa, t, to exhort, á. e-n til e-s.

á-færa, ð, to reproach, Fms. v. 90.

á-færi, n. a law term; thus defined, af tveir menn fella einn við jörðu, þá skal aunarr þeirra bæta rétt, því at þat verðr á. at lögum, where it seems to mean unfair dealing, shame, N. G. L. i. 309.

á-ganga, u, f. task-work, forced labour, the French corvee, = atverk, q. v.; hón (the church) á tveggja manna á. á hval í Kjölsvík, Vm. 155; veita e-m á., D. N. ii. 133.

á-gangr, m. aggression, invasion; fyrir á. Skota ok Dana, Eg. 267, Fms. i. 224, iii. 143, Eg. 337. COMPDS: ágangs-maðr, m. an aggressive man, Lv. 79, Stj. 65. ágangs-samr, adj. aggressive, Fs. 9, Fms. vi. 102, Sks. 208.

á-gauð, f. [geyja á], barking, metaph. foul language, Gísl. 53; cp. þá geyr hón á þá, 139.

á-gengiligr, adj. plausible; görði hann þetta á. fyrir Hæringi, Grett. 149 A, mod. aðgengiligt.

á-gengt, n. adj. trodden, beaten, of a place or path, Finnb. 336: metaph., e-m verðr á., to be trodden upon; hón byggir her í miðri frændleifð sinni, ok verðr henni því her ekki a., Stj. 613. 2 Kings iv. 13. The mod. use of the phrase e-m verðr á. is to succeed or make progress in a thing.

á-gildi, n. value of a ewe (ær), Vm. 159, Pm. 40.

á-gildr, adj. of a ewe’s value, Grág. i. 502; cp. kúgildi and kúgildr.

á-girnast, d and t, dep. to lust after, in a bad sense, with an acc., Fms. i. 76, 223, Orkn. 38; with an inf., Orkn. 6 old Ed.

á-girnd, f. in old writers always for greed of power or passion generally: α. ambition, Sks. 113 B, Fms. ix. 460; á. ok ofsi, greed and insolence, viii. 195, Stj. 143, 145, 146. β. passion; ágirndar-logi, Rb. 424; á. blindleiki, blind passion (in love), H. E. i. 505, 655 xxx; thirst for revenge, Sks. 739. γ. since the Reformation it has been exclusively used of avarice or greed of gain; in old writers the signification is more general; we, however, find á. fjár, Hom. 68; hann hafði dregit undir sik Finnskattinn með á., Fms. vii. 129.

á-girndligr, adj. passionate, Sks. 720 B.

á-girni, f.; used as neut., Mar. 91, O. H. L. 22: α. = agirnd, ambition; mikit á., great ambition, O. H. L. 1. c., Sks. 343. β. cupidity; a. manna lofs, Hom. 83; á. áts ok drykkju, 53; fjur, 25, 623. 20; á. fjár ok metnadar, Edda (pref.) 144, 145.

á-gjarn, adj. ambitious; er eruð ágjarnir heima í héraði ok ranglatir, ambitious and wrongful, Nj. 223, Orkn. 38, 66; á. ok fégjarn, ambitious and covetous, Fms. xi. 294, Hkr. ii. 146; á. til ríkis, iii. 174; á. til fjár, covetous, Fms. xi. 440, Orkn. 66: dauntless, fierce, kappar ugjarnir ok óhræddir, fierce and fearless champions, Fms. x. 179; hógværir í friði sem lamb, en í úfriði á. (fierce) sem leon, viii. 253. The use since the Reformation is solely that of avaricious, greedy after money.

á-gjarnliga, adv. insolently, Sks. 450 B.

á-gjarnligr, adj. insolent; á. rán, Sks. 336, 509 B, 715.

á-goggast, að, to be hooked, Ísl. Þjóðs. i. 133.

á-góði, a, m. gain, profit, benefit, D. I. i. 476, Ísl. ii. 432 (freq.) COMPD: ágóða-hlutr, ar, m. a profitable share, Grág. ii. 359.

á-grip, n. [grípa á, to touch], in the phrase, lítill ágripum, small of size, D. N. iv. 99. β. at present ágrip means a compendium, abridgement, epitome.

á-gæta, tt, to laud, praise highly, Ld. 220, Fms. vi. 71.

á-gæti, n. renown, glory, excellence; göra e-t til ágætis sér, as a glory to himself, Fms. xi. 72, 109; reyna á. e-s, to put one on his trial, 142; þú hyggr at engu öðru en ákafa einum ok á., o nly bent upon rushing on and shewing one’s prowess, 389; vegr ok á., fame and glory, Fas. i. 140, Sks. 241. In pl. glorious deeds; mikil á. vóni sögð frá Gunnari, Nj. 41: in the phrase, göra e-t at ágætum, to laud, praise highly, Fms. viii. 139, vii. 147: in the proverb, hefir hverr til sins ágætis nokkuð, every one’s fame rests upon some deed of his own, no one gets his fame for naught, the context implies, a n d thou ha s t done what will make thee famous, Nj. 116. 2. in COMPDS ágætis- and ágæta- are prefixed to a great many words, esp. in mod. use, to express something capital, excellent; ágæta-skjótr, adj. very swift, Fms. vii. 169; ágæta-vel, adv. excellently well, Nj. 218: and even to substantives, e. g. ágæta-gripr and ágætis-gripr, m. a capital thing, Fms. ix. 416, x. 254, Ld. 202; ágæta-naut, n. a fine ox, Eb. 318; ágætis-maðr, m. a great man, Landn. 324, Fms. vii. 102, xi. 329.

á-gætingr, m. a goodly man, O. H. L. 55 (rare).

á-gætliga, adv. capitally, Fms. i. 136, vi. 307, Boll. 346, Sks. 623.

á-gætligr, adj. excellent, goodly, Fms. ii. 300, x. 223, 231, xi. 396, Sks. 622, Hom. 132, Ver. 42.

á-gætr, adj. [v. the words above, from á- intens. and geta—gat—gátu, to get and to record; the old etymology in glossaries of the last century from the Greek αγαθός cannot be admitted], famous, goodly, excellent; á. maðr um allt land, Nj. 106; á. at afli, Edda 19; ágætir gimsteinar, precious stones, Fms. i. 15; á. skjöldr, Eg. 705; compar, mun hann verða ágætari (more famous) en allir þínir frændr, Fms. i. 256; superl., ágætaztr, Nj. 282, Eg. 311; ágæztr, contr., Edda 5, Íb. 14, Fms. vii. 95, Greg. 53. In the Landn. ‘maðr ágætr’ is freq. used in a peculiar sense, viz. a noble man, nearly synonymous to gæðingr in the Orkneys, or hersir in Norway, e. g. 143, 149, 169, 190, 198, 201, 203, 279, 281, 308, 312; hersir á., 173, etc.; cp. also Kristni S. ch. I.

á-görð, f. gain, profit, = ávöxtr; til sölu ok á., for sale and profit, Bs. i. 426.

á-hald, n., prop. laying hand on: 1. used esp. in pl. áhöld = brawl, fight, Eb. 152, Fas. i. 92; verða á. með mönnum, they came toa tussle, Sturl. iii. 262, Bs. 1. 635: the phrase, hafa eingi úhöld við e-m, to have no power of resistance, to have so great odds against one that there is no chance, Eg. 261: hence comes probably the popular phrase, áhöld eru um e-t, when matters are pretty nearly equal. 2. sing. very rare, to keep back; veita e-m á., Niðrst. 3. β. veita, göra á. um e-t, to claim the right of holding; hann görði á. um Halland, be claimed H., Fms. x. 70, v. l.; honum þótti leikdómrinn meira á. hafa á kirkjum en klerkdómrinn, … had a stronger claim or title, Bs. i. 750, 696, Fms. x. 393.

á-hankast, að, dep. [hönk, a bank or coil], in the phrase, e-m á., one gets the worst of it. But it is twisted to another sense in the dream of king Harold, Fms. vi. 312. Shortly before the battle at the river Niz, the king dreamt that king Sweyn pulled the hank of rope out of his hand,—réðu svá flestir at Sveinn mundi fá þat er þeir keptust um, þá mælti Hákon jarl: vera má at svá sé, en vænna þyki mér at Sveini konungi muni áhankast, most men read it so that S. would win the prize of contest, then said earl H.: well that may be so, but it seems more likely to me that king S. will be caught.

á-heit, n. mostly or always in pl. vows to a god, saint, or the like, invocations, Hkr. i. 14, ii. 386; hón (the goddess Freyja) er nákvæmust mönnum til áheita, Edda 16, Bs. i. 134. β. sing. in a peculiar sense; meir af nauðsyn en af áheiti, more of impulse than as a free vow, Magn. 534.

á-henda, d, to lay hands upon, seize; finna ok á., Grág. ii. 311: part. pass. áhendr, as adj. within reach; þeir vóru svá langt komnir at þeir urðu eigi áhendir, … out of reach, Sturl. ii. 185, Eg. 160; þau urðu á., they were seized, Ld. 152.

á-heyrandi, part. within hearing, present, Grág. ii. 143, Fms. i. 248.

á-heyriliga, adv. worth hearing, Fms. i. 74.

á-heyriligr, adj. worth hearing, well sounding, Nj. 77, Fms. i. 141; á. orð, fine words, Orkn. 454.

á-heyris, adv. within hearing, Bs. i. 771.

á-heyrsi and á-heyrsla, adj. ind., verða e-s á., to get to hear, hear the rumour of, Sturl. i. 22, Orkn. 278, Fms. ii. 295.

á-hlaup, n. mostly in pl. onsets, onfalls, attacks; veita e-m á., Eg. 284; við áhlaupum (incursions) Dana, Fms. i. 28; at eigi veitti hann þau á. í bræði sinni, at geig sætti, Post. 686 B. β. a carnal assault, Stj. 71: metaph., með svá stórum áhlaupum, so impetuously, Fms. ix. 252. COMPD: áhlaupa-maðr, m. a hot-headed, impetuous person, Korm. 8, Þórð. 43: now used of a man that works by fits and starts, not steadily.

á-hleypinn, adj. rash, Sks. 383, 437.

á-hlýðast, dd, dep. to listen or give ear to; á. við e-t, to agree with, Fs. 141; en er þeir fundu at hann vildi eigi á. við frændr sína, when they found that he turned a deaf ear to his kinsmen, Eb. 7 new Ed., v. l., perhaps the right reading, v. öðlast.

á-hlýðinn, adj. giving a willing ear, listening readily; ekki á., obstinate, self-willed, Fms. vi. 431; á. um fjártökur, greedy of gain, vii. 209, where, however, the Morkinsk. (p. 337) reads, á. um fortölur, easy to persuade, which suits the context better; á. til grimleiks, Fms. x. 380, Thom. 28.

á-hrif, n. influence, (mod.)

á-hrin, n. [hrína á, of spells], used in the COMPD áhrins-orð, n. pl., esp. of spells that come true, in the phrase, verða at áhrinsorðum, spells or prophecies that prove true, Þórð. 81, Fas. ii. 432.

á-hugi, a, m., prop. intention, mind; með þeim á. at …, transl. of Lat. intentio, Hom. 80, 655 xxiii; ok nú segir hann öllum hver fyrirætlun hans (honum?) er í áhuga, … what he is minded to do, Ísl. ii. 355. β. eagerness, impulse of the mind (now freq. in that sense); ekki skortir ykkr á., Nj. 137. γ. mind, opinion; eigi er því at leyna, hverr minn á. er um þetta, ek hygg …, Fær. 199. δ. care, solicitude, = áhyggja, Fms. ii. 146. COMPDS: áhuga-fullr, adj. full of care, Fs. 98. áhuga-lítill, adj. slow, Fms. iv. 77. áhuga-maðr, m. an eager, aspiring man, Bs. i. 686. áhuga-mikill, adj. eager, vigorous, Fms. Viii. 266. áhuga-samt, n. adj. being concerned about, Bs. i. 824. áhuga-verðr, adj. causing concern, Sturl. i. 106 (serious, momentous).

á-hyggja, u, f. care, concern, Hrafn. 12; bera á. fyrir, to be concerned about, Gþl. 44; fær þat honum mikillar á. ok reiði, concern and anger, Nj. 174, Bret. 24: pl. cares, Hákon hafði svá miklar áhyggjur um vetrinn, at hann lagðist í rekkju, Fms. i. 82. COMPDS: áhyggju-fullr, adj. full of care, anxious, Fms. ii. 225, x. 249, Blas. 35. áhyggju-lauss, adj. unconcerned, Rb. 312. áhyggju-mikill, adj. anxious, Bs. i. 328, Band. 8. áhyggju-samligr, adj. and -liga, adv. with concern, gravely, anxiously, Fms. i. 141, Sturl. ii. 78, 136. áhyggju-samr, adj. anxious, careful, 655 xiii, 656 B. 7, Sturl. iii. 234. áhyggju-svipr, m. a grave, anxious face, Fms. vi. 239, vii. 30. áhyggju-yflrbragð, n. id., Fms. vi. 32.

á-hyggjast, að, á. um e-t, to be anxious about, Stj. 443, Róm. 307.

á-hætta, u, f. risk, Vd. 144 old Ed.; cp. Fs. 57; (now freq.)

á-höfn, f. the freight or loading of a ship, Fas. ii. 511: used to express a kind of tonnage; tíu skippund í lest, tólf lestir í á., 732. 16: luggage, Jb. 377, 394, 408: cp. Pál Vídal. s. v.

á-högg, f. slaughter of a ewe, Sturl. i. 69, 70 C, Ed. ærhögg.

ÁI, a, m. [cp. afi and Lat. avus], great-grandfather, answering to edda, great-grandmother (at present in Icel. langafi and langamma), Rm. 2; föður eðr afa, á. er hinn þriði, Edda 208; see æ, p. 757, col. 1. In Sæm. 118 ai seems to be an exclamatio dolentis, göróttr er drykkrinn, ai! unless ai be here = ái in the sense of father; cp. the reply of Sigmund, láttu grön sía, sonr. In mod. poetry áar in pl. is used in the sense of ancestors; áðr áar fæddust áa (gen. pl.) vorra, Bjarni 71, Eggert (Bb.) I. 20.

ái-fangr, s, m.; áifangi (dat.), Grág. (Kb.) 160, and áifang (acc.), Ísl. l. c., follow the old declension (so as to distinguish the dat. and acc. sing.); áifangi, a, m., Fb. ii. 340; mod. áfangi, Grett. 29 new Ed., Fb. i. 165, [æja, to bait, and vangr, campus; as to the f, cp. Vetfangr = vetvangr, and hjörfangr = hjörvangr; Pál Vidal. derives it from fanga, to take]:—a resting-place; á áiföngum, Grág. i. 441; taka hest sinn á áiföngum, ii. 44; taka áifang (acc. sing.), Ísl. ii. 482; in the extracts from the last part of the Heiðarv. S. MS. wrongly spelt atfang (at = ái); höfðu þeir dvöl nokkura á áifanga, Fb. ii. l. c., Jb. 272. In mod. use áfangi means a day’s journey, the way made between two halting places, cp. σταθμός; hence the phrase, ‘í tveim, þremr … áföngum,’ to make a journey in two, three … stages:—the COMPD áfanga-staðr, m., is used = áifangr in the old sense; but ‘stadr’ is redundant, as the syllable ‘fangr’ already denotes place.

ái-fóðr, n. fodder for baiting, provender, Jb. 430, Stj. 214. Gen. xlii. 27.

á-kafast, að, dep. to be eager, vehement; á. á e-t, Fær. 262 (cp. Fb. ii. 40), Fms. xi. 20: absol., Bret. 14, 60.

á-kafi, a, m. [ákafr], eagerness, vehemence; þá görðist svá mikill á. á, at …, it went to such an excess, that…, Nj. 62, Fms. i. 35, xi. 389; með á. miklum, vehemently, Eg. 457; í ákafa, adverbially, eagerly, impetuously, Nj. 70, Fms. xi. 117. 2. the gen. ákafa is prefixed, α. to a great many adjectives, in the sense of a high degree, very, e. g. á. reiðr, furious, Fms. vii. 32, x. 173; á. fjölmennr, very numerous, Ísl. ii. 171; á. fögr, beautiful (of Helena), Ver. 25. β. to some substantives; á. Drífa, a heavy snow drift, Sturl. iii. 20; á. maðr, an eager, hot, pushing man, Eg. 3, Fms. i. 19, vii. 257, Grett. 100 A: in this case the ákafa may nearly be regarded as an indecl. adjective.

á-kafleikr, m. eagerness, vehemence, Fms. x. 324.

á-kafliga, adv. vehemently, impetuously; of motion, such as riding, sailing; fara á., to rush on, Fms. ix. 366; sem ákafligast, in great speed, at a great rate, Eg. 160, 602; also, biðja á., to pray fervently. 2. very, Fær. 238, Fms. x. 308, Ld. 222.

á-kafligr, adj. hot, vehement; ú. bardagi, orosta, styrjöld, Fms. x. 308, 656 B. 10.

á-kaflyndi, n. a hot, impetuous temper, Hkr. ii. 237.

á-kaflyndr, adj. impetuous, Fms. viii. 447.

á-kafr, adj. [cp. A. S. caf, promptus, velox, and ‘á-’ intens., cp. af D. II.], vehement, fiery; á. bardagi, a hot fight, Fms. xi. 95: of whatever is at its highest point, þenna dag var veizlan (the banquet) allra áköfust, 331; vellan sem áköfust, Nj. 247: ardent, svá var ákaft um vináttu þeirra, at …, 151: neut. as adv., kalla ákaft á Bárð, to pray to B. fervently, Bárð. 169; ríða sem ákafast, to ride at a furious rate, Eg. 602; búast sem á., 86; en þeir er eptir Agli vóru sóttu ákaft, … pulled hard, 362.

á-kall, n. a calling upon, invocation; á. á nafn Guðs, 656 B. 10, Sks. 310, Bs. i. 180. β. clamour, shouting; af orðum þeirra ok ákalli, Fms. xi. 117, Orkn. 344 old Ed., new Ed. 402 reads kall: esp. a war cry, Fms. ix. 510. 2. a claim, demand; veita á. til e-s, Eg. 470, Hkr. ii. 195, Fms. ix. 433, xi. 324, Orkn. 20 old Ed.; cp. new Ed. 54, Korm. 110. COMPD: ákalls-lauss, adj. a law term, free from encumbrance, Vm. 11.

á-kals, n. an importunate, urgent request, Fms. ii. 268, vi. 239.

á-kast, n. a throwing upon, casting at, Sks. 410: metaph. an assault, á. djöfla, Hom. 14: plur. taunts, Sturl. i. 21. COMPD: ákasta-samr, adj. taunting, Glúm. 364.

á-kastan, f. casting upon, Js. 42.

áka-víti, a, m. = aqua vitae, spirit, (mod.)

á-kefð, f. = ákafi; vægilega en eigi með á., Fms. vi. 29, vii. 18, x. 237, K. Á. 202, Sks. 154. COMPD: ákefðar-orð, n. rash language. Mar.

á-kenning, f. 1. in the phrase, hafa á. e-s or af e-u, to have a smack of a thing, to savour of, Bs. i. 134. 2. a slight reprimand, (kenna á., to feel sore); göra e-m á., to administer a slight reprimand, Sturl. i. 70, Bs. i. 341, in the last passage it is used as masc.

á-keypi, n. the right of pre-emption, a law term, Fr.

á-klaga, að, to accuse, (mod. word.)

á-klagan and áklögun, f. an accusation, charge, Bs. i. 856.

á-klæði, n. a carpet, covering, Pm. 109.

á-kneyki, n. hurt, metaph. shame, Konr. MS.

á-kúfóttr, adj. spherical, Sks. 630 B; cp. ávalr.

á-kúran, a doubtful reading, Eg. 47, v. l. for áþján, bondage: ákúrur, f. pl., means in mod. usage reprimands: in the phrase, veita e-m á., to scold, esp. of reprimands given to a youth or child.

á-kváma, mod. ákoma, u, f. 1. coming, arrival; úfriðar á., visitation of war, Stj. 561. 2. but esp. a hurt received from a blow, a wound, = áverki, Nj. 99, Fms. ii. 67, Gþl. 168: medic. of a disease of the skin, an eruption, Fél. ix. 186, esp. on the lips, v. áblástr.

á-kveða, kvað, to fix; part. ákveðinn, fixed, Orkn. 10; á. orð, marked, pointed words, Bjarn. 57, Fbr. 72, 73.

á-kveðja, kvaddi, = ákveða, Bs. i. 773; ákveddi is perhaps only a misspelling for ákvæði.

á-kviðr, m. a verdict against, perhaps to be read bera á kviðu (acc. pl.) separately, Bs. i. 439.

á-kvæði, n. 1. an uttered opinion; mun ek nú segja yðr hvat mitt á. er, Nj. 189, Sturl. i. 65 C; Ed. atkvæði (better): a command, Stj. 312, 208; með ákvæðum, expressly, Sks. 235: cp. atkvæði. 2. in popular tales and superstition it is specially used of spells or charms: cp. Lat. fatum from fari; cp. also atkvæði: the mod. use prefers ákvæði in this sense, hence ákvæða-skáld, n. a spell-skald, a poet whose words have a magical power, also called kraptaskald; v. Ísl. Þjóðs. I, where many such poets are mentioned; indeed any poet of mark was believed to possess the power to spell-bind with his verses; cp. The tales about Orpheus. COMPDS: ákvæðis-teigr, m. a piece of field to be mowed in a day, a mower’s day’s work (in mod. usage called dags-látta), Fms. Iii. 207. ákvæðis-verk, n. piece-work; þat er títt á Íslandi at hafa á., þykjast þeir þá komnir til hvíldar eptir erviði sitt er verki er lokit, Fms. v. 203, Jb. 374.

á-kynnis, adv. on a visit, Sd. 158.

á-kæra, ð, to accuse, (mod. word.)

á-kæra, u, f. a charge, accusation, Bs. i. 852. COMPDS: ákæru-lauss, adj. undisputed, Finnb. 356; blameless, Stj. 523. ákæru-maðr, m. an accuser, Stj. 42.

á-kærsla, u, f. = ákæra, Fr. ákærslu-lauss = ákærulauss, id.

ÁL, f., old form nom. dat. acc. sing. ́l; öl heitir drykkr, en ́l er band, Skálda (Thorodd) 163: gen. sing. and nom. pl. álar; (the mod. form is ól, keeping the ó throughout all the cases; gen. pl. ólar):—a strap, esp. of leather; ál löng, Fms. vi. 378, Edda 29, Sks. 179: a proverb, sjaldan er bagi að bandi eðr byrdi að ól. β. esp. the leather straps for fastening a cloak, etc. to the saddle, = slagálar, Orkn. 12, Bjarn. 68, Fbr. 57 new Ed. γ. a bridle, rein; beislit fanst þegar ok var komit á álna, Bs. i. 314, note 2. COMPDS: álar-endi, a, m. the end of a leather strap, Edda 29. álar-reipi, n. a rope of leather, etc.

á-lag, n. and álaga, u, f. [leggja á]; in some cases, esp. dat. pl., it is often difficult to decide to which of these two forms a case may belong; they are therefore best taken together. In the neut. pl. the notion of spell, in the fem. pl. that of tax, burden, hardship prevails. In sing. both of them are very much alike in sense. I. fem. pl. a tax, burden, burdensome impost; sagði at bændr vildi eigi hafa frekari álög (álögur?) af konungi en forn lög stæði til, Fms. xi. 224; undan þessum hans álögum … liggja undir slíkum álögum, tyranny, yoke, Bárð. ch. 2; gangit til ok hyggit at landsmenn, at ganga undir skattgjafar Ólafs konungs ok allar álögur, burdens, taxes, Fms. iv. 282, in the famous speech of Einar þveræing, (Ó. H. ch. 134; bað jarl vægja möunum um álögur, Fms. iv. 216; jarl hélt með freku öllum álögum, Orkn. 40; hvárt mun konungr sá ekki kunna hóf um álögur ok harðleiki við menn, Fms. vi. 37; þórstcinn kvað ekki um at leita, at Þórðr kæmist undan neinum álögum, burdens, oppressive conditions, Bjarn. 72. 2. a law term, an additional fine; með álögum ok leigum, duties and rents, Grág. i. 260; binda álogum, to charge, 384; hálfa fimtu mörk álaga, a fine of three marks, 391. 3. metaph. in plur. and in the phrase, í álögum, in straits, at a pinch, if needful, Vm. 18; vitr maðr ok ágætr í öllum álögum, a wise and good man in all difficulties, Fs. 120. 4. a metric. term, addition, supplement; þat er annat leyfi háttanna at hafa í dróttkvæðum hætti eitt orð eða tvau með álögum, cp. álagsháttr below, Edda 124. 5. theol. a visitation, scourge, Stj. 106, 647. 2 Kings xxi. 13 (answering to plummet in the Engl. transl.); sing. in both instances. II. neut. pl. álög, spells, imprecations. In the fairy tales of Icel. ‘vera í álögum’ is a standing phrase for being spell-bound, esp. for being transformed into the shape of animals, or even of lifeless objects; leggja a., to bind by spells, cp. Ísl. Þjóðs. by Jón Árnason; var því líkast sem í fornum sögum er sagt, þá er konunga börn urðu fyrir stjúpmæðra álögum (v. l. sköpum), Fms. viii. 18 (Fb. ii. 539): hóri lýstr til hans með úlfs hanzka ok segir at hann skyldi verða at einuni híðbirni, ok aldri skáltn or þessuni álögum fara, Fas. (Völs. S.) i. 50, 404: sing. (very rare), þat er álag mitt, at þat skip skal aldri heilt af hafi koma er hér liggr út, Landn. 250. At present always in pl., cp. forlög, örlög, ólög. COMPDS: álags-bœtr, f. pl. a kind of line, N. G. L. i. 311. álags-háttr, m. a kind of metre, the first syllabic of the following line completing the sentence, e. g. ískalda skar ek öldu | eik; Edda (Ht.) 129. álögu-laust, n. adj. free from imposts.

álar-, ála-, v. sub voce áll and ál.

á-lasa, að, to blame, with dat. of the person.

á-lasan and álösun, f., and álas, n. a reprimand, rebuke, Vígl. 25.

ál-belti, n. a leathern belt, Stj. 606.

ál-borinn, adj. Part. [álbera], measured with a thong or cord, of a field, N. G. L. i. 43. In Icel. called vaðbera and vaðborinn.

ál-burðr, m. mensuration with a line, N. G. L. i. 43, = vaðburðr.

á-leiðis, adv. on the right path, opp. to afleiðis; (leið) snúa e-m á., metaph., 655 xiii. B; snú þeim á. er þú hefir áðr vilta, id. β. forwards, onwards; fóru á. til skipa, Fms. 1. 136; snúa ferð á., to go on (now, halda áfram), Korm. 232, K. Þ, K. 94 B: metaph., koma e-u á., to bring a thing about, Hkr. i. 169, iii. 104; koma e-u til á., id., Fas. i. 45 (corrupt reading); snúa e-u á., to improve, Bs. i. 488; víkja á. með e-m, to side with, Sturl. iii. 91.

á-leikni, f. a pertness, Grett. 139 (Ed.)

á-leikr, m. [leika á], a trick, Grett. 139 C.

á-leiksi, adj. ind. who had got the worst of the game, Bret.

á-leitaðr, part. assailed, Stj. 255.

á-leiting, f. = áleitni, Fr.

á-leitinn, adj. pettish, Fms. ii. 120, Orkn. 308.

á-leitligr, adj. reprehensible, Greg. 26.

á-leitni, f. a pettish disposition, Fms. vii. 165, Sturl. ii. 228, Fs. 8; eigi fyrir á. sakar heldr góðvilja, Al. 129, 153; spott Þórðar ok á., invectives, Bjarn. 3, Joh. 623. 19.

á-lengdar, adv. along; engum friði heit ek þér á., Fms. iii. 156; eigi vildi hann vist hans þar á., he should not be staying along there, i. e. there, Grett. 129 A, Sturl. iii. 42. β. now used loc. far off, aloof, Lat. procul.

á-lengr, adv. [cp. Engl. along], continuously; þessi illvirki skyldi eigi á. úhefnd vera, Bs. i. 533; á. er, as soon as; á. er goðar koma í setr sínar, þá …, Grág. i. 8; á. er hann er sextan vetra, 197: ú. svá sem þeir eru búnir, in turn as soon as they are ready, 61.

álfa, v. hálfa, region.

álfkona, u, f. a female elf, Fas. i. 32, Bær. 2, Art. 146.

álf-kunnigr, adj. akin to the elves, Fm. 13.

ÁLFR, s, m. [A. S. ælf, munt-ælfen, sæ-ælfen, wudu-ælfen, etc.; Engl. elf, elves, in Shakespeare ouphes are ‘fairies;’ Germ. alb and elfen, Erl- in Erlkönig (Göthe) is, according to Grimm, a corrupt form from the Danish Ellekonge qs. Elver-konge]; in the west of Icel. also pronounced álbr: I. mythically, an elf, fairy; the Edda distinguishes between Ljósálfar, the elves of light, and Dökkálfar, of darkness (the last not elsewhere mentioned either in mod. fairy tales or in old writers), 12; the Elves and Ases are fellow gods, and form a favourite alliteration in the old mythical poems, e. g. Vsp. 53, Hm. 144, 161, Gm. 4, Ls. 2, 13, Þkv. 7, Skm. 7, 17, Sdm. 18. In the Alvismál Elves and Dwarfs are clearly distinguished as different. The abode of the elves in the Edda is Álfheimar, fairy land, and their king the god Frey (the god of light), Edda 12; see the poem Gm. 12, Álfheim Frey gáfu í árdaga tívar at tannfé. In the fairy tales the Elves haunt the hills, hence their name Huldufólk, hidden people: respecting their origin, life, and customs, v. Ísl. Þjóðs. i. I sqq. In old writers the Elves are rarely mentioned; but that the same tales were told as at present is clear;—Hallr mælti, hvi brosir þú nú? þórhallr svarar, af því brosir ek, at margr hóll opnast ok hvert kvikindi býr sinn bagga bæði smá ok stór, ok gera fardaga (a foreboding of the introduction of Christianity), Fms. ii. 197, cp. landvættir; álfamenn, elves, Bs. i. 417, Fas. i. 313, 96; hóll einn er hér skamt í brott er álfar búa í, Km. 216: álfrek, in the phrase, ganga álfreka, cacare, means dirt, excrements, driving the elves away through contamination, Eb. 12, cp. Landn. 97, Fms. iv. 308, Bárð. ch. 4: álfröðull, elfin beam or light, a poët. name of the sun; álfavakir, elf-holes, the small rotten holes in the ice in spring-time in which the elves go a fishing; the white stripes in the sea in calm weather are the wakes of elfin fishing boats, etc.: medic. álfabruni is an eruption in the face, Fél. ix. 186: Ivar Aasen mentions ‘alvgust, alveblaastr, alveld,’ the breath, fire of elves (cp. St. Vitus’ dance or St. Anthony’s fire); ‘alvskot,’ a sort of cancer in the bone:—græti álfa, elfin tears, Hðm. I, is dubious; it may mean some flower with dew-drops glittering in the morning sun, vide s. v. glýstamr (glee-steaming). Jamieson speaks of an elf’s cup, but elf tears are not noticed elsewhere; cp. Edda 39. In Sweden, where the worship of Frey prevailed, sacrifices, álfa-blót, were made to the elves, stóð húsfreyja í dyrum ok bað hann (the guest) eigi þar innkoma, segir at þau ætti álfa blót, Hkr. ii. 124 (referring to the year 1018), cp. Korm. ch. 22. 2. metaph., as the elves had the power to bewitch men, a silly, vacant person is in Icel. called álfr; hence álfalegr, silly; álfaskapr and álfaháttr, silly behaviour. II. in historical sense, the Norse district situated between the two great rivers Raumelfr and Gautelfr (Alhis Raumarum, et Gotharum) was in the mythical times called Álfheimar, and its inhabitants Álfar, Fas. i. 413, 384, 387, Fb. i. 23, vide also P. A. Munch, Beskrivelse over Norge, p. 7. For the compds v. above.

álfrek, n., álfröðull, m., v. above.

Áli, a, m., the name of a myth. king, the same as A. S. Anila, Ýt.

á-liðinn, adj. Part. far-spent, of time; dagr, Grett. 99 A; sumar, Orkn. 448, Ld. 14.

á-lit, n. [líta á], prop. a view: I. aspect, appearance, esp that of a person’s face, gait, etc.; vænn at áliti, fair, gentle of aspect, Nj. 30; fagr álitum, Edda 5, Eluc. 35, Bær. 7: of other animate or inanimate objects, dökkr álits, black of aspect, Fms. vi. 229; eigi réttr álits, crooked, not straight (of a broken leg), Bs. i. 743; smíði fagrt áliti, Hom. 128: the whole form, shape, hvert á. sem hann hefði, Fms. xi. 433; hann hafði ymsa manna á. eða kykvenda, Post. 656 C. 26. II. of a mind, a view, thought, consideration, reflection; með áliti ráðsmanna, Fms. Vii. 139; með skjótu áliti, at a glance, Sks. 3: esp. in pl., þú ferr með góðum vilja en eigi með nógum álitum, inconsiderately, Lv. 38; meir með ákefð en álitum, Stj. 454. Hom. 24; gjöra e-t at álitum, to take a matter into (favourable) consideration, Nj. 3, Lv. 16. 2. in mod. use, opinion; does not occur in old writers (H. E. i. 244 it means authority), where there is always some additional notion of reflection, consideration. Compds such as almennings-álit, n., public opinion, are of mod. date. β. it is now also used in the sense of reputation; vera í miklu (litlu) áliti. COMPDS: álita-leysi, n. absence of reflection, Fas. Iii. 91. álita-lítill, adj. inconsiderate, Fas. ii. 388. álita-mál, n. pl., gjöra e-t at álitamálum = göra at álitum, v. above, Lv. 16.

á-litliga, adv. civilly (but not heartily); tók hann þeim á., he received them pretty well, Fms. x. 132; for allt á. með þeim en eigi sem þá er blíðast var, ix. 454, Bjarn. 8. 2. in the present usage, considerably, to a high amount, etc.

á-litligr, adj., Lat. consideratus, Hom. 28. 2. considerable, respectable, (mod.)

á-litning, f. = álit, Thom. 259.

á-líkr, adj. like, resembling, Sks. 164: á-líka, adv. alike, nearly as.

á-líta, leit, to consider, (mod.)

á-ljótr, m. [ljótr, deformis], gen. s and ar, dat. áljóti; a law term, a serious bodily injury that leaves marks, wilfully inflicted; only once, Grág. ii. 146, used of a libellous speech; áljótsráð is the intention to inflict áljót, and is distinguished from fjörráð (against one’s life), sárráð, and drepráð, Grág. ii. 127, 117, 146; áljótr eðr bani, i. 497; áljótsráð, as well as fjörráð, if carried out in action, was liable to the greater out-lawry (ii. 127), but áljótr, in speech, only to the lesser, and this too even if the charge proved to be true; ef maðr bregðr manni brigslum, ok mælir áljót, þótt hann segi satt, ok varðar fjörbaugsgarð, ii. 146; an intended áljótsráð, if not carried into effect, was also only liable to the lesser out-lawry, 127: every one was to be brought to trial for the actual, not the intended injury; as, vice versa, a man was tried for murder, if the wound proved mortal (ben), though he only intended to inflict a blow (drep) or wound (sár), 117; cp. also i. 493. COMPDS: áljóts-eyrir, s, m. a fine for á., N. G. L. i. 171 (for cutting one’s nose off). áljóts-ráð, n. pl., Grág., v. above.

ÁLKA, u, f. an auk, alca L., Edda (Gl.): álku-ungi, a, m. a young auk, Fs. 147: metaph. a long neck, in the phrase, teygja álkuna (cant).

ÁLL, m. I. an eel, Lat. anguilla, Km. 236, Edda (Gl.), 655 xxx. 2, Stj. 69. II. a deep narrow channel in sea or river; eru nú þeir einir alar til lands er ek get vaðit, Fms. iii. 60; þeir lögðu út á álinn (in a harbour) ok lágu þar um strengi, Sturl. i. 224; djúpir eru Islands alar, of the channel of the Atlantic between Norway and Iceland, a proverb touching the giantess who tried to wade from Norway to Iceland, Ísl. Þjóðs. III. in names of horses, or adjectives denoting the colour of a horse, ‘ál’ means a coloured stripe along the back, e. g. in mó-ál-óttr, brown striped, bleik-ál-óttr, yellow striped; Kingála and Bleikálingr are names of horses, referring to their colour. IV. a sort of seed, Edda (Gl.); cp. Ivar Aasen, aal, a sprout, and aala, aal-renne, to sprout, of potatoes. V. the pith of a tree; ok haft þar til álinn úr eikitrjám = το μέλαν δρυος ἀμφικεάσσας, Od. xiv. 12 (Dr. Egilsson). COMPDS: ála-fiski, f. fishing for eels, D. N. ála-garðr, m. an eel-pond, stew for eels, D. N. ála-veiðr, f. eel fishing, Gþl. 421. ála-virki, n. a pond for eel fishing, Gþl. 421.

álma, u, f., gener. a prong, fluke of an anchor, or the like, as cognom., Fms. v. 63:—properly perh. a branch of an elm.

álm-bogi, a, m. a sort of bow, cross-bow, Lex. Poët.

ÁLMR, m. [Lat. ulmus; Engl. elm; Germ. ulme], an elm, Edda (Gl.), Karl. 310: metaph. a bow, Lex. Poët.

álm-sveigr, m. an elm-twig, Fas. i. 271.

álm-tré, n. an elm-tree, Karl. 166.

álm-viðr, m. id.

álpask, að, qs. aplast, to walk like a hack-horse, then, to walk awkwardly; austr at Horni ok út á haf, álpuðu þeir frá landi, Skíða R. 54.

álpast qs. aplast, dep. to totter, v. apli.

ÁLPT, more correctly álft, f. the common í eel. word for swan, Lat. cygnus; svan is only poët.; all local names in which the swan appears, even those of the end of the 9th century, use ‘álpt,’ not ‘svan,’ Álpta-fjörðr, -nes, -mýri, v. the local index to the Landn.; Svanshóll comes from a proper name Svan. Probably akin to Lat. albus; the t is fem. Inflexion; the p, instead of f, a mere change of letter; cp. the proverb, þegar hrafninn verðr hvítr en álptin svört, of things that never will happen: pl. álptir, but sometimes, esp. in Norse, elptr or elftr; the change of the original a (alft) into á (álft) is of early date, Grág. ii. 338, 346, Eg. 132, Landn. 57; in all these passages pl. álptir; but elptr, Jb. 217, 309. Respecting the mythical origin of the swan, v. Edda 12; they are the sacred birds at the well of Urda. COMPDS: álptar-hamr, m. the skin of a swan, Fas. ii. 373. álptar-líki, n. the shape of a swan, Fas. ii. 375, etc.

álpt-veiðr, f. catching wild swans, Landn. 270, Vm. 69; álptveiðar skip, 68.

álpun, f. an awkwardness, a playing idiotic pranks; þykkir eigi verða vinveitt at þeir haldizt á við álpun Hreiðars, Mork. 37.

ál-reip, n. a strap of leather, Dipl. v. 18; vide ál.

á-lútr, adj. louting forwards, stooping, Thom. 201.

á-lygi, n. slander, Glúm. 340, Fær. 203.

á-lykkja, u, f. the loop (lykkja) in the letter a, Skálda 171.

á-lykt, f. issue, decision, Gþl. 23. COMPDS: ályktar-dómr, m. a final doom or judgment, Sks. 668. ályktar-orð, n. the last word, a peroration. Eg. 356, Hkr. ii. 215, Fms. vii. 116. ályktar-vitni, n. a conclusive testimony, defined in Gþl. 476.

á-lykta, að, to conclude, (mod. word.)

á-lyktan, f. conclusion, final decision, Sturl. iii, 179.

á-lægja, adj. ind. at heat, of a mare, Grág. i. 427.

ÁMA, u, f. (and ámu-sótt, f.) erysipelas, Sturl. ii. 116; in common talk corrupted into heimakona or heimakoma. 2. poët. a giantess, Edda (Gl.); hence the play of words in the saying, gengin er gygr or fæti en harðsperra aptr komin, gone is the giantess (erysipelas), but a worse (sceloturbe) has come after. 3. a tub, awme, Germ. ahm. 4. in Norse mod. dialects the larva is called aama (v. Ivar Aasen); and ámu-maðkr, spelt ánu-maðkr, a kind of maggot, lumbricus terrestris, is probably rightly referred to this. Fél. ix. states that it has this name from its being used to cure erysipelas.

á-málga, að, to beg or claim gently, Gþl. 370.

ám-átligr, adj. loathsome, piteous, Fms. v. 165, of piteously crying; Fas. ii. 149, of an ogress; Finnb. 218, Bær. 7.

ám-áttigr, adj. [cp. old Germ. amahtig = infirmus], contr. ámátkir, ámáttkar, etc., used in poetry as an epithet of witches and giants, prob. in the same sense as ámátligr, Vsp. 8, Hkv. Hjör. 17. Egilsson translates by praepotens, which seems scarcely right.

á-minna, t, to admonish.

á-minning, f. warning, admonition, reproof; áðr menn urðu til á. við hann um þetta mál, … reminded him, called it into his recollection, Fms. xi. 286, Sks. 335; fjandans á., instigation, Fms. viii. 54; heilsusamligar á., vi. 281; Guðs á., Ver. 6, Stj. 116; var þó mörg á. (many foreboding symptoms) áðr þessa lund for …; góðrar áminningar, beatae memoriae (rare), H. E. i. 514. COMPDS: áminningar-maðr, m. monitor, Fms. v. 125. áminningar-orð, n. warnings, Fms. vi. 44. áminningar-vísa, u, f. a song commemorating deeds of prowess, etc., Hkr. ii. 345.

ÁMR, adj. occurs twice or thrice in poetry (by Arnór and in a verse in Bs. i. 411), seems to mean black or loathsome; í úmu blóði and ám hræ, loathsome blood and carcases of the slain, Orkn. 70, Fms. vi. 55; akin with ámátligr. Egilsson omits the word. Metaph. of a giant, the loathsome, Edda (Gl.)

á-munr, adj. [á- intens. and munr, mens], eager, only in poetry; á. augu, piercing, greedy eyes, Vkv. 16; and á. e-m, eager for revenge, in a bad sense, Hkv. 2. 9; the explanation given in Lex. Poët. and p. 43 is to be cancelled; the word means like, equal, resembling; ámun ero augu ormi þeim enum frána, the eyes are like the flashing serpent’s. Vkv. 16; ámunir ossum niðjum, like to our kinsmen, Hkv. 2. 9. This sense is clearly seen from an old Icel. hymn of the 17th century,—nyti eg ei náðar þinnar … yrði rás æfi minnar ámynt og skuggi rýr, but for thy grace the race of my life would be like a vain shadow, Hymn-book (1746, p. 448). COMPD: ámuns-aurar, m. pl. additional payment [munr, difference] D. N. (Fr.)

á-mæla, t, to blame; á. e-m fyrir e-t, Eg. 164, Nj. 14, Hkr. ii. 285, Orkn. 430: part. ámælandi, as subst., a reprover, Post. 645. 61.

á-mæli, n. blame, reproof, Nj. 33, 183, Ísl. ii. 338, Fs. 40, El. 22. COMPDS: ámælis-laust, n. adj. blameless, Ölk. 37, Ísl. ii. 54. ámælis-orð, n. reproof. Valla L. 218. ámælis-samt, n. adj. shameful, Sturl. ii. 131, Hrafn. 11. ámælis-skor, f. [cp. the Engl. score], a dub. word attached to an account of numbers in Edda 108; átta bera á., a short (not full) score (?). ámœlis-verðr, adj. blamable, Glúm. 369, Fms. ii. 182.

ÁN, prep. [Goth. inuh; Hel. and O. H. G. ano; Germ. ohne; Gr. ανευ], without: the oldest form in MSS. is ón, Eluc. 25, Greg. Dial, (freq.), 655 xxvii. 2, Fms. xi. in, 153; aon, Hom. 19 sqq.; the common form is án; with gen. dat. and acc.; at present only with gen. I. with gen., þess máttu Gautar ilia án vera, Hkr. ii. 70. Ó. H. 49 has ‘þat;’ án manna valda, Fms. iii. 98; á. allra afarkosta, x. 7; mættim vér vel þess án vera, Ísl. ii. 339; in the proverb, án er ills gengis nema heiman hafi, Gísl. 63, but án er illt gengi (acc.), 149, Nj. 27, Ísl. ii. 142, l. c..; án allra klæða, Al. 171; án allrar vægðar, Sks. 229; ón lasta synda, Eluc. 25. II. with dat., esp. in translations or eccles. Writings, perh. in imitation of the Lat., and now quite out of use; esp. In the phrase, án e-s ráði, without (against) one’s will, Nj. 38, Bjarn. 71, Korm. 142, Fms. xi. 153, 111; ón góðum verkum, Greg. 13; án úfláti, incessantly, Bs. i. 97; ón dómi, Eluc. 39; sannr ok on gildingi, 655 xxvii. 2. III. with acc., esp. freq. in the Grág., án er illt gengi, v. above; þá skal hann án vera liðit, Grág. i. 276; án ráð lögráðanda, 334; hann mun þik ekki þykjast mega án vera, Fms. vii. 26; án allan verma, Sks. 210; án alla flærð, 522 B; ón líkamligan breyskleik, ok on dóm, Eluc. 38; án leyfi, without leave, Fms. vii. 141. IV. ellipt. without case, or adverbially, hvatki es betra es at hafa en ón at vera (to be without), 677. 8; þau er mönnum þykir betr at hafa en án at vera, Gþl. 379; eiga vilja heldr en ón vera þat hit mjallhvíta man, Alvm. 7: acc. with inf., án við löst at lifa, sine culpâ vivere, Hm. 68; used substantively, in the proverb, alls áni (omnium expers) verðr sá er einskis biðr, Sl. 38: Egilsson also, on Hdl. 23, suggests a form án, n.; but the passage (the poem is only left in the Fb.) is no doubt a corrupt one. Probably ‘ani ómi’ is a corruption from Arngrími (arngmi, the lower part of the g being blotted out: Arngrími | óru bornir | (öflgir ?) synir | ok Eyfuru, or the like).

ÁN and Ön, a mythical king of Sweden, hence ána-sótt, f. painless sickness from age, decrepid old age; þat er síðan kölluð á. ef maðr deyr verklauss af elli, Hkr. i. 35: the word is mentioned in Fél. ix. s. v., but it only occurs l. c. as an απ. λεγ. and seems even there to be a paraphrase of the wording in the poem, knátti endr | at Uppsölum | ánasótt | Ön of standa, Ýt. 13; even in the time of Snorri the word was prob. not in use in Icel. 2. the hero of the Án’s Saga, a romance of the 14th or 15th century, Fas. ii. 323–362; hence áni, a, m., means a fool, lubber.

ánalegr, adj. clownish; and ánaskapr, m. clownishness, etc.

á-nauð, f. bondage, oppression; á. ok þrælkun, Fms. x. 224, v. 75: in pl. ánauðir, imposts, x. 399, 416, 129 (grievances), Sks. 61 (where sing.) COMPDS: ánauðar-ok, n. yoke of oppression, Stj. 168. ánauðar-vist, f. a life of oppression, bondage, 655 viii. 4.

á-nauðga, að, to oppress, Js. 13, Gþl. 44.

á-nauðigr, adj. oppressed, enslaved, Hkr. i. 40, Grág. ii. 292, N. G. L. i. 341, Sks. 463.

á-nefna, d, to appoint, name, Jb. 161 B, Fms. i. 199, ix. 330.

á-netjast, að, dep. to be entangled in a net; metaph., á. e-u, Bs. i. 141.

á-neyða, dd, to force, subject, Sks. 621 B.

á-ning, f. [æja, ái-], resting, baiting, Grág. ii. 233.

án-ótt, n. adj. a pun (v. Án 2), a lot of Ans, Fas. ii. 431.

á-nyt, f. ewe’s milk, = ærnyt, Landn. 197.

á-nýja, ð or að, to renew, Sturl. iii. 39.

á-nægja, u, f. pleasure, satisfaction, formed as the Germ. vergnügen; mod. word, not occurring in old writers.

á-nægja, ð, impers., prop. to be enough, and so to content, satisfy; eptir því sem oss ánægir, Dipl. v. 9: part. ánægðr is now in Icel. used as an adj. pleased, content.

á-orka, að, to effect, (mod.)

ÁR, n. [Goth. jêr; A. S. gear; Engl. year; Germ. jabr; the Scandin. idioms all drop the j, as in ungr, young; cp. also the Gr. ωρα; Lat. hora; Ulf. renders not only ετος but also sometimes καιρός and χρόνος by jêr]. I. a year, = Lat. annus, divided into twelve lunar months, each of 30 days, with four intercalary days, thus making 364 days; as the year was reckoned about the middle of the 10th century (the original calculation probably only reckoned 360 days, and made up the difference by irregular intercalary months). About the year 960 Thorstein Surt introduced the sumarauki (intercalary week), to be inserted every seventh year, thus bringing the year up to 365 days. After the introduction of Christianity (A. D. 1000) the sumarauki was made to harmonize with the Julian calendar; but from A. D. 1700 with the Gregorian calendar; v. the words sumarauki, hlaupár, mánuðr, vika, etc., Íb. ch. 4, Rb. 6, Fms. i. 67; telja árum, to count the time by years, Vsp. 6; í ári, used adverb., at present, as yet, Ó. H. 41, 42 (in a verse). II. = Lat. annona, plenty, abundance, fruitfulness; the phrase, friðr ok ár, Fms. vii. 174, Hkr. Yngl. ch. 8–12; ár ok fésæla, Hkr. l. c.; þá var ár urn öll lönd, id.; létu hlaða skip mörg af korni ok annarri gæzku, ok flytja svá ár í Danmörku, Fms. xi. 8, Sks. 323, Fas. i. 526, Hom. 68; gott ár, Eg. 39; blota til árs, Fms. i. 34. III. the name of the Rune RUNE (a), Skálda 176; in the A. S. and Goth. Runes the j has the name jêr, gêr, according to the Germ. and Engl. pronunciation of this word; vide p. 2, col. 1. COMPDS: ára-tal, n. and ára-tala, u, f. number of years; fimtugr at áratali, Stj. 110, Rb. 484, Mar. 656 A. i. 29; hann (Ari Frodi) hafði áratal fyrst til þess er Kristni kom á Ísland, en síðan allt til sinna daga, Hkr. (pref.), seems to mean that Ari in respect of chronology divided his Íslendingabók into two periods, that before and that after the introduction of Christianity; Stj. 112 (periode). árs-bót, f. = árbót, Bs. i. 343, q. v.

ÁR, adv. I. Lat. olim [Ulf. air = παλαί; Engl. yore], used nearly as a substantive followed by a gen., but only in poetry; in the phrase, ár var alda, in times of yore, in principio, Vsp. 3, Hkv. 2. 1: also, ár var þaz (= þat es), the beginning of some of the mythical and heroical poems, Skv. 3. i, Gkv. 1. 1; cp. árdagar. II. Lat. mane [A. S. ær; O. H. G. êr; cp. Gr. ηρι-, Engl. early, Icel. árla], rare, (the prolonged form árla is freq.); it, however, still exists in the Icel. common phrase, með morgunsárinu (spelt and proncd. in a single word), primo diluculo; elsewhere poet, or in laws, ár of morgin, early of a morning, Hðm. verse 1, Grág. ii. 280; rísa ár, to rise early, Hm. 58, 59; ár né um nætr, Hkv. 2. 34, etc.; í ár, adverb. = early, Ísl. ii. (Hænsa Þór. S.) 161; snemma í ár, Ld. 46, MS., where the Ed. um morgininn í ár, Fas. i. 503: it also sometimes means for ever, svá at ár Hýmir ekki mælti, for an age he did not utter a word, remained silent as if stupefied, Hým. 25, Lex. Poët.; ara þúfu á skaltu ár sitja, Skm. 27; cp. the mod. phrase, ár ok síð og allan tíð, early and late and always. In compds = Lat. matutinus.

ÁR, f. [A. S. ár; Engl. oar; Swed. åre], an oar, old form of nom., dat., acc. sing. ́r; dat. ́ru or áru, Eb. 60 new Ed., but commonly ár; pl. árar, Eg. 221, 360, Fms. viii. 189, 417: metaph. in the phrases, koma eigi ár sinni fyrir borð, to be under restraint, esp. in a bad sense, of one who cannot run as fast as he likes, Eb. 170; vera á árum e-s = undir ára burði e-s, v. below; draga árar um e-t, to contend about a thing, the metaphor taken from a rowing match, Fær. 159; taka djúpt í árinni, to dip too deep, overdo a thing. COMPDS: árar-blað, n. an oar-blade. ára-burðr, m. the movement of the oars, in the phrase, vera undir áraburði e-s, to be in one’s boat, i. e. under one’s protection, esp. as regards alimentation or support, Hrafn. 30; ráðast undir áraburð e-s, to become one’s client, Ld. 140. ára-gangr, m. splashing of oars, Fas. ii. 114. ára-kló, f. ‘oar-clutch,’ poët. a ship, Edda (Gl.) ára-lag (árar-), n. the time of rowing, e. g. seint, fljótt á., a slow, quick, stroke; kunna á., to be able to handle an oar, Þórð. (Ed. 1860), ch. 4. árar-hlumr, m. the handle of an oar, Glúm. 395, Sturl. iii. 68. árar-hlutr, m. a piece of an oar, Glúm. l. c. árar-stubbi, a, m. the stump of an oar, Ísl. ii. 83. árar-tog, n. a stroke with the oar. árar-tré, n. the wood for making oars, Pm. 138.

ár-, v. the compds of á, a river.

ár-angr, rs, m. [ár = annona], gener. a year, season, = árferð; also the produce of the earth brought forth in a year (season), which is at present in the east of Icel. called ársali, v. árferð; skapaðist árangrinn eptir spásögu Jóseps, 655 vii. 4; ok at liðnum þeim vetrum tók á. at spillast, Gþl. 77; mun batna á. sem várar, Þorf. Karl. (A. A.) 111: the mod. use is only metaph., effect, result; so e. g. árangrs-laust, n. adj. without effect, to no effect.

á-rás, f. assault, attack, Fms. i. 63, ix. 372.

ár-borinn, v. arfborinn: Egilsson renders ηριγένεια by árborin (in his transl. of the Odyssey).

ár-bót, f. improvement of the season (ár = annona), Fms. i. 74, Bs. i. 137, Hkr. ii. 103: fem., surname, Landn.

ár-búinn, part. ready early, Sks. 221 B.

ár-býll, adj. dwelling in abundance, plentiful, Fms. v. 314.

ár-dagar, m. pl. [A. S. geardagas], í árdaga, in days of yore, Ls. 25 (poët.)

ár-degis, adv. early in the day, Eg. 2, Grág. i. 143.

á-reið, f. a charge of cavalry, Hkr. iii. 162, Fms. vii. 56: an invasion of horsemen, x. 413: at present a law term, a visitation or inspection by sworn franklins as umpires, esp. in matters about boundaries.

á-reiðanligr, adj. trustworthy, (mod.)

á-reitingr, m. [reita, Germ. reizen], inducement, Finnb. 310.

á-reitinn, adj. grasping after, Ld. 318, v. l.: now in Icel. pettish; and áreitni, f. pettishness.

á-renniligr, adj., in the phrase, eigi á., hard or unpleasant to face.

á-reyðr, f. [á acc. of ær, and reyðr], salmo laevis femina, Fél. i. 13, Landn. 313.

árétti, n. [and árétta, tt], a thin wedge used to prevent a nail from getting loose, cp. Ivar Aasen.

ár-ferð, f., mod. árferði, n. season, annona, Fms. i. 51, 86, ix. 51; árferð mun af taka um alla Danmörk, i. e. there will be famine, xi. 7; góð á., Stj. 420; engi á., Grett. 137 A.

ár-fljótr, adj. ‘oar-fleet,’ of a rowing vessel, Fms. viii. 382, Hkr. iii. 94.

ár-flognir, m. the early flier, i. e. a hawk, Edda.

ár-gali, a, m. ‘the early crying,’ i. e. perh. chanticleer, used in the proverb eldist árgalinn nú, of king Harold, Fms. vi. 251.

ár-galli, a, m. failure of crop, Sks. 321, 323. árgalla-lauss, adj. free from such failure, fertile, Sks. 322.

ár-gangr, m. a year’s course, season, Fms. xi. 441, Thom. 85; margan tíma í þessum á., 655 xxxii: in mod. usage, a year’s volume, of a periodical.

ár-gjarn, adj. eager for a good harvest (poët.), Ýt. 5.

ár-goð, m. god of plenty, the god Frey, Edda 55.

ár-gæzka, u, f. a good season, Thom. 83.

ár-hjálmr, m. an helmet of brass, A. S. âr = eir, Hkm. 3.

á-riða, u, f. a smearing, rubbing, [ríða á], medic., Bs. i. 611.

á-ríðandi, part. important, (mod.)

árla, adv. [qs. árliga], early, Lat. mane, Fms. iii. 217, v. 285, Stj. 208, Hom. 86:: with gen., árla dags, Fms. x. 218, Pass. 15. 17. β. in times of yore, Sks. 498, 518.

ár-langt, n. adj. and ár-lengis, adv. during the whole year, D. N.

ár-liga, adv. I. [ár, annus], yearly, Fms. ii. 454, x. 183, Vm. 12. II. = árla, early, Hkv. 1. 16. 2. [ár, annona], in the phrase, fá árliga verðar, to take a hearty meal, Hm. 32; cp. Sighvat, Ó. H. 216, where it seems to mean briskly.

ár-ligr, adj. 1. annual, Thom. 24. 2. in the phrase, árligum hrósar þú verðinum, thou hast enjoyed a hearty meal, Hbl. 33; the word is now used in the sense of well fed, well looking.

ár-maðr, m. [árr, nuntius, or ár, annona], a steward, esp. of royal estates in Denmark, Sweden, and Norway, also of the earls’ estates in the Orkneys. As Icel. had neither earls nor kings, it is very rare, perhaps an απ. λεγ. in Landn. 124 (of the stewards of Geirmund heljarskinn). In Norway the ármenn of the king were often persons of low birth, and looked upon with hatred and disrespect by the free noblemen of the country, cp. e. g. Ó. H. 113, 120 (synonymous with konungs þræll), Eb. ch. 2; the ármenn were a sort of royal policemen and tax gatherers, Fms. xi. 261, Orkn. 444, Eg. 79, 466, Gþl. 12 (where it is different from sýslumaðr); erkibiskups á., N. G. L. i. 175. COMPD: ármanns-réttr, m. the right of an á., i. e. the fine to be paid for molesting an ármaðr, N. G. L. i. 70.

ár-mánaðr, m. a year-month, i. e. a month, Stj. 320.

ár-menning, f. [ármaðr], stewardship, the office or the province, Orkn. 444, Fms. iv. 268; sýslur ok á., Hkr. i. 303.

ár-morgin, adv. [A. S. ærmorgen], early to-morrow, Am. 85.

árna, að, I. [A. S. yrnan, pret. arn, proficisci; cp. Icel. árr, evrendi, etc.], as a neut. verb, only in poetry and very rare, to go forward; úrgar brautir á. þú aptr héðan, Fsm. 2, Gg. 7, Fms. iv. 282, vi. 259; hvern þann er hingað árnar, whoever comes here, Sighvat, Ó. H. 82. II. [A. S. earnian, to earn; Germ. erndten], act. verb with acc. and gen.: 1. with acc. to earn, get, Lat. impetrare; hvat þú árnaðir í Jötunheima, Skm. 40; hon … spurði, hvat hann árnar, … what he had gained, how he had sped (of a wooer), Lv. 33; á. vel, to make a good bargain, Fms. vi. 345: reflex., þykir vel árnast hafa, they had made a good bargain, Bret. 40. 2. with gen. of the thing, to intercede for, pray; á. e-m góðs, to pray for good to one, bless him; á. e-m íls, to curse one, Fas. iii. 439; lífs, to intercede for one’s life, Magn. 532; griða, id., Sturl. ii. 224; var þat flestra manna tillaga, at á. Gizuri kvánfangsins, … to favour him, to give him the bride, Fms. iv. 33; á. e-s við Goð, to intercede for one with God (of Christ and the saints), Bs. i. 352. ii. 32.

árnaðr, m., theol. intercession, Th. 7. COMPDS: árnaðar-maðr, m. an intercessor, esp. of Christ and the saints, Magn. 504. árnaðar-orð, n. intercession, K. Þ. K. 76, Grág. ii. 166, Bs. i. 181.

árnan and -un, f. intercession, = árnaðr, Fms. vi. 352, Bs. i. 180, Fbr. 126, 655 xii, Ver. 22, 625. 81.

árnandi, part. an intercessor, Fms. x. 318, Hom. 149.

ár-næmi, n. a Norse law term, perh. qs. örnæmi [nema], indemnity; á. um skuldafar, N. G. L. i. 177, cp. 182.

árofi (arovi), a, m. a Norse law term; of doubtful origin, perh. akin to oróf and öræfi, an aged witness, a freeborn man, born and bred in the district, who must have been at least twenty years of age at the death of his father. He was produced as a witness (as an old document in modern times) in lawsuits about local questions as to possession of landed property, (cp. in mod. Icel. usage the witness of ‘gamlir menn’); thus defined,—þá skal hann fram færa óðalsvitni sín, arova þrjá, þá er tvítugir vóru þá er faðir þeirra varð dauðr, N. G. L. i. 87, (ok óðalbornir í því fylki, add. Gþl. 298); skal hann setja þar dóm sinn ok kveðja hann jarðar jafnt sem hinn þar væri, ok leiða (produce) arova sína þar ok öll vitni, sem hinn þar væri, N. G. L. i. 94.

ÁRR, m. [Ulf. airus; Hel. eru; A. S. ar; cp. Icel. eyrindi, A. S. ærend, Engl. errand], a messenger; old gen. árar (as ásar from áss); dat. æri (Fms. xi. 144); acc. pl. áru, Hkv. 1. 21, Og. 25, Greg. 35, later ára; nom. pl. ærir, Pd. 35 (12th century), later árar, v. Lex. Poët.: very rare and obsolete in prose, except in a bad sense, but freq. in old poetry: also used in the sense of a servant, Lat. minister, famulus; konungs árr, Guðs árr, Lex. Poët.; Ásu úrr, Ýt. 25. 2. theol., in pl.: α. the angels; Guð görir anda áru sína, Greg. 35; engla sveitir, þat eru ærir ok höfuð-ærir, id. β. evil spirits; now almost exclusively used in this sense; fjandinn ok hans árar, Fms. vii. 37; satan með sínum árum, ii. 137; cp. djöfli, viti, ár (dat.) og álf, öldin trúði sú, Snót 140. γ. used of the number eleven, ærir eru ellefu, Edda 108.

árr, adj., Lat. matutinus; at arum degi, Hom. 121. Cp. ár (adv.) II.

ár-risull, adj. one who rises early, Fms. vi. 241.

ár-salr and ársali, a, m. [a foreign word, introduced from Britain], precious hangings of a bed, Eb. 262, Edda 18 (ársali); ársal allan, Gkv. 2. 26; allan ársala, Js. 78; an obsolete word. II. in the east of Icel. ársali [ár, annona, and selja] means annual produce, the stores or crop of a year.

ár-samr, adj. fertile, Ver. 17.

ár-sáinn, part. early sewed, Hm. 87.

ár-sima, n. metal wire, Eg. (in a verse). Cp. A. S. âr.

ár-skyld, f. yearly rent, D. N. iii. 195 (Fr.)

ár-sæli (and ársæld), f. a blessing on the year, plenty; svá var mikil á. Hálfdanar, so great was the plenty during his reign, Fagrsk. 2.

ár-sæll, adj. happy or blest in the year, fortunate as to season, an epithet of a king; good or bad seasons were put on the king’s account, cp. Fms. i. 51, xi. 294; góðr höfðíngi ok á., i. 198; á. ok vinsæll, Fagrsk. 2, Bret. 100; allra konunga ársælstr, Fms. x. 175.

ár-tal, n. tale or reckoning by years, Vþm. 23, 25.

ár-tali, a, m. the year-teller, i. e. the moon (poët.), the heathen year being lunar, Alvm. 15.

ár-tekja, u, f. yearly rent, D. N. iv. 231 (Fr.)

ár-tíð, n. the anniversary of a man’s death, Bs. i. 139, Fms. v. 121, ix. 534, Bret. 70, Blas. 51. COMPDS: ártíðar-dagr, m. id., Vm. 116. ártíðar-hald, n. an anniversary mass, B. K. 8, 25. ártíðar-skrá, f. an obituary, Vm. 4, Ám. 45; some of the Icel. obituaries are published in H. E. at the end of the 1st vol. and in Langeb. Scriptt. Rer. Dan.

ár-vakr, adj. (and árvekni, f. mod.), early awake, early rising, Lv. 43, Sks. 19: the name of one of the horses of the Sun, Edda, Gm. 37.

ár-vænligr, adj. promising a good season, Sks. 335.

ár-vænn, adj. id., Fms. i. 92, ii. 76.

á-ræða, dd, to dare, have the courage to do, to attack, cp. ráða á., Sturl. iii. 256.

á-ræði, n. courage, daring, pluck, Eg. i, Korm. 242, Al. 9, Nj. 258, Ísl. ii. 325: attack, veita e-m á., to attack, Hom. 113. COMPDS: áræðis-fullr, adj. daring, Fas. i. 119. áræðis-lítill, adj. of small courage, Hkr. ii. 79. áræðis-maðr, m. a bold man, Grett. 141 A, Fbr. 149. áræðis-mikill, adj. daring, Sturl. iii. 21, Rd. 285. áræðis-raun, f. proof of courage, pluck, Fms. vi. 166. áræðis-snarr, adj. of great courage, Al. 9.

á-ræðiligr, adj. and -liga, adv. [ráða, to guess], likely, probable, Glúm. 385, Gísl. 60, Clem. 28. β. daring, dangerous, Fas. iii. 165. γ. ekki áræðiligt = ekki árenniligt, not easy to face, Fms. viii. 64.

á-ræðinn, adj. daring, Sks. 299.

ása, að, a mod. sea term, to move the yard of a sail.

á-saka, að, to accuse, censure; with acc., Fms. ii. 174, Bs. i. 786, Stj. 129, H. E. i. 500.

á-sakan and ásökun, f. a charge, censure, Fms. ii. 225, H. E. i. 404. COMPDS: ásakanar-efni, n. a matter for censure, Th. 77. ásakanar-orð, n. a word of reprimand, Stj. 500.

á-sakari, a, m. an accuser, Th. 76.

á-samt, adv. along with: 1. loc., in the phrase, vera á., to be together (now saman), esp. of married people, Sturl. 199, Fms. i. 198, cp. Skm. 7. β. koma á., to agree, (in mod. usage, koma vel, illa, saman, to be on good, bad terms); þat kom lítt á., they disagreed, Fms. iv. 369; þau kómu vel á., they lived happily together, of married people, Nj. 25, (in mod. usage, þeim kom vel saman); kómu allar ræður á. með þeim, Eg. 750; svá sem þeim kemr á. (impers.), as is agreed on by them, Jb. 116.

á-sannast, dep. to prove true, (mod. word.)

á-sauðr, ar, m. a ewe, Dipl. v. 10, Hrafn. 6, 8, Vm. 9.

á-sáld, n. a sprinkling, metaph. of a snow storm, Sturl. iii. 20.

á-sáttr, adj. part. agreed upon, Edda 10, Grág. i. 1.

ás-brú, f. the bridge of the Ases, the rainbow, Edda.

ás-drengr, m. a pillar (drengr, a short pillar), N. G. L. ii. 283.

ás-endi, a, m. theend of a beam, Ld. 280.

á-seta, u, f. a sitting upon, settlement, esp. = ábúð, tenure of a farm, Bs. i. 730. ásetu-garðr, m. (Icel. ábýlisjörð), a tenant’s farm, D. N. iv. 581 (Fr.)

á-setning, f. a putting on, laying on; á. stolunnar, the investment of…, Fms. iii. 168: in mod. usage, masc. ásetningr, purpose, design; and also ásetja, tt, to design.

ás-garðr, m. the residence of the gods (Ases), Edda; also the name of a farm in the west of Icel.: the mod. Norse ‘aasgaardsreid’ is a corruption from the Swed. åska, thunder.

ás-grindr, f. pl. the rails surrounding the ásgarðr, Edda 46.

á-sigling, f. a sailing upon, Gþl. 518, N. G. L. i. 65, ii. 283.

á-sjá (old form ásjó, Niðrst. 5, Hom. 35), f., gen. ásjá, the mod. gen. úsjár seems only to occur in late or even paper MSS. I. a looking after, help, protection; ætla til ásjá, to hope for it, Lv. 75, Ld. 42, Fms. i. 289; biðja e-n ásjá, to ask one for help, protection, Nj. 26 (Ed. ásjár prob. wrongly); sækja e-n til ásjá, to seek one’s help, Bs. i. 82 (ásjár the paper MSS.) β. superintendence, inspection; með spekiráðum ok á., Fms. x. 178; með á. Magnúss konungs, Js. 23, Hom. 35. II. one’s look, appearance, shape, Fms. i. 97; í manns ásjó, in the shape of man, Niðrst. 5 (= ásýnd). COMPD: ásjá-mál, n. pl. a matter worthy of consideration, Ísl. ii. 159, Band. 15.

á-sjáligr, adj. handsome, pretty, Ísl. ii. 208, Art. 98.

á-sjón, f. superintendence, inspection, Js. 46; gen. ásjónar, used as adv. = eye’s view (= sjónhending), in a straight direction, Vm. 135.

á-sjóna (ásjána older form, Ld. 122, Niðrst. 6), u, f. one’s look, aspect, countenance; líkami Njáls ok á., Nj. 208; kvenna vænst bæði at ásjánu (appearance) ok vitsmunum, Ld. 122; greppligr í á., ugly looking, Fms. i. 155; yfirbragð ok á., 216, Greg. 45. β. form, shape; í þræls ásjánu (in form like a slave) festr á kross, Niðrst. 6; andi Drottins í dúfu á., in form like a dove, 686 B. 13; engill í eldligri á., Hom. 81, Eluc. 17. γ. = Lat. persona; eigi skaltú líta á. í dómi, Hom. 19 (non accipies personam in judicio).

á-skelling, f. [skella á, to chide], chiding, Niðrst. 6.

á-skilnaðr, m. [skilja á, to disagree], discord, Fas. iii. 335, B. K. 121, Stj. 13, 8. β. separation [skilja, to part], Stj. 130.

á-skoran, f. (áskora, u, f., Fagrsk. 171, bad reading?), an earnest request, challenge, Nj. 258, Fs. 22, Boll. 342.

á-skot (áskaut, Sks. 416; áskeyti, Thom. 83), n. a shot at, only used in pl.; at menn fái eigi mein af áskotum þeirra, by their heavy fire (of arrows), Fms. viii. 201; sva mikil á., at menn megi eigi í vígskörðum vera, so hard shooting that…, Sks. l. c.

ás-kunnigr, adj. akin to the gods, Fm. 13.

á-skurðr, ar, m. carving, in wood or stone, Bs. i. 680. β. carving of meat, (mod.)

á-skynja, adj. ind., in the phrase, verða e-s á., used in old writers in the sense to learn, of arts or knowledge, á. íþrótta, Fær. 46, Fms. ii. 270, Sks. 25, 53, 573; with dat., Fb. i. 462: now only used of news, to bear, be aware; not of learning, sensû proprio.

á-skynjandi, part. id., Barl. 24.

ás-lákr, m., poët. a cock, Edda (Gl.): a pr. name, Fms., Landn.

á-sláttr, m. an attack; á. djöfuls, Hom. 68; mod. a feeler, a vague proposition.

ás-liðar, m. pl. [liði, a champion], the champion of the Ases, Skm. 34.

ás-megin (ásmegn, Edda 15, 29), n. gener. the divine strength of the Ases, but esp. used of Thor in the phrases, at færast í á., vaxa á., neyta á., when he displayed his strength as a god by grasping the hammer Mjölnir, by putting on the gloves, or the girdle (megingjarðar, q. v.), Edda 15, 60, 61, Hým. 31.

ás-megir, m. pl. = ásliðar, Vtkv. 7.

ás-móðr, m. the divine strength of Thor, shewn in his wrath by thunder and lightning; því næst sá hann eldingar ok þrumur stórar; sá hann þá Þór í ásmóði, Edda 58; the proper name Þormóðr is equivalent to ásmóðr, cp. Landn. 307 (the verse).

á-sókn, f. an impetuous unreasonable desire after a thing, (common word.)

á-spyrna, u, f. a pressing against with the feet, Grett. (in a verse).

ás-ríki, n. the power of the Ases, Kristni S. Bs. 10.

ÁSS, m. [Ulf. ans = δοκός; cp. Lat. asser, a pole], gen. áss, dat. ási, later ás, pl. ásar, acc. ása: 1. a pole, a main rafter, yard; α. of a house; selit var gört um einn as, ok stóðu út af ásendarnir, Ld. 280; Nj. 115, 202; drengja við ása langa (acc. pl.), Fms. vii. 54, Sks. 425, Pm. 11, Dipl. iii. 8, Hom. 95; sofa undir sótkum ási, Hkr. i. 43; cp. Caes. Bell. Gall. 5. ch. 36, Fs. 62: in buildings áss gener. means the main beam, running along the house, opp. to bitar, þvertré, a cross-beam, v. mæniráss, brúnáss, etc.: the beams of a bridge, Fms. ix. 512; in a ship, beitiáss, a yard of a sail: also simply called áss, Ýt. 23, Fs. 113; vindáss, a windlass (i. e. windle-ass, winding-pole). 2. metaph. a rocky ridge, Lat. jugum, Eg. 576, Fms. viii. 176. Ás and Ásar are freq. local names in Iceland and Norway. COMPD: áss-stubbi, a, m. the stump of a beam, Sd. 125.

ÁSS, m. [that the word existed in Goth. may be inferred from the words of Jornandes—Gothi proceres suos quasi qui fortunâ vincebant non pares homines sed semideos, id est Anses, vocavere. The word appears in the Engl. names Osborn, Oswald, etc. In old German pr. names with n, e. g. Ansgâr, A. S. Oscar: Grimm suggests a kinship between áss, pole, and áss, deus; but this is uncertain. In Icel. at least no such notion exists, and the inflexions of the two words differ. The old gen. asar is always used in the poems of the 10th century, Korm. 22 (in a verse), etc.; dat. æsi, in the oath of Glum (388), later ás; nom. pl. æsir; acc. pl. ásu (in old poetry), æsi (in prose). The old declension is analogous to árr; perhaps the Goth. form was sounded ansus; it certainly was sounded different from ans, δοκός]:—the Ases, gods, either the old heathen gods in general, or esp. the older branch, opp. to the new one, the dî ascripti, the Vanir, q. v., Edda 13 sqq. β. the sing. is used particularly of the different gods, e. g. of Odin; ölverk Ásar, the brewing of the As (viz. Odin), i. e. poetry, Korm. 208 (in a verse); of Loki, Bragi, etc.; but κατ εξοχην it is used of Thor, e. g. in the heathen oaths, segi ek þat Æsi (where it does not mean Odin), Glúm. 388; Freyr ok Njörðr ok hinn almátki Áss, Landn. (Hb.) 258: in Swed. åska means lightning, thunder, qs. ás-ekja, the driving of the As, viz. Thor: áss as a prefix to pr. names also seems to refer to Thor, not Odin, e. g. Ásbjörn = Þorbjörn, Ásmóðr = Þormóðr (Landn. 307 in a verse). In Scandinavian pr. names áss before the liquid r assumes a t, and becomes ást (Ástríðr, not Ásríðr; Ástráðr = Ásráðr); and sometimes even before an l, Ástlákr—Áslákr, Fb. i. 190; Ástleifr—Ásleifr, Fms. xi. (Knytl. S.) COMPDS: ása-gisling, f. hostage of the Ases, Edda 15. ása-heiti, n. a name of the Ases, Edda (Gl.) Ása-Þórr, m. Thor the As ‘par excellence,’ Edda 14, Hbl. 52. ása-ætt, f. the race of Ases, Edda 7.

áss, m. [a French word], the ace at dice, in the game kvátra, q. v., Sturl. ii. 95, Orkn. 200: mod. also the ace in cards.

ÁST, f., old form ́st, [Ulf. ansts = χάρις; A. S. est or æst; O. H. G. anst; old Fr. enst; cp. unna (ann), to love]:—love, affection; mikla ást hefir þú sýnt við mik, Eg. 603; fella ást til e-s, to feel love to, Sturl. i. 194, Fms. x. 420; líkamleg ást, 656 A. ii. 15, Ver. 47: with the article, ástin, or ástin mín, my dear, darling, pet, love, a term of endearment used by husband to wife or parents to child; her er nú ástin mín, Sighvatr bóndi, Sturl. ii. 78. β. in pl. love between man and woman, the affection between man and wife; vel er um ástir okkar, sagði hón, Nj. 26; takast þar ástir miklar, Ld. 94 (of a newly-wedded pair), 298: love of a woman, þá mælti Frigg, ok spurði hverr sá væri með Ásum er eignast vildi ástir hennar ok hylli, Edda 37: metaph. the white spots on the nails are called ástir, since one will have as many lovers as there are spots, Ísl. Þjóðs., Fél. ix; vide elska, which is a more common word. COMPDS: ásta-fundr, m. = ástarfundr, Lex. Poët. ásta-lauss, adj. loveless, Helr. 5. ástar-andi, a, m. spirit of love, H. E. i. 470. ástar-angr, m. grief from love, Str. 55. ástar-atlot, n. pl. = ástarhót. ástar-augu, n. pl. loving eyes, v. auga; renna, lita ástaraugum til e-s, to look with loving eyes, Fms. xi. 227, Ísl. ii. 199. ástar-ákefð, f. passion, Str. ástar-band, n. band of love, 656 C. 37. ástar-brími, a, m. fervent love, Flov. 36. ástar-bruni, a, m. ardent love, Stj. ástar-eldr, m. fire of love, Bs. i. 763, Greg. 19. ástar-fundr, m. affectionate meeting, Fms. xi. 310. ástar-gyðja, u, f. the goddess of love (Venus), Edda (pref.) 149, Al. 6. ástar-harmr, m. grief from love, Stj. 4. ástar-hirting, f. chastisement of love, 671 C. ástar-hiti, a, m. passion, Greg. 19. ástar-hót, n. pl. the shewing kindness and love, Pass. 12. 23 (sing.) ástar-hugi, a, and -hugr, ar, m. love, affection, Bs. i. 446, Fms. i. 34, Stj. 126. ástar-hygli, f. [hugall], devotion, Bs. i. 48. ástar-ilmr, m. sweetness of love, Str. ástar-kveðja, u, f. hearty greeting, Sturl. ii. 185. ástar-kveikja, u, f. a kindler of love, Al. 57. ástar-logi, a, m. flame of love, Hom. 67. ástar-mark, n. token of love, Greg. 46. ástar-orð, n. pl. words of love; mæla ástar orðum til e-s, to speak in words breathing love, 655 xxxi. ástar-pallr, m. step of love, 656 A. i. 10. ástar-reiði, f. anger from love, Sks. 672. ástar-samband, n. band of love, Stj. ástar-sigr, m. victory of love, Str. ástar-sætleikr, m. sweetness of love, Hom. 13. ástar-várkunn, f. compassion, sympathy, Greg. 72. ástar-vekka, u, f. the dew of love (poët.), Hom. 68. ástar-verk, n. charity, Sks. 672, Magn. 468. ástar-vél, f. Ars Amatoria, of Ovid so called, Str. 6. ástar-vili, ja, m. desire, passion, Str. 27. ástar-vængr, m. wing of love, Hom. 48. ástar-þjónusta, u, f. service of love, Hom. 2, Fms. ii. 42. ástar-þokki, a, m. affection for, inclination, of a loving pair, Fms. ii. 99, Fær. 63. ástar-æði, n. fury of love, Bær. 7.

á-staða, u, f. [standa á], an insisting upon, Ann. 1392, Thom. 37.

á-stand, n. state, (mod. word.)

ást-blindr, adj. blind from love, Lex. Poët.; love-blind, Mkv.

ást-bundinn, part. in bonds of love, Str. 36, 55.

á-stemma (́stemma), u, f. damming a river, D. I. i. 280.

ást-fenginn, part. love-mad, Mar.

ást-fólginn, part. beloved, dear to one’s heart, warmly beloved; á. e-m, Fms. vi. 45, xi. 3.

ást-fóstr, rs, m. love to a foster-child, (also used metaph.) in phrases such as, leggja á. við e-n, to foster with love, as a pet child, Fms. iii. 90; fæða e-n ástfóstri, to breed one up with fatherly care, x. 218.

ást-gjöf, f., theol. grace, gift; á. Heilags Anda, Skálda 210, Skv. i. 7, Andr. 63; in pl., Magn. 514.

ást-goði, a, m. a darling, good genius; hann þótti öllum mönnum á., he (viz. bishop Paul) was endeared to all hearts, Bs. i. 137: the old Ed. reads ástgóði, endearment, which seems less correct, v. goði: goði in the sense of good genius is still in use in the ditty to the Icel. game ‘goða-tafl’ (heima ræð eg goða minn).

ást-hollr, adj. affectionate, Sks. 687 B.

ást-hugaðr, adj. part. dearly loving, Njarð. 380.

á-stig, n. a treading upon, Sks. 400, 540: a step, 629.

ást-igr, adj., contr. forms ástgir, ástgar, etc., dear, lovely, Vsp. 17.

ást-kynni, n. a hearty welcome, Am. 14.

ást-kærr, adj. dearly beloved.

ást-lauss, adj. loveless, heartless, = ástalauss, Hom. 43.

ást-leysi, n. want of love, unkindness, Hrafn. 5.

ást-menn, m. pl. dearly beloved friends, Sturl. 1. 183, Hkr. iii. 250, Stj. 237, Blas. 44.

ást-meer, f. a darling girl, sweetheart, Flov. 28.

ást-ráð, n. kind (wise) advice, Fms. ii. 12 (ironically), Skálda 164, Hom. 108, Hým. 30.

á-stríða, u, f. passion, (mod. word.)

ást-ríki, n. paternal love; in the phrase, ekki hafði hann á. mikit af föður sínum, i. e. he was no pet child, Fms. iii. 205, Ld. 132; á. Drottins, 655 v. 2.

ást-ríkr, adj. full of love; á. Faðir, of God, Mar. 3, 24.

ást-samliga, adv. (and -ligr, adj.), affectionately, Hkr. iii. 250, Fms. ix. 434, Fas. i. 91, 655 xxvii. 25, Sks. 12, Sturl. i. 183, Hom. i, Stj.

ást-samr, adj. id., Hom. 58, Sks. 12.

ást-semð, f. love, affection, Hkr. iii. 261, Fms. x. 409: ástsemðar-ráð, n. = ástráð, Sks. 16, Anecd. 30: ástsemðar-verk, n. a work of love, Sks. 673: ástsemðar-vinátta, u, f. loving friendship, Sks. 741.

ást-snauðr, adj. without love, Lex. Poët.

ást-sæld, f. the being loved by all, popularity, Íb. 16.

ást-sæll, adj. beloved by all, popular, Íb. 16, Fms. xi. 317.

á-stunda, að, to study, take pains with, H. E. i. 504, 514.

á-stundan, f. pains, care, devotion, Fms. i. 219; hafa á. (inclination) til Guðs, Bær. 12; til illra hluta, Stj. 55, Sks. 349, 655 xxxii, Thom. 335.

ást-úð, f. [properly ásthúð, Clem. 40, contr. from ást-hugð, from hugr or hygð, cp. ölúð, þverúð, harðuð, kind, stubborn, hard disposition; v. A. S. hydig], love, affection, Rb. 390. COMPDS: ástúðar-frændsemi, f. affectionate kinship, Sturl. ii. 81. ástúðar-vinr, m. a dear friend, Fms. vi. 198, v. l. aldavinr, a dear old friend.

ást-úðigr, adj. loving, Eg. 702, Fms. i. 55: as neut., ástúðigt er með e-m, they are on friendly terms, Ld. 236.

ást-úðligr, adj. lovely, Fms. vi. 19, Bs. i. 74, Sturl. i. 2: as neut., á. er með e-m, to be on terms of love, Lax. 162.

ást-vina, u, f. a dear (female) friend, Thom. 14.

ást-vinátta, u, f. intimate friendship, Eg. 728.

ást-vinr, ar, m. a dear friend; Þórólfr gekk til fréttar við Þór ástvin sinn, Eb. 8, Fms. i. 58, Thom. 10.

ást-þokki, a, m. = ástarþokki, Fms. vi. 341.

á-stæði, n. [standa á], no doubt a bad reading, Eg. 304: cp. ástæða, u, f. (a mod. word), argument, reason.

Ás-ynja, u, f. a goddess, the fem. of Áss; Æsir ok Ásynjur, Vtkv. i, Edda 21.

á-sýn, f. countenance, presence; kasta e-m burt frá sinni á., Stj. 651: appearance, shape, Hom. 155; dat. pl. used as adv., hversu var hann ásýnum, how did he look? Hom. 91; ágætr at ætt ok á., fair of race and noble, Hkr. i. 214: gen. sing. used as adv., minna ásýnar, apparently less, Grág. ii. 29. 2. metaph. a view, opinion; með rangri á., Sks. 344.

á-sýna, ð, to shew, Fms. v. 345.

á-sýnd, f. = ásýn, and dat. pl. and gen. sing. used in the same way, v. above, Fms. i. 101, v. 345, x. 228, Fs. 4, Ld. 82: metaph. the face, of the earth, Stj. 29, 276.

á-sýnis, adv. apparently, Sturl. i. 1, Fms. x. 284.

á-sýnt, n. adj. [sjá á], to be seen, visible; ef eigi verðr á., if no marks (of the blow) can be seen, Grág. ii. 15; þat er á., evident, Sks. 185.

á-sækni, n. (ásækinn, adj. vexatious), vexation, Finnb. 240.

á-sælast, d, dep. (ásælni, f.), á. e-n, to covet another man.

á-sætni, f. [sitja], tarrying long, Ísl. ii. 440 (of a tiresome guest).

ÁT, n. [éta, át, edere, A. S. ǽt], the act of eating, in the phrase, at öldri ok at áti, inter bibendum et edendum, Grág. ii. 170, N. G. L. i. 29; át ok drykkja, Fas. ii. 552, Orkn. 200; át ok atvinna, Stj. 143: of beasts, kýr hafnaði átinu, the cow (being sick) would not eat, Bs. i. 194.

áta, u, f. 1. food to eat, but only of beasts, a prey, carcase; húð ok áta, of a slaughtered beast, N. G. L. i. 246; svá er þar ekki þrot ærinnar átu (for seals), Sks. 176; þar stóð úlfr í átu, Jd. 31. 2. eating; góðr átu, ‘good eating,’ Sks. 136, 137. 3. medic. a cancer, and átu-mein, n. id., Fél. ix. 190; the old word is eta, q. v. COMPD: átu-þýfi, n. a law term, eatable things stolen, Grág. ii. 192.

á-tak, n. (átaka, u, f., Hom. 17), [taka á], touching: gen. átaks, soft, hard, etc. to the feeling; svá á. sem skinn, Flov. 31, Magn. 522: medic. touching, v. læknishendr, Stj. 248: pl. grips, átök ok sviptingar, in wrestling, Fas. iii. 503, Fms. xi. 442.

á-tala, u, f. [telja á, incusare,], a rebuke, reprimand, N. G. L. i. 309; esp. in pl., Fms. v. 103, ix. 384, Hkr. ii. 6, Fær. 218: átölu-laust, n. adj. undisputed, Jb. 251.

átan, n. [cp. úátan], an eatable, N. G. L. i. 19.

á-tekja, u, f. (átekt, f., Fbr. 151, Thom. 273), prop. touching; in pl. metaph. disposition for or against a thing, liking or disliking, Bjarn. 54 (cp. taka vel, illa á e-u).

á-tekning, f. touching, Stj. 35.

át-frekr, adj. greedy, voracious, Hkv. 2. 41.

át-girni, f. greediness of food, Hom. 72, and átgjarn, adj. greedy.

átján, older form áttján, as shewn by assonances such as, áttján Haraldr sáttir, Fms. vi. 159, in a verse of the middle of the 11th century [Swed. adertan; Dan. atten; Engl. eighteen; Germ. achtzehn]:—eighteen, Edda 108, Hkr. ii. 289, N. G. L. i. 114.

átjándi, older form áttjándi, eighteenth, Hom. 164, N. G. L. i. 348.

átján-sessa, u, f. [cp. tvítug-, þrítugsessa], a ship having eighteen rowing benches, Fms. ix. 257, xi. 56.

á-troð, n. (átroði, a, m., Hom. 95), a treading upon, Magn. 468: metaph. intrusion, Hom. 95.

á-trúnaðr, ar, m. [trúa á], belief, creed, religion; forn á., the old (heathen) faith, Nj. 156, Fms. v. 69, K. Á. 62, Joh. 623. 18, Eb. 12: átrúnaðar-maðr, m. a believer, [trúmaðr], Andr. 66.

ÁTT, f. a family, race, v. ætt and compds; for a fuller account of this word see ætt, p. 760.

ÁTT and ætt, f., pl. áttir and ættir [Germ. acht = Lat. ager, praedium, a rare and obsolete word in Germ.], plaga caeli, quarter; just as quarter refers to the number four, so átt seems to refer to eight: átt properly means that part of the horizon which subtends an arc traversed by the sun in the course of three hours; thus defined,—meðan sól veltist urn átta ættir, Sks. 54; ok þat eru þá þrjár stundir dags er sól veltist um eina sett, id.; the names of the eight áttir are, útnorðr á., north-west; norðr á., north; landnorðr á., north-east; austr a., east; landsuðr á., south-east; suðr á., south; útsuðr á., south-west; vestr á., west; four of which (the compounds) are subdivisions; átt is therefore freq. used of the four only, Loki görði þar hús ok fjórar dyrr, at hann mátti sjá ór húsinu í allar áttir, … to all (i. e. four) sides, Edda 39: or it is used generally, from all sides, þá drífr snær ór öllum áttum, Edda 40; drífa þeir til ór öllum áttum (= hvaðanæva), Hkr. i. 33; norðrætt, Edda 4, 23; hence a mod. verb átta, að; á. sik, to find the true quarter, to set oneself right, cp. Fr. s’orienter. COMPDS: átta-skipan, f. a division of the átt, Sks. 37. átta-skipti, n. id. átta-viltr, adj. bewildered.

ÁTTA, card. number [Sansk. ashtan; Goth. ahtau; Gr. οκτώ; Lat. octo; A. S. eahta; Germ. acht], eight, Landn. 73, Edda 108.

áttandi and áttundi, old form átti, ord. number eighth, Lat. octavus; við (hinn) átta mann, Landn. 304; hálfr átti tögr, Clem. 47; átti dagr Jóla, Fms. iii. 137, Rb. 8, K. Á. 152, 218. The form áttandi occurs early, esp. in Norse writers, N. G. L. i. 10, 348, 350, Sks. 692 B: in Icel. writers with changed vowel áttundi, which is now the current form, Mar. 656 A. i, Hkr. ii. 286, where the old vellum MS. Ó. H. 173 has átta.

áttar- (the compd form of ætt, a family), v. ætt.

átta-tigir (mod. áttatíu as an indecl. single word), eighty, Landn. 123, Edda 108; vide tigr.

átta-tugasti, the eightieth, Sturl. ii. 156 C, = áttugandi, q. v.

átt-bogi and ættbogi, a, m. lineage, Landn. 357, Eluc. 26, Stj. 425, Fms. i. 287, Post. 686 B. 14.

átt-faldr, adj. eightfold.

átt-feðmingr, m. measuring eight fathoms, Vm. 80, Am. 60.

átt-hagi, a, m. one’s native place, home, country, where one is bred and born; í átthaga sinum, Ld. 40, Fs. 61: freq. in pl.

átt-hyrndr, adj. octagonal, Alg. 368.

átt-jörð and ættjörð, f. = átthagi, Ísl. ii. 186, A. A. 252: in mod. usage = Lat. patria, and always in the form ætt-.

átt-konr, m., poët. kindred, Ýt. 21.

átt-leggr and ættleggr, m. lineage, Stj. 44.

átt-lera, adj. degenerate, v. ættlera.

átt-mælt, n. adj. name of a metre, a verse containing eight lines, each being a separate sentence, Edda (Ht.) 125.

átt-niðr, m. kindred, Hým. 9.

átt-runnr, m., poët. kindred, Hým. 20.

átt-ræðr, adj. [for the numbers twenty to seventy the Icel, say tvítugr, … sjautugr; but for eighty to one hundred and twenty, áttræðr, níræðr, tíræðr, tólfræðr]. 1. temp, numbering eighty years of age, (hálfáttræðr, that of seventy-six to eighty): á. karl, an octogenarian, Ld. 150. Eighty years of age is the terminus ultimus in the eyes of the law; an octogenarian is no lawful witness; he cannot dispose of land or priesthood (goðorð) without the consent of his heir; if he marries without the consent of his lawful heir, children begotten of that marriage are not to inherit his property, etc.; ef maðr kvángast er á. er eðr ellri, etc., Grág. i. 178; á. maðr né ellri skal hvárki selja land né gorðorð undan erfingja sinum, nema hann megi eigi eiga fyrir skuld, 224; ef maðr nefnir vátta … mann tólf vetra gamlan eðr ellra … áttröðan eðr yngra, ii. 20. 2. loc. measuring eighty fathoms (ells …) in height, breadth, depth …: also of a ship with eighty oars [cp. Germ. ruder], Eg. 599, Vm. 108; vide áttærr.

átt-stafr, m., poët. kindred, Hkv. I. 54.

átt-strendr, adj. octagonal. Mar. 1055.

áttugandi = áttatugasti, Stj. (MS. 227), col. 510.

áttungr, m. I. [atta], the eighth part of a whole, either as to measure or number; cp. fjórðungr, þriðjungr, etc., Rb. 488; á. manna, N. G. L. i. 5: as a Norse law term, a division of the country with regard to the levy in ships, Gþl. 91, N. G. L. i. 135. II. [átt or ætt, familia], poét. kindred, kinsman; Freys á., the poem Hlt., Edda 13, Ýt. 13, 14, Al. 98 (esp. in pl.), v. Lex. Poët.: áttungs-kirkja, u, f. a church belonging to an áttungr (in Norway), N. G. L. i. 8.

átt-vísi and ættvísi, f. genealogical knowledge or science, Skálda 161, 169, Bárð. 164, Bs. i. 91, Fms. vii. 102; the áttvísi formed a part of the old education, and is the groundwork of the old Icel. historiography, esp. of the Landnama.

átt-æringr, m. an eight-oared boat (now proncd. áttahringr), Vm. 109.

átt-ærr, adj. [ár, remus], having eight oars, Eg. 142, 600 A.

át-vagl, m. a glutton, Germ. freszbauch.

á-valr, adj. round, sloping, semi-rotundus; cp. sívalr, rotundus [from völr or from oval (?)]; it seems not to occur in old writers.

áv-alt and ávallt, adv. always, Lat. semper, originally of-allt (from allr) = in all; but as early as the 12th century it was sounded as ofvalt or ávalt, which may be seen from this word being used in alliteration to v in poems of that time, þars á valt er vísir bjó, Kt. 16; vestu á valt at trausti, Harmsól verse 59; styrktu of valt til verka, Leiðarv. 34 (the MS. reads ávalt): even Hallgrim in the 17th century says, víst á valt þeim vana halt | vinna, lesa ok iðja. In MSS. it is not unfreq. spelt ofvalt, as a single word, e. g. Bs. i. 150–200; yet in very early times the word seems to have assumed the present form ávalt, proncd. á-valt, as if from á and valr: ofalt, of allt, Orkn. 90, Fms. v. 205, Fbr. 77, 87, Fær. 22: of valt, Eluc. 3, Bs. i. 349, Fms. v. 160: ávalt or ávallt, freq. in the old miracle book,—Bs. i. 335, 343, 344, 345, 351, Hom. MS. Holm. p. 3, Hoin. (MS. 619), 129, Grág. (Kb.) 116, Landn. 86, Fms. xi. 112, etc. etc.,—through all the Sagas and down to the present day: cp. the mod. alltaf (per metath.), adv. always.

á-vani, a, m. habits, (mod. word.)

á-vant, n. adj. in the phrase, e-s er á., wanted, needed, missed, Ld. 26, Hkr. ii. 34, Korm. 92.

á-varðr, adj. [from á- intens. and verja, part. variðr, contr. varðr, protectus], an interesting old word; with dat., a. e-m, protected by one, but only used of a man in relation to the gods, in the phrase, goðum ávarðr, a client or darling of the gods, used as early as by Egil, Ad. 20, and also three or four times in prose; at hann mundi Frey (dat.) svá a. fyrir blótin, at hann mundi eigi vilja at freri á milli þeirra, Gísl. 32; skilja þeir at þeir ern mjök ávarðir goðunum, Róm. 292; so also of God, ef hann væri svá á. Guði, sem hann ætlaði, Bs. i. 464.

á-varp, n. (cp. verpa tölu á, to count): 1. a computation, calculation, in round numbers; þat var á. manna, at fyrir Norðnesi mundi eigi færa falla en þrjú hundruð manna, Fms. viii. 143, x. 64, 139; kallaðr ekki vænn maðr at ávarpi flestra manna, in the suggestion, account of most people, Bs. i. 72. 2. in mod. usage, an address, accosting, Lat. allocutio; and ávarpa, að, to address, Lat. alloqui; cp. the old phrase, verpa orði á e-n, alloqui.

á-vaxta, að, to make to wax greater, make productive: of money, a. fé, to put out to interest, Nj. III: pass. -ask, to increase, Fms. i. 137, Stj. 12.

á-vaxtan, f. a making productive, Stj. 212.

ávaxt-lauss, adj. unproductive, barren, Al. 50.

á-vaxtsamligr, adj. (and -liga, adv.), productive, Hom. 10.

ávaxt-samr, adj., productive, Stj. 77, 94: metaph., H. E. i. 513.

á-ván, f. (now ávæningr, m.), a faint expectation or hint; segja e-m á. e-s, to give some hint about it, Grág. ii. 244.

á-veiðr, f. river fishery, D. I. i. 280.

á-verk, n. I. as a law term, a blow (drep); thus defined,—þat er drep annat er á. heitir ef maðr lýstr mann svá at blátt eðr rautt verðr eptir, eðr þrútnar hörund eðr stökkr undan hold, eðr hrýtr ór munni eðr ór nösum eðr undan nöglum, Grág. ii. 15; the lesser sort of drep (blow), 14; but in general use áverk includes every bodily lesion, a collective expression for wounds and blows (sár and drep); lýsa sr eðr drep ok kveða á hver á. eru, i. 35; bauð húskarlinn honum í móti öxi ok á., Bs. i. 341, vide áverki below. II. in pl. work in a household; göra brúar ok vinna þau á., Grág. ii. 277: of unlawful work, e. g. cutting trees in another man’s forest; verðr hann þá útlagr þrem mörkum ok sex aura á., ef hann veit eigi, at þeir eigu báðir, 292.

á-verki, a, m. I. a law term, lesion in general, produced by a weapon or any deadly instrument, more general than the neut.; lýsi ek mér á hönd allan þann áverka; … sár, ef at sárum görist; víg, ef at vígi görist, Grág. ii. 32, Nj. 86, Fær. 223, Sturl. i. 148. II. (Norse) the plant of a household, produce of a farm; landskyld heimilar lóð (Lat. fundus) ok allan áverka þann er í kaup þeirra kom, … as agreed upon between landlord and tenant, Gþl. 329; skipta görðum eptir jarðarhöfn (Lat. fundus) ok öllum áverka (including buildings, fences, crop, etc.), 380; skal hann löggarð göra … ok vinna þann áverka á landi hins þar er hvárki sé akr né eng, 277. β. unlawful; útlegð ok sex aura áverki, Grág. ii. 296; hvervetna þar sem maðr hittir á. í mörk sinni, þá skal hann burt taka at ósekju, Gþl. 363. COMPDS: áverka-bót, f. compensation for an averki (II. β.), Gþl. 363. áverka-drep, n. a stroke, blow producing áverki (I.), Grág. ii. 16. áverka-maðr, m. a perpetrator of an áverki (I.), Grág. ii. 13. áverka-mál, n. an action concerning averki (I.), Grág. ii. 96, Nj. 100.

á-viðris, mod. áveðra (áveðrasamr, adj.), adv. on the weather side, Fms. viii. 340, 346, 378.

á-vinna, vann, to win, make profit, v. vinna á.

á-vinningr, m. profit, gain, Fms. xi. 437, Gþl. 212.

á-vinnt, n. adj. a naval term, prob. from the phrase, vinda á e-n, to turn upon one in a rowing race, or of giving way in a sea-fight; ef Orminum skal því lengra fram leggja sem hann er lengri en önnur skip, þá mun á. um söxin, … then they in the bow will have a hard pull, will be hard put to it, Fms. ii. 308, Thom. 17, 58; þá görðist þeim á. er næstir lágu, their ranks begun to give way, Sturl. iii. 66 (of a sea-fight); ætla ek þat mund er ek renn frá Haraldi unga, at yðr afburðarmönnum mun á. þykkja eptir at standa, Orkn. 474.

á-virðing, f. blame, fault.

á-vist, f. abode, = ábúð, Bs. i. 725.

á-vita, adj. ind. in the phrase, verða e-s á., to become aware of, learn, Andr. 623. 80, Fms. x. 171; á. mannvits eðr íþrótta, Sks. 26.

á-vitull, m. a law term, the indicia of a thing; skuli þeir rannsaka allt; ok svá göra þeir, ok finna þar öngan ávitöl (acc.), Fær. 186; grunar hann nú, at kerling muni hafa fengit nokkurn (MS. wrongly nokkura, acc. fem.) ávital, hverr maðr hann er, Thom. 158.

á-víga, adj. ind. in the phrase, verða á., of a chief on whose side most people are killed in a battle, in respect to the pairing off of the slain in the lawsuit that followed; þat vóru lög þá, þar at (in the case that) menn féllu jafnmargir, at þat skyldi kalla jamvegit (they should be paired off, no compensation, or ‘wergeld,’ should be paid, and no suit begun), þótt manna munr þætti vera; en þeir er á. urðu skyldi kjósa mann til eptir hvern mæli skyldi, Glúm. 383; vide Sir Edm. Head, p. 93.

á-vísa, að, to point at, indicate, Lex. Poët.

á-vísan, f. an intimation, indication, Stj. 78 (of instinct), Fas. iii. 541; epitaphium þat er á., 732. 15.

á-vít, [víti], n. pl., ávítan, f., Thom. 246, Th. 19 (mod. ávítur, f. pl.), a reprimand, rebuke, castigation; ávíta, gen. pl., Fær. 23; bera ávít (acc. pl.), Sks. 541, Hkr. ii. 200, Hom. 43. COMPDS: ávíta-laust, n. adj. blameless, Sks. 802, Hom. 160. ávíta-samligr and ávít-samligr, adj. blamable, Sks. 577. ávít-samr, adj. chiding, severe, zealous, Bs. i. 392, Greg. 64.

á-víta, að, to chide, rebuke; á. e-n, Fs. 58; á. e-n um e-t, Fms. x. 372, Landn. 51; á. e-t (acc. of the thing), Bs. i. 766: pass., Hom. 84.

á-væni, n. (ávæningr, m.) = áván, Gþl. 51.

á-vöxtr, ar, m., dat. ávexti, acc. pl. ávöxtu (mod. ávexti), prop. ‘on-wax,’ ‘on-growth,’ i. e. fruit, produce, growth, Stj. 35, Fms. ix. 265: metaph., á. kviðar þíns, 655 xiii. β. metaph. interest, rent [cp. Gr. τόκος], Grág. i. 195; verja fé til ávaxtar, Fms. v. 194, 159, iii. 18: gain, Bs. i. 141. COMPDS: ávaxtar-lauss, adj. unproductive, Grág. i. 173, Fms. x. 221. ávaxtar-tíund, f. a Norse law term, a sort of income tax, opp. to höfuðtíund; nú er hverr maðr skyldr at göra tíund sá er fjár má afla, bæði h. (tithe on capital) ok á. (tithe on interest), N. G. L. i. 346.

á-þekkr, adj. similar, Fms. ii. 264, xi. 6, Vsp. 39.

á-þétti, n. or áþéttr, ar, m. a law term in the COMPD áþéttis-orð or áþéttar-orð, n. defamatory language, invective, liable to the lesser outlawry, Grág. (Sb.) ii. 143, Valla L. 204.

á-þjá, ð, to oppress, Eg. 8, Fms. i. 21.

á-þján, f. oppression, tyranny, oppressive rule, Eg. 14, 47, Fms. v. 26: servitude, heavy-burdens (= álögur), vii. 75, x. 416 (where áþjánar, pl.), Sks. 79, v. l. (coercion). COMPD: áþjánar-ok, n. the yoke of tyranny, Al. 7.

á-þrætni, f. mutual strife, Stj. MS. 227, col. 491.

á-þyngd, f. exaction, oppression, Js. 13.

á-þyngja, d, á. e-m, to oppress one.

á-þyngsli, n. a burden, (mod. word.)

á-ætlan, f. a calculation, (mod.)

По всем вопросам пишите в раздел форума Valhalla: Эпоха викингов