D

D (dé) is the fourth letter of the alphabet; it is also written Ð ð (eð). The Gothic Runes have a special sign for the d RUNE or RUNE, namely, a double D turned together; this d is found on the Runic stone at Tune, the Golden horn, and the Bracteats. The reason why this character was used seems to have been that the Latin d RUNE was already employed to mark the th sound (RUNE), which does not exist in Latin. The Anglo-Saxon Runes follow the Gothic; again, the common Scandinavian Runes have no d, but use the tenuis t, to mark both d and t.

A. PRONUNCIATION, etc.—The Icel. has a double d sound, one hard (d) and one soft (ð commonly called ‘stungið (cut) dé’); the hard d is sounded as the Engl. d in dale, day, dim, dark; the soft ð as the soft Engl. th in father, mother, brother, but is only used as a final or medial, though it occurs now and then in early MSS. to mark this sound at the beginning of words, e. g. ðar, ðinn, ðegar, but very rarely.

B. SPELLING.—In very early Icel. MSS. the soft d in the middle or end of words was represented by þ (th); thus we read, bloþ, faþir, moþir, guþ, orþ, eymþ, sekþ, dypþ, etc., blood… depth, etc. Even Thorodd docs not know the form ð, which was borrowed from the A. S. at the end of the 12th century, and was made to serve for the soft th sound in the middle or end of words, þ being only used at the beginning of syllables; but the old spelling with þ in the middle and at the end of syllables long struggled against the Anglo-Saxon ð, and most old vellum MSS. use ð and þ indiscriminately (bloþ and bloð); some use þ as a rule, e. g. Cod. Upsal. (Ub.) of the Edda, written about A. D. 1300, Ed. Arna-Magn. ii. 250 sqq. At the beginning of the 14th century ð prevailed, but again lost its sway, and gave place to d, which marks both the hard and soft d sound in all MSS. from about A. D. 1350 sqq. Thenceforward ð was unknown in Icel. print or writing till it was resumed in the Ed. of Njála A. D. 1772 (cp. also the introduction to the Syntagma de Baptismo, A. D. 1770), and was finally introduced by Rask in common Icel. writing about the beginning of this century; yet many old people still keep on writing d throughout (fadir, modir). On the other hand, Norse (Norwegian) MSS. (laws) never use. a middle or final þ; and such words as oþr, goþr in a MS. are a sure mark of its Icel. origin.

C. CHANGES: I. assimilation: 1. ðd change into dd, as in the feminines breidd, vídd, sídd, from breiðr, víðr, síðr; pret. beiddi, leiddi, ræddi, hæddi, hlýddi, etc., from beiða, ræða, hlýða, etc. 2. ðt into tt, adj. neut., gott, ótt, brátt, leitt, from góðr, óðr, bráðr, leiðr. 3. the Goth. zd, Germ. and Engl. rd into dd in words such as rödd = Goth. razda; oddr = Germ. ort; hodd = Engl. hoard, Goth. huzd; gaddr = Goth. gazds, etc. Those words, however, are few in number. II. the initial þ of a pronoun, if suffixed to the verb, changes into ð or d, and even t, e. g. far-ðu, gör-ðu, sjá-ðu, fá-ðu, bú-ðu, = far þú (imperat.), etc.; kalla-ðu, tala-ðu, = kalla þú, tala þú; or kon-du, leid-du, bíd-du, sýn-du, sen-du, = kom þú, leið þú, etc.; or t, hal-tu, vil-tu, skal-tu, ben-tu, hljót-tu, = hald þú, vilt þú, skalt þú, bend þú, hljót þu; and even so the plur. or dual—komi-ðið, haldi-ðið, ætli-ðið, vilið-ið, göri-ðér, gangi-ðér, = komi þið … gangi þér; or following conjunctions, efað-ðú = ef að þú, síðan-ðú = síðan þú, áðren-ðú = áðr en þú. III. change of d into ð: 1. d, whether radical or inflexive, is spelt and pronounced ð after a vowel and an r or f, g, e. g. blóð, þjóð, biðja, leið, nauð, hæð, brúðr, bæði, borð, orð, garðr, ferð, görð, bragð, lagði, hægð, hafði, höfðum (capitibus), etc. This is without regard to etymology, e. g. Goth. þiuda (gens) and þjuþ (bonum) are equally pronounced and spelt ‘þjóð;’ Goth. dauþs and dêds, Icel. dauði and dáð; Goth. guþ (deus) and gôds (bonus), Icel. guð, góðr; Goth. fadar, bruþar, Icel. faðir, bróðir, cp. Germ. vater, mutter, but bruder; Goth. vaurd and gards, Icel. orð, garðr; Engl. burden and birth, Icel. byrðr, burðr, etc. Again, in some parts of western Icel. rð, gð, and fd are pronounced as rd, gd, fd, ord, Sigurd, gerdu (fac), bragd (with a soft g, but hard d), hafdi (with a soft f and hard d); marks of this may be found in old MSS., e. g. Cod. Reg. (Kb.) of Stem. Edda. 2. an inflexive d is sounded and spelt ð: α. after k, p, e. g. in pret. of verbs, steypði, gleypði, klípði, drúpði, gapði, glapði, steikði, ríkði, sekði, hrökði, hneykði, blekði, vakði, blakði, etc., from steypa, klípa, drúpa, gapa, glepja, steikja, ríkja, sekja, hrökkva, hneykja, blekkja, vekja, or vaka, etc.; and feminines, sekð, eykð, dýpð, etc. β. after the liquids l, m, n in analogous cases, valði, dulði, hulði, deilði, and dæmði, sæmði, dreymði, geymði, samði, framði, and vanði, brenði, etc., from dylja, deila, dreyma, semja, venja, brenna, etc.; feminines or nouns, sæmð, fremð, vanði (use), ynði (delight), anði (breath), synð (sin): these forms are used constantly in very old MSS. (12th century, and into the 13th); but then they changed—lð, mð, nð into ld, md, nd, and kð, pð into kt, pt, etc. γ. after s (only on Runic stones; even the earliest Icel. MSS. spell st), e. g. raisþi = reisti from reisa. In MSS. of the middle of that century, such as the Ó. H., Cod. Reg. of the Eddas and Grágás, the old forms are still the rule, but the modern occur now and then; the Grágás in nineteen cases out of twenty spells sekð (culpa), but at times also ‘sekt;’ kð, pð were first abolished; the liquids kept the soft d till the end of the century, and lð, mð, nð is still the rule in the Hauksbók; though even the chief vellum MS. of the Njála (Arna-Magn. no. 468) almost constantly uses the modern ld, md, nd. As to kt and pt, the case is peculiar; in early times the Icel. pronounced dýpð or dýpþ etc. exactly as the English at present pronounce depth; but as the Icel. does not allow the concurrence of two different tenues, the modern pt and kt are only addressed to the eye; in fact, when ð became t, the p and k were at once changed into f and g. The Icel. at present says dýft, segt, just as he spells September, October, but is forced to pronounce ‘Seft-,’ ‘Ogt-.’ The spelling in old MSS. gives sometimes a clear evidence as to the etymology of some contested words, e. g. the spelling eykð (q. v.) clearly shews that the word is not akin to Lat. octo, but is derived from auka (augere), because else it would have been formed like nótt, átta, dóttir, Lat. noct-, octo, Gr. θυγάτηρ; so anði, synð, shew that the d in both cases is inflexive, not radical, and that an, syn are the roots, cp. Gr. ανεμος and Germ. sühnen; but when editors or transcribers of Icel. MSS.—and even patriotic imitators of the old style—have extended the ð to radical ld, nd, and write lanð, banð, hönð, valð, etc., they go too far and trespass against the law of the language. It is true that ‘land’ is in Icel. MSS. spelt ‘lð,’ but the stroke is a mark of abbreviation, not of a soft d.

D. INTERCHANGE (vide p. 49): I. between Greek, Latin, and Scandinavian there are but few words to record, θυγάτηρ = dóttir, θήρ = dýr, θύρα = dyrr, θάνατος and θνήσκω = dá and deyja, θεός = díar, θαλλός = dalr (arcus), and perhaps θύω = dómr; Lat. truncus = draugr, trabere = draga. II. between High German on the one hand, and Low German with Scandinavian on the other hand, a regular interchange has taken place analogous to that between Latin-Greek and Teutonic; viz. Scandin.-Engl. d, t, þ answer to H. G. t, z, d, e. g. Icel. dagr, Engl. day = H. G. tag; Icel. temja, Engl. tame = H. G. zähnen; Icel. þing, Engl. thing = H. G. ding.

☞ In very early Icel. MSS. we find the old Latin form d, which sometimes occurs in the Kb. of the Sæm. Edda, but it is commonly UNKNOWN, whence ð is formed by putting a stroke on the upper part, A. S. ð this shews that the ð is in form a d, not a þ (th); vide more on this subject in the introduction to þ Thorodd calls the capital D edd, the d dé.

daðra, að, d. róunni, dat. to wheedle.

dafi, a, m. or dafar, f. pl. a dub. word, a shaft (?), Akv. 4, 14.

dafla, að, and damla, with dat. to dabble with the oar, up and down, metaph. from churning, Krók. 59 C. damla, u, f., is used of a small roll of butter just taken from the churn, það er ekki fyrsta damlan sem þú færð, Brúnn, Ísl. Þjóðs. ii. 124.

dafna, að, to thrive well, a nursery term, used of babies. dafnan, f. thriving; döfnunar-barn, etc.

daga, að, to dawn; eptir um morguninn er trautt var dagað, Eg. 360; þegar er hann sá at dagaði, Fms. v. 21; hvern daganda dag, Mar. (Fr.): impers., e-n dagar uppi, day dawns upon one, in the tales, said of hobgoblins, dwarfs, and giants, uppi ertu nú dvergr um dagaðr, nú skínn sól í sali, Alm. 36, cp. Hkv. Hjörv. 29, 30; en Bárðdælingar segja hana (acc. the giantess) hafi dagat uppi þá þau glímdu, Grett. 141: single stone pillars are freq. said in Icel. to be giants or witches turned into stone on being caught by daylight, and are called Karl, Kerling, vide Ísl. Þjóðs. i. 207 sqq.

dagan, dögur (deging, Sturl. i. 83 C), f. dawn, daybreak; í dagan, Edda 24; en er kom at d., 29; litlu fyrir d., 30, O. H. L. 51; um morguninn í d., Fms. ix. 258; í dögun, Eg. 261; i öndverða d., Sturl. ii. 249.

dag-dómar, m. pl. ‘day-dooms’ gossip, (mod.), Vídal.

dag-drykkja, u, f. a morning-draught, which was taken after the dagverðr, Orkn. 276, Fas. iii. 42.

dag-far, n. a ‘day-fare,’ journey, used in dat. in the phrase, fara dagfari ok náttfari, to travel day and night, Fms. i. 203; hann hafði farit norðan dagfari, in a single day’s journey, ix. 513. 2. mod. and theol. the ‘journey of life,’ daily course, conduct; hence dagfars-góðr, adj. good and gentle.

dag-fasta, u, f. fasting by day, K. Þ. K. 106, Hom. 73.

dag-fátt, n. adj., in the phrase, verða d., to lose the daylight, to be over-taken by night, Fms. xi. 142, Rb. 376, Ver. 24.

dag-ferð, dag-för, f. a day’s journey, Symb. 15, Fms. xi. 440, Stj. 65.

dag-ganga, u, f. a day’s walk, Fas. iii. 643.

dag-geisli, a, m. a day-beam, Bjarn. 46, name given to a lady-love.

dag-langr, adj. [A. S. dœglang], all day long; d. erfiði, toil all day long, Sks. 42; daglangt, all this day long, for this day, Eg. 485, Fms. ii. 268.

dag-lát, n. pl. day-dreams, vide dreyma.

dag-leið, f. a day’s journey, Fms. vii. 110, Hkr. i. 45; fara fullum dagleiðum, Grág. i. 48.

dag-lengis, adv. all day long, Korm. (in a verse), Karl. 481.

dag-ligr, adj. (-liga, adv.), daily, Fms. ix. 407, Sks. 42, Dipl. iii. 14, H. E. i. 432, Vm. 139.

dag-mál, n. (vide dagr), prop. ‘day-meal,’ one of the divisions of the day, usually about 8 or 9 o’clock A. M.; the Lat. hora tertia is rendered by ‘er vér köllum dagmál, ‘which we call d., Hom. 142; cnn er ekki liðit af dagmálum, Hom. (St.) 10. Acts ii. 15; in Glúm. 342 we are told that the young Glum was very lazy, and lay in bed till day-meal every morning, cp. also 343; Hrafn. 28 and O. H. L. 18—á einum morni milli rismála ok dagmála—where distinction is made between rismál (rising time) and dagmál, so as to make a separate dagsmark (q. v.) of each of them; and again, a distinction is made between ‘midday’ and dagmal, Ísl. ii. 334. The dagmal is thus midway between ‘rising’ and ‘midday,’ which accords well with the present use. The word is synonymous with dagverðarmál, breakfast-time, and denotes the hour when the ancient Icel. used to take their chief meal, opposed to náttmál, night-meal or supper-time, Fms. viii. 330; even the MSS. use dagmál and dagverðarmál indiscriminately; cp. also Sturl. iii. 4 C; Rb. 452 says that at full moon the ebb takes place ‘at dagmálum.’ To put the dagmál at 7.30 A. M., as Pál Vídalin does, seems neither to acccord with the present use nor the passage in Glum or the eccl. hora tertia, which was the nearest hour answering to the Icel, calculation of the day. In Fb. i. 539 it is said that the sun set at ‘eykð’ (i. e. half-past three o’clock), but rose at ‘dagmál’ which puts the dagmal at 8.30 A. M. COMPDS: dagmála-staðr, m. the place of d. in the horizon, Fb. I. dagmala-tið, f. morning terce, 625. 176.

dag-megir, m. pl. the sons of the day, i. e. men (?), Am.

dag-messa, u, f. day-mass, morning terce, Hom. 41.

DAGR, m., irreg. dat. degi, pl. dagar: [the kindred word dœgr with a vowel change from ó (dóg) indicates a lost root verb analogous to ala, ól, cp. dalr and dælir; this word is common to all Teutonic dialects; Goth. dags; A. S. dag; Engl. day; Swed.-Dan. dag; Germ. tag; the Lat. dies seems to be identical, although no interchange has taken place]:—a day; in different senses: 1. the natural day:—sayings referring to the day, at kveldi skal dag leyfa, at eventide shall the day be praised, Hm. 80 ; allir dagar eiga kveld um síðir; mörg eru dags augu, vide auga; enginn dagr til enda tryggr, no day can be trusted till its end; allr dagr til stefnu, Grág. i. 395, 443, is a law phrase,—for summoning was lawful only if performed during the day; this phrase is also used metaph. = ‘plenty of time’ or the like: popular phrases as to the daylight are many—dagr rennr, or rennr upp, and kemr upp, the day rises, Bm. 1; dagr í austri, day in the east, where the daylight first appears; dagsbrún, ‘day’s brow,’ is the first streak of daylight, the metaphor taken from the human face; lysir af degi, it brightens from the day, i. e. daylight is appearing; dagr ljómar, the day gleams; fyrir dag, before day; móti degi, undir dag, about daybreak; komið at degi, id., Fms. viii. 398; dagr á lopti, day in the sky; árla, snemma dags, early in the morning, Pass. 15. 17; dagr um allt lopt, etc.; albjartr dagr, hábjartr d., full day, broad daylight; hæstr dagr, high day; önd-verðr d., the early day = forenoon, Am. 50; miðr dagr, midday, Grág. i. 413, 446, Sks. 217, 219; áliðinn dagr, late in the day, Fas. i. 313; hallandi dagr, declining day; at kveldi dags, síð dags, late in the day, Fms. i. 69. In the evening the day is said to set, hence dag-sett, dag-setr, and dagr setzt; in tales, ghosts and spirits come out with nightfall, but dare not face the day; singing merry songs after nightfall is not safe, það kallast ekki Kristnum leyft að kveða þegar dagsett er, a ditty; Syrpuvers er mestr galdr er í fólginn, ok eigi er lofat at kveða eptir dagsetr, Fas. iii. 206, Ísl. Þjóðs. ii. 7, 8: the daylight is symbolical of what is true or clear as day, hence the word dagsanna, or satt sem dagr, q. v. 2. of different days; í dag, to-day, Grág. i. 16, 18, Nj. 36, Ld. 76, Fms. vi. 151; í gær-dag, yesterday; í fyrra dag, the day before yesterday, Háv. 50; í hinni-fyrra dag, the third day; annars dags, Vígl. 23, Pass. 50. I; hindra dags, the hinder day, the day after to-morrow, Hm. 109; dag eptir dag, day after day, Hkr. ii. 313; dag frá degi, from day to day, Fms. ii. 230; hvern dag frá öðrum, id., Fms. viii. 182; annan dag frá öðrum. id., Eg. 277; um daginn, during the day; á dögunum. the other day; nótt ok dag, night and day; liðlangan dag, the ‘life-long’ day; dögunum optar, more times than there are days, i. e. over and over again, Fms. x. 433; á deyjanda degi, on one’s day of death, Grág. i. 402. β. regu-dagr, a rainy day: sólskins-dagr, a sunny day; sumar-dagr, a summer day; vetrar-dagr, a winter day; hátíðis-dagr, a feast day; fegins-dagr, a day of joy; dóms-dagr, the day of doom, judgment day, Gl. 82, Fms. viii. 98; hamingju-dagr, heilla-dagr, a day of happiness; gleði-dagr, id.; brúðkaups-dagr, bridal-day; burðar-dagr, a birthday. 3. in pl. days in the sense of times; aðrir dagar, Fms. i. 216; ek ætlaða ekki at þessir dagar mundu verða, sem nú eru orðnir, Nj. 171; góðir dagar, happy days, Fms. xi. 286, 270; sjá aldrei glaðan dag (sing.), never to see glad days. β. á e-s dögum, um e-s daga eptir e-s daga, esp. of the lifetime or reign of kings, Fms.; but in Icel. also used of the lögsögumaðr, Jb. repeatedly; vera á dögum, to be alive; eptir minn dag, ‘after my day,’ i. e. when I am dead. γ. calendar days, e. g. Hvíta-dagar, the White days, i. e. Whitsuntide; Hunda-dagar, the Dog days; Banda-dagr, Vincula Petri; Höfuð-dagr, Decap. Johannis; Geisla-dagr, Epiphany; Imbru-dagar, Ember days; Gang-dagar, ‘Ganging days,’ Rogation days; Dýri-dagr, Corpus Christi; etc. 4. of the week-days; the old names being Sunnu-d. or Drottins-d., Mána-d., Týs-d., Öðins-d., Þórs-d., Frjá-d., Laugar-d. or Þvátt-d. It is hard to understand how the Icel. should be the one Teut. people that have disused the old names of the week-days; but so it was, vide Jóns S. ch. 24; fyrir bauð hann at eigna daga vitrum mönnum heiðnum, svá sem at kalla Týrsdag Óðinsdag, eðr Þórsdag, ok svá um alla vikudaga, etc., Bs. i. 237, cp. 165. Thus bishop John (died A. D. 1121) caused them to name the days as the church does (Feria sccunda, etc.); viz. Þriði-d. or Þriðju-d., Third-day = Tuesday, Rb. 44, K. Þ. K. 100, Ísl. ii. 345; Fimti-d., Fifth-dayThursday, Rb. 42, Grág. i. 146, 464, 372, ii. 248, Nj. 274; Föstu-d., Fast-day = Friday; Miðviku-d., Midweek-day = Wednesday, was borrowed from the Germ. Mittwoch; throughout the 12th and 13th centuries, however, the old and new names were used indiscriminately. The question arises whether even the old names were not imported from abroad (England); certainly the Icel. of heathen times did not reckon by weeks; even the word week (vika) is probably of eccl. Latin origin (vices, recurrences). It is curious that the Scandinavian form of Friday, old Icel. Frjádagr, mod. Swed.-Dan. Fredag, is A. S. in form; ‘Frjá-,’ ‘Fre-,’ can hardly be explained but from A. S. Freâ-, and would be an irregular transition from the Norse form Frey. The transition of ja into mod. Swed.-Dan. e is quite regular, whereas Icel. ey (in Frey) would require the mod. Swed.-Dan. ö or u sound. Names of weekdays are only mentioned in Icel. poems of the 11th century (Arnór, Sighvat); but at the time of bishop John the reckoning by weeks was probably not fully established, and the names of the days were still new to the people. 5. the day is in Icel. divided according to the position of the sun above the horizon; these fixed traditional marks are called dags-mörk, day-marks, and are substitutes for the hours of modern times, viz. ris-mál or miðr-morgun, dag-mál, há-degi, mið-degi or mið-mundi, nón, miðr-aptan, nátt-mál, vide these words. The middle point of two day-marks is called jafn-nærri-báðum, in modern pronunciation jöfnu-báðu, equally-near-both, the day-marks following in the genitive; thus in Icel. a man asks, hvað er fram orðið, what is the time? and the reply is, jöfnubáðu miðsmorguns og dagmála, half-way between mid-morning and day-meal, or stund til (to) dagmála; hallandi dagmál, or stund af (past) dagmálum; jöfnu-báðu hádegis og dagmúla, about ten or half-past ten o’clock, etc. Those day-marks are traditional in every farm, and many of them no doubt date from the earliest settling of the country. Respecting the division of the day, vide Pál Vídal. s. v. Allr dagr til stefnu, Finnus Johann., Horologium Island., Eyktamörk Íslenzk (published at the end of the Rb.), and a recent essay of Finn Magnusson. II. denoting a term, but only in compounds, dagi, a, m., where the weak form is used, cp. ein-dagi, mál-dagi, bar-dagi, skil-dagi. III. jis a pr. name, Dagr, (freq.); in this sense the dat. is Dag, not Degi, cp. Óðinn léði Dag (dat.) geirs síns, Sæm. 114. COMPDS: daga-tal, n. a tale of days, Rb. 48. dags-brun, v. above. dags-helgi, f. hallowedness of the day, Sturl. i. 29. dags-ljós, n. daylight, Eb. 266. dags-mark, v. above. dags-megin, n., at dags magni, in full day, 623. 30. dags-munr, m. a day’s difference; svá at d. sér á, i. e. day by day, Stj.

dag-ráð, n. [A. S. dagrêd = daybreak], this word is rarely used, Eg. 53, 174, Fms. i. 131; in the last passage it is borrowed from the poem Vellekla, (where it seems to be used in the A. S. sense; the poet speaks of a sortilege, and appears to say that the sortilege told him to fight at daybreak, then he would gain the day); the passages in prose, however, seem to take the word in the sense of early, in good time.

dag-ríki, n. (dag-rikt, n. adj., N. G. L. i. 342, 343, v. l.), in the phrase, bæta sem d. er til, of the breach of a Sunday or a holy day, to pay according to ‘the day’s might,’ i. e. according to the time of the day at which the breach is committed, N. G. L. i. 342, 343, 348, 349; or does it mean ‘the canonical importance’ of the day (Fr.) ?

dag-róðr, m. a day’s rowing, A.A. 272.

dag-sanna, u, f. true as day, Nj. 73, Fær. 169, Fas. i. 24, cp. Eb. 60.

dag-setr (dag-sátr, Sturl. iii. 185 C), n. ‘day-setting,’ nightfall; um kveld nær dagsetri, Landn. 285; í d., Fms. v. 331, ix. 345; leið til dagsetrs, Grett. III; d. skeið, Fms. ix. 383. dag-sett, n. adj. id., Háv. 40; vide dagr.

dag-sigling, f. a day’s sailing, journey by sea, Rb. 482.

dag-skemt, f. a day’s amusement, games, telling stories, or the like, Sturl. i. 63 C, (dagskemta, gen. pl.)

dag-skjarr, adj. ‘day-scared,’ shunning daylight, poët. epithet of a dwarf, Ýt. 2.

dag-slátta, u, f. a day’s mowing, an Icel. acre field, measuring 900 square fathoms (Icel. fathom = about 2 yards), to be mown by a single man in a day, Dipl. v. 28, Ísl. ii. 349.

dag-stingr, m. the ‘day-sting,’ daybreak, Greg. 57, (rare.)

dag-stjarna, u, f. the morning star, Lucifer, Al. 161, Sl. 39.

dag-stund, f. day time, a whole day, K. Þ. K. 6; dagstundar Leið, a ‘Leet’ (i. e. meeting) lasting a day, Grág. i. 122:—elsewhere dagstund means an hour in the day time = stund dags.

dag-stæddr, adj. fixed as to the day, Thom. 56, Fms. xi. 445.

dags-verk, n. day-work, a tax or duty, Thork. Dipl. i. 11.

dag-tíð, f. [A. S. dagtid], day-service, 673. 60, 625. 177, Sks. 19.

dag-veizla, u, f. help to win the day, = liðveizla, Fas. iii. 336.

dag-verðr and dög-urðr, m., gen. ar, pl. ir, [Dan. davre], ‘day-meal,’ the chief meal of the old Scandinavians, taken in the forenoon at the time of dagmál, opp. to nátturðr or náttverðr (mod. Dan. nadver), supper; corresponding as to time with the mod. Engl. breakfast, as to the nature of the meal with the Engl. dinner. The old Scandinavians used to take a hearty meal before going to their work; cp. Tac. Germ. 22. An early and a hearty meal were synonymous words (vide árlegr); the old Hávamál advises men to go to the meeting ‘washed and with full stomach’ (þveginn ok mettr), but never to mind how bad their dress, shoes, or horse may be; and repeats the advice to take ‘an early meal’ even before visiting a friend, 32, cp. Hbl. 3. Several places in Icel. took their name from the settlers taking their first ‘day-meal,’ e. g. Dögurðar-nes, Dögurðar-á, Landn. 110, 111, cp. also Gísl. 12. The Gr. δειπνον is rendered by dagverðr, Greg. 43. Matth. xxii. 4; but in the Icel. N. T. of 1540 sq. δειπνον is constantly rendered by kveld-máltíð; eta dögurð, Landn. l. c., Nj. 175, Gísl. l. c.; sitja yfir dagverði, Eg. 564, 577, Ísl. ii. 336, Fms. iv. 337, ix. 30; dögurðar borð, a day-meal table, in the phrase, sitja at dögurðar borði, to sit at table, Fms. i. 40, vi. 411, Hkr. i. 153, iii. 157; dögurðar-mál and dögurðarmál-skeið, the day-meal time, time of the day-meal, Fms. viii. 330, v. l.; um morguninn at dagverðar máli, 443, Eg. 564, Edda 24, Hom. 91 (in pl.), O. H. L. 19. COMPD: dagverðar-drykkja, f. = dagdrykkja, the drinking after dagverðr, Fas. iii. 530, Mag. 3.

dag-villr, adj. ‘day-wild,’ i. e. not knowing what day it is, K. Á. 190, N. G. L. i. 342.

dag-vöxtr, m. daily growth; in the phrase, vaxa dagvöxtum, to wax day by day, Finnb. 216, Eb. 318.

dag-þing, n. and dag-þingan, f. a conference, Ann. 1391; vera í d. við e-n, Fms. iii. 201, Bs. i. 882, freq. in Thom.

dag-þinga, að, to hold conference with one, D. N., Thom. (freq.)

dala, að, to be dented; dalaði ekki né sprakk, Eg. 769, cp. Fas. iii. 12 (the verse).

dal-búi (dalbyggi, Sd. 214), a, m, a dweller in a dale, Grett. 141 A.

dal-bygð, f. a dale-country, Stj. 380, Hkr. ii. 8.

dal-land, n. dale-ground, Grág. ii. 257.

DALLR, m. a small tub, esp. for milk or curds; bæði byttur og dallar, Od. ix. 222, Snót 99.

dalmatika, u, f. a dalmatic, Stj., Fms. iii. 168, Vm. 2, 123.

DALR, s, m., old pl. dalar, acc. dala, Vsp. 19, 42, Hkv. i. 46; the Sturl. C still uses the phrase, vestr í Dala; the mod. form (but also used in old writers) is dalir, acc. dali, Hkv. Hjörv. 28; old dat. sing. dali, Hallr í Haukadali, Íb. 14, 17; í Þjórsárdali, í Örnólfsdali, 8, Hbl. 17; mod. dal; dali became obsolete even in old writers, except the earliest, as Ari: [Ulf. dals = φάραγξ, Luke iii. 10, and βόθυνον, vi. 39; A. S. dæl; Engl. dale; Germ. tal (thal); cp. also Goth. dalaþ = κάτω, and dala above; up og dal, up hill and down dale, is an old Dan. phrase]:—a dale; allit. phrase, djúpir dalir, deep dales, Hbl. l. c.; dali döggótta, bedewed dales, Hkv. l. c.; the proverbial saying, láta dal mæta hóli, let dale meet hill, ‘diamond cut diamond,’ Ld. 134, Fms. iv. 225: dalr is used of a dent or hole in a skull, dalr er í hnakka, Fas. iii. l. c. (in a verse): the word is much used in local names, Fagri-dalr, Fair-dale; Breið-dalr, Broad-dale; Djúpi-dalr, Deep-dale; Þver-dalr, Cross-dale; Langi-dalr, Lang-dale; Jökul-dalr, Glacier-dale, (cp. Langdale, Borrodale. Wensleydale, etc. in North. E.); ‘Dale’ is a freq. name of dale counties, Breiðatjarðar-dalir, or Dalir simply, Landn.: Icel. speak of Dala-menn, ‘Dales-men’ (as in Engl. lake district); dala-fífl, a dale-fool, one brought up in a mean or despised dale, Fas. iii. 1 sqq.: the parts of a dale are distinguished, dals-botn, the bottom of a dale, ii. 19; dals-öxl, the shoulder of a dale; dals-brún, the brow, edge of a dale; dals-hlíðar, the sides, slopes of a dale; dala-drög, n. pl. the head of a dale; dals-mynni, the mouth of a dale, Fms. viii. 57; dals-barmr, the ‘dale-rim,’ = dals-brún; dals-eyrar, the gravel beds spread by a stream over a dale, etc.:—in poetry, snakes are called dale-fishes, dal-reyðr, dal-fiskr, dal-ginna, etc., Lex. Poët. [It is interesting to notice that patronymic words derived from ‘dale’ are not formed with an e (vowel change of a), but an œ, æ (vowel change of ó), Lax-dœlir, Vatns-dœlir, Hauk-dœlir, Hit-dœlir, Sýr-dœll, Svarf-dœlir …, the men from Lax(ár)dalr, Vatnsdal, Haukadal, Hitardal, etc.; cp. the mod. Norse Dölen = man from a dale; this points to an obsolete root word analogous to ala, ól, bati, bót; vide the glossaries of names to the Sagas, esp. that to the Landn.] II. a dollar (mod.) = Germ. Joachims-thaler, Joachims-thal being the place where the first dollars were coined.

dalr, m., gen. dalar, poët. a bow. Lex. Poët.; this word has a different inflexion, and seems to be of a different root from the above; hence in poetry the hand is called dal-nauð, the need of (force applied to) the bow,’ and dal-töng, as the bow is bent by the hand.

dal-verpi, n. a little dale, Nj. 132, Fms. vi. 136, Al. 41. damma, u, f. [domina], a dame, Fr. (for. and rare); hence in mod. use madama, madame.

dammr, m. a dam, D. N. COMPDS: damm-stokkr, m. a sluice. damm-stæði, n. a dam-yard, D. N. (for. and rare).

dampr, danpr, m. [Germ. dampf], steam, (mod. word.) 2. a pr. name, Rm., Yngl. S.

dan, m. [dominus], sir. D. N.; hence comes perhaps the mod. Icel. word of-dan, það er mér ofdan, ‘tis too great a honour for me; else the word is quite out of use.

danga, að, [dengja], to bang, thrash, Skíða R. 136.

Danskr, adj., Danir, pl. Danes; Dan-mörk, f. Denmark, i. e. the mark, march, or border of the Danes; Dana-veldi, n. the Danish empire; Dana-virki, n. the Danish wall, and many compds, vide Fms. xi. This adj. requires special notice, because of the phrase Dönsk tunga (the Danish tongue), the earliest recorded name of the common Scandinavian tongue. It must be borne in mind that the ‘Danish’ of the old Saga times applies not to the nation, but to the empire. According to the researches of the late historian P.A. Munch, the ancient Danish empire, at least at times, extended over almost all the countries bordering on the Skagerac (Vík); hence a Dane became in Engl. synonymous with a Scandinavian; the language spoken by the Scandinavians was called Danish; and ‘Dönsk tunga’ is even used to denote Scandinavian extraction in the widest extent, vide Sighvat in Fms. iv. 73, Eg. ch. 51, Grág. ii. 71, 72. During the 11th and 12th centuries the name was much in use, but as the Danish hegemony in Scandinavia grew weaker, the name became obsolete, and Icel. writers of the 13th and 14th centuries began to use the name ‘Norræna,’ Norse tongue, from Norway their own mother country, and the nearest akin to Icel. in customs and idiom. ‘Swedish’ never occurs, because Icel. had little intercourse with that country, although the Scandinavian tongue was spoken there perhaps in a more antique form than in the sister countries. In the 15th century, when almost all connection with Scandinavia was broken off for nearly a century, the Norræna in its turn became an obsolete word, and was replaced by the present word ‘Icelandic,’ which kept its ground, because the language in the mean time underwent great changes on the Scandinavian continent. The Reformation, the translation of the Old and New Testaments into Icelandic (Oddr Gotskalksson, called the Wise, translated and published the N. T. in 1540, and bishop Gudbrand the whole Bible in 1584), a fresh growth of religious literature, hymns, sermons, and poetry (Hallgrímr Pétrsson, Jón Vídalín), the regeneration of the old literature in the 17th and 18th centuries (Brynjólfr Sveinsson, Arni Magnússon, Þormóðr Torfason),—all this put an end to the phrases Dönsk tunga and Norræna; and the last phrase is only used to denote obsolete grammatical forms or phrases, as opposed to the forms and phrases of the living language. The translators of the Bible often say ‘vort Íslenzkt mál,’ our Icelandic tongue, or ‘vort móður mál,’ our mother tongue; móður-málið mitt, Pass. 35. 9. The phrase ‘Dönsk tunga’ has given rise to a great many polemical antiquarian essays: the last and the best, by which this question may be regarded as settled, is that by Jon Sigurdsson in the preface to Lex. Poët.; cp. also that of Pál Vídalín in Skýr. s. v., also published in Latin at the end of the old Ed. of Gunnl. Saga, 1775.

DANZ, mod. dans, n. a word of for. origin; [cp. mid. Lat. dansare; Fr. danser; Ital. danzare; Engl. dance; Germ. tanz, tanzen.] This word is certainly not Teutonic, but of Roman or perhaps Breton origin: the Icel. or Scandin. have no genuine word for dancing,—leika means ‘to play’ in general: the word itself (danza, danz, etc.) never occurs in the old Sagas or poetry, though popular amusements of every kind are described there; but about the end of the 11th century, when the Sagas of the bishops (Bs.) begin, we find dance in full use, accompanied by songs which are described as loose and amorous: the classical passage is Jóns S. (A. D. 1106–1121), ch. 13. Bs. i. 165, 166, and cp. Júns S. by Gunnlaug, ch. 24. Bs. i. 237—Leikr sá var kær mönnum áðr en hinn heilagi Jón varð biskup, at kveða skyldi karlmaðr til konu í danz blautlig kvæði ok rægilig; ok kona til karlmanns mansöngs vísur; þenna leik lét hann af taka ok bannaði styrkliga; mansöngs kvæði vildi hann eigi heyra né kveða láta, en þó fékk hann því eigi af komið með öllu. Some have thought that this refers to mythical (Eddic) poetry, but without reason and against the literal sense of the passage; the heathen heroic poems were certainly never used to accompany a dance; their flow and metre are a sufficient proof of that. In the Sturl. (Hist. of the 12th and 13th century) dancing is mentioned over and over again; and danz is used of popular ballads or songs of a satirical character (as those in Percy’s ballads): flimt (loose song) and danz are synonymous words; the Sturl. has by chance preserved two ditties (one of A. D. 1221, running thus—Loptr liggr í Eyjum, bítr lunda bein | Sæmundr er á heiðum, etr berin ein. Sturl. ii. 62, and one referring to the year 1264—Mínar eru sorgirnar þungar sem blý, Sturl. iii. 317) sufficient to shew the flow and metre, which are exactly the same as those of the mod. ballads, collected in the west of Icel. (Ögr) in the 17th century under the name of Fornkvæði, Old Songs, and now edited by Jon Sigurdsson and Svend Grundtvig. Danz and Fornkvæði are both of the same kind, and also identical with Engl. ballads, Dan. kæmpeviser. There are passages in Sturl. and B.S. referring to this subject — færðu Breiðbælingar Lopt í flimtun ok görðu um hann danza marga, ok margskonar spott annat, Sturl. ii. 57, cp. 62; Danza-Bergr, the nickname of a man (Stud, ii), prob. for composing comic songs; danza-görð, composing comic songs; fylgðar-menn Kolbeins fóru með danza-görð, … en er Brandr varð varr við flimtan þeirra, iii. 80; þá hrökti Þórðr hestinn undir sér, ok kvað danz þenna við raust, 317. β. a wake, Arna S. ch. 2; in Sturl. i. 23; at the banquet in Reykhólar, 1119, the guests amused themselves by dancing, wrestling, and story-telling; þá var sleginn danz í stofu, ii. 117; í Viðvík var gleði mikil ok gott at vera; þat var einn Drottins dag at þar var danz mikill; kom þar til fjöldi manna; ok ríðr hann í Viðvík til danz, ok var þar at leik; ok dáðu menn mjök danz hans, iii. 258, 259; honum var kostr á boðinn hvat til gamans skyldi hafa, sögur eða danz um kveldit, 281;—the last reference refers to the 21st of January, 1258, which fell on a Sunday (or wake-day): in ballads and tales of the Middle Ages the word is freq.:—note the allit. phrase, dansinn dunar, Ísl. Þóðs. ii. 8: the phrases, stiga danz; ganga í danz; brúðir í danz, dansinn heyra; dans vill hun heyra, Fkv. ii. 7. Many of the burdens to the mod. Icel. ballads are of great beauty, and no doubt many centuries older than the ballads to which they are affixed; they refer to lost love, melancholy, merriment, etc., e. g. Blítt lætur veröldin, fölnar fögr fold | langt er síðan mitt var yndið lagt í mold, i. 74; Út ert þú við æginn blá, eg er hér á Dröngum, | kalla eg löngum, kalla eg til þin löngum; Skín á skildi Sól og sumarið fríða, | dynur í velli er drengir í burtu riða, 110; Ungan leit eg hofmann í fögrum runni, | skal eg í hljóði dilla þeim mér unm; Austan blakar laufið á þann linda, 129; Fagrar heyrða eg raddirnar við Niflunga heim; Fagrt syngr svanrinn um sumarlanga tíð, | þá mun list að leika sér mín liljan fríð, ii. 52: Einum unna eg manninum, á meðan það var, | þó hlaut eg minn harm að bera í leyndum stað, 94; Svanrinn víða. svanurinn syngr viða, 22; Utan eptir firðinum, sigla fagrar fleyr | sá er enginn glaður eptir annan þreyr, 110; Svo er mér illt og angrsamt því veldur þú, | mig langar ekki í lundinn með þá jungfrú, Espol. Ann. 1549. The earliest ballads seem to have been devoted to these subjects only; of the two earliest specimens quoted in the Sturl. (above), one is satirical, the other melancholy; the historical ballads seem to be of later growth: the bishops discountenanced the wakes and dancing (Bs. l. c., Sturl. iii), but in vain: and no more telling proof can be given of the drooping spirits of Icel. in the last century, than that dancing and wakes ceased, after having been a popular amusement for seven hundred years. Eggert Olafsson in his poems still speaks of wakes, as an eyewitness; in the west of Icel. (Vestfirðir) they lasted longer, but even there they died out about the time that Percy’s ballads were published in England. The Fornkvæði or songs are the only Icel. poetry which often dispenses with the law of alliteration, which in other cases is the light and life of Icel. poetry; vide also hofmaðr, viki-vakar, etc. In the 15th century the rímur (metrical paraphrases of romances) were used as an accompaniment to the danz, höldar danza harla snart, ef heyrist vísan mín; hence originates the name man-söngr (maid-song), minne-sang, which forms the introduction to every ríma or rhapsody; the metre and time of the rímur are exactly those of ballads and well suited for dancing. An Icel. MS. of the 17th century, containing about seventy Icel. Fornkvæði, is in the Brit. Mus. no. 11,177; and another MS., containing about twenty such songs, is in the Bodl. Libr. no. 130.

danza, mod. dansa, að, to dance, Sks. 705, not in Sturl. and Bs., who use the phrase slá danz; the verb danza occurs for the first time in the ballads and rímur—Ekki er dagr enn, vel d. vifin, Fkv. ii. 102.

danz-leikr, m. dancing, Sturl. i. 23.

dapi, a, m. a pool, Ivar Aasen: a nickname, Fms. viii.

DAPR, adj., gen. rs, of a person, downcast, sad, Nj. 11, Isl. ii. 248, 272, Band. 9: of an obicct, dreary, d. dagr, Am. 58; d. nætr, SI. 13; döpr heimkynni, Hbl. 4, Fms. x. 214: the proverb, fyrr er d. en dauðr, one droops before one dies, i. e. as long as there is life there is hope: daprt böl, Pass. 44. 3; döpr dauðans pína, Bs. ii. 501; döpr augu, weak eyes, Vídal. i. 25; augn-dapr, weak-eyed; hence depra or augn-depra, weak sight: a faint flame of a light is also called daprt, tvö döpur ljós sitt log, Jón Þorl. i. 146.

dapra, að, to become faint, in swimming; e-m daprar sund, he begins to sink, Njarð. 374; more usually dep. daprask, Fbr. 160, Fas. iii. 508.

dapr-eygr, adj. weak-sighted, Bjarn. 63.

dapr-ligr, adj. (-liga, adv.), dismal, sad; hnipin ok d., Ísl. ii. 196; kona d., a dreary looking woman, Sturl. ii. 212; d. ásjóna, a sad look, Fms. i. 262; d. draumar, dismal dreams, vi. 404.

darka, að, to walk heavily, to trample, (a cant term.)

DARRAÐR, m., gen. ar, [A. S. dearod; Engl. dart; Fr. dard; Swed. dart]:—a dart, Hkm. 2 (in the best MSS.), cp. DL, where vefr darraðar simply means the web of spears; the common form in poetry is darr, n., pl. dörr, vide Lex. Poët., in mod. poetry dör, m., Úlf. I. 16, 4. 47, 7. 61; the word is probably foreign and never occurs in prose. 2. a sort of peg, Edda (Gl.)

dasask, að, [Swed. dasa], to become weary and exhausted, from cold or bodily exertion, Bs. i. 442, Fær. 185, Fms. ii. 98, Orkn. (in a verse), Sturl. iii. 20, O. H. L. 16; dasaðr, exhausted, weary, Ld. 380, Fas. ii. 80, Fms. viii. 55, Bb. 3. 24.

DASI, a, m. (dasinn, adj., Lex. Poët.), a lazy fellow, Edda (GL), Fms. vi. (in a verse).

datta, að. to sink, of the heart, Fbr. 37, vide detta.

dauð-dagi, a, m. a mode of death, Ísl. ii. 220, Lv. 68, Fas. i. 88, Greg, 67.

dauð-dagr = dauðadagr, Bs. i. 643

dauð-drukkinn, part. dead-drunk, Fms. xi. 108, Orkn. 420.

dauð-færandi, part. death-bringing, 623. 26, Greg. 14.

dauð-hræddr, adj. frightened to death.

DAUÐI, a, m. [Ulf. dauþus = θάνατος; A. S. deað; Engl. death; Germ. tod; Swed. and Dan. död]:—death; the word is used in the strong form in all Teut. dialects from Gothic to English, but in Icel. it is weak, even in the earliest writers; though traces of a strong form (dauðr, s or ar) are found in the phrase til dauðs (to death) and in compds, as mann-dauðr: cp. also Hm. 69, where dauðr seems to be a substantive not an adjective: Fagrsk. 139 also writes dauðar-orð instead of dauða orð; an old song, Edda 52, has Dvalins dauðs-drykkr = dauða-drykkr, i. e. the death-drink of the dwarf; the strong form also remains in such words as dauð-dagi, dauð-hræddr, dauð-yfli, dauð-ligr, dauð-vána, which could not possibly be forms of a weak daudi, Nj. 198; at dauða kominn, Fms. i. 32; d. for a hann, Nj. 27; the references are numberless, though heathen proverbs and sayings prefer to use ‘hel’ or ‘feigð,’ which were more antique, whereas dauoi recalls Christian ideas, or sometimes denotes the manner of death. 2. medic. mortification. COMPDS: dauða-blóð, n. ‘death-blood,’ gore, Fél. ix. dauða-bönd, n. pl. death-bonds, Greg. 48. dauða-dagr, m. death’s day, Nj. 109, Stj. 168. dauða-dá, n. a death swoon. dauða-dómr, m. death’s doom, Sks. 736. dauða-drep, n. plague, Stj. 437, 438. dauða-drukkinn, adj. dead-drunk, Fms. ix. 22. dauða-drykkr, m. a deadly draught, Fms. i. 8. dauða-dyrr, f. gates of death. dauða-dæmdr, adj. doomed to death, Bs. i. 222. dauða-fylgja, u. f. a ‘death-fetch,’ an apparition boding one’s death, Nj. 62. v. 1.: vide fylgja. dauða-hræddr = dauðhræddr. dauða-kvöl, f. the death-pang, Mar. dauða-leit, f. searching for one as if dead. dauða-litr, m. colour of death. 623. 61. dauða-maðr, m. a man doomed to die, Fms. vii. 33; hafa e-n at dauðamanni. 656 A. I. 25, Eg. 416. dauða-mark, -merki, id, n. a sign of death (opp. to lífs-mark), medic. decay or the like, Nj. 154, 656 C. 32; a type of death, Hom. 108. dauða-mein, n. death-sickness, Bs. i. 616. dauða-orð (v. 1. and better dauða-yrðr, f., from yrðr = urðr, weird, fate), n. death, ‘death-weird,’ Ýt. 8. dauða-ráð, n. ‘death-rede,’ fatal counsel, Gísl. 35. dauða-róg, n. deadly slander, Landn. 281. Dauða-sjór, m. the Dead Sea. Rb., Symb. dauða-skattr, m. tribute of death, Niðrst. 6. dauða-skellr, m. a death-blow, Bs. ii. 148. dauða-skuld, n. the debt of nature, 655 xxxii. 19. dauða-slag, n. = dauðaskellr, Stj. 280. dauða-slig, n. deadly splay, a disease of horses, Bs. i. 389. dauða-snara, u, f. snare of death, Hom. 144. dauða-steytr, m. [Dan. stöd], = dauðaslag, Bs. ii. 182. dauða-stríð, n. the death-struggle. dauða-stund, f. the hour of death, Al. 163. dauða-svefn, n. a deadly swoon, fatal deep, as of one fated to die, Fas. iii. 608: medic. catalepsis, also called stjarfi, Fél. x. 43. dauða-sök, f. a cause for death, a deed deserving death, Fms. i. 48, iii. 20, vi. 383. dauða-tákn, n. a token of death, Bret. 66, cp. 11. xx. 226. dauða-teygjur, f. pl. the death-spasms, Fél. ix. dauða-útlegð, f. penalty of death, Sturl. ii. 2. dauða-verk, n. a work deserving death, Ísl. ii. 413.

dauð-leikr, m. mortality, Stj. 21, Greg. 17.

dauð-ligr, adj. deadly, Sks. 533, Hom. 52, Stj. 92, K. Á. 202, Fms. xi. 437.

dauðr, adj. [Ulf. dauþs; A. S. deâd; Engl. dead; Germ. todt; Dan. död]:—dead, Grág. i. 140, Nj. 19; the phrase, verða d., to become dead, i. e. to die, 238, Jb. ch. 3, Am. 98; d. verðr hverr (a proverb), Fs. 114 (in a verse); falla niðr d., Fms. viii. 55: metaph. eccl., 623. 32, Hom. 79, 655 xiv. A; dauð trúa, Greg. 13, James ii. 17, Pass. 4. 33. 2. inanimate, in the law phrase dautt fé, K. Á. 204. β. medic. dead, of a limb. 3. compds denoting manner of death, sæ-dauðr, vápn-dauðr, sótt-dauðr; sjálf-dauðr, of sheep or cattle, — svidda, q. v.: again, hálf-dauðr, half dead; al-dauðr, quite dead; stein-dauðr, stone-dead; the old writers prefer to use andaðr or látinn, and in mod. use dáinn is a gentler term, used of a deceased friend; daudr sounds rude and is scarcely used except of animals; in like manner Germ. say abgelebt.

dauð-staddr, part. at the last gasp, Thom. 419.

dauð-vána, adj. ind., and dauð-vænn, adj., medic. sinking fast, when no hope of life is left, Grett. 155, Fms. vi. 31, H. E. i. 480.

dauð-veikr, adj. deadly sick.

dauð-yfli, n. (cp. Goth. daupublis = επιθανάτιος, I Cor. iv. 9), a carcase, lifeless thing, Stj. 317 (Lev. xi. 38).

dauf-heyrask, ð, dep., d. við e-t, to tarn a deaf ear to, Fms. xi. 134, Thom. 374.

dauf-heyrðr, adj. one who turns a deaf ear to, 655 xxxi, Fms. vi. 30.

daufingi, a, m. a drone, sluggard.

dauf-leikr, m. deafness, sloth. Fas. i. 7.

dauf-ligr, adj. (-liga, adv.), ‘deaf-like,’ lonely, dull, Eg. 202, 762, Lv. 22, Fms. vi. 404 (dismal).

DAUFR, adj. [Gr. τύφλος; Goth. daubs = πεπωρωμένος. Mark viii. 17; A. S. deâf; Engl. deaf; Germ. taub; Swed. dof; Dan. dov]:—deaf, 623. 57, Luke vii. 22: allit. phrase, daufr ok dumbi. deaf and dumb, Stj. 207; dumbi sá er ekki mælir, d. sá er ekki heyrir, K. Á. 56; blindr eðr d., Gþl. 504, Hom. 120. 2. metaph., Bs. i. 728. β. (mod.) without savour, = daufligr.

daun-mikill, adj. stinking, Bs. ii. 23.

DAUNN, m. [Goth. dauns = οσμη; cp. Swed.-Dan. dunst; O. H. G. dauns]:—a smell, esp. a bad smell, Anecd. 8; illr d., Rb. 352; opp. to ilmr (sweet smell), 623. 22; in Ub. 3. 27 used in a good sense.

daunsa or daunsna (mod. dunsna), að, in smell at, sniff at, esp. of cattle; gékk Glæsir (an ox) at honum ok daunsnaði um hann, lib. 320.

daun-semð, f. = daunn, Mar.

dauss, m. [mid. H. G. tûs; Fr. deux], the dice; kasta daus, to cast a die, Sturl. ii. 95. II. the rump, of cattle, Fas. ii. 510, cp. dof.

DÁ, n. [the root word of deyja, dauðr]. 1. catalepsy; Icel. say, liggja í dai or sem í dái, to lie motionless, without stirring a limb and without feeling pain; hann vissi þá ekki til sin longum, ok þúui þá sem hann lægi í dái, Bs. i. 336, Fas. ii. 235: falla í da, to fall into a senseless state, Bs. i. 451. 2. it is medic, used of the relieving swoon, like the sleep which follows after strong paroxysms, Fél. ix. 204; it is different from aungvit (swoon) or brotfall (epilepsy).

dá, ð, to admire, be charmed at, a word akin to the preceding, denoting a sense of fascination, a kind of entrancemetit (cp. dar); with acc., dá e-t, dáðu menn mjök danz hans, Sturl. iii. 259; dáðu þat allir, 625. 96, Konr. 59 (Fr.); but esp. and in present usage only dep., dást (mod. dáðst) að e-u, Fms. ii. 192, xi. 429.

dá- is esp. in mod. use prefixed to a great many adjectives and adverbs, denoting very; dá-góðr, very good; da-vel, very well; dá-vænn, dá-fallegr, v. below; dá-fagr, very handsome; dá-lítill, in the west of Icel. pronounced dultið, dulítill, very little.

DÁÐ, f. [Ulf. dêds, in missdeds. = παράβασις, Germ. missethat, Engl. misdeed; A. S. dæd; Engl. deed; O. H. G. tat; mod. Germ. that; Dan. daad]:—deed; allit. phrase, drýgja dáð, to do a daring deed, Sturl. iii. 7, 10; dáð ok drengskapr, Band, 10: cp. the compds ó-dæði, a misdeed; for-dæða, an evil-doer; the adverbial phrase, af sjálfs-dáðum, of one’s own accord. β. valour; ef nokkur dáð er í þér, Fms. xi. 86, 623. 49: the word is not much in use, or merely poët. in compds as dáð-framr, dáð-fimr, dáð-gjarn, dáð-göfugr, dáð-kunnr, dáð-mildr, dáð-rakkr, dáð-sterkr, dáð-sæll, dáð-vandr, etc., all of them ‘epitheta ornantia,’ bold, valiant, Lex. Poët., but none ot them can be used in prose without affectation.

dáði, a, m. a dainty. Snot 216.

dáð-lauss, adj. ‘deedless,’ lubberly, Ld. 236, Lv. 53: impotent, Fél. ix. 204.

dáð-leysi, f. meanness, impotency, Grett. 131.

dáð-leysingi, a, m. a good-for-naught, (fainéant), a lubber, Sturl. iii. 135.

dáð-rakkr, adj. bold, Sks. 358.

dáð-semi, dáð-samliga, v. dá-semi, etc.

dáð-vandr, adj. virtuous, Sks. 486.

dá-fallegr, adj. very pretty, Fas. iii. 3, v. 1.

-dái, a, m., botan., see akr-dái.

dáindi, n. = dásemd, a work of grace, a wonder; göra ótallig tákn ok dáindi, … undarlig d. (miracles) gerði várr Dróttinn. Vitae Patruni (Unger).

dáindis-, pretty, rather, as an adverb, prefix to adjectives and adverbs.

dáinn (v. deyja), dead, deceased, (freq.) β. masc. the name of a dwarf, Edda ((31.): cp. Dan. daane = to swoon.

dá-la, adv. very, quite; ekki d., not quite, Bjarn. 42.

dá-leikar, m. pl. (prop. charms), intimacy, Nj. 103.

dá-ligr, adj. (-liga, adv.), [Dan. daarlig], bad; d. tré, Stj. 24; d. deyning, bad smell, 51; d. lerð, Ld. 324; d. kostr, Fms. i. 202; d. dæmi, Sks. 481: wretched (of a person), Magn. 494, Stj. 157, 473.

DÁLKR, m. [cp. mod. Germ. dolch, which word docs not appear in Germ. till the 16th century (Grimm); Bohem. and Pol. tulich; mod. Dan. dolk]:—the pin in the cloaks (feldr) of the ancients, whence also called feldar-dálkr, Glúm. ch. 8, Korm. ch. 25, Fms. i. 180, Gísl. 55, Hkr. Hák. S. Góða ch. 18; cp. also the verse l. c., where the poet calls it feldar-stingr, cloak-pin, cp. Tac. Germ. ch. 17. 2. the vertebrae of a fish’s tail: it is a child’s game iu Icel. to hold it up and ask, hvað eru margar árar á borði undir sporði? whilst the other has to guess how many joints there are, cp. the Ital. game morra, Lat. ‘micare digitis.’ β. a column in a book.

dálpa, v. dafla.

dá-læti, n. fondness, intimacy.

dámaðr, adj. flavoured, Sks. 164.

dámgast (proncd. dángast), að, to get seasoned: metaph. to thrive; hence, dámgan, döngun, f. thriving; dönguligr, adj., etc.

dám-góðr, adj. well-flavoured, N. G. L. ii. 419.

DÁMR, m. [perh. akin to the Germ. dampf], flavour; görði síðan af dám ekki góðan, Bs. i. 340; illr d., Konr. 57; the phrase, draga dám af e-u, to take a (bad) flavour from a thing; hver dregr dám af sínum sessunautum: Icel. also use a verb dáma, að, in the phrase, e-m dámar ekki e-t, i. e. to dislike, to loathe; a filthy person is called ó-dámr, etc.

dánar-, a gen. form from or dáinn, in dánar-arfr, m. a law term, inheritance from one deceased, Hkr. iii. 222: dánar-bú, n. estate of one deceased; dánar-dagr, m. or dánar-dœgr, n. day, hour of death, Fins, i. 219, Hs. verse 44 (where it nearly means the manner of death); dánar-fé, n. property of a person deceased, Grág. i. 209, Fms. vi. 392, cp. Dan. dannefæ, but in a different sense, of property which is claimed by no one, and therefore falls to the king; ‘dane-fee,’ i. e. hereditas illorum qui nullum post se heredem relinquunt, Thork. Dipl. i. 3; cp. early Swed. Dana-arver, Schlyter.

DÁR, n. scoff; in the allit. phrase, draga d. at e-m, to make game of one, Hkr. iii. 203; gys og dár, Pass. 14. 2.

dár, adj. [dá], scarcely used except in the neut. dátt, in various phrases; e-m verð dátt (or dátt um e-t), numbness comes to one, one is benumbed, 623, 10; við þau tíðendi varð honum svá d. sem hanu væri steini lostinn, at those tidings he was as ‘dumbfounded’ as if he had been struck by a stone, Bs. i. 471. β. in phrases denoting a charm or fascination exercised over another, always of uncertain and fugitive nature (cp. dá, ð); göra sér dátt við e-n (v. dá-leikar), to become, very familiar with one, Korm. 38: svá var dátt með þeim at …, they so charmed one another that …, Ni. 151; þá var nú í dátt efni komit, i. e. they came to be close friends, Sd. 138; varð mönnum dátt um þat, people were much charmed by it, Bjarn. g. 20, cp. Hm. 50. γ. dár gleymsku-svefn, a benumbing sleep of forgetfulness, Pass. 4. 11.

dára, að, to mock, make sport of, with acc., Fas. i. 9. Sti. 22, 165, 199, Grett. 139.

dári, a. m. [Germ. tor or thor; Dan. daare], a fool, buffoon. Fms. ix. 272; dára-samlegr, adj. foolish. Stj. 269; dára-skapr and dáru-skapr, m. mockery, Fas. ii. 337. Grett. 108 A, 144.

dá-sama, að, to admire, Fms. vi. 57, Magn. 504: dásamandi, part., Fms. v. 239, Mar. 39; this word and the following are by mod. theol. writers much used of God, the grace of God.

dá-samligr, adi. (-liga, adv., Bs. i. 305), wonderful, glorious, Fms. x. 234, iv. 71; d. tákn. Bs. i. 325, Magn. 504, 532, Clem. 46.

dá-semd and dá-semi, f. glory, grace. Mar. 33, 68, Post. 188. dásemðar-verk, n. work of glory: mikil em dásemðar verkin Drottins, great are the glorious works of the Lord. cp. Ps. cxi. 2.

dáti, a, m. [abbrev. from soldat], a soldier, (mod.)

dá-vænn, adj. very pretty, Fær. 157, Fas. ii. 343.

deging, f. dawn, Eluc., Sturl. i. 83 C.

deig, n. [Ulf. daigs, m. = φύραμα; A. S. dâg; Engl. dough; Germ. teig; Swed. deg]:—dough, Ann. 1337, Matth. xiii. 33, I Cor. v. 6–8. Gal. v. 9; the earliest trace of this word is the Goth. deigan, a strong verb by which Ulf. renders the Gr. πλάσσειν, as also οστάκινος by the part. digans, πλάσμα by gadik in Róm. ix. 20, and επλάσθη by gadigans in I Tim. ii. 13: to this family belong the following Icel. words, deigr (moist), deigja, digna, deigla, dígull, the fundamental notion being plasticity: vide the following.

deigja, u, f. a dairy-maid; this word is the humble mother of the Engl. lady, qs. la-dy (vide p. 76. s. v. brauð). A. S. hlæf-dige = bread-maid; cp. Norse bú-deigja (q. v.). Chaucer’s dey (a maner dey), and West Engl. day- (or dey-) house, a dairy. The deigja in old Norse farms was the chief maid, but still a bondwoman, N. G. L. i. 70, H. E. i. 510; öll ertú d. dritin. Ls. 56, where it is curiously enough addressed to the daughter of Byggvir (bygg = barley), a handmaid of the gods; deigja seems to mean a baker-woman, and the word no doubt is akin to deig, dough, and Goth. deigan, to knead, the same person being originally both dairy-woman and baker to the farm: in Icel. the word is never used, but it survives in the Norse bu-deia, sæter-deia, agtar-deia, reid-deia (Ivar Aasen), and Swed. deja, = a dairy-maid.

deigja, u, f. wetness, dump.

deigla, u, f. a crucible, Germ. tiegel. v. digull.

deigr, adj. ‘doughy,’ damp, wet; Icel. say, vera d. í fætrna, to be wettish, less than vátr, wet, and more than rakr, damp. β. soft, of steel, and metaph. timid; d. brandr, Kb. 238, Þiðr. 79; deigan skal deigum bjóða (proverb), Háv. 40, Fms. i. 143 (in a verse), iii. 193, Pr. 173.

deigull = dígull, m.; deigul-mór, m. a sort of clay.

DEILA, d, [Goth. dailjan and ga-dailjan = μερίζειν, μεταδιδόναι, διαιρεθν, etc.; A. S. dælan; Engl. to deal; Germ. theilen; O. H. G. tailjan; Swed. dela; Dan. dele.] I. with acc. (never dat.), to deal, divide; the phrase, vilja bæði kjósa ok deila, will both choose and deal, of unfair dealing, a metaphor taken from partners, e. g. fishermen, where one makes the division into shares (deilir), and the others choose (kjósa) the shares they like best, Ld. 38; deildr hlutr, a dealt lot. i. e. share dealt or allotted to one, Grág. i. 243; d. e-m e-t, to allot one a thing, to deal out to one, ii. 294: deila dögurð, d. mat (in mod. usage skamta), to deal out portions of food in a household, Ísl. ii. 337; sér at þar var manni matr deildr, Gísl. 47; þú kunnir aldregi d. mönnum mat, Ls. 46: þá er maðr á brot heitinn ef honum er eigi deildr matr á malum, Grág. i. 149; cp. the proverb, djarfr er hver inn deildan verð; d. fé, Skm. 22; d. bauga, Rm. 20; d. e-t út, to deal out, give, Fms. xi. 434. 2. of places, to divide, bound; fírðir deila, the firths are the boundaries, Grág. ii. 217; vatnsföll (rivers) d. til sjávar. Eg. 131: sva vítt sem vatnsföll deila til sjávar, Landn. 57. K. Þ. K. 34. β. used impers. as it seems; deilir norðr vatnsföllum, Ísl. ii. 345; fjöll þau er vatnsföll deilir af milli héraða, the fells that divide the waters, form the water-shed, between the counties, Grág. i. 432; þar er víkr deilir, Hlt. 3. metaph. to distinguish, discern; eptir þat sá sól, ok máttu þá d. ættir, after that the sun broke forth, and they could discern the airts (of heaven), Fb. i. 431, Fms. iv. 38; deila liti, to discern colours (lit-deili), hence the proverb, eigi deilir litr kosti (acc. pl.), colour (i. e. look, appearance) is no sure test, Nj. 78: metaph., d. víg, to act as umpire in a fight, tourney, or the like, Ls. 22: we ought perh. to read deila (not bera) tilt með tveim, 38. 4. various phrases, deila sér illan hlut af, to deal onself a had share in, to deal badly in a thing, Ld. 152: the phrase, e-t deilir máli (impers.), it goes for a great deal, is of great importance, Hs. 65, mod. usage skipta máli, miklu, etc.: d. mál, to deal with a thing, Hom. 34; d. mál e-s, to deal speech, to discuss or confer with one, Ó. H. 82 (in a verse): d. e-n málum, to deal, i. e. speak, confer, with one, Krók. 36 C: d. orðspeki við e-n, to deal, i. e. contend in learning with one, Vþm. 55; rúnar, Rm. 42; eiga við e-t at d., to have to deal with a thing, Fms. viii. 288: the phrase, d. mál brotum, to deal piecemeal with a case, take a partial or false view of a thing, or is the metaphor taken from bad payment (in bauga-brot, q. v.)? Eb. 184; þeir hafa eigi deilt þetta mál brotum, i. e. they have done it thoroughly, have not been mistaken, Konr. 52: to share in a thing, d. kníf ok kjötstykki, to share knife and meat, Grág., Ísl. ii. 487: the phrase, d. hug, to ‘deal one’s mind,’ pay attention to, with a notion of deep concern and affliction; heil vertú Sváfa, hug skaltú d., thy heart shall thou cleave, Hkv. Hjörv. 40: deildusk hugir, svá at huskarlar héldu varla vatni, their minds were so distraught, that the house-carles could hardly forbear weeping, Fms. vi. (in a verse); hence a hardened man is called lítill skapdeildar maðr, (Hugdeila, mind’s concern, is the name of a poem of the 17th century): at þeir deildi enga úhæfu, that they should forbear dealing outrageously, Fms. i. 22; d. heiptir, to deal hatred, to hate (poët.), Hkv. 41: d. afli, ofríki við e-n, to deal harshly and overbearingly with one. Fms. i. 34; d. illyrðum, ill-deildum, to chide, abuse one another, Háv. 37, Ld. 158. II. neut. to be at feud, quarrel; the saying, sjaldan veldr einn þegar tveir deila; deili gröm við þig, Hkv. I. 43; ek bað flögð d. við þau, Sighvat: d. til e-s, to quarrel for a thing, Eg. 510: d. upp á e-n, to complain of one, Stj. 294. Exod. xvii. 2, ‘Why chide ye with me?’ β. impers., ef í þat deilir, if there be dissent on that point, Grág. ii. 125; ef í deilir með þeim, if they dissent, i. 58. 2. d. um e-t, to contend about a thing, as a law term; þeir deildu (they had a lawsuit) um jarðir, Fms. iv. 201; þeir deildu um landaskipti, 315; þeir deildu um land þat er var …, Landn. 125; þeir deildu um leysingja-arf, 100, 101: metaph., d. um stafn, to come to a close fight, Orkn. 232. III. reflex. to spread, branch off; vatnsföll deilask milli héraða, Grág. ii. 218; svá víða sem hón (i. e. Christianity) deilisk um heim, Hom. 49. 2. meðan mér deilisk lífit til, as long as life be dealt (i. e. granted) me, Fms. viii. 205; e-t deilisk af, a thing comes to pass, Hkr. iii. 55 (in a verse); kölluðu þeir, at lengi mundi vörn deilask af úti, that a long defence would be dealt out, i. e. there would be a long struggle, Sturl. i. 59, cp. the Goth. afdailjan = to pay off; hugr deilisk (vide above): þat mun oss drjúgt deilask, it will cost us dear, Am. 19.

deila, u. f. disagreement, a contest, often as a law term, law contest (laga-deila, þing-deila), Nj. 90, Fms. i. 68, iv. í 19, 198, vi. 136, viii. 146, Sturl. i. 105, Eg. 367, Rd. 304, Ld. 204. COMPDS: deilu-gjarn, adj. quarrelsome, Þórð, 59. deilu-mál, n. a quarrel, Sturl. i. 30. deilu-vænligr, adj. likely to lead to a quarrel. Eg. 725.

deild (deilþ, deilð), f. a deal, dole, share. Edda 147: fara at deildum, to be parcelled out. Orkn. 88, Ísl. ii. 337 (a portion of meat); göra d., to give a dole, N. G. L. i. 142; the phrase. fá illt ór deildum, to get a bad share, be worsted, Sighvat (in a verse). 2. dealings; harðar deildir, hard dealings, Fbr. (in a verse); sannar deildir, just dealings, Lex. Poët.; ill-deildir, ill dealings; grip-deildir, dealings of a robber, robbery; skap-deild, temper. 3. seldom used of fighting with weapons (N. G. L. i. 64), but freq. of a lawsuit (þing-deild), Nj. 138, 141, 86, 36, Eg. 738, Fms. vi. 361, viii. 268, Gþl. 475: the parliamentary phrase, leggja mál í deild, to ‘lay a case under division’ in court (cp. leggja mál í gørð), a phrase which recalls to mind the English parliamentary phrases ‘division’ and ‘divide.’ Sturl. i. 59; leggja mál til deildar, id., Laxd. 204 (MS., Ed. deilu). β. cp. also local names, Deildar-tunga, -hvammr, -hjalli, Landn., Sturl. γ. in Icel. a boundary river is often called Deild or Deildar-á, Deildar-lækr, etc.; or of other boundary places, Deildar-hvammr, etc. δ. metaph., í aðra d., þriðju d., etc., secondly, thirdly, etc., Stj. 9, 21. COMPDS: deildar-arfr, m. inheritance in shares, Grág. i. 172. deildar-lið, n. a strong body of men, so that some can be kept in reserve, Fms. v. 14. deildar-maðr, v. dældarmaðr.

deili, n. pl. marks, whereby to discern one thing (person) from another; sá þó öll d. á honum, all his features were visible, Fas. i. 298; the metaph. phrase, kunna, vita, deili á e-u (e-m), to know the marks of a thing (man), i. e. to know it so as to discern it from another thing; vita öll d. á, to know exactly; vita eingi d. á, to know nothing about, Eg. 185, Fas. ii. 113, Fms. v. 316.

deili-ker, n. a cup, Js. 78, cp. N. G. L. i. 211.

deiling, f. division, dealing.

deilir, m. a dealer. Lex. Poët.: arithm. divisor.

deili-steinn, m. a ‘mark-stone,’ land-mark, D. N.

deill, m. [Germ. theil; Goth. dails; Engl. deal; Swed.-Dan. deel, del], D. N.; this word never occurs in old writers, and can scarcely be said to be in use at present. Icel. use the fem. deild and deila, vide above.

dekr, n. [mid. Lat. dicra], ten hides, B. K. 125. 2. [deck = to dress], flirtation, finery.

dekret, n. a decree (Lat. word), Bs. i. Árna S.

dekstra, að. to coax fur one; in phrases as, vertu ekki að d. harm, or hann vill láta d. sig (of spoilt children).

deli, a. m. a dog, (cant word.)

Dellingr, qs. deglingr, m. [dagr], Dayspring, the father of the Sun, Edda.

demant, m. diamond, (mod.)

demba, d, with dat. to pour out.

demba, u, f. a pouring shower. β. a mist (= dumba), Ivar Aasen.

demma, u, f. [dammr], to dam, D. N.; demning, f. damming, id.

denging (dengð, Grág, ii. 338), f. the whetting a scythe by hammering the edge, Grág. i. 200.

dengir, m. one who whets, a cognom., Fms. x. 219.

dengja, d, [Swed. dänga], to hammer and so whet a scythe; d. lja, Grág. ii. 211.

dengsla, u, f. = denging.

dent-inn, adj. dainty, Snót (Stef. Ól.) 212.

depill, m., dat. depli, [depil = a pond, little pool, from dapi = a pool, Ivar Aasen], a spot, dot; hvítr, svartr d., O. H. L. 59: a dog with spots over the eyes is also called depill.

depla, að, d. auguin, to blink with the eyes.

depra, u, f. [dapr], vide aug-depra or augn-tepra, p. 33.

der, n. the peak or shade of a cap.

des, f., gen. desjar, pl. desjar, = Scot. and North. E. dass or dess (a hay-rick), cp. also Gael. dais; menn eru við heygarð þinn ok reyna desjarnar, Boll. 348; hey-des, a hay-dass, Bs. 54, Sturl. i. 83, 196: it exists in local names as Desjar-mýri in the cast, Des-ey in the west of Icel.

des, n. [cp. Swed. desman], musk, in the compd des-hús, n. a smelling box for ladies to wear on the neck, of gold or ivory.

DETTA, pret. datt, 2nd pers. dazt, pl. duttu; part. dottinn; pres. dett; pret. subj. dytti:—to drop, fall: d. niðr dauðr, to drop down dead, Fms. iii. 132; of a bird when shot, 179; þeir tóku brandana jalhskjótt sem ofan duttu, Nj. 201; spjótið datt ór hendi, El. 91; duttu þær ofan, they tumbled down, Fas. ii. 84; draga þá stundum upp, en láta stundum d., Karl. 161: to drop, die suddenly, sauðfénaðr datt niðr unnvörpum í megrð, Bs. i. 873; þau hafa nú niðr dottið í hor, the cattle dropped down from starvation, 875: to sink, of the heart, Fbr. 108: metaph., líf dettr ór e-m, the life drops out of one, Fms. iii. 214: denoting to come on suddenly, daudinn dettr á, Al. 90; láttu nidr d., engu er nýtt, drop it, it is all false, Fs. 159: the phrases, e-m dettr e-t í hug, a thing drops into one’s mind, i. e. one recollects it suddenly; d. ofan yfir e-n, to be overwhelmed, amazed; d. í stafi, to fall in pieces (as a tub without hoops), to be amazed: cp. datta, dotta.

dett-hendr, adj. a kind of metre, Edda 124, 129: cp. Ht. 29.

dettr, m. the sound of a heavy body falling; heyra dett, Fms. iv. 168.

dett-yrði, n. dropping unregarded words, Mirm.

DEYÐA, dd, [v. dauðr; Ulf. dauþjan; Germ. töden; Swed. döda]:—to kill, put to death, with acc., Ld. 54, Nj. 158, Fms. ii. 270: allit., deyða illum dauða, to put to an ill death, Clem. 57; dræpr ok deyðandi, a law term, Germ. vogelfrei, Gþl. 137; dræpr ok deyðr, N. G. L. i. 351: metaph. (theol.), Fms. ii. 238; d. sik, to mortify one’s lusts, Bs. i. 167.

deyðing, f. a deadening, Vídal., N. T.

DEYFA, ð, [v. daufr; Ulf. ga-daubjan; Germ. betäuben; Dan. döve; Swed. döfva]:—to make blunt; d. sverð, vápn, eggjar (of weapons blunted by the look of a wizard), Korm. 220, Gísl. 80, Ísl. ii. 225; þær er d. sverð ok sefa, Sdm. 27, Eg. 509 (in a verse), Dropl. 36, Hm. 149, where this power is attributed to Odin himself. 2. to ‘deave’ (Scot. and North. E.), i. e. stupefy; medic., d. hönd, Fas. iii. 396: metaph. to soothe or stupefy, d. sakar, to soothe, Ghv. 2. 23; d. sefa, Sdm. l. c. II. = Goth. dauþjan, Germ. taufen, = to dip; d. í vatn, to dip in water, N. G. L. i. 339, 378, v. 1.; vide dýfa.

deyfð, f. (deyfa, u, f.), [Ulf. daubiþa], deafness, N. G. L. i. 228; numbness, having no savour.

deyfi, n. deafness, Bs. ii. 369.

DEYJA, pret. dó, 2nd pers. dótt, later dóst, pl. dó, mod. dóu; part. dáinn; pres. dey, 2nd pers. deyr (in mod. familiar use deyrð): pret. subj. dæi; in the south of Icel. people say dæði, inserting a spurious ð; old poems with neg. suffix, deyr-at, dó-at; a weak pret. form deyði (died) occurs in the Ann. 1400–1430, and was much used in biographies of later centuries, but is borrowed from Dan. döde, unclassical and unknown in the spoken tongue; Icel. always say dó: [the root is akin to dá, q. v., Gr. θάνατος, etc.; Ulf. uses a part. divans, by which he sometimes renders the Gr. θνητός, φθαρτός; undivans = αθάνατος, αφθαρτος; undivanei = αθανασία; but the Gr. θνήσκειν he renders not by divan but by ga-sviltan; Hel. uses dôjan, but rarely; the A. S. seems not to know the word, but uses sviltan, whereas in Icel. svelta means to starve, die of hanger; the Engl. perhaps borrowed the verb to die from the Scandin., whereas to starve (used by Chaucer = Germ. sterben) now means to die of hunger or cold]:—to die: deyr fé, deyja frændr, Hm. 76; hann dó af eitri, 623. 27; er þat sögn manna, af hón hafi af því dáit, Korm. 164; hann dó ór sárum, Fs. 120; þeir dó allir, Landn. 294; dó þar undir ellifu naut, Bs. i. 320; hann dó litlu síðarr, Fms. i. 108; þat áttu eptir sem erfiðast er, ok þat er at d., Nj. 56: betra er at d. með sæmð en lifa með skömm, Orkn. 28: the proverb, deyja verðr hverr inn sinn, omnes una manet nox: the allit. phrase, á deyjanda degi, Ld. 106, Grág. ii. 207, Hkr. iii. 50: eccl., dauða deyja, Gen. iii. 3, Matth. xv. 4, ‘let him die the death,’ Engl. A. V.; d. góðum, illum dauða, to die a good, bad death, etc.: it sometimes has in it a curious sense of motion, hann kaus at d. í Mælifell, Landn. 192; þeir Selþórir frændr dó í Þórisbjörg, 78; trúði at hann mundi deyja í fjallit, Eb. 7 new Ed., v. l., where it means to die (i. e. pass by death) into the fell, i. e. they believed that after death they would pass into the fell; cp. hinnig deyja ór Helju halir, Vþm. 43. β. medic. to die, of a limb, Pr. 239. γ. of inanimate things; dáinn arfr, a law phrase, a dead inheritance, i. e. left to the heir, Gþl. 263; hence dánar-fé, dánar-arfr, q. v.

DEYNA, d, [daunn], to stink, 544. 39, Hom. 151, 623. 22, Stj. 91

deyning, f. a stink, bad smell, Stj. 51.

deypa, ð, [cp. Goth. daupjan; Engl. dip; Germ. taufen; Dan. döbe], to dip in water, baptize, N. G. L. i; an obsolete word.

digla, að, to drip, prop. of a running at the nose (v. dígull), Sd. 168: to drip, of wet clothes hung out, Konr. 32.

digna, að, to bencome moist (deigr): to lose temper (of steel), Nj. 203: metaph. to lose heart, Karl. 390, Ó. T. 20, Flóv. 44, Fas. iii. 540, G. H. M. ii. 712.

DIGR, adj., neut. digrt, [the Goth. probably had an adj. digrs; Ulf. renders αδρότης by digrei; Swed. diger; the Germ. dick is different, and answers to Icel. þjokkr, þykkr]:—stout, big; a pole is digr, a wall þykkr: the phrase, d. sem naut, big as an ox, Eb. 314; hár ok d., Anal. 79; d. fótr, Nj. 219; Ólafr Digri, Olave the Fat, Ó. H.: er kálfi var digrastr, Nj. 247: digrt men (monile), Fms. vi. 271; falr langr ok digr, Eg. 285; digrir fjötrar, Sks. 457: (hon) gékk digr með tveim, she was big with twins, Str. 16. β. irregularly = þykkr; d. panzari, Sturl. ii. 59; d. ok feit nautssíða, a thick side of bacon, Fms. ii. 139. 2. metaph., göra sik digran, to puff oneself out, Bs. i. 719, Karl. 197; digr orð, big words, threats, Ísl. ii. 330, Bs. i. 758. β. gramm. deep, of a tune, sound, Skálda 177, Ísl. ii. 467, v. 1.

digrask, að, to grow big, of a pregnant woman, Fms. xi. 53; d. í gerðum, id., Bárð. 173, Fb. i. 157: metaph. to make oneself big, d. ok dramba, Th. 11.

digr-barkliga, adv. ‘big-throated,’ haughtily, Finnb. 252, Bs. i. 764.

digr-beinn, adj. big-legged, Fms. iv. 28.

digrð, f. bigness, stoutness (cp. lengd, hæð, breidd, þykt), Fms. iii. 209.

digr-hálsaðr, adj. = háls-digr, big-necked, Þiðr. 18.

digr-leikr, m. (-leiki, a, m.), bigness, Edda 20, Ann. 1345, Bs. ii. 167, 173: aspiration, Skálda 180.

digr-ligr, adj. (-liga, adv.), big, boastful. Bs. i. 728, Eg. 711, v. 1.

digr-nefjaðr, adj. = nef-digr, big-nosed, Sturl. iii. 111 C.

digr-yrði, n. pl. big words, Stj. 461.

DIK, n. a run, leap; taka dik (taka undir sig d.), to take a spring, Bs. ii. 143: the word is probably foreign, but root uncertain; hence comes mið-dik, n., pronounced mið-bik, the middle of a thing; hún (i. e. the Reformation) hefir upphaiit illt og efnislaust, mið-dikið mátalaust, og endann afskaplegan, Bs. ii. 313, a pastoral letter of the old popish bishop Ögmund, A. D. 1539.

dika, ad, to run, (mod.)

dikt, n. composition in Latin, Látínu-dikt, Fms. iii. 163, Bs. i. 869, ii. 121; þat nýja dikt, 77: söngva-dikt, composition of songs, Sörla R. I. 5.

DIKTA, að, [Lat. dictare], to compose in Latin; Gunnlaugr munkr er Látínu söguna diktað hefir, Bs. i. 215, 786; dikta ok skrifa bréf á Látínu; bréf skrifað ok diktað, 798; d. bækr, 79; d. vers, 655 xxxii. 17; d. röksemdir, Bs. i. 786: in old writers dikta is only used of Latin (not Icel.) compositions, but as these compositions were in an affected and artificial style, the word also got the sense of fiction, cp. Germ. dichten, dicbter = a poet, dichtung = poetry; mod. Dan. digter; Engl. ditty; in Icel. mostly with the notion of falsehood, not as in Germ. and mod. Dan. of fancy. 2. to romance, lie; logit eðr diktað, Stj. 40; diktaðu þar andsvör þau er eigi vóru sönn, 248: menn hugðu þetta ráð diktað (feigned), Bs. i. 757; sem fjandinn hafði diktað, Mar. (Fr.); Dóra þú lézt dikta ljóð, dári þig sérhver maðr, Vídal. (a ditty).

diktan, f. composition in Latin, Bs. i. 798.

diktr, m. a poem (rare), seldom used but as a name of several legendary poems of the 15th and 16th century, Ceciliu-d., etc.

dilk-fé, n. ewes together with their lambs, Bs. i. 719.

DILKR, m. a sucking lamb, Grett. 137, Þorst. St. 51, Grág. i. 417, ii. 307, in the last passage also of sucking pigs, calves or kids; kvíga (a ‘quey’ or young cow) með tvá dilka, Ísl. ii. 401; in Icel. households the lambs are separated from the mother in June, this is called ‘færa frá,’ the time ‘fráfærur,’ the lamb ‘fráfæru-lamb;’ the lambs that are left with the mother all the summer are called ‘dilkar’ as opp. to ‘fráfæru-lamb.’ 2. metaph. the small folds all round a great sheepfold. β. the phrase, e-t dregr dilk eptir sér, it brings trouble in its train.

dilk-sauðr, m. a sheep with a lamb, Grág. i. 418.

dilk-ær, f. a ewe with a lamb, Grág. ii. 304.

dilla, að, with dat. to trill, lull; dillandi rödd, a sweet voice: dillindo, interj. lullaby: dillari, a, m. a triller, of the nightingale; hjartans danspípu dillarinn, Jón Þorl. i. 131.

dimma, d, (but dinimaðisk, Fb. i. 91; dimmat, part., Mar.):—to become dim; neut. or impers., um kveldit er d. tók, when it began to grow dark, Fms. viii. 305; dimmir af nótt, the night darkens, iii. 135: also of clouds, to grow dark (of a gale, storm); þá hvesti ok dimdi í fjörðinn, Espol. Árb. 1768.

dimma, u, f. dimness, darkness, esp. of clouds, nightfall; seglið bar í fjarðar-dimmuna, Espol. Árb. l. c.: metaph. gloom, Pass. 4. ii; the phrase, dimmu dregr á e-t, it becomes clouded, looks threatening, Band. 10.

dimm-hljóðr, adj. = dimmraddaðr, Fas. ii. 231.

DIMMR, adj. [A. S. and Engl. dim], dim, dark, dusky; d. ok dökt ský, a dim and dark sky, Fms. xi. 136; verða dimt fyrir augum, to see dimly, esp. of sudden changes from darkness to light, iii. 217; var dimt hit neðra, dark below, Háv. 40; d. himin, Matth. xvi. 3; harla dimt var af nótt, Pass. II. 1; dimm nótt, a dark night; d. stigr, a dim path, Fms. i. 140; dimt él, a dark storm, Úlf. 7. 63; d. regn, Lex. Poët.; d. dreki, the dusky dragon, Vsp. 66. β. of voice, hollow, Ísl. ii. 467; vide the following word.

dimm-raddaðr, adj. deep-voiced, Grett. 111.

dimm-viðri, n. dark, cloudy weather.

dindill, m. the tail of a seal.

dingla, að, to dangle; dingull, m. a small spider, cp. dor-dingull.

dirfa, ð, (vide djarfr), to dare, always with the reflex. pronoun separated or suffixed, dirfask or d. sik, with infin. to dare, Fms. xi. 54, Ísl. ii. 331; d. sik til e-s, to take a thing to heart, Al. 88, 656 A. I. 36: reflex., dirfask, to dare; bændr dirfðusk mjök við Birkibeina, became bold, impudent, Fms. ix. 408; er þeir dirfðusk at hafa með höndum hans píslar-mark, vii. 195; engi maðr dirfðisk at kveðja þess, i. 83, K. Á. 114; dirfask í e-u, þá dirfðumk ek í ræðu ok spurningum, I grew more bold in speech, Sks. 5.

dirfð, f. boldness, often with the notion of impudence, arrogance, Eg. 47, Glúm. 309, Fms. iv. 161, xi. 54, Post. 645. 71; of-dirfð, impudence.

dirfska, u, f. = dirfð; of-dirfska, temerity.

dirokkr, m. a drudge (Dan. drog), a word of abuse, Edda (Gl.)

dirrindi, onomatopoetic. the lark’s note, see p. xxxii, col. 1, bottom.

DISKR, m. [a for. word: from Gr. δίσκος; Lat. discus; A. S. and Hel. disc; Engl. desk and disk; Germ. tisch]:—a plate; þá vóru öngir diskar, Ísl. (Heiðarv. S.) ii. 337, O. H. L. 36, Fms. i. 259, Bs. i. 475; silfr-d., gull-d., silver and gold plate are mentioned as a present given to a king, O. H. 154, cp. Fb. iii. 332; both the words used in this sense, diskr and skutill (Lat. scutellum, Germ. schüssel) are of for. origin; cp. also Rm. 4, 39: in the earliest times small movable tables also served as plates.

dispensera, að, to dispense (Lat. word), H. E. i. 510.

dispenseran, f. dispensing, Stj., Bs.

disputa, disputera, að, to dispute (Lat. word), Stj.

díametr, n. diameter (Gr. word), 732. 7.

DÍAR, m. pl. [the Icel. has two words, but both of them poetical and obsolete, viz. díar answering, by the law of Interchange, to Gr. θεός (Icel. d = Gr. θ), and tívar, by the same law, to Lat. deus (Icel. t = Lat. d); cp. Sansk. devas, Gr. θειος, Lat. dîvus, Ital. dio, Fr. dieu]:—gods or priests; this word occurs only twice, Yngl. S. ch. 2—þat var þar siðr, at tólf hofgoðar vóru æðstir, skyldu þeir ráða fyrir blótum ok dómum manna í milli; þat eru díar kallaðir eðr drottnar,—where diar means not the gods themselves but the priests; and by the old poet Kormak in an obscure periphrasis, in a poem addressed to the staunch heathen earl Sigurd; Snorri (Edda 96), in quoting Kormak, takes the word to mean gods; but the version given in Yngl. S. seems more likely; the díar of the Yngl. S. were probably analogous to the Icel. goði, from goð (deus). The age of Kormak shews that the word was probably not borrowed from the Latin.

dígull, m. [deig]. I. the mucus of the nose; d. er horr, Edda (Lauf.), Lex. Poët.; hence hor-digull, Fas. ii. 149; mod. hor-dingull, as if it were from dingla. II. [Swed.-Dan. digel; Germ. tiegel], a crucible; hence poët., gold is called digul-farmr, digul-snjór, -jökull, the load, snow, icicle of the crucible, Lex. Poët.

DÍKI and dík, n. [Germ. teich], a dike, ditch, Eg. 529–531, Hkr. iii. 154, Jb. 245, Grett. 161, Fms. iii. 187, vi. 406, Ó. H. 21 (in a verse), Orkn. 452; díkis-bokki, a, m. an eel, poët., Kormak.

DÍLI, a, m. a spot, mark; alloðin nema d. undir vinstri hendi, Fms. iii. 125. β. esp. medic., b. díla, to burn with caustic; this operation was in olden times performed (caustic being unknown) with a pointed hot iron, and is described in an interesting passage in Bs. i. 379, cp. also Rafns S. ch. 4, Bs. i. 644, Nj. 209. γ. a brand (on thieves), esp. on the back (v. brenna); fyrr skulu grónir grautar-dílarnir á hálsi þér, þeir er þú brant… en ek myna gipta þér systur mína, Eb. 210, Hkr. iii. 148, Fbr. 190; vide brenna.

DÍS, f., pl. disir, and an older but obsolete form jó-dís, which remains in the earliest poems, jódís (the sister of) úlfs ok Nara = Hela, Ýt. 7; but Loga dís, the sister of Logi, 9; cp. Edda 109: it also remains in the Icel. fem. pr. name Jódís,—the explanation given in Skálda 183 (from jór, equus, and dís) has no philological value, being only the poet’s fancy: [Hel. idis = virgo; A. S. ides; Grimm ingeniously suggests that the Idistaviso in Tacitus may be corrupt for Idisiaviso, the virgin-mead, from idis and viso = Germ. wiese.] I. a sister, Ýt. l. c.; heitir ek systir, dís, jódís, a sister is called dis and jódís, Edda 109; dís skjöldunga, the sister of kings, Bkv. 14. II. generally a goddess or priestess (?), a female guardian-angel, who follows every man from his birth, and only leaves him in the hour of death, cp. the very interesting passages, Hallfr. S. Fs. 114, Þorst. Síðu H. Anal. 184, 185, Gísl., Fms. ii. 192–195 (cp. Nj. 148); hence the phrase, ek kveð aflima orðnar þér dísir, the dísir have left thee, thou art a lost man, Am. 26; cp. also the phrase, heillum horfinn. 2. poët. a maid in general, Lex. Poët. 3. freq. in Icel. as a fem. pr. name, in compds, Jó-dís, Her-dís, Val-dís, Vig-dís, Hjör-dís, etc. COMPDS: dísa-blót, n. a sacrifice to the disir, Eg. 205, Yngl. S. ch. 33; þar var veizla búin at vetr-nóttum ok gört disablót, Glúm. 336. In early Swed. laws occur disa-þing, a general assembly, held in February, and disa-þings dagher = the day when the d. sat; disn-þings fridher = the peace, sanctity of the d., Schlyter. dísa-salr, m. the temple of the disir, Yngl. S. ch. 33, Hervar. S. Fas. i. 454. dísa-skald, n. thedisir-Scald,’ surname of a heathen Icel. poet who composed a poem in honour of the dísir, Edda, Skáldat.

díviki, a, m. the bung of a cask, Egilsson’s Poems, 68.

dívisera, að, to distribute (Lat. word), Stj. 42, 80.

djarf-leikr, m. (-leiki, a, m.), courage, Edda 16, Fs. 6, Þiðr. 273.

djarf-ligr, adj. bold, daring, Fb. i. 380, 445. djarf-liga, adv., Fms. i. 27, ix. 302, Nj. 48, Ld. 214.

djarf-mannligr (djarfa-mannligr), adj. daring, Bárð. 164.

djarf-mæltr, adj. bold-spoken, Nj. 6, Fms. xi. 53.

DJARFR, adj. [cp. dirfa above; Hel. derbi or derui = audax, improbus; mod. High Germ. derb = hard is a different word, answering to A. S. þeorf, and originally meant unleavened (of bread); kindred words are, Engl. dare, daring, Gr. θαρρειν]:—bold, daring, but also in a bad sense, audacious, impudent; d. í orrustum, bold in battle, Edda 16; d. ok dularfullr, impudent and arrogant, Fms. i. 75; at Ólafr digri mundi eigi svá d. vera at…, so foolishly daring, iv. 107; nú ver eigi síðan svá d., at þú talir ósæmilig orð við Harald, be not so presumptuous as to speak unseeming words to Harold, vii. 168; firna djörf kona ertú ok heimsk, impudent and foolish, xi. 54; djarfastr (boldest) ok bezt hugaðr, Edda 16; víg-djarfr, sókn-djarfr, hug-djarfr, valiant; u-djarfr, shy.

djarf-tækr, adj. bold in taking, Stj. 422 (of Ruth gleaning).

djarf-yrtr, part. = djarfmæltr.

djákn, m. (djákni, a, m., Sturl. i. 180 C), the Lat. diaconus, a deacon, Dipl. v. 22, Bs., K. Á., K. Þ. K., Vm., etc.

djásn, n. a diadem, D. N. i, 321, 590, etc. (freq. in mod. use); prob. a foreign word, though the root is uncertain.

djúp, n. the deep; í djúpum vatna, in the depths of the waters, Sks. 628; mikit djúp (a great gulf) á milli vor staðfest, Luke xvi. 26; at eigi svelgi oss djúpit, 655 xxxii; djúp árinnar, the channel in a river, Fas. i. 151. β. the deep sea off the shore is called djúp; kastaði hann öxinni fyrir borð á djúpi, Eg. 196; síðan býr Agnarr sik til ok kafar í djúpit, Fas. i. 27: the fishers distinguish between grunn-mið and djúp-mið, vide mið; Icel. also say, hundrað, sextigi… faðma djúp: a large bay may be called djúp, e. g. Ísafjarðar-djúp, Landn. 147; sjávar-djúp, hafs-djúp, the main; hann lét grafa út d. (a ‘deep,’ i. e. channel) við Skeljastein, Fms. x. 153. γ. metaph., eilift d., 656 B. 9: eccl. used of God, d. miskunnar, gæzku, depth of mercy, grace, etc.; cp. dýpt, dýpi.

djúp-auðigr or -úðigr, adj. the cognom. of Auda, Landn.; it probably means the wise, deep.

djúp-fyndni, f. ‘deep-finding,’ wit, ingenuity, Pass. 21. 3. djúp-fundinn, part. ‘deep-found,’ ingenious, Króka Refs R. 4. 2.

djúp-hugaðr, part. deep-minded, Skálda (in a verse), Post. 53.

djúp-hugsaðr, adj. deep-musing, Sturl. ii. 202.

djúp-hyggja, u, f. (-hyggni, f.), sagacity, Fagrsk. 32.

djúp-leiki (-leikr), a, m. depth, Magn. 514, Karl. 394.

djúp-ligr, adj. (-liga, adv.), deep, deeply, Sks. 552.

DJÚPR, adj., compar. djúpari, superl. djúpastr; djúpust, Greg. 62; djúpari (fem.), Eg. 99; djúpara, Ld. 78; djúpastan, Edda 34; djúpasti, Hom. 144; but in mod. use more freq. dýpri, dýpstr: [Goth. djûps; A. S. and Hel. diôp; Engl. deep; Germ. tief; Swed. djup; Dan. dyb]:—deep, of water; d. vatn, Grág. ii. 131; d. tjörn, Greg. 62; í hinn djúpa sæ, Edda 18, Sturl. ii. 202; djúp á, Eg. 99: of other things, a dale, pit, etc., djúpr dalr, Fms. i. 210, Edda 34; dökkva dala ok djúpa, 38; djúpar grafir (pits), Sks. 426; d. pyttr, Hom. 144: of a vessel (the ark), 625. 7; djúpt sár, a deep sore, i. e. wound, Dropl. 29; d. höttr, a deep hat, coming down over the eyes, Fms. viii. 368; d. hver, a deep kettle, Hým. 5. β. neut. as adv. deep, deeply; bitu hvelin djúpt í jörðina, Al. 140. 2. metaph., d, tákn, Hom. 134: heavy, severe, d. laun, 100: the phrase, leggjask djúpt, to dive deep, Nj. 102: in mod. usage freq. in a metaph. sense, deep, profound.

djúp-ráðigr and -ráðr, adj. deep-counselling, Þiðr. 135, Fagrsk. 32.

djúp-ræði, n. deep-scheming, Fagrsk. 32, v. 1.

djúp-settr, adj. deep, deep-laid; d. ráð, Magn. 466, Fas. iii. 218; d. orð, Stj. 4; d. maðr, a deep man, Fms. xi. 44.

djúp-skygn, adj. (-skygni, f.), deep-seeing.

djúp-sæi, f. the seeing deep, profoundness, Stj. 560.

djúp-sær (-sæligr), adj. seeing deep, penetrating, Eb. 224, Sks. 552.

djúp-úðigr, adj. [A. S. deop-hydig], deep-minded.

djúp-vitr, adj. deeply wise, Orkn. 230, Fas. iii. 53.

DJÖFULL, m., dat. djöfli, pl. lar; [Gr. διάβολος; eccl. Lat. diabolus; A. S. deofol; Engl. devil; Germ. teufel; Swed. djefvul; Dan. djævel; the nearest to the Icel. is the A. S. form, which shews that the word came from England with Christianity; of course in the old Saga time the word was almost unknown; the evil spirits of the heathens were trolls and giants]:—a devil, Nj. 273, Fms. ii. 184; but in Bs., Fms. viii. sqq., the legendary Sagas, etc. it is freq. enough: as a term of abuse, Sturl. ii. 115, Fms. viii. 95, 368, ix. 50; djöfla-blót (vide blót), Mart. 115; djöfla-mót, meeting of d., Greg. 51; djöfuls-kraptr, devil’s craft, diabolical power, Fms. x. 283, Fas. i. 254.

djöful-ligr, adj. (-liga, adv.), devilish, 623. 24, 625. 72, Fms. x. 289 290, Barl. 149, Mar. 60.

djöful-óðr, adj. ‘devil-wud,’ possessed, Orkn. 518, Clem. 51, N. T.

djöful-ærr adj. = djöfulóðr, Mar. 656 B. 7.

djörfung, f. [djarfr], boldness, in a good sense, Fms. iv. 133, Pass. 40. 17: impudence, Fms. ii. 184, H. E. i. 503: cp. dirfð, dirfska.

DOÐI, a, m. [dauðr], deadness, insensibility.

doðka, u, f. the bird tringa fusca, lækjar-duðra, Fél. i. 17, Edda (Gl.)

doð-na, að, to become insensible, Anal. 196.

doðr-kvisa, u, f. a kind of bird, Edda (Gl.)

dofi, a, m. [daufr], medic. torpor, in the hands, feet, etc.,—handar-dofi, fota-dofi; as to the art, stein-dofi, anaesthesia; núla-dofi, ‘needle-torpor,’ ‘pins and needles,’ Fél. ix. 205, 206: metaph. torpor, numbness, Stj. 97, Hom. 108.

dofin-leikr, m. torpor, Pass. 9. 10.

dofinn, adj. dead, of a limb; d. er mér fótr minn, Vápn. 21: metaph. drowsy, [Dan. doven], Al. 71.

dofna, að, [Goth. daubnan; Swed. domna], to become dead, of limbs; dofnaði höndin, Fms. vi. 203, Stj. 296, 297: of water, flat, Sks. 165: metaph. the phrase, dofnar yfir e-u, the matter begins to die out, people cease to talk about it, Fms. x. 301, Bs. i. 348, Band. 4; hugr dofnar, the mind gets heavy, Brandkr. 60.

dogg, n. a pillow (?), in the phrase, að sitja upp við dogg, to lie half erect in bed, leaning the head upon a high pillow.

dokk, dokka, u, f. a windlass, Fms. x. 53.

doparr, m., and doppa, u, f. a boss of metal, Þiðr. 111, Karl, 550 (in a saddle); of earrings, D. N. i. 321: (the last word is freq.)

dor-dígull (dordingull), m. a small spider; araneus tolas ater splendens, filo demissorio, Eggert Itin. 609; also called fiski-karl, fisher-carle; the word is no doubt to be spelt dorg-dígull, i. e. angling spider; for popular lore as to the dordígull vide Ísl. Þjóðs. ii. 547, 548: the small spider’s web is called hégómi, q. v.

dorg, f. an angler’s tackle, rod and line, etc., for trout or small fish; þeir réru tveir á báti með dorgar sínar at smá-fiski, Sæm. Gm. (introd.), p. 32; land-dorgar, the land of dorg, the sea, Edda 66; dorgar-skot, a kind of fishing implement, D. N. iii. 201; cp. dorga.

dorga, að, to fish with a dorg: in mod. use dorg is only used of fishing through holes in the ice; metaph. Icel. also say, d. við e-t, to go angling for a thing, go dangling after it.

dorma, að, [Lat. dormire], to doze.

dormr, m. a dormitory in a convent, Safn i. 82.

dornikar, m. pl. [from Doornik in Flanders], a kind of water-tight boots, Jón Þorl.

dorri, a, m. a wether.

dotta, að, (dott, n.), to nod from sleep; dottr, m. a nodder, Háv. 44.

dólg (dolg), n. [A. S. dolg = vidnus, O. H. G. tolg], direful enmity, only in poetry in compds, as dólg-brandr, -eisa, -ljós, the fire, embers, light of the d., = sword; dólg-lið, the ale of the d., i. e. blood; dólg-linnr, the d. snake, i. e. spear; dolg-svala, the battle-swallow, i. e. the shaft; gaping wounds are called dólg-spor, Hkv. 2. 40.

dólg-ligr, adj. fiendish, Finnb. 326.

dólg-maðr, m. = dólgr, Hkv. 2. 49 (Ed. dólgar mær).

DÓLGR (dolgr), m. [Ulf. renders χρεωφειλέτης, Luke vii. 41, by dulgisskula; and δανειστής, id., by dulgahaitja]:—a fiend; dauðir dólgar, ghosts, Hkv. 2. 49—verða öflgari allir á nóttum dauðir dólgar mær, en um daga ljósa—used synonymous to ‘devil,’ djöfull, Fms. iii. 200, vi. 143, x. 172 (of a giant); þar sat dólgr í hásæti, mikill ok illiligr (of witches), Fas. ii. 184; svartir dólgar, Karl. 525; sögðu at sá d. væri kominn í bygðina er þeim þætti eigi dæll viðfangs, Grett. 127; söku-dólgr, a criminal; vide dylgja.

dóli, a, m. [dole, Ivar Aasen; cp. Engl. dull], a drudge, Edda. (Gl.)

dólpr, m. a sort of dress, Edda (Gl.) 232.

dólpungr, m. the larva of a caterpillar, Björn.

dómandi, a, m., pl. dómendr, [A. S. dêmend], a judge, Fas. ii. 32, Grág. i. 27, 65, 79, Nj., N. G. L. i. ii, Eg. ch. 57, Stj. 378 sqq.; as to the Icel. judges cp. esp. Grág. Þ. Þ. ch. 1, 6, and numberless passages in the laws and Sagas.

dómari, a, m. [Dan. dommer; Swed. domare], a judge, this is the common form instead of dómandi, Edda 93, K. Á. 202, Sks. 472 B, Pass. 27. 5, 28. 10; dómara-sæti, n. judgment-seat, Sks. 480 B; Dómara-bók, f. the Book of Judges: used besides in many compds, lands-dómari, chief judge, of Pilate, Matth. xxvii. 27, Pass. 25. i; yfir-dómari, undir-dómari, etc.

dóm-fé, n. a fee or payment fixed by sentence, D. N.

dóm-festa, u, f. submitting to subpoena, N. G. L. i. 22, 221.

dóm-flogi, a, m. a law term, a runaway from court, used either of the plaintiff or judge if they do not appear in court, or quit the court, or even rise in court, without leave; in which case the judge forfeits his seat, and the plaintiff his case; defined N. G. L. i. 23, 220.

dóm-hringr, m. ‘doom-ring,’ ‘judgment-ring;’ (cp. also vé-bönd, the sacred bounds or bar): the courts of heathen times were surrounded by the dómhringr, about a bow-shot from the centre where the benches were placed; no evil-doer might enter this hallowed ring, or commit an act of violence within it; if he did so, he was called a vargr í véum (lupus in sanctii); the Engl. law term ‘bar’ answers to this old word, cp. Gr. δρύφακτοι, Lat. cancelli; the Goth. staua, = court and judge, properly means a staff, bar; the bar was, according to Eg. l. c., a pole of hazel-wood, hesli-stengr: classical passages referring to this,—þar sér enn dómhring þann, er menn vóru dæmdir í til blóts, í þeim hring stendr Þórs steinn, etc., Eb. ch. 10; þar stendr enn Þórs steinn … ok þar ‘hjá’ (better) er sá domhringr er (in which) menn skyldi til blóts dæma, Landn. 98: another classical passage is Eg. ch. 57 beginning; cp. also Fas. iii. Gautr. S. ch. 7, Edda 10, though the ‘ring’ is not expressly mentioned in these last two passages: hann gengr í dómhringinn ok setzk niðr, Band. 6; en þeir eigu at rísa ór dóminum ok sitja í dómhring innan meðan um þá sök er dæmt, Grág. i. 78, cp. 17, 26: in early heathen times this sacred circle was formed by a ring of stones, cp. dóm-steinar: no doubt some of the so-called Celtic or Druidical stone circles are relics of these public courts, e. g. the Stones of Stennis in the Orkneys; cp. Scott’s last note to the Pirate, referring to this subject: even in later times, when the thing was obsolete, the name still remained.

dóm-hús, n. the ‘house of doom,’ court-bouse, Sks. 784; the idea is foreign, though the word is native: the old courts and meetings were always held in the open air.

dóm-kirkja, u, f. [Germ. dom-kirche, from Lat. domus], a cathedral, (mod.)

dóm-leggja, lagði, a law term, to lay before a court, Dipl. iii. 13.

dóm-nefna, u, f. the nomination of judges in the Icel. court, described in Íb. ch. 5; in parliament the goðar (priests) had the right to appoint the judges, Grág. i. 25; þeir (viz. the priests) skyldu dómnefnur eiga á þingum, Fms. iii. 106.

DÓMR, m. [Goth. dôms, which occurs once, but not in Ulf., who only uses the word in compds, and renders κρίσις and κριτής by siaua; A. S. dôm; Engl. doom and the termin. -dom; O. H. G. tom; known in Germ. only from the termin. -tum (-thum)]. I. a court of judgment, the body of judges, or the ‘court’ itself; the Icel. law of the Commonwealth distinguishes between several bodies of judges; in parliament there were Fjórðungs-dómar, ‘Quarter Courts,’ one for each of the political quarters of the country, Breiðfirðinga-d. or Vestfirðinga-d. for the West, Rangæinga-d. for the South, Eyfirðinga-d. or Norðlendinga-d. for the North, and Austfirðinga-d. for the East; these courts were instituted by Thord Gellir A. D. 964: at a later date a fifth High Court, called Fimtar-domr, the Fifth Court, was erected about A. D. 1004; vide Nj. ch. 98, Íb. ch. 8, Grág., esp. Þ. Þ. in the first chapters, and many passages in the Sagas, esp. Nj., Sturl.; and of mod. authors, Konrad Maurer in his essay, Die Entstehung des Icel. Staates, Ed. 1852, Dasent’s Introd. to Burnt Njal;—the treatise of Maurer is an indispensable guide in matters of the Fimtar-dómr. There are other courts on record, e. g. dyra-dómr, a court at the door of the defendant, vide Eb. ch. 18 and N. G. L.; nú skal dóm setja fyrir durum verjanda, en eigi á bak húsi; hann (viz. the plaintiff) skal setja dóm sinn eigi nær húsi en svá, at verjandi (the defender) megi setja sinn dóm milli dura ok dóms hans ok aka hlassi viðar milli dóms ok dura (vide dæma), N. G. L. i. 22: technical law-phrases as to the courts, setja dóm, to set the court, let the judges take their seats; dómar fara út, the courts ‘fare out,’ i. e. open; færa út dóm, dóma-útfærsla, i. e. the opening of the courts, Grág. i. 27,—the judges went out in a body in procession and took their seats; ryðja dóm, to challenge the court, Nj.; ganga at dómi, to go into court; nefna dóm, to name the judges (dóm-nefna); sitja í dómi, to sit in court; mál ferr í dóm, a case goes into court; hleypa upp dómi, to break up the court by force; bera fé í dóm, to bribe the court; dóms-afglapan, vide afglapan;—for all these phrases, vide Grág., Þ. Þ. in the first chapters, Nj., esp. ch. 140 sqq., Eg. ch. 57, N. G. L. i, Gþl. This sense is now almost obsolete, but it remains in the Manx demster and Scot. doomster. II. doom, judgment, sentence, and this may be the original sense; dóms-atkvæði, dóms-orð, and dóms-uppsaga mean doom, sentence, as pronounced by the presiding judge, Nj., H. E. ii. 115, Sks. 159, Band. 6, Grág. i. 3, 83; dóma-dagr, doomsday, the day of judgment; Norna-dómr, the doom of the Norns, their weird, fate, Ýt. 23, Fm. 11; skapa-dómr, id. β. judgment, opinion. III. denoting state, condition, age, in words such as heiðin-dómr, Kristin-dómr, the heathen, Christian age, faith; konung-dómr, a kingdom; biskups-dómr, a bishopric, etc.; hefja ór heiðnum dómi, to lift out of heathendom, baptize, Sighvat. 2. helgir dómar, relics, Bs., H. E., Grág. ii. 165, Fms. i. 230, v. 143, Gpl. 70:—but helgidómr, Old Engl. halidom, Germ. heiligthum: leyndr d., mystery, μυστήριον of the N. T.; leynda dóma himnaríkis, Matth. xiii. 11; þenna leyndan dóm, Rom. xi. 25; sjáið, að eg segi yðr leyndan dóm, 1 Cor. xv. 51. 3. in many compds = Engl. -dom, -hood, -head; Guð-dómr, Godhead; mann-dómr, manhood,

dóm-rof, n. disregard of judgment, Grág. i. 87, cp. Gþl. 21.

dóm-ruðning, f. a challenging of judges, Grág. i. 27.

dóm-seta, u, f. sitting in court, judgment, Sks. 638, 641.

dóm-setning, f. opening the court, N. G. L. i. 220.

dóm-staðr, m. court, tribunal, Grág. i. 448, ii. 405, Edda 10.

dóm-staurr, m. a court bar, properly court rails, but used in N. G. L. i. 220 of select men who stand outside and pronounce an opinion on the case.

dóm-stefna (-stemna), u, f. a citing, summoning, Grág. i. 448.

dóm-steinar, m. pl. ‘court-stones,’ court-ring, Sturl. i. 31, vide dómhringr.

dóm-stóll, m. the judgment-seat, John xix. 13, Sks. 622, 637, Hom. 46, Fms. x. 443.

dóm-sæti, n. = dómstóll, Sks. 488, 606.

dóm-sætr, adj., in the phrases, vera d., N. G. L. i. 84; eiga dómsætt, to be qualified to sit in a court, a lawful judge, Grág. i. 64.

dóm-varzla, u, f. guarding a court, Grág. i. 65. dómvörzlu-maðr, m. a man who guards the court, a javelin-man, Grág. l. c.

DÓNI, a, m. (and compds dóna-legr, -skapr, -háttr); this is a college word, by which the students of the old colleges at Skalholt and Hólar called outsiders as opposed to collegians, like the Philister of Germ. universities: it is still used: from Span. don, through the E. Engl. done, (‘In þi dysch sette not þi spone, noþer on þe brynke, as unlernyd done,’ = einsog ólærðr dóni, as an illiterate clown (used mockingly), Bodl. Ashm. MSS. no. 61, about A. D. 1500, Boke of Curtesy, E. Engl. Text Society, 1868.)

dós, f. [cp. Engl. dose, Dan. daase], a small box, snuff-box, (mod. word.)

dót, n. [North. E. doit], trumpery, trifles, (cant word.)

DÓTTIR, f., gen. dat. acc. dóttur, plur. dœtr, later dætr or dætur; gen. dætra, dat. dætrum; the Icel. keeps a single t throughout in the plur., whereas Swed. and Dan. have döttre; dættr also occurs in Sks. B. (a Norse MS.), and at least once or twice in poetry, cp. the rhyme, Ægis dættr ok tættu, Edda (Ed. A. M.) i. 324; and Hlés dættr, Skálda 198: [Gr. θυγάτηρ; Ulf. dauhtar; A. S. dohtor; Engl. daughter; Swed. dotter; Dan. datter; O. H. G. tohtar; Germ. tochter; the Greek has a short υ, and the Goth. has au, answering to Gr. ο; the diphthongal ó and the double t in the Scandin. is only caused by the suppression of the middle consonant gh]:—a daughter; hann átti dóttur eina er Unnr hét, Nj. 1; Þóra dóttir Sigurðar Orms í auga; Þorgerðr dóttir Þorsteins ens Rauða, 2; Höskuldr átti sér dóttur er Hallgerðr hét, id.; er illt at eiga dáðlausa sonu, ok víst ætla ek yðr til þess betr felda at þér værit dætr föðurs yðvars ok værit giptar, Ld. 236; gott skaplyndi hefðit þér þá fengit, ef þér værit dætr einhvers bónda, 216; nú veit ek at þú ert d. en ekki sonr, er þú þorir eigi at verja frændr þína, Háv. 43. If suffixed to a name, -dóttir denotes a woman, -son a man, e. g. Þorsteinn Egils-son, but his sister Þorgerðr Egils-dóttir; Halldórr Ólafs-son, but Halldóra Ólafs-dóttir, vide the Index of Names to Landn., the Sagas, etc.: this custom, in early times common to all Teut. people, is still in almost exclusive use in Icel., where a lady keeps her name all her life, whether married or not: einga-dóttir, only daughter; sonar-dóttir, son’s daughter; dóttur-dóttir, a daughter’s daughter, a granddaughter, Grág. i. 171; dóttur-maðr, a son-in-law, Germ. eidam, Fms. ix. 240, Grág. i. 175: the waves are poët. called Ránar-dætr, Hlés-dætr, Ægis-dætr, the daughters of Ran, etc., Edda: the Earth is daughter of Onar, and, on the mother’s side, of Night, Edda; the Sun is daughter of Mundil-fari, 7. 2. Dótta is a fem. pr. name in Denmark, prob. akin to daughter, Fms. vi.

drabba, að, (drabb, n., drabbari, a, m.), to ‘drab,’ to dirty.

draf, n. draff, husks, N. G. L. iii. nos. 2, 8, Luke xv. 16.

drafa, að, to talk thick; það drafaði í honum, of a drunken person.

drafa, Þiðr. 116, v. 1., 205, 289, from the M. H. G. drabe or darabe, = thereby, which the Icel. translator did not understand.

drafl, n. tattle, Fas. iii. 423.

drafli, a, m. cuddled milk when cooked, Grett. (in a verse); rauð-seyddr d., a red-cooked d., a dainty.

drafna, að, d. sundr, to become rotten as draff, Fas. iii. 325, 451.

drag, n. [draga], in compds as ör-drag, a bow-shot, of distance: spec. a soft slope or valley, í hverri laut og dragi, Arm. ii. 94: in pl. drög, the watercourse down a valley, dals-drög, dala-drög; Gljufrár-drög, Pm. 46; Kálfadals-drög, id.; fjalla-drög. β. sing. the iron rim on the keel of a boat or a sledge; the metaph. phrase, leggja drag undir e-t, to lay the keel under a thing, i. e. to encourage it, Eb. 20. γ. a lining, in erma-drög, Bév. 16 (Fr.) δ. Icel. also say, leggja drög fyrir e-t, to lay a drag (net) for a thing, i. e. to take some preparatory steps for a thing. ε. metric. term, a supernumerary, additional line to a stanza, Edda (Ht.) 124, Fms. vi. 347.

draga, u, f., vide drögur.

DRAGA, pret. dró, pl. drógu; part. dreginn; pres. dreg: pret. subj. drægi: [Lat. trahere; Ulf. dragan, but only once or twice, = επισωρεύειν in 2 Tim. iv. 3; Hel. dragan = portare, ferre (freq.); A. S. dragan; Germ. tragen; the Engl. distinguishes between to drag and draw, whence the derived words to draggle, trail, drawl; Swed. draga; the Danes have drage, but nearly obliterated except in the special sense to travel,—otherwise they have trække, formed from the mod. Germ. tragen]:—to draw, drag, carry, pull.

A. ACT., with acc. I. to drag, carry, pull; hann dró þau öll út, Nj. 131; djöfla þá er yðr munu d. til eilífra kvala, 273; d. heim við, to drag the logs home, 53; d. sauði, to pick sheep out of a fold, Bs. i. 646, Eb. 106; d. skip fram, to launch a ship; d. upp, to draw her up, drag her ashore, Grág. ii. 433; dró Þorgils eptir sér fiskinn, Fs. 129; Egill dró at sér skipit, E. pulled the ship close up to himself, Eg. 221, 306; dró hann þá af grunninu, Fms. vii. 264; hann hafði dregit (pulled) hött síðan yfir hjálm, Eg. 375, cp. Ad. 3; d. föt, skóklæði af e-m, to draw off clothes, shoes; þá var dregin af (stripped off) hosa líkinu, Fms. viii. 265; dró hann hana á hönd ser, he pulled it on his hand, Eg. 378; d. hring á hönd sér, to put a ring on one’s hand, 306; (hann) tók gullhring, ok dró (pulled) á blóðrefilinn, id.: phrases, er við ramman reip at d., ’tis to pull a rope against the strong man, i. e. to cope with the mighty, Fms. ii. 107, Nj. 10,—the metaphor from a game; d. árar, to pull the oars, Fms. ii. 180, Grett. 125 A: absol. to pull, ok drógu skjótt eptir, they soon pulled up to them, Gullþ. 24, Krók. 52: metaph., um margar íþróttir dró hann fast eptir Ólafi, in many accomplishments he pressed hard upon Olave, Fms. iii. 17: d. boga, to draw the bow, x. 362, but more freq. benda (bend) boga: d., or d. upp segl, to hoist the sails, Eg. 93, Fms. ix. 21, x. 349, Orkn. 260: d. fiska, or simply draga (Luke v. 7), to fish with a hook, to pull up fish with a line (hence fisk-dráttr, dráttr, fishing), Fms. iv. 89, Hým. 21, 23, Fs. 129, Landn. 36, Fas. ii. 31: d. drátt, Luke v. 4; d. net, to fish with a drag-net; also absol., draga á (on or in) á (a river), to drag a river; hence the metaphor, d. langa nót at e-u, = Lat. longae ambages, Nj. 139: d. steina, to grind in a hand-mill, Sl. 58, Gs. 15: d. bust ór nefi e-m, vide bust: d. anda, to draw breath; d. öndina um barkann, id., (andar-dráttr, drawing breath); d. tönn, to draw a tooth. 2. phrases mostly metaph.; d. seim, prop. to draw wire, metaph. to read or talk with a drawling tone; d. nasir af e-u, to smell a thing, Ísl. ii. 136; d. dám af e-u, to draw flavour from; draga dæmi af e-u, or d. e-t til dæmis, to draw an example from a thing, Stj. 13, cp. Nj. 65; d. þýðu eðr samræði til e-s, to draw towards, feel sympathy for, Sks. 358; d. grun á e-t, to suspect, Sturl.; d. spott, skaup, gys, etc. at e-u, to hold a thing up to ridicule, Bs. i. 647; d. á sik dul ok dramb, to assume the air of…, 655 xi. 3; d. á sik ofbeldi ok dramb, Fms. vii. 20; d. e-n á talar, to deceive one, metaphor from leading into a trap, 2 Cor. xii. 17; d. vél at e-m, to deceive one, draw a person into wiles, Nj. 280, Skv. i. 33; d. á vetr, to get one’s sheep and cattle through the winter; Hrafnkell dró á vetr kálf ok kið hin firstu misseri, Hrafn. 22, cp. Germ. anbinden, and in mod. Icel. usage setja á vetr; d. nafn af e-m, to draw, derive the name from, Eb. 126 (App.) new Ed.; the phrase, (hann skyldi ekki) fleiri ár yfir höfuð d., more years should not pass over his head, he must die, Þórð. II. to draw a picture; kross let hann d. í enni á öllum hjálmum með bleiku, Fms. iv. 96; þá dró Tjörvi líkneski þeirra á kamarsvegg, Landn. 247; var dregit á skjöldinn leo með gulli, Ld. 78, Pr. 428; í þann tíma sem hann dregr (draws) klæða-föllin (the folds), Mar. (Fr.): d. til stafs (mod.), to draw the letters, of children first trying to write; d. fjöðr yfir e-t, a metaph. phrase, to draw a pen over or through, to hide, cloak a thing: gramm. to mark a vowel with a stroke,—a long vowel opp. to a short one is thus called ‘dreginn;’ hljóðstafir hafa tvenna grein, at þeir sé styttir (short) eða dregnir (drawn, marked with a stroke), ok er því betr dregit yfir þann staf er seint skal at kveða, e. g. ári Ari, ér er-, mínu minni, Skálda 171: to measure, in the phrases, draga kvarða við vaðmál, Grág. i. 497, 498; draga lérept, N. G. L. i. 323. III. to line clothes, etc.; treyja var dregin utan ok innan við rauðu silki, Flov. 19. IV. metaph. to delay; dró hann svá sitt mál, at…, Sturl. iii. 13; hann dró um þat engan hlut, he made no subterfuge, Hkr. ii. 157; Halldórr dró þá heldr fyrir þeim, H. then delayed the time, Ld. 322; vil ek ekki lengr d. þetta fyrir þér, 284; vil ek þessi svör eigi láta d. fyrir mér lengr, Eb. 130. V. with prepp. af, at, á, fram, frá, saman, sundr, etc., answering to the Lat. attrahere, abstrahere, protrahere, detrahere, distrahere, contrahere, etc.; d. at lið, to collect troops; d. saman her, id., Eg. 172, 269, Nj. 127; d. at föng, to collect stores, 208, 259: metaph., þá dró at honum sóttin, the sickness drew nearer to him, he grew worse, Grett. 119; d. af e-m, to take off, to disparage a person, Fms. vi. 287; d. af við e-n, ok mun héðan af ekki af dregit við oss, we shall not be neglected, stinted, Bjarn. 54: mathem. term, to subtract, Rb. 118: d. fram, to bring forward, promote; d. fram þræla, Fms. x. 421, ix. 254, Eg. 354; skil ek þat, at þat man mína kosti hér fram d. (it will be my greatest help here), at þú átt ekki vald á mér; d. fram kaupeyri, to make money, Fms. vi. 8; d. saman, to draw together, collect, join, Bs. ii. 18, Nj. 65, 76; d. sundr, to draw asunder, disjoin; d. e-t á, to intimate, (á-dráttr) drag eigi á þat, Sturl. iii. 110; d. undan, to escape; kómu segli við ok drógu undan, Fms. iv. 201; nú lægir segl þeirra ok d. þeir nú undan oss, v. 11: metaph. to delay, Uspakr dró þó undan allt til nætr, Nj. 272; hirðin sá þetta at svá mjök var undan dregit, Fms. ix. 251 (undan-dráttr, delay); hví dregr þú undan at bjóða mér til þín, Glúm. 326, Fms. ix. 251, Pass. 16. 13: mathem., d. rót undan, to extract a root, Alg. 366; d. upp, to draw a picture (upp-dráttr, a drawing), to pull up, Edda I; to pull out of the snow, Eg. 546; d. út, to extract, draw out, 655 xxxii. 2; d. undir sik, to draw under oneself, to embezzle, Eg. 61, Fms. vii. 128; d. upp akkeri, to weigh anchor, Jb. 403; d. upp segl, to hoist sail, vide above; ljós brann í stofunni ok var dregit upp, Sturl. i. 142; þar brann ljós ok var dregit upp, en myrkt hit neðra, ii. 230; ok er mönnum var í sæti skipat vóru log upp dregin í stofunni, iii. 182; herbergis sveinarnir drógu upp skriðljósin, Fas. iii. 530, cp. Gísl. 29, 113,—in the old halls the lamps (torches) were hoisted up and down, in order to make the light fainter or stronger; d. e-n til e-s, to draw one towards a thing; mikit dregr mik til þess, Fs. 9; engi ofkæti dregr mik til þessarar ferðar, i. e. it is not by my own choice that I undertake this journey, Fms. ix. 352; slíkt dró hann til vinsældar, this furthered him in popularity, vii. 175, Sks. 443 B; mun hann slíkt til d., it will move, influence him, Nj. 210; ef hann drægi ekki til, if he was not concerned, 224. 2. draga til is used absol. or ellipt., denoting the course of fate, and many of the following phrases are almost impers.; nema til verra dragi, unless matters turn out worse, Nj. 175; búð, dragi til þess sem vera vill, Lat. fata evenient, 185; ef honum vill þetta til dauða d., if this draw to his death, prove fatal to him, 103, Grett. 114; þat samband þeirra er þeim dregr báðum til bana, which will be fatal to both of them, Nj. 135; enda varð þat fram at koma sem til dró, Ísl. ii. 263; sagði Kveldúlfr at þá (then) mundi þar til draga sem honum hafði fyrir boðat, Eg. 75; dró til vanda með þeim Rúti ok Unni, it was the old story over again, Nj. 12; dró til vanda um tal þeirra, 129; at hér mundi til mikillar úgiptu draga um kaup þessi, that mickle mischief would arise from this bargain, 30; dró þá enn til sundrþykkju með þeim Svíum, the old feud with the Swedes began over again, Fms. x. 161; ok er úvíst til hvers um dregr, Fs. 6; svá er þat, segir Runólfr, ef ekki dregr til, unless some unforeseen things happen, Nj. 75; hón kvað eigi úlíkligt at til mikils drægi um, Ísl. ii. 19; þá dró nú til hvárttveggja. Bret.; hence til-drög. n. pl. cause.

B. IMPERS. 1. of clouds, shade, darkness, to be drawn before a thing as a veil; dimmu (acc.) þykir á draga ráðit Odds, it looked as if gloom were drawing over Odd’s affairs, Band. 10; ok er í tók at draga skúrirnar (acc.), it began to draw into showers, i. e. clouds began to gather, Fms. iii. 206: often ellipt., hratt stundum fyrir en stundum dró frá, [clouds] drew sometimes over, sometimes off, of the moon wading through them, Grett. 114; dregr fyrir sól, [a veil] draws over the sun, he is hid in clouds; ský vónarleysu döpur drjúgum dró fyrir mína gleði-sól, Bb. 2. 9; dregr á gleði biskups, [clouds] drew over the bishop’s gladness, it was eclipsed, Bs. ii. 79; eclipsis heitir er fyrir dregr sól eðr tungl, it is called an eclipse when [a veil] draws over the sun or moon, 1812. 4; tunglskin var ljóst, en stundum dró fyrir, the moonshine was clear, and in turn [a veil] drew over it, Nj. 118; þá sá lítið af tungli ljóst ok dró ymist til eðr frá, Ísl. ii. 463; þat gerðisk, at á dregr tunglit, ok verðr eclipsis, Al. 54. 2. in various connections; dró yðr (acc.) undir hrakningina, en oss (acc.) undan, you were drawn into a thrashing (i. e. got one), but we escaped, Nj. 141; hann (acc.) dró undan sem nauðuligast, he had a narrow escape, Fms. ix. 392: absol., a noun or personal pronoun in acc. being understood, lítt dró enn undan við þik, there was little power of drawing out of thy reach, i. e. thy blow did its work right well. Nj. 199, 155; hvárki dró sundr né saman með þeim, of two running a dead heat: metaph. phrases, mun annarsstaðar meira slóða (acc.) draga, there will be elsewhere a greater trial left, i. e. the consequences will be still worse elsewhere, 54; saman dró hugi þeirra, their hearts were drawn together, of a loving pair, Bárð. 271; saman dró kaupmála með þeim, they struck a bargain, literally the bargain was drawn tight, Nj. 49; hann hreinsar þat skjótt þóat nokkut im (acc.) hafi á oss dregit af samneyti (although we have been a little infected by the contact with) annarlegs siðferðis, Fms. ii. 261; allt slafr (acc.) dró af Hafri, i. e. H. became quite mute, Grett. (in a verse): in a temp. sense, til þess er dró at degi, till the day drew nigh, Fms. x. 138; þá er dró at miðri nótt, Grett. 140; þá er dregr at Jólum, Yule drew nigh, Fbr. 138; dregr at hjaldri, the battle-hour draws nigh, Fms. vi. (in a verse); dró at því (the time drew nigh), at hann var banvænn, Eg. 126: of sickness, hunger, or the like, to sink, be overcome by, svá dregr at mér af elli, svengd ok þorsta, at…, Fms. iii. 96; nú þykki mér sem fast dragi at þér, thou art sinking fast, Fas. ii. 221; ok er lokið var kvæðinu dregr at Oddi fast, O. was sinking fast, 321: of other things, tók þá at d. fast at heyjum hans, his stock was very low, Fms. iii. 208; þoku dregr upp, a fog draws on, rises, 97 (in a verse), but ok taki sú poka (nom.) fyrir at d. norðrljósit, Sks. an (better þá þoku, acc.)

C. REFLEX, to draw oneself, move; ef menn dragask til föruneytis þeirra (join them) úbeðit, Grág. ii. 270; Sigvaldi dregsk út frá flotanum, S. draws away from the fleet, Fms. xi. 140; ofmjök dragask lendir menn fram, i. e. the barons drew far too forward, vii. 22; hyski drósk á flótta, they drew away to flight, Fms. vi. (in a verse); skeiðr drógusk at vígi, the ships drew on to battle, iii. 4 (in a verse); dragask undir = draga undir sik, to take a thing to oneself, Grág. ii. 150; dragask á hendr e-m, drógusk opt þeir menn á hendr honum er úskilamenn voru, Sturl. i. 136; dragask e-n á hendr, hann kvað þess enga ván, at hann drægisk þá á hendr, ii. 120; dragask aptr á leið, to remain behind, Rb. 108; dragask út, to recede, of the tide, 438; dragask saman, to draw back, draw together, be collected, Fms. i. 25, Bs. i. 134; e-m dragask penningar, Fms. vi. 9; d. undan, to be delayed, x. 251; the phrase, herr, lið dregsk e-m, the troops draw together, of a levy, i. 94, vii. 176, Eg. 277; dragask á legg, to grow up, Hkr. iii. 108; sem aldr hans ok vitsmunir drógusk fram, increased, Fms. vi. 7; þegar honum drósk aldr, when he grew up, Fs. 9; dragask á legg, to grow into a man; dragask við e-t, to become discouraged, Fms. viii. 65; d. vel, illa, to do well, ill, Fs. 146: to be worn out, exhausted, drósk þá liðit mjök af kulda, Sturl. iii. 20; drósk hestr hans, ii. 75: part. dreginn, drawn, pinched, starved, hestar mjök dregnir, Fms. ix. 276; görðisk fénaðr dreginn mjök, drawn, thin, iii. 208; stóð þar í heykleggi einn ok dregit at öllu megin, a tapering hayrick, Háv. 53: of sickness, Herra Andrés lagðisk sjúkr, ok er hann var dreginn mjök, Fms. ix. 276. β. recipr., þau drógusk um einn gullhring, they fought, pulled. Fas. iii. 387. From the reflex. probably originates, by dropping the reflex. suffix, the mod. Swed. and Dan. at draga = to go, esp. of troops or a body of men; in old writers the active form hardly ever occurs in this sense (the reading drógu in the verse Fms. iii. 4 is no doubt false); and in mod. usage it is equally unknown in Icel., except maybe in allit. phrases as, e. g. út á djúpið hann Oddr dró, Snot 229 new Ed.; to Icel. ears draga in this sense sounds strange; even the reflex. form is seldom used in a dignified sense; vide the references above.

draga, u, f., only in pl. drögur, timber carried on horseback and trailing along the ground, Glúm. 368; dragna-hross, a dray-horse, 369: metric. term, a sort of anadiplosis, when a stanza begins with the last word of the preceding one, Edda (Ht.) 126, Skálda 191.

dragi, a, m. a trail or long line of laden horses or carts, Bjarn. 36: cp. heim-dragi, a loiterer, Lex. Poët.

drag-kyrtill, m. a trailing kirtle or gown, Fms. vi. 440, viii. 336.

drag-loka, u, f. a bolt; metaph. a loiterer, Finnb. 300.

drag-máll, adj. drawling. Fas. i. 382.

dragna, að, [Éngl. drain], intrans. to drag, trail along, Fas. iii. 525, Sturl. ii. 49; Skíði d. eptir, Sd. 169; hann dragnar síðan heim at búrinu, Háv. 54; hafði losnað annarr þvengrinn, ok dragnaði skúfrinn, Eb. 220: reflex., Fas. ii. 497.

drag-nál, f. a bodkin, Fas. iii. 631.

drag-net, n. a drag-net, opp. to lag-net, a laying-net.

drag-reip, n. a ‘draw-rope,’ halyard, Bs. i. 276, Edda (Gl.), Fms. vi. 303.

dragsa, að, = dragna, Karl. 147, 554.

drag-síðr, adj. trailing behind, of a gown, Eg. 702.

dralla, að, (drall, n.), qs. dragla, to loiter, (slang word.)

DRAMB, n. I. prop. a roll of fat on the neck of fat men or beasts, hnakka-dramb, hnakka-drembi, cp. drambr, m. a knot in charcoal or logwood; hence II. metaph. arrogance, Nj. 47; ofbeldi ok dramb, Fms. vii. 20. β. pomp, Fms. x. 232: drambs-fullr, adj. arrogant, Hom. 151, Fms. x. 222: drambs-maðr, m. a haughty, pompous person, Fms. x. 254, Hkr. ii.

dramba, að, to be haughty, pompous, Flóv. 29, Hom. 135; d. í virðingu, 656 C. II; d. yfir e-m, Greg. 22, Niðrst. 7; d. yfir sér, to boast, Fas. i. 36; d. í móti e-u, Fms. xi. 11.

dramb-hosur, f. pl. a sort of ‘court-breeches,’ Fms. vi. 440.

dramb-lauss, adj. (-leysi, n.), unpresuming, Bs. i. 275.

dramb-látr, adj. haughty, Greg. 24, Hom. 7, Fas. i. 89, Luke i. 51, Pass. 35. 7.

dramb-læti, n. pride, Fas. i. 18, Str. 81.

dramb-samliga, adv. (-ligr, adj.). haughtily, Hkr. iii. 244, Sks. 451.

dramb-samr, adj. haughty, Sks. 701, Fas. i. 49, Pass. 21. 7.

dramb-semi, f. haughtiness, H. E. i. 519, Al. 153.

dramb-vísi, f. = drambsemi, Str. 82.

dramb-víss, adj. = drambsamr, Hom. 152, Karl. 135.

dramb-yrði, n. pl. haughty language, Sks. 558.

DRANGR, m. a lonely up-standing rock, Dipl. v. 23; kletta-drangr, fjall-drangr, etc., freq. in Icel., vide Eggert Itin. 497: many places take their names from these basalt rocks, Drangar (pl.), Drang-ey, Dranga-vík, Dranga-jökull, etc.; in popular lore these rocks were thought to be giants turned into clones, Ísl. Þjóðs.

drang-steinn, m. = drangr, Greg. 62, Bs. i. 346, Mar. 93 (Fr.)

drasa, u, f. [dros], prattle; drösu ok lygi, Anecd. 14; drösur (pl.) ok hégómlig orð, 78; hence the mod. drösla or drusla, u, f. a vulgar ditty.

drasill, drösull, m., poët. a horse, cp. Ygg-drasill, vide Lex. Poët.

dratta, að, (qs. dragta), to trail or walk like a cow, Fas. ii. 128, i. 484: Homer’s ειλίπους is rendered by drattandi.

draug-hentr, n. adj. a sort of metre, Edda (Ht.) 137; a supernumerary syllable being added to every line, this syllable seems to have been called draugr, a plug or log.

DRAUGR, m. [Lat. truncus is perhaps akin]: I. a dry log; Edda (Gl.); this sense, however, only occurs in old poets, in compds such as el-draugr, ben-d., hirði-d., her-d., óðal-d., jó-d., gervi-d., in poetical circumlocutions of a man, cp. Edda 68, 85. II. metaph. in prose (as it is now used), a ghost, spirit, esp. the dead inhabitant of a cairn was called draugr, Ld. 326, Fms. iii. 200, Bs. i. 256, Stj. 492, 1 Sam. xxviii. 15, Róm. 186, 217, Orkn. 210 (in a verse), Fas. (Hervar. S.) i. 436–438, Hkv. 2. 49, fsl. (Harð. S.) ii. 47 (in a verse); it also occurs in the verse on the Runic stone in Schonen, quoted and explained in Rafn Antiq. Orient. 178, but it is uncertain whether it is here used in the first or second sense. β. a sluggard, a drone who walks about as a ghost; draugs-ligr, adj.; drauga-skapr, m.; draugast, að, to walk about like a ghost. γ. metric., vide draughentr above. COMPDS: drauga-drottinn, m. the lord of ghosts, is one of the names of Odin, Hkr. i. II. drauga-fé, n. hoards in cairns or tombs, Fas. ii. 368. drauga-gangr, m. a gang of ghosts. drauga-sögur, f. pl. ghost stories in nursery tales, for a collection of such, vide Ísl. Þjóðs. i. 222–354.

draum-kona, u, f. a ‘dream-woman,’ a spirit in dreams, Gísl. 41, Þorst. Síðu H. 185.

draum-maðr, m. a man who appears to another in a dream, Fms. ii. 230, viii. 107: a dreamer, Stj. 193. Gen. xxxvii. 19.

draum-órar f. pl. (now m. pl.), dream-phantasies, Fas. iii. 79.

DRAUMR, m. [A. S. dreâm; Hel. drôm; Engl. dream; Swed.-Dan. dröm; Germ. traum; Matth. i. and ii, and by a singular mishap Matth. xxvii. 19, are lost in Ulf., so that we are unable to say how he rendered the Gr. οναρ:the A. S. uses dreâm only in the sense of joy, music, and dreamer = a harper, musician, and expresses draumr, Engl. dream, by sveofnas,—even the Ormul. has dræm = a sound; so that the Engl. dream seems to have got its present sense from the Scandin. On the other hand, the Scandin. have dream in the proper sense in their earliest poems of the heathen age, ballir draumar, Vtkv. I; Hvat er þat draurna, Em. I; it is used so by Bragi Gamli (9th century), Edda 78 (in a verse); cp. draum-þing, Hkv. 2. 48, whilst the A. S. sense of song is entirely strange to Icel.: it is true that svefnar (pl.) now and then occurs in old poets = Lat. somnium, but this may be either from A. S. influence or only as a poetical synonyme. Which of the two senses is the primitive and which the metaph.?]:—a dream. Many old sayings refer to draumr,—vakandi d., a day dream, waking dream, like the Gr. υπαρ; von er vakandi draumr, hope is a waking dream, or von er vakanda manns d.; ekki er mark at draumum, dreams are not worth noticing, Sturl. ii. 217; opt er ljotr d. fyrir litlu, Bs. ii. 225. Icel. say, marka drauma, to believe in dreams, Sturl. ii. 131; segja e-m draum, to tell one’s dream to another, Nj. 35; ráða draum, to read (interpret) a dream, Fms. iv. 381, x. 270, xi. 3; draumr rætisk, the dream proves true, or (rarely) draum (acc.) ræsir, id., Bret.; vakna við vándan (eigi góðan) draum, to wake from a bad dream, of a sudden, violent awakening, Fms. iii. 125, ix. 339, Stj. 394, Judg. viii. 21, 22; vakna af draumi, to waken from a dream; dreyma draum, to dream a dream; láta e-n njóta draums, to let one enjoy his dream, not wake him: gen. draums is used adverb. in the phrase, e-m er draums, one is benumbed, dreamy: stóð hann upp ok fylgði englinum, ok hugði sér draums vera, Post. 656 C; draums kveð ek þér vera, Hkv. Hjörv. 19; þótti honum sjálfum sem draums hefði honum verit, O. H. L. 81; hence comes the mod. e-m er drums, of stupid insensibility. Passages referring to dreams—Hkr. Hálfd. S. ch. 7, Am. 14. 25, Edda 36, Íb. ch. 4, Nj. ch. 134, Ld. ch. 33, Gunnl. S. ch. 2, 13, Harð. S. ch. 6, Lv. ch. 21 (very interesting), Gísl. ch. 13, 24 sqq., Glúm. ch. 9, 21, Þorst. Síðu H., Vápn. 21, Bjarn. 49, Fbr. ch. 16, 37, Þorl. S. ch. 7, Sturl. i. 200, 225, ii. 9, 99, 190, 206–216, iii. 251–254, 272, Rafns S. ch. 7, 14, Laur. S. ch. 2, 65, Sverr. S. ch. 1, 2, 5, 42, Fms. vi. 199, 225, 312, 403, 404, vii. 162, Jómsv. S. ch. 2, etc. etc. COMPDS: drauma-maðr, m. a great dreamer, Gísl. 41. drauma-ráðning, f. the reading of dreams, Anal. 177. drauma-skrimsl, n. a dream monster, phantasm, Fas. ii. 414. drauma-vetr, m., Gísl. 63.

draum-skrök, n. a dream phantasm, Ld. 122.

draum-spakr, adj. skilled in interpreting dreams, Fms. vi. 361.

draum-speki, f. skill in interpreting dreams, Fms. iv. 30.

draum-spekingr, m. a skilful interpreter of dreams, Stj. 491. 1 Sam. xxviii. 3.

draum-stoli, adj. (cp. vit-stola), a ‘dream-stolen’ man, i. e. one who never dreams,——the ancients thought this a disease; þat er ekki manns eðli at hann dreymi aldri, Fms. vi. 199, cp. also Hkr. i. 71.

draum-þing, n. dream-meeting, poët. sleep, Hkv. 2. 49.

DRÁK, f. (draka, u, f., Thom. l. c., mod. rák, f.), a streak; lá eptir ein blóð-drák í léreptinu, … fagra heilsu barnsins ok blóð-drákina, Bs. ii. 170; hafði hann þá blóðrás merkiligasta, at ein draka (drák) gékk af hægra veg hanns ennis í skakk um þvert andlitið á vinstri kinninni, ok með því sama marki vitraðist hann síðan mörgum mönnum, Thom. 356; ein rauð blóðdrög, MS. Holm. no. 17 (Fr.), vide drög: rák is at present a very freq. word in Icel., but is hardly found in old writers; the identity of these two words cannot be doubted.

dráp, n. [drepa], slaughter, Eg. 222, Fms. v. 235, etc.; mann-dráp, man-slaughter, homicide.

DRÁPA, u, f. a heroic, laudatory poem; this word is probably derived from drepa, to strike, i. e. to strike the chords of an instrument, vide drepa A. I, as poems were at early times accompanied by instrumental music: the drápas were usually composed in the so-called ‘drótt-kvætt’ metre, q. v., and were much in fashion from the 10th to the 12th or even to the 13th century, but esp. flourished at the end of the 10th and during the 11th; the earliest poems of this kind on record are of the end of the 9th century: even poems in honour of gods, Christ, the holy cross, saints, etc. are called drápur if composed in the proper metre; but most of them are in honour of kings, earls, princes, or eminent men, vide Skáldatal. A drápa usually consisted of three parts, upp-haf introduction, stef or stefjamál the burden or middle part interpolated with artificial burdens, whence the name stefja-drápa, and lastly slæmr or peroration; according to the length, a drápa is tvítug or a poem of twenty stanzas, sextug or sixty stanzas, and so on; it is called erfi-drápa if in praise of a deceased man, mansöngs-drápa (Germ. minne-sang) if addressed to a lady-love, etc.; as to metre, we have tog-drápa, hrynhend drápa, etc.; drápa is sometimes distinguished from flokkr, a less laudatory and shorter poem without burdens, Fms. vi. 391; hví ortir þú flokk um konunginn, eðr þótti þér hann ekki drápunnar verðr, Ísl. ii. 237, and the classical passage Knytl. S. ch. 19. Passages in the Sagas referring to the delivery of these poems are very numerous, e. g. Gunnl. S. ch. 7–9, Eg. ch. 62, 63 (Höfuð-lausn), 80 (Sonatorek and Arinbjarnar-d.), 81 (Beru-drápa), Ld. ch. 29 (Hús-drápa), Hallfr. S. ch. 6, II, Bjarn. 6, 39, Fms. iii. 65, v. 173–175, Knytl. S. l. c., O. H. L. ch. 60, 61, Har. S. Harð. (Fms. vi.) ch. 24, 66, 110 (the interesting story of Stuf the Blind), Skáldat. 252, 268, Fb. iii. 241, 242, Hkr. i. 185, 186; the last on record is Sturl. iii. 303–306, referring to A. D. 1263, cp. also Sturl. ii. 56; most of these poems derive their name from the king or person in whose honour they were composed, e. g. Ólafs-d., Knúts-d. (king Canute), Eiríks-d., etc., vide Fms. xii, s. v. kvæði, or Jómsvíkinga-d., Íslendinga-d., the name of a laudatory poem addressed to the Icelandic people; or referring to other subjects, as Vell-ekla (want of gold), Hafgerðinga-d., Landn. 106, or Kross-d., Róða-d. (the Holy Rood), etc. Mythical drápas are, e. g. Ragnars-d., Haustlöng, Hús-d. COMPDS: drápu-mál, n. a lawsuit for a d., viz. a love song (mansöngs-d.), which songs were forbidden, Fs. 87. drápu-stúfr, m. a nickname for a poetaster, Landn. 168.

dráp-gjarn, adj. blood-thirsty, Sks. 89.

dráp-veðr, n. a furious, destructive gale, Lv. 59.

DRÁTTR, m., gen. ar, dat. drætti, pl. drættir, acc. dráttu and drætti, [draga, cp. Engl. draught]:—pulling, Jm. 1: metaph. hesitation, Fms. x. 11: a draught, of fishing (fiski-dráttr), but esp. of a drag-net, Luke v. 4.

DREGG, f., gen. sing. and nom. pl. dreggjar, dregs, lees; þeir óguðlegu skulu dreggjarnar af súpa, Ps. lxxv. 8, Fas. ii. 26: metaph., N. G. L. i. 339.

dregill, m., dimin., dat. dregli, a ribbon, Nj. 214, Hkr. i. 320, Edda 20, O. H. L. 65, H. E. ii. 113; dregla-lið = dreglat lið, soldiery decorated with ribbons, Fb. ii. 337,—a reference to the custom of neophytes after baptism wearing a white ribbon round their heads.

dregla, að, to lace, furnish with a ribbon, Sturl. iii. 218.

dreif, f. scattering; á dreif, id.; á víð ok dreif, scattered abroad, Grönd. 166. 2. a chain; haukr bundinn í gull-dreifum, and haukrinn komst hvergi þvíat dreifarnar héldu honum, El. (Fr.)

DREIFA, ð, [Ulf. draibjan; v. drífa], to scatter, disperse, with dat.; dreifðu þeir þá öllu liðinu. Nj. 207, Hkr. i. 250; er þú dreifðir svá mjök frá þér fjölmenni því er …, Fms. vii. 182: metaph. to divert, d. hug e-s, Hom. 38: with the notion of violence, to scatter, Post. 656 C. 14: to strew, tak duft ok dreif á sárit, Pröver 471: to sprinkle, d. vatni, Fms. i. 262, Ísl. ii. 403. Barl. 185: adding acc. of the person, d. e-n blóði, to bedabble with blood, Am. 19; ok dreifir þá meðr blóðinu, Stj. 78. β. with acc. to disperse, dissolve; dreifðum vér Guðs óvini (acc.), 655 xxxii; vóru dreifð öll bein hans, 623. 33 (very rarely); vera dreifðr við e-ð, to be mixed up with a thing, (mod.) II. reflex. to be spread out, Eg. 530; of the branches of a tree, Edda 10: orð dreifask (gramm.), words are derived from, Skálda 205.

dreifing, f. scattering, diffusing, Stj. 244, H. E. i. 500.

dreift, n. adj. ‘adrift,’ scattered, in the phrase, fara d., of troops, to march in loose order, Fms. i. 71, v. 56; dreifara, viii. 213.

dreita, tt, [drita], in the phrase, d. e-n inni, to lock one up so that he is forced to do his business within doors (a disgrace), Sturl. i. 198, Ld. 209.

DREKI, a, m. [from the Gr. δράκων; Lat. draco; A. S. draca; Germ. drache; Engl. dragon; Swed. drake; Dan. drage]:—a dragon, Al. 160, 656 A, Gullþ. ch. 4; this word, which undoubtedly is of foreign origin, is however very old; it occurs in Vsp. 65 (there is no reason to suspect the genuineness of this verse); it is most freq. used by poets of the 10th and 11th centuries, and is especially used of ships of war bearing a dragon’s head as beaks. Fms. ii. 179, 182, 217, 303, iv. 354, v. 311, vi. 314, 360, vii. 51, 109, 248, x. 36, 77, 204–206, xi. 45, 375. β. the constellation Scorpion, Rb. 408. 2. naut. a small anchor. COMPDS: dreka-hamr, m. the slough of a dragon, Fas. ii. 378. dreka-höfuð, n. a dragon’s head as a ship’s beak, Eg. 42, Hkr. iii. 94. dreka-líki, n. the shape of a dragon, Niðrst. 1. dreka-merki, n. the sign of a dragon, Karl. 35 1; the constellation Scorpio is also called Sporð-dreka-merki. The language distinguishes between flug-dreki, the flying dragon of the tales, and sporð-dreki, a tailed dragon, i. e. a scorpion.

drekka, u, f. drink, beverage, Edda 48: a banquet, N. G. L. i. 91, Og. 13; cp. Ægis-drekka, the banquet at Ægir, Edda.

DREKKA, pret. drakk, pl. drukku; sup. drukkit; pres. drekk; pret. subj. drykki; [Ulf. drigkan; A. S. drinkan; Engl. drink; O. H. G. trinkan; M. H. G. trinken; Dan. drikke; Swed. dricka]:—to drink, the beverage or feast in acc.; d. mjöð, Hm. 18; mungát, el, Fms. viii. 166, Hm. 82; d. full, minni (a toast), Eg. 552, Fms. vi. 442; d. horn, to drain, drink off a horn, a cup, Hkr. i. 35; síðan tók Kolskeggr justu eina af miði fulla ok drakk, Nj. 43; d. drykk, to drink a draught, Fms. xi. 233; eptir þat tók Þórir kalkann ok drakk af tvá drykki, Gullþ. 7; þú skalt d. af tvá drykki, id.; d. brjóst (acc.), to suck (v. brjóst-drekkr), Mar. 656 A. 23, cp. Gþl. 504. β. to hold a feast, the feast in acc.; d. Jól, Fms. vi. 100, Fagrsk. 4 (in the poem of Hornklofi); d. veizlu, Nj. ii; d. brullaup, Fms. xi. 88; d. erfi, Nj. 167. γ. denoting the mode of drinking; d. ein-menning, to drink one to one, Eg. 551; d. tví-menning, to drink two to two, id.; d. fast, to drink hard, Eb. 184; d. úmælt, to drink without measure (cp. mál-drykkja), Fms. iii. 18; d. til e-s, to drink to a person, Eg. 552, Sturl. iii. 305, Bs. i. 848, 798; d. á e-n, id., Fms. iv. 333, vi. 442 (cp. á-drykkja); d. e-n af stokki, to drink one under the table, iv. 167; d. frá sér vit, to drink one’s wits away, ix. 339, Hm. 11; the allit. phrase, d. ok dæma, to drink and chatter, Rm. 29: adding the prepp. af, ór, to drink off a cup; d. af dýra hornum, Fms. vi. 442, Eg. 206, 207: absol. to drink, hold a feast, Eg. 43. δ. impers. (vide á-drykkir) of a ship, to ship a sea, metaph., Al. 139. ε. recipr., drekkask á, to drink to one another, Hkr. ii. 249, N. G. L. i. 211, Js. 78. 2. part. pass. drukkinn, drunken, tipsy, Eb. 154, Fms. i. 59, Eg. 552.

drekk-hlaðinn, part. ‘drench-loaden,’ a ship laden till she sinks.

drekkja, t and ð, [Ulf. dragkjan; Engl. drench], to drown, with dat., Edda (pref.) 144, Fms. iii. 28, Fas. ii. 35: metaph. to swamp, Fms. x. 395: with acc., Hom. 154 (rarely): reflex, to be submerged, Fms. xi. 66.

drembi-liga, adv. (-ligr, adj.), haughtily, Fms. vi. 155, x. 237, Nj. 78, Fas. i. 39; cp. rembiligr.

drengi-liga, adv. brave, bravely, Korm. 238, Nj. 180, 258, Ld. 206.

drengi-ligr, adj. brave, valiant, Ld. 272, Fms. vii. 105, xi. 57: generous, vi. 96, Nj. 73, Boll. 348.

drengja, d, a naut. term, to bind fast, haul taut to a pole (drengr); taka akkeri ok d. við ása, Fms. vii. 54; d. með köðlum, 82.

dreng-leysi, n. want of generosity, unmanliness, Stj. 396.

dreng-lundaðr and -lyndr, adj. noble-minded, Hkr. i. 327, Nj. 30, Fms. ii. 220; hógværr ok drenglyndr, gentle-minded and high-minded, Nj. 30 (of Njal).

dreng-maðr, m. a bachelor, opp. to bóndi, N. G. L. i. 31, 98: a stout doughty man, Lex. Poët.

dreng-mannliga, adv. (-ligr, adj.), bravely, doughtily, Nj. 78, v. l.

dreng-menska, u, f. boldness, Fas. i. 404.

DRENGR, m., pl. ir, gen. drengs, pl. drengir, on Runic stones drengjar; this is a most curious word, and exclusively Scandinavian; it occurs in the A. S. poem Byrnoth, but is there undoubtedly borrowed from the Danes, as this poem is not very old. 1. the earliest form was probably drangr, q. v., a rock or pillar, which sense still remains in Edda (Gl.) and in the compds ás-drengr, stýris-drengr, cp. Ivar Aasen; it also remains in the verb drengja. 2. it then metaphorically came to denote a young unmarried man, a bachelor, A. S. hagestald, N. H. G. hagestolz; drengir heita ungir menn ok búlausir, Edda 107; ungr d., a youth, 623. 22, Post. 656 C. 32, Edda 35; drengr, a youth, Stj. 409; hverrar ættar ertú d., 465; (hence the mod. Dan. sense of a boy); far-d., a sailor. 3. hence came the usual sense, a bold, valiant, worthy man, and in this sense it is most freq. in all periods of the language. Drengr is a standing word in the Swed. and Dan. Runic monuments, góðr drengr, drengr harða góðr, denoting a good, brave, gallant man, a bold and gentle heart; lagði þá hverr fram sitt skip sem d. var ok skap hafði til, Fms. vi. 315; drengir heita vaskir menn ok batnandi, Edda 107; hraustr d., a gallant d., Ld. 50; d. fullr, a bluff, out-spoken man, Ísl. ii. 363; göfuligr d., Bær. 12; d. góðr, noble-minded; auðigr at fé ok d. góðr, Fms. vi. 356; hann var enn bezti d. ok hófsmaðr um allt, Ld. loo; drengr góðr ok öriggr í öllu, Nj. 30; ekki þyki mér þú sterkr, en drengr ertú góðr, thou art not strong, but thou art a good fellow, Lv. 109; drengs dáð, a ‘derring do,’ the deed of a drengr, Fbr. 90 (in a verse): also used of a lady, kvennskörungr mikill ok d. góðr ok nokkut skaphörð, Nj. 30 (of Bergthora); allra kvenna grimmust ok skaphörðust ok (but) d. góðr þar sem vel skyldi vera, 147 (of Hildigunna): the phrases, lítill d., a small dreng, or d. at verri, denoting a disgraced man, Nj. 68; at kalla þik ekki at verra dreng, to call thee a dreng none the less for that, Ld. 42; drengir en eigi dáðleysingjar, ‘drengs’ and no lubbers, Sturl. iii. 135; drengr and níðingr are opposed, N. G. L. ii. 420: at Hallgerðr yrði þeim mestr drengr, greatest helper, prop, Nj. 76; at þú mættir drengrinn af verða sem beztr, that thou couldst get the greatest credit from it, Gísl. 48: the phrase, hafa dreng í serk, to have a man (i. e. a stout, bold heart) in one’s sark, in one’s breast, Fms. ix. 381: in addressing, góðr d., my dear fellow, Eg. 407: cp. ‘et quod ipsi in posterurn vocarentur Drenges,’ Du Cange (in a letter of William the Conqueror). COMPDS: drengja-móðir, f. a mother of heroes, a cognom., Hdl. 18. drengja-val, n. chosen, gallant men, Fas. i. 73, 304. drengs-aðal, n. the nature of a d., Km. 23. drengs-bót, f. what makes a man the better d., Fms. ii. 276, vi. 107, Karl. 120. drengs-bragð, n. the deed of a d., brave deed, Sturl. ii. 84.

dreng-skapr, m., gen. ar, courage, high-mindedness; the phrase, falla með drengskap, to fall sword in hand, Fms. ii. 42; vit ok d., xi. 112; deyja með drengskap, opp. to lifa með skömm, v. 136; þínum drengskap (manliness) skal ek við bregða, Nj. 13: allit., dáð ok d.; með litlum drengskap, cowardly, Fms. viii. 29; má þat verða til drengskapar, Ísl. ii. 366; drengskapar-raun, trial of d., Sturl. ii. 62.

drep, n. [A. S. drepe; Germ. treff], a smart, blow; the legal bearing of this word is defined Grág. Vsl. ch. 10–13; wound and ‘drep’ are distinguished—þat ero sár er þar blæðir sem á kom, en drep ef annars-staðar blæðir, ch. 51, cp. N. G. L. i. og, 164, Eb. ch. 23: trail, vide dögg. 2. slaying, killing, = dráp, Grág. Vsl. ch. in. 3. plague, pest, = drep-sótt, Stj. 546, Bret. 46, Sks. 731 B: a malignant disease, N. G. L. i. 145; metaph., Al. 86. 4. medic. mortification, gangrene, Fms. iii. 184. ix. 36, Bs. i. 346, Fél. ix. 207.

DREPA, pret. drap, 2nd pers. drapt, mod. drapst, pl. drápu; pret. subj. dræpi; part. drepit; pres. drep; with the suff. neg. pret. drap-a. Orkn.: [A. S. drepan; Dan. dræbe; Swed. drapa; O. H. G. trefan; mod. Germ. treffen, whence the mod. Dan. treffe, in the sense to hit; Ulf. uses slahan and stautjan, but never dripan; in Engl. the word is lost.]

A. WITH ACC., OR ABSOL. högg (a blow) or the like being understood, to strike, beat: I. act. of music, to strike the chords, (cp. phrases such as, slá danz, to strike up for a dance; slagr is battle and poem, Trolla-slagr and Gýgjar-slagr are names of poems); hann tók hörpu sína ok drap strengi (struck the strings) til slags, Stj. 458 (hence drápa, a song); d. e-n vendi, to strike with a rod, Skm. 26: to knock, d. á dyrr, or d. högg á dyrr, to knock at a door, Nj. 150; síðan gengu þau heim bæði ok drápu á dyrr, 153; drápu þar á dyrr, Sturl. iii. 154: metaph., d. á e-t, to touch slightly on a matter; d. botn ór keraldi, to knock the bottom out of a jar, Fms. xi. 34; d. járn, to beat iron (a blacksmith’s term) with a sledge-hammer, Grett. 129, cp. drep-sleggja. 2. esp. with the sense of violence, to knock, strike; áfallit hafði drepit hann inn í bátinn, Bs. i. 422; at eigi drepir þú mik í djúp, that thou knockest me not into the deep, Post. 656 B. 9; herða klett drep ek þér hálsi af, Ls. 57. β. as a law term, to smite, strike; ef maðr drepr (smites) mann, ok varðar þat skóggang, Grág. ii. 116; eigu menn eigi at standa fyrir þeim manni er drepit hefir annan, id.; ef maðr drepr mann svá at bein brotna, 14; nú vænisk sá maðr því er drap, at…, 15; þat er drep ef bein brotna, ok verðr sá úæll till dóms er drepit hefir, 16; nú vænisk hinn því, at hann hafi drepit hann, 19. γ. the phrases, d. e-n til heljar, Grág. ii. 161, or d. til dauðs, to smite to death; Josúa drap til dauða alla þjóð Anakim, Stj. 456; d. í hel, id., Hbl. 27; hence 3. metaph. or ellipt. to kill, put to death, cp. Lat. caedere, Engl. smite; eigi er manni skylt at d. skógarmann, þótt…, Grág. ii. 162; skulu vér nú fara at honum ok d. hann, Nj. 205; þar varð illa með þeim því at Ásgrímr drap Gaut, 39; til þess at d. Grim, Eg. 114; tóku þeir af eignum jarla konungs en drápu suma, Fms. i. 6; er drepit hafði fóstra hans …, eigi hæfir at d. svá fríðan svein …, d. skyldi hvern mann er mann údæmðan vá, 80; konung drápum fyrstan, Am. 97; drap hann (smote with the hammer) hina öldnu jötna systur, Þkv. 32; d. mátti Freyr hann með hendi sinni, Edda 23. β. in a game (of chess), to take a piece; þá drap jarl af honum riddara, Fms. iv. 366; taflsins er hann hafði drepit, vi. 29; Hvítserkr hélt töfl einni er hann hafði drepit, Fas. i. 285. γ. adding prepp. af, niðr, to slaughter, kill off; þótt hirðmenn þínir sé drepnir niðr sem svín, Fms. vii. 243: d. af, to slaughter (cattle); yxni fimm, ok d. af, Ísl. ii. 330; láttu mik d. af þenna lýð, Post. 656 B. 9. 4. metaph. phrases; d. e-m skúta, to taunt, charge one with; áfelli þat er konungr drap oss skúta um, Fms. iv. 310; hjarta drepr stall, the heart knocks as it were against a block of stone from fear, Hkr. ii. 360, Orkn., Fbr. 36 (hence stall-dræpt hjarta, a ‘block-beating’ faint heart): d. upp eld, to strike fire, Fms. iv. 338: d. sik ór dróma, to throw off the fetter, Edda 19: d. e-t undir sik, to knock or drag down, skaltú standa hjá er fjandi sá drepr mik undir sik, Grett. 126, 101 A: d. slóð, to make a slot or sleuth (trail); d. kyrtlarnir slóðina, the cloaks trailed along the ground so as to leave a track, Gísl. 154: to trail or make a track of droves or deer, Lex. Poët.: d. e-t út, to divulge a thing (in a bad sense), Fms. vi. 208; d. yfir e-t, to hide, suppress, drap hann brátt yfir (he soon mastered) harm sinn, Bs. i. 140 (hence yfir-drep, hypocrisy, i. e. cloaking). II. reflex., drepask, to perish, die, esp. of beasts; fé hans drapsk aldrei af megrð ok drephríðum, Eb. 150; drapsk allt hans fólk, Fms. v. 250. 2. recipr. to put one another to death; þá drepask bræðr fyrir ágirni sakar, Edda 40; nú drepask menn (smite one another), eðr særask eðr vegask, Grág. ii. 92; ef menn d. um nætr, Fms. vii. 296; er sjálfir bárusk vápn á ok drápusk, viii. 53; en er bændr fundu at þeir drápusk sjálfir, 68; drepask niðr á leið fram, Ld. 238; drepask menn fyrir, to kill one another’s men, Fms. vii. 177; görðisk af því fjandskapr með þeim Steinólfi svá at þeir drápusk þar (menn?) fyrir, Gullþ. 14. III. impers., drepr honum aldregi ský (acc.) í augu, his eyes never get clouded, of the eagle flying in the face of the sun, Hom. 47; ofrkappit (acc.) drepr fyrir þeim (their high spirits break down) þegar hamingjan brestr, Fms. vi. 155; drap þó heldr í fyrir honum, he rather grew worse, i. e. his eyes grew weaker, Bjarn. 59; nú drepr ór hljóð (acc.) fyrst ór konunginum, the king became silent at once, Fms. xi. 115; stall drepr ór hjarta e-s, Fbr. 36 (vide above, I. 4); ofan drap flaugina (acc.), the flaug was knocked down, Bs. 1. 422; regn drepr í gögnum e-t, the rain beats through the thatch or cover, Fagrsk. 123 (in a verse). β. in mod. usage, drepa is even used in the sense to drip (= drjupa), e. g. þak, hús drepr, the thatch, house lets water through.

B. WITH DAT.: I. denoting gentle movement; in many cases the dat. seems to be only instrumental: 1. of the limbs; hendi drap á kampa, be put his hand to his beard, Hom. 21; d. fæti (fótum), to stumble, prop. to strike with the foot, Nj. 112, Fas. ii. 558, Bs. i. 742, Hom. 110, Grett. 120; d. fæti í e-t, to stumble against, 103; d. fæti við e-t, id., Fas. ii. 558; d. höfði, to droop, nod with the head; drap í gras höfði, (the horse) drooped with the head, let it fall, Gkv. 2. 5; d. niðr höfði, id., Nj. 32; Egill sat svá opt, at hann drap höfðinu niðr í feld sinn (from sorrow), Eg. 322, O. H. L. 45 (for shame); d. fingri í munn sér, to put the finger into the mouth, Edda 74; fingri drap í munninn sinn (of a child), the words of a ditty; d. hendi til e-s, or við e-m, to give one a slap with the hand (inst. dat.), Nj. 27; hence metaph., d. hendi við e-u, to wave away with the hand, to refuse a kind offer, Bs. i. 636; d. hendi við boðnu gulli, Al. 75: the phrase, d. hendi við sóma sínum, cp. Al. 162. 2. to tuck up the sleeves or skirts of a garment; d. skautum (upp), Fms. vii. 297; hann hafði drepit upp skautunum, Lv. 85; hann hafði drepit upp fyrir blöðunum undir beltið, Eb. 226: Sigurðr drap blöðunum undir belti sér, Orkn. 474; d. hári undir belti sér, to tuck the hair under the belt (of a lady), hárit tók ofan á bringuna ok drap hón (viz. því) undir belti sér, Nj. 24; hafði hár svá mikit, at hann drap undir belti sér, 272. II. to dip; d. skeggi í Breiðafjörð niðr, to dip the beard in the Breidafiord, i. e. to be drowned, Ld. 316; d. hendi, or fingri í vatn, to dip the hand, finger into water (vide above); d. barni í vatn, to dip a baby into water, i. e. to baptize, K. Þ. K. 10: the phrase, d. fleski í kál, to dip bacon into kale broth, Fas. iii. 381; nú taka þeir hafrstökur tvær, ok d. þeim í sýrukerin, Gísl. 7. β. the phrase, d. e-u, of wax, lime, butter, or the like, to daub, plaster, fill up with; þú skalt taka vax ok d. því í eyru förunauta þinna, Od. xii. 77; síðan drap eg því í eyru á öllum skipverjum, 177; vaxið er eg hafði drepið í eyru þeim, 200; d. smjöri í ílát, to fill a box with butter. γ. metaph. phrases; d. dul á e-t, to throw a veil over, Hkr. ii. 140, in mod. usage, draga dulur á e-t: the phrase, d. í skörðin (the tongue understood), to talk indistinctly, from loss of teeth; d. orði, dómi á e-t, to talk, reason, judge of a thing, Fms. ix. 500; d. huldu á, to hide, cloak, keep secret, xi. 106: d. e-u á dreif, prop. tothrow adrift,’ throw aside, i. e. think little of a thing, þessu var á dreif drepit, it was hushed up, Orkn. 248; áðr hafði mjök verit á dreif drepit um mál Bjarnar (there had been much mystery about Björn), hvárt hann var lífs eðr eigi, sagði annarr þat logit, en annarr sagði satt, i. e. no one knew anything for certain, Bjarn. 20; en eigi varð vísan á dreif drepin (the song was not thrown aside or kept secret) ok kom til eyrna Birni, 32; drápu öllu á dreif um þessa fyrirætlan, hushed it all up, Eg. 49: d. í egg e-u, prop. to bate the edge of a thing, to turn a deaf ear to, Orkn. 188, metaphor from blunting the edge of a weapon. δ. d. e-u niðr, to suppress a thing (unjustly); d. niðr konungs rétti, N. G. L. i. 7 5; d. niðr sæmd e-s, to pull down a person’s reputation, Boll. 346; d. niðr illu orði, to keep down a bad report, suppress it, Nj. 21; d. niðr máli, to quash a lawsuit, 33; drepit svá niðr herörinni, Fms. iv. 207. ε. d. glaumi, gleði, teiti e-s, to spoil one’s joy, Lex. Poët.; d. kosti e-s, to destroy one’s happiness, Am. 69: impers., drap þú brátt kosti, the cheer was soon gone, Rm. 98.

drep-hríð, f. a killing snow storm, Eb. 150.

drepill, m., in knatt-drepill, a bat, in the game of cricket.

drep-ráð, n. pl. a law term (cp. áljóts-ráð, sár-rúð, bana-ráð, fjör-ráð), an intended affray or assault, Grág. ii. 116, 117, Vsl. ch. 75.

drep-samligr, adj. deadly, destructive, Stj. 71.

drep-sleggja, u, f. a sledge-hammer, Eg. 272.

drep-sótt, f. a plague, pest, Yer. 21, Kb. 478.

drep-sóttr, part. plague-stricken, Bs. ii. 33.

drettingr, m. [dratta], a loiterer, a cognom., Sturl. i. 89.

DREYMA, d and ð, poët. obsol. pret. reflex. dreymdumk; [draumr; A. S. dryman = psallere; Hel. drômian = jubilari; Engl. dream; Germ. träumen; Dan. drömme; Swed. drömma]:—to dream; in Icel. impers. and with a double acc., that of the dreamer and the dream or person appearing; thus, mik dreyindi draum, mik dreymdi mann, etc.; þat dreymdi mik, Nj. 95; hvat hefir þik dreymt, id.; hinn veg d. mik þó, 53; hann kvað sik dreymt hafa Hákon jarl (acc.), 122; dreymt hefir mik mart í vetr, Ld. 126; enn dreymdi hann enn þriðja draum, Fms. xi. 8; or poët., draum dreymdumk = draum dreymdi mik, I dreamt a dream, Bjarn. 49; or with ‘at’ with subj., hann (acc.) dreymði þat, at hann væri at lögbergi, Íb. ch. 4, cp. 385: konung dreymdi aldri, the king never had a dream, Hkr. i. 171; the phrase, at dreyma fyrir daglátunum, esp. of light merry dreams at daybreak, which people in Icel. consider a sign of good health, Fél. ix. β. pers., the appearance in nom., (rare), sá maðr (nom.) dreymir mik jafnan, Fs. 98; dreymdi Svein Þórr heldr ófryniligr, Fms. ii. 162; þat er fyrir eldi er járn (nom. pl.) dreyma, Gkv. 2. 38; um vetrinn vóru dreymdir draumar margir, Bs. i. 497; vide draumr.

DREYPA, t and ð, [drjúpa, draup], to drop, put a drop of fluid, wine, medicine, etc., into the mouth of one sick, fainting, and the like, the fluid in dat.; d. e-u á e-t, or í munn em; hann dreypir vígðu vatni í munn henni, Bs. i. 199; at hann dreypi vatni á tungu mína, Greg. 23, Luke xvi. 24; d. víni á e-n (of fainting), Fas. iii. 508, 571; hann dreypti á konuna þar til at hon raknaði við, ii. 151: to dip, at hann dreypi í vatn enum minsta fingri sínum, Greg. 22, Luke xvi. 24, where the N. T. of 1540 sqq. has, at hann ‘drepi’ hinu fremsta síns fingrs í vatn.

dreyra, ð, to bleed, ooze (of blood from a slight wound), always absol. or neut.; þótti mér dreyra ór hlutunum, Ld. 126; ok dreyrði ór hlutunum, Fb. i. 67; eigi dreyrði ór hvirflinum, Fms. ii. 272; hann reist í lófa sér krossmark svá at dreyrði, so that blood flowed, v. 185; ný-dreyrt blóð, new-bled blood, Þiðr. 199.

dreyr-blandinn part. blent, mixed with blood, Lex. Poët.

dreyr-fáðr (-fár), part. blood-stained, Hkv. Hjörv. 9, Lex. Poët.

dreyr-gjarn, adj. blood-thirsty, dreary, Al. 31.

DREYRI and drøri, a, m. [as to the root, cp. Goth. drjúsan, pret. draus, = to drop, fall, a verb analogous to frjósa, fraus, and fröri; this strong verb is lost in the Icel., only the weak dreyra is used; A. S. dreôr = gore; O. H. G. trôr:—are A. S. dreôrig, Engl. dreary, from the same root, in a metaph. sense?]:—blood, esp. gore, properly blood oozing out of the wound; vekja e-m dreyra, to bleed one, Fms. vii. 145; nú vökva þeir sér blóð, ok láta renna saman dreyra sinn. Gísl. 11; manna d., human blood, Fms. xi. 233; the phrase, rauðr sem dreyri, = dreyr-rauðr, red as blood, i. e. dark red, v. 127; rauðr d., Vsp. 33: allit., er hann etr hold mitt ok drekkr dreyra minn, 625. 195; dreyrinn dundi, the blood gushed, Pass. 23. 3: poët. phrases, dals d., jarðar d., the blood of the dales, earth, rivers, Lex. Poët.; Kvásis d., the blood of K., poetry, Edda. COMPD: dreyra-runninn, part. spattered with blood, Fms. vii. 89.

dreyrigr, dreyrugr (drørigr, Ýt. 5, 11), adj. [cp. Engl. dreary, Germ. traurig]:—bloody, gory; uncontr., dreyruga, Al. 41; dreyruga húfu, Gísl. 64, 151; dreyrugra benja, Bragi: contr., dreyrgan mæki, Ýt. 11; dreyrga steina, Sb. 58; dreyrgra darra, Jd. 9.

dreyr-rauðr, adj. blood-red, Eg. 113, Fms. vii. 145.

dreyr-stafir, m. pl. dreary, bloody runes, SI. 40.

DREYSSA, að, [drussi], d. sik, to vaunt oneself foolishly, Pass. 1. 1 2.

DRIF, n. [drífa], driven snow; hvítt sem d., Fms. iv. 372, v. 1.: the foaming sea, sjór var hvítr fyrir drifi, Bs. ii. 116. COMPDS: drifa-stormr, m., drifa-veðr, n. a strong storm.

drif-hvítr and drift-hvítr, adj. white as driven snow, Karl. 546: naut., leggja til drifs, to lie adrift.

drift, dript, f. a snow-drift; þar var snjár í driptum, Sturl. i. 84; hvítt sem drift, white as driven snow, Ó. H. 170.

DRIT, n. (mod. dritr, m.), [Engl. dirt, cp. dríta], dirt, esp. of birds, fugla-d., dúfna-d., Stj. 620. 2 Kings vi. 25; síðan tekr hann fugla dritið, Þiðr. 79, v. 1.: local names, Drit-sker, Eb. ch. 4; Drit-vík, Bárð. ch. 4: nicknames, Drit-kinn, Gullþ.; Drit-ljóð, Fms. ix; Drit-loki, Sturl. i. 30.

drit-ligr, adj. dirty, Sks. 112 new Ed.

drit-menni, n. a dirty person, Fas. ii. (in a verse).

drit-róði, a, m. [see ráði], a dirty hog, Edda (Gl.)

DRÍFA, pret. dreif, pl. drifu; pres. dríf; pret. subj. drifi; part. drifinn: [Ulf. dreiban = εκβάλλειν; A. S. drîfan; Engl. drive; O. H. G. triban; mod. Germ. treiben; Swed. drifva; Dan. drive, all in a transitive sense—to drive.] I. to drive like spray, either pers. or impers., with dat. or even neut.; þá kemr áfall mikit … ok dreif yfir búlkann, Bs. i. 422; lauðri dreif á lypting útan, the spray drove over the poop, Fms. vi. (in a verse); hence metaph. phrases, láta yfir d., to let drift before wind and wave, Ísl. ii. 461: or even reflex., láta yfir (fyrir) drífask, to let drive or drift away, let go, give in; rán ok útlegðir þeirra manna er eigi létu fyrir drífask, Fb. i. 70; þat dugir á enga leið, at menn láti yfir drífask, Bs. ii. 51; ok er þó þat ráð, at láta eigi fyrir drífask, Karl. 386, 452: allit. phrase, drífa á dagana, e. g. mart hefir drifit á dagana, many things (splashes) have happened; drifinn döggu, besprent with dew, Vtkv. 5: naut., róa drífanda, to pull so that the spray splashes about, pull hard, Fms. viii. 263, 431: to drift, of a snow storm or the like, tré með drífandum kvistum, a tree with the branches full of snow. Sks. 49; veðr var drífanda, it snowed, Sturl. iii. 50, Ó. H. 85; þegar dreif í Löginn krömmu, there fell soft snow in the Lake, i. e. it began to sleet, Fms. v. 196; þá drífr snær ór öllum áttum, Edda 40: metaph. of missiles, to shower as flakes of snow, borgarmena láta þegar d. skot á þá, Al. 11; lata þeir d. vápn á þá, Fb. i. 135. II. neut. to crowd, throng; þá drífr ofan mannfjöldi mikill til strandar, a great crowd rushed down to the shore, Ld. 76; tóku menn þá at d. brott frá hertoganum, the men began to desert (run away) from the duke, Fms. ix. 531, dreif allt fólk á hans fund, all people rushed to see him, i. 21, iv. 105; d. á dyrr, to rush to the door, Vkv. 19. III. to perform; eiga e-t at d., to have a thing to perform, Gþl. 15, 16; en í annan stað á ek at d. mikinn vanda, I am in a hard strait, Fms. i. 221; d. leik, to play, Fas. i. 37: the sense to drive out, expel, so common in all other Teut. dialects, hardly occurs in old writers, and sounds foreign even now; the proverb, með íllu skal illt út drífa; d. sig, to exert oneself, etc., (cant phrases.)

drífa, u, f. a fall of snow, sleet; fjúk ok d., Bs. i. 185; veðr var þykt ok d., Fms. v. 341; skotvápn flugu svá þykt sem d., i. 45; um kveldit görði á drífu-él blautt, Orkn. 414; kom þá drífu-él mikit, ok var all-myrkt, Fms. ix. 23.

dríli, n. a petty heap of peat or the like, hence metaph. dríldinn, adj. petty; dríldni, f. pettiness.

DRÍTA, pret. dreit, dritu, dritinn, to dirty, cacare; hann sögðu þeir dríta á alla þá er við hann áttu af hrópi sínu, Sturl. ii. 39: part. fem. dritin, dirty, Ls. 56.

drjóli, a, m. a drone, (cant word.)

drjóni, a, m. an ox, Edda (Gl.) II. [Swed. drönare], a drone.

drjúg-deildr, part. substantial, Sturl. i. 166.

drjúg-genginn, part. taking long to walk or pass, of a road, Lex. Poët.

drjúg-látr, adj. wanton.

drjúg-liga, drýg-liga, adv. with an air of importance; láta d., Fms. ii. 145, Nj. 76.

drjúg-ligr, adj. substantial, solid, Sks. 382.

drjúg-mæltr, adj. long-winded in speaking, Greg. 39: neut., Vígl. 24.

DRJÚGR, adj., compar. drjúgari, superl. drjúgastr; in mod. use more freq. drýgri, drýgstr, solid, substantial; the phrase, verða drjúgari or drjúgastr, to get the better or best of it, to prove the better (of two champions); varð Þórir þeirra drjúgari, Bárð. 170; þú, Kári, munt þeim öllum drjúgari verða, thou, K., wilt outdo them all, Nj. 171; hvárir þar mundi drjúgari verða, Ld. 222; þótti þeim, sem hann myndi drjúgastr, Bárð. 170; hverr yðar drjúgastr (strongest) er höfðingjanna, Ísl. ii. 165, Grett. 151. β. the neut. drjúgt and drjúgum is used as adv. in great numbers, much; Kolskeggr vá drjúgt menn, Kolskegg slew men in numbers, Nj. 108; þaðan af muntu d. spekjask, 677. 12; vegr Gunnarr drjugum menn, Nj. 96; lá þá drjúgum í fyrir þeim, Hrafn. 27: almost, nearly, drjúgum allr, almost all, Fms. ix. 318; drjúgum allra manna virðing, Bret. 38; drjúgum hverr bóndi, Landn. (Mant.) 330; drjúgum dauðr af kulda, Fms. ix. 467: drjúgan (acc. masc.) as adv., id., Fb. i. 304, Karl. 246, 181 (Fr.): the proverb, þat er drjúgt sem drýpr, i. e. many drops make a flood; þar var drjúgt manna, a good many people, Bs. i. 536. 2. substantial, lasting, rich, ample, [Swed. dryg, Dan. dröj], in compds as, drjúg-virkr, vinnu-d., one who works slowly but surely; ráða-d., hamingju-d., etc. β. saving, blanda agnar við brauð, … til þess at þá sé drjúgari fæzlan en áðr, Sks. 321; til þess at rit verði minna, ok bókfell drjúgara, i. e. to save parchment, Skálda 168; at jafndrjúg verði sagan ok Jólin, that the story shall last as long as Yule, Fms. vi. 355.

DRJÚPA, pret. draup, pl. drupu; subj. drypi; sup. dropit; pres. drýp; [Engl. drip; Germ. traufen; Dan. dryppe]:—to drip; blóð drýpr, Fms. x. 366; drupu þá ór blóðdropar, 625. 98; svá at bráðnaði ok draup, Edda 4: absol., þá sveittisk róðan helga, svá at draup á altarit ofan, Fms. viii. 247; Þórólfr kvað d. smjör af hverju strái, Landn. 31. β. to let in rain, of houses or things not water-tight; öll hlaðan draup, Fms. ix. 234; ok tóku húsin at drjúpa, Gísl. 22.

drokr, m., one MS. wrongly dirokr, [cp. Dan. drog, Engl. drudge], a drudge, Edda (Gl.)

drolla, að, [drjóli], Old Engl. to droil, i. e. loiter, (cant word.)

dropi, a, m. [A. S. dropa; Engl. drop; Swed. droppe; Germ. tropfen; Dan. draabe], a drop, Ld. 328, H. E. i. 488. COMPDS: dropa-lauss, adj. water-tight, Gþl. 331. dropa-rúm, n. a dripping-place, from the eaves, Gþl. 433. dropa-tal, n., í dropa-tali, in drops, drop by drop.

dros, f. [A. S. dreâs; Ulf. drus = πτωσις; Swed. drosse = a heap of corn; cp. also the Dan. drysse], dross, poët., in the compd álm-dros, the dross of the bow, the arrows, Lex. Poët.

dróg, f. (drogi, a, m., Edda (Ub.) 277), = drak, Rb. 478, 480; sásk dróg á himni björt sem tungl, Ann. 1334; blóð-dróg, a streak of blood, Thom. (Fr.) 2. a jade.

drómi, a, m. [cp. Swed, drum = thrums], the fetter by which the Fenrir (Wolf) was fettered, Edda 19; used in the phrase, keyra í droma, to tie ‘neck and heels;’ Drottinn í dróma keyrðr, Pass. 6. 10; keyrði hann saman í dróma, Úlf. 7. 134.

drómundr, m. a kind of ship of war (for. word), [Gr. δρόμων; mid. Lat. dromon; O. H. G. drahemond], Orkn. 358 sqq., Fms. vii. 3: a nickname, Grett.

drós, f. [cp. Ital. druda = a sweetheart], poët. a girl; drósir heita þær er kyrlátar eru, Edda 108, Fas. iii. 618, Al. 70, 152.

DRÓTT, f. I. the sill or beam above a door, also a door-post (dyra-drótt). II. household, people, Vþm. 24, (inn-drótt, sal-drótt, Lex. Poët.); dyggvar dróttir, good, trusty people, Vsp. 63; dverga d., the dwarf-people, 9; d. Írskrar þjóðar, the Irish people; Engla d., English persons, etc., Lex. Poët.; öll drótt, all people, Hkv. 2. 48: twenty people make a drótt, Edda 108. 2. esp. the king’s body-guard; cp. Goth. ga-drauhts, by which word Ulf. renders the Gr. στρατιώτης (drjûgan, pret. drauh = στρατεύειν); A. S. dright; the Scandinavian drótt thus answers to the comitatus of Tacitus, Germ. ch. 13, 14, in the Saga time called ‘hirð.’ Drótt is obsolete in prose, but occurs in Hkr. Yngl. S. ch. 20,—áðr vóru þeir (viz. the kings) dróttnar kallaðir, en konur þeirra dróttningar, en drótt hirðsveitin: poët., víg-drótt, her-d., fólk-d., hjálm-d., etc., warriors. III. a fem. pr. name, Yngl. S. ch. 20; cp. drós.

drótta, að, d. e-u at e-m, to bring to one’s door-post, i. e. impute to one.

dróttin-hollr, adj. faithful to one’s master, Fms. vi. 401.

dróttin-lauss, adj. without a master, Fms. iii. 13.

dróttin-ligr, adj. lord-like, of the Lord, Bs. i. 171, Stj.; Drottinleg bæn, the Lord’s Prayer, Mar., Hom. 26; d. dæmi, 656 A. 24.

dróttinn, mod. drottinn, but in old poetry always rhymed with an ó, e. g. flóttstyggr—dróttni, Sighvat; dat. dróttni or drottni, pl. dróttnar or drottnar, etc.; [A. S. drighten; Hel. druhtin = dominus]:—the master of a ‘drótt’ or household, a lord, master: the proverb, dýrt er dróttins orð, e. g. strong is the master’s word, Bs. i. 484, Al. 128, Ld. 212; þræll eða d., Hom. 29; Josep fékk svá mikla virðing af dróttni sínum, 625. 16, Grág. ii. 86; þrjá dróttna átti hann í þessi herleiðingu, Fms. x. 224; eigi er þrællinn æðri enn dróttininn, Post. 656. 37, cp. John xv. 20; en þó eta hundar af molum þeim sem detta af borðum drottna þeirra, Matth. xv. 27; verit hlýðugir yðrum líkamligum drottnum, Ephes. vi. 5: in mod. usage this sense remains in prose in the compd lánar-dróttinn, q. v. β. old name for a king, Hkr. Yngl. S. ch. 20 (vide drótt). γ. as a name of heathen priests; þat eru díar kallaðir eðr dróttnar, Hkr. Yngl. S. ch. 2. 2. the Lord, which also is the standing phrase in mod. usage, in the Bible, sermons, hymns, ever since the Reformation; lofaðr sé Drottinn, Nj. 165; af miskun Drottins, Mar. 656 A. 6; greiðit Dróttins götur, 625. 90; Christr Drottinn, Grág. ii. 167; án gráts var Drottinn fæddr, Rb. 332; Drottinn sagði mínum Drottni, Matth. xxii. 44; elska skaltú Drottinn Guð þinn, 37; Dróttinn Guð Abrahams, Luke xx. 37, xxiv. 34; hefi eg eigi séð Dróttinn vorn Jesum Christum, eruð þér ekki mitt verk í Drottni? 1 Cor. ix. 1, 5, 14, x. 21, 22, 26, 28, 30, xi. 10, 19, 22, 25, 26, 28, 31, xii. 3, 5, etc. etc. COMPDS: Drottins-dagr, m. the Lord’s day, K. Þ. K. 68, Rb. 112, 655 iii, Sturl. iii. 37, 159, 226, Nj. 165; Drottinsdaga hald, hallowing the Lord’s day, Nj. 165; Dróttinsdags nótt, Saturday night, 194; Drottinsdaga veiðr, K. Þ. K. 85. Drottins-kveld, n. Sunday evening, Fms. ix. 19. Drottins-myrgin, m. Sunday morning, Sturl. iii. 37. Drottins-nótt, f. Sunday night, Fms. vii. 187.

dróttin-svik, n. pl. treason towards a lord or master, Hkr. ii. 132, Sks. 571, Hom. 23 (Judas).

dróttin-svikari (-sviki), a, m. a traitor to his master, Nj. 260, K. Á. 60.

drótt-kvæðr, adj. (-kvæði, n.), in the heroic metre, the metre used in the drápas (q. v.) or poems which were recited before a king and the king’s men (drótt), whence the name probably comes; dróttkvæðr is opp. to kviðu-háttr, the epic, narrative metre, and ljóða-háttr, the metre of didactic poems or poems in the form of dialogues, Edda (Ht.)

drótt-lát, f. adj. beloved by the household, gentle, epithet of a queen, Am. 10.

drótt-megir, m. pl. men, people, Vþm. 11, 12.

dróttna or drottna, að, [Ulf. drauhtinôn = στρατεύεσθαι], to rule, govern, hold sway; d. yfir e-m, to rule over one, Stj. 396, Fms. viii. 242: with dat., þó lætr hann þat eigi d. huga sínum, Greg. 33; at oss drottni eigi dauði síðan, Niðrst. 8; fyllit jörðina, stjórnit henni ok drottnið, Stj. 21.

dróttnan or drottnan, f. sway, rule, 625. 5, Stj. 20, H. E. i. 502; drottnunar-gjarn, adj. ambitious; drottnunar-girni, f. ambition.

dróttnari, a, m. a ruler, Stj. 20.

dróttning and drottning, f. a mistress, Clem. 129 (Unger); þræll sá er vegr at dróttni (master) sínum eðr dróttningu (mistress), Grág. ii. 86 (vide above); ef þræll verðr sekr skógarmaðr um víg dróttins síns eðr dróttningar, 161; drottning hans girntisk hann, Ver. 16. Gen. xxxix. 7; this sense is quite obsolete except in old law phrases and translations. 2. a queen, common to all Scandinavians, Swed. drotning, Dan. dronning, whereas drottinn = king is obsolete, Hkr. Yngl. S. ch. 20, Fms. i. 99, vi. 439, Sks. 468; the instances are endless. COMPDS: drottningar-efni, n. a future queen, Fas. iii. 456. drottningar-maðr, m. a queen’s husband, a prince consort, Nj. 5, v. l. drottningar-nafn, n. the title of queen, Fms. i. 101.

drótt-seti, a, m. a steward at the king’s table; this word occurs in various forms throughout the Saxon parts of Germany, Holland, Belgium, Friesland, Brabant, etc. Du Cange records a ‘drossardus Brabantiae;’ it is in mid. Lat. spelt drossatus, Germ. and Saxon drost, land-drost, reichs-drost (drozerus regni), Fris. drusta, vide Grimm; the Dutch prefer the form drossardus: in the court of the king of Norway the office of dróttseti is not heard of before the beginning of the 12th century (the passage Bs. i. 37 is monkish and of late composition), and is there a kind of head-cook or steward at the king’s table, who was to be elected from the king’s skutilsveinar; d. spurði hvat til matar skyldi búa, the d. asked the king what meat they should dress, Fms. vii. 159 (about A. D. 1125), ix. 249, x. 147; d. ok skenkjari, N. G. L. ii. 413, 415; cp. also Hirðskrá (N. G. L. l. c.) ch. 26, Fms. x. 100 refers to the drost of the German emperor. In the 14th century the dróttseti became a high officer in Sweden and Denmark. The derivation from drótt and seti (seti can only mean a sitter, not one who makes to sit, cp. land-seti, a land-sitter, a tenant) is dubious; the Norse word may be an etymologising imitation of the mid. Lat. drossatus.

drukna, að, [drukkinn, drekka], to be drowned, Nj. 59.

druknan, f. being drowned, death by drowning, Ld. 58, Orkn. 246, Ann. 1260, 1026.

drumbr, m. a log of dry or rotten wood, Fms. viii. 184; drumba, u, f. a cognom., Rm.

drungi, a, m., medic. heaviness, fulness in the head, drunga-legr, adj.

drunur, f. pl. [drynja], a rattling, thundering, Dan. drön.

drusla, u, f. a coarse, vulgar, common ditty, (mod.)

drussi, a, m. a drone; þú d. (αφρων), 1 Cor. xv. 36.

DRÚPA, t or ð, to droop (from sorrow), different from drjúpa, to drip; drúpa is in Icel. an almost obsolete word, in old poets and writers esp. used in a metaph. sense; at the death of a dear person, the country, hills, mountains are said to droop; svá drúpir nú Danmörk, sem dauðr sé Knútr sonr minn. Fms. i. 118; svá þótti drúpa Ísland eptir fráfall Gizurar biskups, sem Rómaborgar ríki eptir fráfall Gregorii páfa, Bs. i. 71; Ari prestr hinn Fróði segir hve mjök várt land drúpði eptir fráfall Gizurar biskups, 145; staðrinn í Skálholti drúpti mjök eptir fráfall hins sæla Þorláks biskups, 301; drúpir Höfði dauðr er þengill, hlæja hlíðar við Hallsteini, Landn. 224 (in a verse): hnípði dróitt ok drúpði fold, Lex. Poët.; drúpir örn yfir, Gm. 10; Vinga meiðr (the gallows) drúpir á nesi, Hlt.; en Skæreið í Skírings-sal of brynjálfs beinum drúpir, Ýt. 22; hans mun dráp um drúpa, dýrmennis mér kenna, Sighvat; knáttu hvarms af harmi hnúpgnípur mer d., my head drooped from grief, Eg. (in a verse); drúpðu dólgárar, the swords drooped (to drink blood), Hkm. 2: in mod. usage drjúpa and drúpa are confounded, aví, hve má eg aumr þræll, angraðr niðr drjúpa, Pass. 41. 4.

drúpr, m. drooping spirits, coldness; ok þó at þar hefði orðit nokkurr d. með þeim, þá …, Fms. xi. 76.

drykk-fátt, n. adj. short of drink, Hkr. iii. 117.

drykkja, u, f. [drukkinn], a drinking-bout, carousal, banquet; sitja við drykkiu, Eg. 88; var veizla hin bezta, ok d. mikil inni í stofunni, 205; at þeim veizlum er drykkjur vóru, Bs. i. 394; matmála í milli ef eigi vóru alþýðu-drykkjur, a public banquet, l. c.; göra d., to make a banquet, Og. 27; þá var ár mikit ok drykkjur miklar, Ó. H. 71; þar var öl-d. ok fast drukkit. Eb. 184, cp. Flóam. S. ch. 2; taka til drykkju, to take to drinking, Fms. ii. 266; drykkja (banquet) skyldi vera at hvárratveggia, Gísl. 27; tóku menn til drykkju um kveldit, 28; hafa sam-d., to have a carouse, Grett. ch. 8; Jóla boð ok sam-drykkjur, Ó. H. ch. 95, cp. 33, 34, 131, Eg. ch. 11, 44; á-drykkia, q. v., Har. S. Harðr. ch. 23, Fms. vii. 203, cp. Orkn. ch. 33, 34, 70, 101, 104, Sverr. S. ch. 36, 98, 103, 104, Fagrsk. ch. 11, 219, 220: the ancients drank hard, ‘diem noctemque continuare potando nulli probrum,’ Tac. Germ. ch. 11: with kings the drinking (dag-drykkia, q. v.) began immediately after the day-meal, vide the rcferences above; the words of Tacitus, ‘tum (viz. after breakfast) ad negotia, nec minus saepe ad convivia, procedunt armati,’ l. c., are therefore true enough, Edda (Gg.) ch. 39, 46; the phrase, þreyta drykkju (cp. kapp-d., a drinking match), Edda 32. The Icelanders of the Saga time seem to have been of much more abstemious habits than their Norse kinsmen ot the same time, and drinking is scarcely mentioned but at public banquets; the Sturlunga time is worse, but only those who had been abroad are mentioned as strong drinkers (cp. Arons S. ch. 19); cp. also a treatise of the end of the 12th century, named De profectione Daiiorum, ch. II—‘in cunctis illius regni (i. e. Norway) civitatibus uniformis consuetudo sed vitiosa inolevit, scilicet jugis ebrietas,’ etc. 2. = beverage = drykkr (rare), Egill bað fá sér drykkju, Eg. 107. COMPDS: drykkju-borð, n. a drinking-table, Fms. xi. 2. drykkju-föng, n. pl. drinkables, Sturl. iii. 289. drykkju-lítill, adj. sober, Bs. i. 275. drykkju-maðr, m. a great drinker, Fms. vii. 175, viii. 238, Edda 32. drykkju-mál, n. drinking at meal time, Anal. 195, Fas. ii. 266. drykkju-rútr, m. a drunkard. drykkju-skapr, m. hard drinking, drunkenness, Fms. iii. 191, Ann. 1389. drykkju-skáli, a, m. a banquet hall, Orkn. 244, Fms. i. 299. drykkju-stofa, u, f. = drykkjuskáli. Fms. vii. 147, Eg. 553. drykkju-stútr, m. a drinking-can, Bs. i. 877.

drykkja, ðr, part. drunk, Rb. iii. 384, Karl.

drykk-langr, adj., Skíða R. 65; in the phrase, drykklanga stund, just a moment, a measure of time whilst one drinks a draught.

drykk-lauss, adj. (-leysi, f.), without drink, Bs. i. 822, Finnb. 234, K. Á. 34.

drykkr, jar, m., pl. ir, [A. S. drinc; Engl. drink; Germ. trunk; Dan. drik]:—drink, beverage, Fms. xi. 108, 233; eiga drykk ok sess við e-n, Eg. 95: a draught, Edda 32, 48; hvat hafa Einherjar at drykk? 24; vatns-d., a draught of water, id.; svala-d., þorsta-d., a thirst-draught; muntu nú eigi sparask til eins drykkjar, one draught more, 32; þreyta á drykkinn, to take a deep draught, id.; drekka í tveimr, þremr … drykkjum, to drain in two, three … draughts, id.; undarliga mundi mér þykkja ef þvílíkir drykkir væri svá litlir kallaðir, id. β. sour whey, proncd. drukkr, Krók. 64; freq. in western Icel. COMPDS: drykkjar-bolli, a, m. a drinking-bowl, Mart. J19. drykkjar-föng, n. pl. drinkables. drykkjar-horn, n. a drinking-horn, Fr. drykkjar-ker, n. a drinking-cup, Greg. 50, Sks. 725, Stj. 486. drykkjar-kostr, m. drinking cheer, Vm. 56.

drykk-sæll, adj. lucky in drink or brewing, Bs. 108.

dryllr, m. a nickname, Fms. i; drylla, u, f., Snót 184; also spelt with u, proluvies alvi, (vulgar.)

drymba, u, f. a kind of stockings (?), Art. (Parcevals S.)

DRYNJA, drundi, pres. dryn, to roar. This root word is common to Goth., Scandin., Fris., and Dutch; for Ulf. drunjus = φθόγγος, Róm. x. 18, is a sufficient proof; in Swed. we have dröna, and drön neut.; Dan. dröne and drön; Dutch dreunen; North. E. to drone, as a cow; Fris. dröne; the mod. High Germ. dröhnen was, in the 17th century, borrowed from Low Germ. In old Icel. no instance happens to be on record, except dryn-rann in Gsp. 23, Fas. i. 480; in mod. usage it is freq. enough, and the absence in old writers seems to be accidental; draugr dimmr og magr, drundi í björgum undir, Snót 226, a ditty by Stefan Olafsson; drynja and dynja are different in sense, drynja denotes roaring, dynja crushing; þá heyrði hilmir hátt við kletta drafnar drynja dunur þungar, of the roaring surf, Od. (poët.) v. 401.

drynr, m. pl. [Dan. and Swed. drön], roaring; drunur, f., vide above.

dryn-rann, n., poet. ‘the roaring inn of drink,’ a drinking-horn, Fas. l. c.

drysil-, dusil-, a term of contempt, paltry, in the COMPDS drysil-djöfull, m. a petty, paltry devil, devilkin, Fms. iii. 201, in the amusing ghost story, opp. to the big inmates of hell. drysil-hross (spelt dusil-), n. n paltry horse, Ísl. iii. 333. drysil-menni, n. a paltry, petty man, Edda (Gl.)

DRÝGJA, ð, [drjúgr; A. S. dreógan = to endure; North. E. and Scot. to dree = to endure, suffer]:—to commit, perpetrate, mostly in a bad sense; d. synd, to commit a sin, K. Á. 202; d. glæp, id.; d. hórdóm, to commit whoredom, Sks. 340; þú skalt ekki hórdóm d., thou shall not commit whoredom; d. misræðu við konu, id., Grág. i. 338; d. hernað, to pirate, ii. 70; d. ílsku, Orkn. 32: it is a standing phrase in eccl. or sacred writers, N. T., Pass., Vidal.: in a good sense only in a few phrases as the allit., d. dáð, Sturl. iii. 7; or in poets or bad old prose; orlög d., A. S. orlig dreogan (cp. the North. E. to dree one’s weird = to abide one’s fate), to try one’s luck, Vkv. i, cp. also the Germ. tales, in die welt gehen; d. hlýðni, Sks. 675; d. mannliga náttúru, to pay the debt of nature, 447; d. e-s vilja, to comply with one’s wishes, Bær. 14,—the last three passages are bad prose. β. to make to keep longer, to lengthen, Bs. ii. 173, Bb. 3. 30.

drægr, adj. that which can be pulled against.

dræmt, n. adj. [from draumr ?], slowly, Ósv.

dræplingr, m., dimin. [drápa], a paltry drápa, Hkr. ii. 82, Fms. xi. 204.

dræpr, adj. who may be killed with impunity, N. G. L. i. 82, Grág. i. 92, Nj. 111.

dræsa, u, f. = drusla.

DRÖFN, f., gen. drafnar, pl. drafnir, [akin to drefiar], spots, spray-like spots; hence dröfnóttr, adj. spotted; rauð-d., blá-d., etc., red-, blue-spotted; poët. the foaming sea is called drëfn, Fdda.

drösla, að, to roam about; cp. drasill, drösall.

dröttr, m., dat. dretti, [draga], a scamp; ellegar skal ek, inn digri dröttr, dubba þik svá svíði, Skíða R. 60.

dubba (dybba), að, (for. word), to dub a knight; nú hefir þú dybbat mik til riddara, Bær. 5, 18, Fms. x. 109, Karl. 193: to arm, dress, Stj. 464. 1 Sam. xvii. 38; upp dubbaðr, dressed in full dress, Finnb. 226; d. sik, to trim oneself, Fms. vi. 208.

dubban, f. dubbing a knight, Karl. 222.

dubl (dufl), n. double, Alg. 366 (mathem.) β. gambling, Gþl. 521, Grett. (in a verse). II. naut. a buoy.

dubla, dufla, að, [dubla = a coin, Du Cange], to gamble, Gþl. 521; dublari, a, m. a gambler, Róm. 161.

DUGA, pret. dugði; pres. dugi; sup. dugat; imperat. dugi þú, mod. dugðu; [A. S. dugan; Scot. and North. E. to dow; O. H. G. tûgan; Germ. taugen: Dan. due; Swed. duga; Engl. do, in phrases such as, that will do]:—to help, aid, with dat.; dugi þú mér Hvíta-Kristr, Fs. 101; d. frændum sínum, Post. 658 C. 19; ok vill eigi d. henni, will not support her, Grág. i. 368; hann dugði heiðnum mönnum, 655 iii. 4: with the notion to do, suffice, þat er þér man d., which will do for thee, Nj. 13; hefir oss þó dugat þessi átrúnaðr, this faith has done well for us, Fms. i. 34; mun þat d. mínum hesti, it will do for my horse, Mag.: the proverb, fátt er svá illt at einu-gi dugi, cp. the Engl. ‘’tis an ill wind that blows nobody good,’ Al. 46, Hm. 134; mun þér eigi þat d. at sofa hér, it will not do (is not safe) for thee to sleep here, Fms. v. 307: adding prepp. við, at, til, to succour, lend help, en Gísli fór at d. þeim við, Gísl. 22; d. þeir nú at þeim mönnum er lífs var van, Finnb. 316, cp. at-dugnaðr; hón dugir eigi verr til enn einhverr karlmaðr, Fb. i. 533: impers., e-m dugir e-t, it does well, beseems, becomes; hón dugir mér illa (vel), Mar. (Fr.), Hkv. I. 45; þó myndi mér enn vel d. (it would do well for me), ef ek fengja at drekka, Ísl. ii. 369. β. absol. or even neut. to shew prowess, do one’s best; dugi þú enn, help! Fms. ii. 75; dugði hverr sem mátti, every one did his best, viii. 139; dugi nú hverr sem drengr er til; mundi þá eigi nauðsyn at d. sem drengilegast, ix. 509: denoting moral force, vel siðaðir menn ok jafnan vel dugat, honest men and who have ever done well, Eg. 96; d. í þurft e-s, Hom. 47. γ. to suffice, be strong enough; ef þitt æði dugir, if thy wit does suffice, Vþm. 20, 22; ef vitni d., if the witnesses do, i. e. fail not, N. G. L. i. 136; dugði veðr it bezta, the weather did well.

dugandi- or dugandis-, as a prefix to nouns, denoting doughty; d. maðr (dugand-maðr, Fms. viii. 104), a doughty man, Dipl. i. 3, Orkn. 456, Rd. 260, Róm. 137.

dugan-ligr, adj. doughty, Ýt. 15.

DUGGA, u, f. a ‘dogger,’ small (Dutch or Engl.) fishing vessel, Ann. 1413, where it is reported that thirty English ‘fiski-duggur’ came fishing about Icel. that summer; (hence the Engl. Dogger-bank):—duggari, a, m. the crew of a dugga, D. N. ii. 651. 2. a lazy dogged fellow, Edda (GL), Trist. (Fr.)

dug-lauss, adj. (-leysi, n.), good for nothing, Þórð. 47 (Ed, 1847).

dugnaðr, ar, m. doughtiness, valour, aid, assistance; biðja e-n sér dugnaðar, to ask one’s help, 655 v. 1, Ísl. ii. 262, 293; veita e-m dugnað, to give help to one, Fms. v. 259: skyrtunnar d., the virtue of the kirtle, Fas. iii. 441: in pl., Greg. COMPDS: dugnaðar-maðr, m. an aider, help in need, 656 A, Fms. vi. 118, Fas. iii. 181: a honest hard-working man (mod.) dugnaðar-stigr, m. the path of virtue, Hom. 14.

dugr, m. pl. ir, [North. E. dow], doughtiness, strength of soul and body, Fms. viii. 411; aldri er d. í þér, thou art good for nothing, Grett. 24 new Ed.

DUL, f. [dylja]. I. prop. concealment, in phrases, með dul, secretly, Bárð. 168; drepa dul á e-t, to conceal, Hkr. ii. 140; and in the COMPDS dular-búnaðr, m. a disguise, Fms. vi. 61; dular-kufl, m. a cloak used for a disguise, Grett. 139 A. II. metaph. self-conceit, pride, in phrases as, dul ok vil, pride and wilfulness, Skálda 163, Sl. 34; ætla sér þá dul, to be so conceited, Finnb. 282; ætlask mikla dul, Fas. ii. 521; dul ok dramb, 655 xi. 3; mikinn dul (masc.), Þórð. MS. (wrongly): the phrase, ganga fram í dul, to go forth in one’s conceit, Hm. 78, (mod., ganga fram í þeirri dulunni): proverb, maðr verðr dælskr af dul, conceit makes an envious, moody man, Hm. 56; dul þín, Band. (MS.) 13.

dula, u, f. a worn strip of cloth.

dula, ð, (cp. dylja), a law term, to deny, with gen., N. G. L. i. 93, 94, 330: with subj., Js. 77: absol., 83.

dular-gríma, u, f. a domino, hiding-mask, Post. 123.

dul-eiðr and dular-eiðr, m. [Swed. duls-ed], a law term, an oath of denial, Gþl. 199, Js. 58.

dul-höttr, m. a disguise-hood, hood used for a disguise, Fms. x. 383; dró ek dulhött (MS. wrongly djarfhött) um dökkva skör, Ad. 3.

dul-klæði, n. disguise, Fas. ii. 441.

dul-kofri, a, m. = dulhöttr, (v. kofri.)

dulnaðr, m. = dul, Fr.

dulr, adj. silent, close; the phrase, ganga duls e-s, to be unaware of a thing, Fms. v. 265.

dul-remmi, f. stubborn self-conceit, Sks. 5368. dul-ræna, u, f. id., v. 1.

dul-samr, adj. self-conceited, Stj. 122.

dulsi, a, m., poët. a dwarf, Ýt. 2.

dul-vígi, n. a law term, secret manslaughter, = laun-víg, not so strong as murder, Gþl. 150.

dumba, u, f. a mist; cp. the mod. dumbungr, m. a dark, misty, gloomy sky. dumbungs-veðr, m. gloomy weather. In the east of Icel. dumba is the bran of oats when ground, Fél. ii. 155; in Edda (Gl.) it is even mentioned as a sort of seed; hann (the wizard) hristi einn poka, ok þar ór fýkr ein dumba svört (black powder like mist) … blés þar ór vindi miklum móti dumbunni, svá at hon fauk aptr í augu á Gríms mönnum, svá þeir urðu þegar blindir, Fas. iii. 338. dumbr, m. id., also occurs as a name of a giant, the misty; the Polar Sea is called Dumbs-haf = the Misty, Foggy Sea, cp. Bárð. ch. 1; cp. also Gr. τυφος, τυφών, which probably are kindred words.

dumbi, adj. dumb; dauf ok dumba skurðgoð, Stj. 207, K. Á. 56.

dumbóttr, adj. of dark misty colour (of cows).

DUMBR, adj. [Ulf. dumbs = κωφός; A. S. dumb; Engl. dumb; O. H. G. tumb; Germ. dum = stupid, whence Dan. dum; Gr. τυφλός and τυφος are kindred words, the fundamental notion being dusty, clouded]:—dumb, 656 C. 34; dumbir ok daufir, 623. 57: gramm. a mute letter, Skálda 176. In Norway dumine or domme means a peg inside doors or gates.

dumb-rauðr, adj. dark-red.

dumpa, að, [Ivar Aasen dump = a gust; Dan. dumpe], to thump, Lv. 81 (απ. λεγ.)

DUNA, að. (cp. dynja), to thunder, give a hollow rushing sound; dunar í skóginum, Edda 30; svá skal danzinn duna, Ísl. Þjóðs. (of dancing).

duna, esp. pl. dunur, f. a rushing, thundering noise, Eb. 174, Fms. iii. 184; hence the Dan. tor-den, qs. Thor-dön, the din of Thor, i. e. thunder, supposed to be the noise of the god Thor in his wain.

dunda, að, to dally, Bb. i. 9.

dun-henda, u, f. (-hendr, adj.), a sort of metre, having four anadiploses, Edda (Ht.) 124, 128.

dunn, m. a band, gang, drove; ganga í e-m duni, to march in one hand, Sturl. iii. 185 C; sauða-dunn, a drove of sheep, Sd. 164: a number of ten is called dunn, Edda 108.

dunna, u, f. the wild duck, Edda (Gl.), cp. Engl. dun.

DUPT, m., better duft, [it properly means the powder of flowers or the like; so duft in Germ. means a sweet smell as from flowers; in old writers duft is rare, dust (q. v.) freq.; in mod. use dust is almost obsolete, and as these two words can hardly be distinguished in old MSS. (where ft and st look like one another), the transcribers have often substituted duft, where the old MS. has dust: again, dufta (a verb) is never used, but only dusta: duft is probably a foreign South-Teutonic word; the Swedish uses only the more homely sounding ånga, vide angi]:—powder; d. ok aska. Stj. 204, Sks. 211, Magn. 448: botan. pollen; dupt-beri, a, m. the stamen of a flower; dupt-knappr, m. the anther; dupt-þráðr, m. the filament, Hjalt.

dura-, v. dyrr.

durgr, m. [dvergr], a sulky fellow, durgs-legr, adj. sulky.

durna-legr, adj. sulky, rude. durna-skapr, m., etc.

durnir, m. a dwrarf, Ýt. 2: metaph. a sulky man.

durtr, m. = durgr. durts-legr, adj. sulky, rude.

dur-vörðr, m. a door-keeper, Eg. 409, Fms. ii. 160.

dusil-, v. drysil-.

dusla, að, to bustle, be busy, Njarð. 368, (cant word.)

DUST, n. [A. S. dust; Engl. dust], dust, Fms. v. 82, 324, xi. 12, Stj. 336. Num. xxiii. 10, Greg. 98: flowers ground to dust, Pr. 471, 472, 474, 475.

dust, n. [Dan. dyst; Swed. dust], a tilt; halt eitt d. með mik, Karl, 72; d. ok turniment, Fr.

dusta, að, to dust.

dustera, að, to tilt, fight, Bev. (Fr.)

dusti, a, m. a grain of dust; engi d. saurs, 656 A. ii. 8.

dusti, a, m. = dust, Post. 22.

dutlungar, m. pl. whimsies, dutlunga-samr, adj. whimsical, (mod.)

dúða, að, to swathe (in clothes).

dúði, a, m. swaddling clothes.

DÚFA, u, f., gen. pl. dúfna; [Goth. dubo; A. S. duva; Engl. dove; Dan. due; Swed. dufva; O. H. G. tûba; Germ. taube]:—a dove, Stj. 111, Hom. 57, 65, Al. 168: as a term of affection, my dove. 2. poët. a wave, one of the daughters of Ran, Edda. COMPDS: dúfu-ligr, adj. dove-like, 655 xxxii. 7. dúfu-nef, n. a cognom. ‘dove-neb,’ dove-beak, Landn. dúfu-ungi, a, m. the young of a dove, Mar. 656, Stj. 317.

dúka, að, to cover with a cloth, Fas. iii. 187, 373.

dúk-lauss, adj. without a cloth, Pm. 108.

DÚKR, m. [Engl. duck; Swed. duk; Dan. dug; Germ. tuch]:—any cloth or texture, Bárð. 160; vaðmáls-d., lín-d., etc., a cloak of wadmal, linen, etc.: a carpet, Fms. ix. 219: tapestry in a church, fimm dúka ok tvá þar í buna, annarr með rautt silki, Vm. 77, vide altaris-dúkr, 20: a neck-kerchief of a lady, dúkr á hálsi, Rm. 16. β. a table-cloth (borð-dúkr); as to the ancient Scandin. custom of covering the table with a cloth, vide esp. Nj. ch. 117, Bs. i. 475, Guðm. S. ch. 43; and for still earlier times the old heathen poem Rm., where Móðir, the yeoman’s good-wife, covers the table with a ‘marked’ (i. e. stitched) white linen cloth, 28; whilst Edda, the old bondman’s good-wife, puts the food on an uncovered table (verse 4); by a mishap the transcriber of Ob. (the only MS. wherein this poem is preserved) has skipped over a verse in the second line of verse 17, so that we are unable to say how Amma, the husbandman’s good-wife, dressed her table: the proverb, eptir dúk og disk, i. e. post festum. γ. a towel; at banquets a servant went round to the guests in turn bearing a basin and a towel on the shoulder, Lv. ch. 13; to be served first was a mark of honour; cp. also Nj. l. c., Har. S. Harðr. ch. 79 (the Danish king and the old woman): a napkin, Blas. 45, 655 xvii. 5: belonging to the priest’s vestment, Pm. 133; d. ok corporale, Vm. 154, Stj. Gen. xxiv. 65 (a veil).

dúk-slitr, n. rags of a d., Vm. 77.

dún-beðr, m. a bed of down-clothes, D. N. (Fr.)

dún-grind, f. a frame whereon to clean eider-down.

dún-hægindi, n. a pillow or bolster of down, D. N.

dúnka, að, to make a dull sound, Fél. xiv. 78.

dún-klæði, n. pl. bedclothes of eider-down, Js. 78, Sturl. iii. 108, Bs. i. 802.

dúnkr, m. = dykr, a dull sound. 2. the name of a farm in western Iceland.

DÚNN (dýnn, Mart. 126), m. [Dutch dune; Engl. down; Swed. and Dan. dun; Germ. daun is prob. of Saxon or Dutch origin, as the d remains unchanged]:—down; taka dún ok dýna, N. G. L. i. 334; esp. used of bedclothes of down; the word occurs in the old heathen poem Gs., soft hann á dúni, 5; blautasti d., Mart. l. c.; á duni ok á guðvefi, Fms. x. 379; vöttu (pillows) duns fulla, a verse of Hornklofi. In Icel. ‘dún’ is chiefly used of eider-down, which word is undoubtedly of Icel. origin, Fr. édre-don, Germ. eder-don or eider-daun; the syllable er is the Icel. gen. æðar-dún, from nom. æðr (the name of the eider duck), acc. æði, gen. æðar. The eider-down, now so important as an article of trade, is never mentioned in old Icel. writers or laws; they only speak of the eggs (egg-ver). The English, during their trade with Icel. in the 15th century, seem first to have brought the name and article into foreign markets. At first it was bought in a rough state; Bogi Benediktsson in Feðga-æfi II records that a certain Jón í Brokey (born 1584), after having been in England, was the first who taught the Icel. to clean the down—var hann líka sá fyrsti hér vestra sem tók að hreinsa æðar-dún …, en áðr (i. e. during the English and Hanseatic trade in Icel.) seldist óhreinsaðr dún eptir Búa-lögum. Icel. say, hreinsa dún, hræla dún. The Danes say, have dun på hagen, to have down on the chin.

dún-tekja, u, f. gathering eider-down.

dúra, að, to nap, Skálda 163.

DÚRR, m. a nap, slumber, Hom. 116, O. H. L. 80: in mod. usage in such phrases as, milli dúra; sofa góðan, væran, dúr.

DÚS (dos, Björn), n. [Norse duus], a lull, dead calm, in the proverb, opt kömr æðiregn ór dúsi, a lull is often followed by a heavy shower, Eb. (in a verse).

dúsa, u, f. a sugar-teat for babies to suck.

dúsa, að, prob. to doze, Og. 18; hví samir hitt at dúsa hirðmanni geðstirðum. Fms. vii. (in a verse); flestir urðu at dúsa, Skíða R. 173: so in mod. usage, láttú hann dúsa, let him alone.

dvala, u, f. [Dan. dvale], = dvöl, Fr.

dvala, að, to delay, with dat.; at dvala ekki förinni, Fms. xi. 2J; ef ér dvalit ferðinni, 115; dvalar hann ekki brotferðinni, Fb. ii. 147; muna nú Helgi hjörþing (hjörþingi or -þingum, better) dvala, Hkv. 1. 49: with infin., Kjartan bað þá ekki dvala, Ld. 176.

dval-samr, adj. dilatory, Stj. 122; e-m verðr dvalsamt, one is delayed, Greg. 80, Fbr. 136.

DVELJA, dvaldi, dvalði; pres. dvel; part. dvalðr, dvalinn; sup. dvalit: [A. S. dveljan; Engl. dwell; O. H. G. tvelan; Swed. dväljas; Dan. dvæle]:—to ‘dwell,’ delay, with acc.; d. för, ferð, to keep back, delay, Grág. ii. 385, Ísl. ii. 266; því dvalða ek dauða þinn, Blas. 47; d. dóm (a law term), to defer judgment, Grág. i. 67; d. ráð fyrir konu, to put off a woman’s marriage, 307; at þat dveli garðlagit, ii. 332; gátu þeir hann eptir dvalit, they managed to keep him back, Fms. vii. 169; d. e-n frá e-u. to keep one from doing a thing, Jb. 380; dvelr mik engi hlutr, at ek geng ekki…, i. e. I will go at once, Fms. ii, 37: the proverb, mart um dvelr þann er um morgin sefr, Hm. 58: absol., dvaldi þat fyrir ferð þeirra, that caused delay, Njarð. 374. 2. in neut. sense = dveljask, to tarry, cp. Engl. to dwell on a thing; ok vildu eigi dvelja, ok eigi bíða Ólafs konungs, Fms. iv. 118. 3. with acc. of time, to wait, abide; konungr dvaldi mestan hluta sumars á Hálogalandi, Fms. iv. 233; d. af stundir, to kill time, Band. 8; d. stund e-s, to hold one up, Karl. 62. II. reflex. to stop oneself, i. e. to stay, make a stay; myndi þar dveljask um hríð, Nj. 122; ok er þeir höfðu þar dvalisk til þess er …, Eg. 28; dvaldisk þar um hríð, 59; ok er konungr hafðr dvalsk þar um hríð, Fms. viii. 428: d. at e-u, to tarry over a thing, D. I. i. 223. 2. the phrase, e-dvelsk, one is kept, loses time by a thing; dvaldisk þeim þar lengi, Eg. 230; dvaldisk þeim þar at því, in (doing) that they lost much time, Nj. 241. 3. with pass. notion; sá dagr mun dveljask, that day will not soon come, will come late, Ld. 174; dveljask munu stundirnar, the hours will be taken up, it will take many hours, it will grow late before all is told, Edda 15; ef þat dvelsk, at ek koma eigi hingat, if I should be hindered from coming, Fms. xi. 51: to tarry, er ek hefi svá lengi dvalisk at sækja yðvarn fund, Ld. 32.

DVERGR, m. [A. S. dveorg; Engl. dwarf; Germ. (irreg.) zwerg; Swed. dverg]:—a dwarf; about the genesis of the dwarfs vide Vsp. 6–16, Edda 9: in mod. Icel. lore dwarfs disappear, but remain in local names, as Dverga-steinn, cp. the Dwarfy Stone in Scott’s Pirate, and in several words and phrases: from the belief that the dwarfs lived in rocks, an echo is called dverg-mál, n. (-mali, m.), dwarf-talk, Al. 35, 37, Fas. iii. 369; and dverg-mála, að, to echo: from the skill of the dwarfs in metal-working, a skilful man is called dverg-hagr, adj. (skilled as a dwarf), or dvergr, a dwarf in his art; dverga-smíði, n. dwarf’s-work, i. e. all works of rare art, such as the famous or enchanted swords of antiquity, Hervar S. ch. 2, Fas. i. 514, ii. 463–466 (Ásmund. S.), Gísl. 80: crystal and prismatic stones are in Norway called either dwarf’s-work or ‘dwarfy-stones,’ as people believe that they are worked out by the dwarfs in the depths of the earth: botan., dverga-sóleyg, f. ranunculus glacialis, Hjalt. β. from its dwarfed shape, a dog without a tail is in Icel. called dvergr or dverg-hundr, m., Clar.: short pillars which support the beams and rafters in a house are called ‘dvergar;’ this sense occurs as early as Hom. (St.) 65, and is still in use in some parts of Icel.: the four dwarfs, East, West, North, South, are in the Edda the bearers of heaven, Edda 5. γ. ornaments in a lady’s dress worn on the shoulder are called ‘dvergar,’ Rm. 16; smokkr á bringu, dúkr á hálsi, dvergar á öxlum, prob. a kind of brooch. For COMPDS vide above.

DVÍNA or dvina (in old writers even dvena), að, [North. E. dwyne], to dwindle, pine away; þá dvenar tómr maðr, Hom. 26; dvinar allr þroti (of a tumor), Sks. 235; lét hann eigi dvina kveðandina, Fms. v. 174; þaðan í frá sögðu menn at dvinaði liðveizla Sæmundar við Þorgrím, Sturl. i. 171; görir nú eigi at dvina við, it will not do to saunter, Karl. 380; dvina munda ek láta ferðina, I would let the travelling cease, Fs. 172; heit dvinuðu Heina, their bragging dwindled away, Lex. Poët. In early times this word was probably sounded with an i (short), which may be inferred from the form dvena; and the word was rather common, and occurs rarely. In later times it was ennobled by the frequent use made of it in Pass., and with altered inflexion, viz. an í throughout, the pres. indic. either strong, dvin, or weak, dvínar; thus, hér þegar mannlig hjálpin dvín, Pass. 44. 12; görvöll þá heimsins gleðin dvín, 41. 8; þá æfin lífsins dvín, 36. 10; but holds megn og kraptr dvínar, 44. 1; dvínar og dregst í hlé, 47. 4: infin., sjón og heyrn tekr að dvína, 41. 10.

dvöl, f., gen. dvalar, old pl. dvalar, mod. dvalir, [cp. ‘dwelling’ = delay, Engl. Ballads], a short stay, stop; dvalir ok náttstaði, Stj. 294; eiga dvöl, to stop, Nj. 181; afhvarf manna ok dvalar (acc. pl.), Ld. 204; meðan þessi dvöl (pause) var, Fms. xi. 135: delay, iv. 179; bera til dvala, to cause delay, Fas. iii. 543:—used once as neut. pl., urðu dvöl dægra, Am. 102. β. gramm. quantity, Skálda 175.

dyðrill or dyrðill, m. a nickname, seems to mean a tail, = mod. dindill, Fms. i. 186, ii. 253, 279; cp. daðra, to wheedle.

DYGÐ, f. [A. S. duguð = doughtiness, valour; O. H. G. tugad; Germ. tugend; Swed. dygd; Dan. dyd]:—virtue, probity, only used in a moral metaph. sense; the original sense (from duga, q. v.) of valour, strength, which prevails in the A. S., is quite obsolete; trúa e-m til dygðar um e-t, to trwst in one’s integrity, Fs. 121 (of a judge); fyrir sakir þinnar dygðar, probity, Fms. vi. 58; lið ok d. (help and faithful service) góðs drengs, 227; fyrir sína dygð, for his faithfulness, vii. 158. β. in mod. eccl. writers the Lat. virtus is rendered by dygð, Vídal., Pass., etc.; ó-dygð, wickedness, γ. virtue, of an inanimate thing, of a tree, Stj. 256. COMPDS: dygðar-lauss, adj. wicked, K. Á. 230: bad, 24. dygðar-leysi, n. faithlessness, wickedness, Stj. 487, Bs. i. 40. dygðar-maðr, m. a trusty man, Grett. 147 A. dygðar-verk, n. faithful work, Mar.: cp. dugr, dugnaðr.

dygðugr, adj. ‘doughty,’ faithful, trusty; d. þjónusta, Fas. i. 90; d. maðr, Grett. 143 A, Th. 12: efficient, having virtue in them, of inanimate things, Stj. 99, 215. β. in mod. eccl. writers, virtuous, good.

dyggiligr, adj. faithful, Stj. 198.

dygg-leikr, m. faithfulness, H. E. ii. 66, Fms. viii. 29.

dyggliga and dyggiliga, adv. faithfully, trustily, Stj. 9, 152, Fms. iii. 115, 138, Bs. i. 40.

dyggr, adj., mostly with v if followed by a vowel, e. g. dyggvar, dyggvan, superl. dyggvastr, compar. dyggvari, but sometimes the v is dropped:—faithful, trusty; dyggvar dróttir, worthy, good people, Vsp. 63; d. ok trúr, Fms. x. 233; d. ok drengileg meðferð, vi. 96; dyggra ok dugandi manna, Stj. 121; enn dyggvasti hirðmaðr, Magn. 484; reynda ek hann enn dyggvasta í öllum hlutum, Fms. i. 69; dyggvastr ok drottin-hollastr, Hkr. iii. 150; but dyggastr, Fms. vi. 401, l. c.; ú-dyggr, faithless: in mod. usage esp. as epithet of a faithful servant, d. þjón, dygt hjú; ódyggt hjú, a bad servant, etc.: of inanimate things, dyggir ávextir, Stj. 234.

DYKR (mod. dynkr, with an inserted n), m. a cracking, snapping noise; varð af því d. mikill, it gave a great crack, Grett. 96 A, cp. new Ed.; heyrðu þeir dyki mikla, Bárð. 32 new Ed.; mikill dykr, Al. 76; dunur ok dynki, Fas. iii. 412 (paper MS.); varð þat svá mikill dykr, sem nauts-búk flegnum væri kastað niðr á gólfit, Eb. 220 (new Ed. 78); dynkr, Grett. 178 new Ed.

dyl-dúkr, m. a veil, B. K. 83.

dylgjur, f. pl. [dólgr], suppressed enmity, finding vent in menaces, hootings, and the like; vóru þá dylgjur miklar með þeim, Eb. 22; nú eru dylgjur miklar þat er eptir var þingsins, Band. 13; vóru þá dylgjur miklar millum þeirra allra, Sturl. i. 196.

DYLJA, pret. duldi and dulði, part. duldr, duliðr, Fms. ii. 97; dulinn, Fb. i. 11 (Hdl. 7), Fs. 97 (MS. Arna-Magn. no. 132); [Swed. dölja; Dan. dölge]:—to conceal, hide, with acc. of the person, gen. of the thing concealed; d. e-s, to disavow, deny, dissemble; ætla ek því alla (þá varla ?) kunna at dylja þessa ráða, they can hardly deny it, Eg. 49; Þórir dylr þess ekki, 173; Eysteinn duldi ok þeirra orða fyrir sik, E. said he had never said such a thing, Fms. ix. 329; þó duldu þeir ekki illvirkja sinna, they denied not their guilt, confessed it, Sks. 583: with following subj., en allir duldu at né eitt vissi til Hrapps, all dissembled, Nj. 133; en ef umboðsmaðr dylr (disavows), at hann hafi við umboði tekið, Gþl. 375. II. reflex. to conceal, hide oneself; ok kendi brátt … þó at hann dyldisk, Fms. ii. 173; ok fékk hann svá dulzk fyrir honum, at eigi vissi jarl …, he hid himself (his thoughts) so well, that …, viii. 16; at þat sé flugumenn, ok vili dyljask (disguise themselves) undir múnka búnaði, vi. 188. 2. metaph., d. við e-t, to conceal for oneself; þurfu vér eigi at dyljask við, at …, Fms. v. 1; megu þeir þá eigi við dyljask, at ek hefi drepit hann, Grett. 155 A; en Sveinn duldisk við þat, S. shrank from believing it, Orkn. 298; ekki dyljumk ek við (I don’t disavow) skuldleika okkra, Ld. 40; en ef goði dylsk við (disavows) þingfesti þess manns, Grág. i. 23; trúit þessu eigi meðan þér megit við dyljask, believe it not as long as you can disavow it, i. e. till you get full evidence, Fms. ix. 477: dyljask í e-u; Eiríkr konungr þarf nú ekki at d. í því, at …, king E. cannot conceal it for himself, that …, Eg. 424, Þiðr. 118, 191, 196. III. part. pass., the phrase, vera (ganga) duliðr (duldr, dulinn) e-s, or vera d. at e-u, to be unaware, to be kept in ignorance of a thing; hefir hon verið alls þessa duld, Vígl. 33; en at þú gangir lengr duliðr þess er skylt er at vita, than that thou shouldest be longer ignorant of things which all people ought to know, Edda 13; veit engi ætt mína, ok ganga þess allir duldir, Fms. viii. 21; dulin ertú Hyndla, H., thou art mistaken, Hdl. 7; ok ertú of mjök dulinn at honum, herra, thou, my lord, art too much mistaken about him, i. e. trustest him too well, Fs. 97, cp. Fms. ii. 57: the phrase, e-t fer, gengr, dult, is hidden, kept secret.

dylma, d, [Dan. dulme]; d. yfir e-t, to be careless or indifferent about a thing, Fr.; dylminn, part. careless, indifferent, Stj. 122.

dymbil-dagar, m. pl. the ‘dumb-bell days,’ i. e. the three days before Easter; hence dymbildaga-vika, u, f. [Swed. dymmel-vecka; Dan. dimmel-uge], Passion week, Bs. i. 71, Fms. x. 72, H. E. i. 491, Sturl. i. 25; during the dymbildagar the bells in Icel. were rung with a wooden tongue called dymbill, m.; a dymbill is often mentioned among the inventories of Icel. churches of the 14th century, e. g. kirkja á dymbil, Vm. 47, 51: it is, however, likely that the word dymbill itself is simply derived from the Engl. dumb-bell, as in the Roman church the bells were dumb or muffled in the Passion week: Björn (Lex.) mentions that in the century before his time people used to strike the time to a dance with the dymbill. It was also an old Icel. custom that the father of a house inflicted a general chastisement on his children and household on Good Friday for the sins of the past year, gently or strongly as they had been obedient or not; hence the popular phrase, líðr að dimbildögum, or koma dymbildagar, = the dimmel-days are nigh, i. e. the day of reckoning will surely come; cp. H. E. iv. 180, 181 (note).

dymbil-nótt, f. the three nights next before Easter, Vm. 144.

dyn-bjalla, u, f. a tinkling bell, Grett, 129.

dyndr, adj. = dunhendr, Bs. ii. 103 (in a verse).

DYNGJA, u, f. a lady’s bower, in old Icel. dwellings, Eg. 159, Nj. 66, Bjarn. 68, Rd. 270, Korm. 10, Fs. 88, Gísl. 15; in those passages it is different from ‘stofa,’ and seems to have been a detached apartment: [as to the root, cp. A. S. dyng, O. H. G. tunc, Engl. dungeon;—the common sense prob. being that both the bower and the dungeon were secluded chambers in the inner part of the house or castle]:—Trolla-dyngjur, a mountain in Icel., a bower of giantesses. 2. a heap, dung, Dan. dynge, (mod.)

DYNJA, dundi; pres. dyn, dunið; [cp. A. S. dynnan; Engl. din; the Icel. word is irregular in regard to the interchange of consonants; for the Lat. tonare, Engl. thunder, Germ. donner would properly answer to Icel. þynja, a word which does not exist]:—to gush, shower, pour, of rain, with the additional notion of sound; dundi ákaft regn ór lopti, Stj. 594. 1 Kings xviii. 45; of blood, blóð er dundi or sárum Drottins, 656 A. I. 31, Pass. 23. 3: dundi þá blóðit um hann allan, Nj. 176: of air quivering and earth quaking, Haustl. 14. Vtkv. 3: of rain and storm, steypi-dögg görði, ok vatnsflóðið kom, og vindar blésu og dundu á húsinu, Matth. vii. 25, 27; dynjandi logi, Ýt. 6, Mar. 2. metaph. to pour, shower, like hail; Otkell lætr þegar d. stefnuna, O. let the summons shower down, Nj. 176: of weapons, dundu á þá vápnin, the weapons showered upon them, Fms. viii. 126; spjótin dundu á þeim, xi. 334: the phrase, dynja á, of misfortune; eigi var mér ván, at skjótara mundi á dynja, vii. 125; hvat sem á dynr, whatever so happens. 3. metaph. also of men, to pour on or march in a body with a din; dundu jarlar undan, Lex. Poët.; dynja í böð, to march to battle, Sighvat; dynja þeir þá fram á þingit, Lv. 31; konungs menn dynja þegar á hæla þeim. Al. 11.

dynr, m. pl. ir, [A. S. dyn; Engl. din; Swed. dån; Dan. dön], a din; engi d. verðr af hlaupi kattarins, noiseless are the cat’s steps, Edda 19; gnýr eða þrymr, dynr eða dunr, Skálda 169; d. ok brestr, Bær. 15: marching as troops, ríða mikinn dyn, to ride with mickle din (of horsemen galloping), Ísl. ii. 333: the phrase, koma e-m dyn fyrir dyrr, to make a din before one’s door, take one by surprise, Fms. viii. 60, 189; gera sem mestan dyn, to make the greatest noise, 403: in pl., heyrði Gangleri dyni mikla, Edda 44.

dyn-skot, n. a shot making a din, but harmless, Fms. v. 198.

dynta, t, to dint.

dyntr, m., dynta, f., dyntill, m. a dint, a cognom., Fms.; vide dyttr.

dyrgja, u, f. [durgr], a dwarf woman, a hag, Þjal. Jón. 17.

dyrgja, ð, to fish with a dorg, = dorga, Þiðr. 91.

dyri-gætt, f. a door-frame, Sd. 158, Odd. 16.

dyri-stafr (mod. dyru-), m. a door-post, Stj. 279. Exod. xii. 7, Sd. 153, Grett. 121, Ver. 21, Sturl. ii. 49.

DYRR, n. or f. pl., in mod. usage always fem., and often so in old writers; sometimes even in old MSS.: neut. with the article; dyrrin with a double r (or dyrin, Kb. 42 new Ed., Stj. 520, Edda 29, Nj. 198): fem. dyrnar; aðrar dyrr, Fms. iv. 220, 221; dyrr byrgðar, Stj. 40; einar dyr, Sturl. i. 189; dyr opnar, id. (but dyrin, id., one line below, perhaps wrongly by the transcriber), önnur dyrr, Clem. 143 (Unger): in most cases, however, the gender of the gen. and dat. cannot be discerned: there is hardly any instance of its neuter use if joined to an adjective; thus, in Njála we read, gengu þeir þá inn allir ok skipnðusk í dyrrin (neut.); but only four lines below, ef nokkurar væri laundyrr á: hversu margar dyrr eru á Valhöll eða hversu stórar, Edda 25; but settisk Þórr í dyrrin, 29: in old writers the gen. and dat. are spelt with u, dura, durum, and that they were so pronounced may be seen from Skálda 163—þegar gestrinn kveðr ‘dura,’ þá skyldi eigi bóndinn ‘dúra;’ cp. also Grág. ii. 194, Fms. iv. 221, viii. 161, Gm. 23, Sturl. iii. 218, Edda 25, Landn. 231; but dyra, dyrum, Ísl. ii. 342 (rare): in mod. usage y throughout (spelt dyra, dyrum, proncd. as i):—[Gr. θύρα; Goth. daur, neut., and dauro, fem.; A. S. duru; Old Engl. dore (now door); Dan. dör; Swed. dörr: Germ. thüre: the root vowel is short in Gr. and Goth. as well as the Scandin.]:—a door, viz. the opening (hurð is Lat. janua); karl-dyrr, branda-d., úti-d., leyni-d., and-d., eldahús-d., Sturl. iii. 218: synztu-d., id.: úti-dyrr enar syðri, 185; suðr-dyrr, 186; syðri-d., 190; skála-d. nyrðri, 187; kvenna-skála-d., 188; í þeim dyrum er skálar mættusk, 189; and-dyri hit syðra, 218; sund-d. (= suðr-dyr?), ii. 106; stofu-d., 181; dýrshöfuðs-d., i. 106, a door over which a stag’s head is placed. COMPDS: dura-dómr, m., vide dómr. dura-gætti = dyrigætti. dura-stafr = dyristafr. dura-stoð, f. a door-post, N. G. L. i. 55. dura-umbuningr, m. a door-frame. Grett. 114 A. dura-veggr, m. a door-jamb, Sturl. i. 178. dura-vörðr, m. a door-keeper, Sks. 289. dyra-drótt, f. a door-sill, vide drótt.

dyr-skíð, n. = dyrigætti (?), D. N.

DYS, f., gen. sing. nom. pl. dysjar, [Dan. dös and dysse], a cairn, less than haugr, Ld. 152, Eb. 172, 176, Dropl. 9, Fas. i. 438 (in a verse), Hbl. 45, Þórð. 73; kumbl-dys, Gg. 1.

dysja, að, [Dan. dysse = to hide], to bury in a cairn, heap stones over a witch, criminal, or the like, never used of a proper burying, Eb. 172, Grett. 112, Fms. v. 222, Landn. 107.

dytta, tt, [Engl. dint], to meddle: recipr., þér höfðut til dytzt, Stj. 510: in mod. usage, dytta að e-u, to varnish.

dyttr, m. a dint, a nickname, Fms. ii. 67; hnakka-d., a ‘neck-dint,’ i. e. a shot by a bolt in the nape of the neck, Orkn. 416 (in a verse); the hnakka-dyz of the MS. is = dytts, as vaz = vatns, braz = bratts.

DÝ, n. a bog, Sturl. iii. 50, Gþl. 393, Róm. 259.

dýbliza, dýfliza, u, f. a dark dungeon, Al. 94, Fms. i. 258, iii. 89, vi. 164, Eluc. 12, 42, Sks. 457, Þiðr. 63, Grett. 158. Fagrsk. 111: [no doubt a foreign word, perhaps from ‘diabolus’ = the dungeon of hell.]

DÝFA, ð, [cp. Goth. daupjan = βαπτίζειν; O. H. G. taufjan; Germ. taufen; Dan. döbe; A. S. dyppan, akin to djúpr; cp. also dúfa, a billow; all these words are akin, but the Engl. dive is the same word]:—to dip, with dat.; d. e-m í vatn, to dip one into water, Hom. 139, K. Á. 6, cp. N. G. L. i. 339; d. sér, to dive: the word is now freq., but rare in old writers, who preferred drepa; in Germ. etc. it is only used in the sense of christening = baptizare, prop. to dip into water, but never so in the Icel., which renders baptize by skira.

dýfa, u, f. dipping in.

DÝJA (mod. dúa), dúði, to shake, quiver, of spears or the like; d. frökkur, dörr, to shake spears, fight, Rm. 32, Fms. vi. (in a verse); d. skör, to shake the locks, Þkv. 1; hann dúði spjótið inn í dyrnar, Sturl. iii. 218, Ld. 278: in mod. usage, það dúir undir, of boggy ground that shakes under the feet.

dýna, u, f. [dúnn]. a down-bed, feather-bed, a pillow or bolster, Fms. iii. 125, vi. 279, ix. 26, x. 186, Dipl. iii. 4, Bs. ii. 167, Lex. Poët. 2. boggy ground, Dropl. 26, v. l.

dýna, ð, to cover, belay with down, N. G. L. i. 334.

dýpi, n. [djúpr; Ulf. diupei; Germ. tiefe], depth.

dýpka, að, to become deeper, deepen.

dýpt (and dýpð), f. [Goth. djupipa], depth, Clem. 33, Bs. i. 209.

DÝR, n. [Gr. θήρ; Ulf. djûs = θηρίον, Mark i. 13, 1 Cor. xv. 32; A. S. deôr; Engl. deer; Germ. thier; Swed.-Dan. dyr]:—an animal, beast: α. excluding birds, dýr ok fuglar, Edda 144 (pref.); fuglar, dýr eðr sækvikindi, Skálda 170; dýrum (wild beasts) eða fuglum, Grág. ii. 89. β. used of wild beasts, as bears, Nj. 35, Grett. 101, Glúm. 330, Fs. 146 (bjarn-dyra): in Icel. esp. the fox, Dropl. 27, Bs. ii. 137, the fox being there the only beast of prey, hence dýr-bit; úarga-dýr, the lion; villi-d., a wild beast. γ. used esp. of hunting deer, the deer of the forest, as in Engl. deer, the hart, etc., Hkv. 2. 36, N. G. L. i. 46, Str. 3, Fas. iii. 4, Þiðr. 228–238; hrein-d., the reindeer; rauð-d., the red deer. COMPDS: dýra-bogi, a, m. a trap to catch foxes. dýra-garðr, m. a yard or inclosure to catch wild beasts, Gþl. 456. dýra-gröf, f. a pit to catch wild beasts, Gþl. 456, 457. dýra-kjöt, n. the flesh of animals, Stj. 8. dýra-rödd, f. the voice of beasts, Skálda 170. dýra-skinn, n. the skin of wild beasts, Fas. iii. 124. dýra-veiðar, f. pl. deer-hunting, Þiðr. l. c., 655 x. 2, Gþl. 447. dýrs-belgr, m. a beast’s skin. Fas. ii. 518 (of a bear). dýrs-horn, n. a deer’s horn used for a drinking cup, Eg. 306, 307, 551, Edda 82. dýrs-höfuð, n. the head of a deer, Sturl. i. 106.

dýr-bit, n. ‘deer-bite,’ of the worrying of lambs by a fox, Bs. i. 587.

DÝRÐ, f. [Engl. dearth], glory; himinríkis d., the glory of heaven, Fms. v. 143, 230, Fær. 137, 625. 163, Fms. v. 216 (a glorious miracle): in pl., 623. 32, Eluc. 47; tóm d., vain-glory, 655 xxvi. 3: in N. T. and eccl. writers since the Reformation this word is much in use; the δόξα of the N. T. is usually rendered by dýrð. COMPDS: dýrðar-dagr, m. a day of glory, Hom. 90, Fms. ii. 142. dýrðar-fullr, adj. full of glory, Fms. ii. 199, vii. 89. Dýrðar-konungr, m. the King of Glory (Christ), Niðrst. 4. dýrðar-kóróna, u, f. a crown of glory, Magn. 502, Pass. 25. 11. dýrðar-maðr, m. a glorious man, Hkr. iii. 250, Bs. i. 90. dýrðar-samliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. glorious, Stj. 288, 655 xxxii. 17, Fms. iv. 32, Stj. 34. dýrðar-staðr, m. a glorious place, Ver. 3. dýrðar-söngr, m. a song of glory.

dýr-gildr, adj. dearly paid for, Fms. vi. 106.

dýr-gripr, m. a jewel, treasure, a thing of great value, Eg. 4, 55, 179, Orkn. 354.

dýr-hundr, m. a deer-hound, esp. a fox-hound, Eb. 216.

Dýri, a, m. [A. S. Deôr; cp. Deôra-by = Derby]. a pr. name, Landn.: in local names, Dýra-fjörðr, in western Iceland, Landn., Gísl.

dýrindi, n. pl. costly things; dýrindis vefnaðr, a costly stuff.

dýrka (and dýrðka), að, with acc. to worship, Stj. 103: to glorify, Ver. 6; d. Drottinn Guð þinn, Stj. 4. 58; d. Guðs orð, 655 C. 15; d. kenning postulanna, 14: to celebrate, d. þenna dag. Hom. 8: to exalt, nú er tíð Drottinn, sú er þú d. oss ambáttir þínar, Blas. 47; ek em Guð sá er þik dýrkaða’k, ok mun ek enn d. þik, 50: hann dýrkaði válaðan, Greg. 24; d. e-n með e-u, Fms. x. 315; d. e-n, to pray one reverentially; hón kastar sér fram á gólfit, dýrkaði hann, svá segjandi, Stj. 522. 2 Sam. xiv. 4; hence the common Icel. phrase, vertu ekki að d. hann, don’t beg (coax) him. 2. reflex. to magnify oneself; þá mundu Gyðingar dýrkask í sjálfum sér, Stj. 392; hirð eigi þú maðr at d. í krafti þínum, thou man, glory not in thy strength, Hom. 8; sá er dýrkask, kvað Paulus postuli, dýrkisk hann með Guði, 23: in pass. sense, Fms. xi. 415; dýrkaðisk þolinmæði réttlátra, Hom. 49; verit ér þolinmóðir litla stund, at ér dýrkisk, 623. 32. In N. T. and mod. eccl. writers the Gr. δοξάζειν is sometimes rendered by dýrka, e. g. Matth. v. 16.

dýrkan, f. worship, adoration, 623. 11: veita goðum d., 655. 1: in pl., Stj. 54: glorifying, dýrkan andar ok likama. 50; afguða-d., skurðgoða-d., idolatry.

dýr-kálfr, m. a deer-calf, Hkv. 2. 36.

dýr-kálkr, m. a dub. reading (of a horse), Glúm. 356.

dýr-keyptr, part. dearly bought, Fbr. 56 new Ed.

dýr-lagðr, part. dearly rated, Ld. 30.

dýr-leikr, m. (-leiki, a, m.), dearness, Dipl. ii. 5.

dýr-ligr, adj. (-liga, adv.), glorious. Fms. iv. 82, vii. 85, x. 223, xi. 51, Eg. 478; d. veizla, Bs. i. 133: d. matráð, 139.

dýrlingr (dýrðlingr, Hom. 115. Bs. i. 202, Fms. i. 227). m. [A. S. deôrling; Engl. darling]:—a saint, holy man; Guðs d., Ver. 1. Fms. iv. 227, 232, v. 214, Bs. i. (freq.)

dýr-menni, n. a glorious man, Lex. Poët.

dýr-mætr, adj. precious, Stj. 180, 204, Fas. i. 455, Sks. 183.

DÝRR, adj., compar. dýrri, superl. dýrstr, mod. more freq. dýrari, dýrastr; dyröztum, Fb. i. 211: [Ulf. does not use this word, but renders εντιμος etc. by reiks or svêrs; A. S. deore; Engl. dear; Dan. and Swed. dyr; O. H. G. tiuri; Germ. theuer]:—dear: 1. of price, of such and such a price: referring to the weregild, at sá maðr sé vel dýrr, Hrafn. 9; fésætt svá mikla, at engi maðr hafi dýrri verit hér á landi enn Höskuldr, i. e. that there has never before been paid so high a weregild as for Hoskuld, Nj. 189; munu þat margir ætla at hann muni dýrstr gerr af þeim mönnum er hér hafa látizt, 250; dýrr mundi Hafliði allr, Sturl. i. 47: of other things, ek met hana dýrra en aðrar, I put her at a higher price than the rest, Ld. 30; hversu dýr skal sjá kona, how much is she to cost? id.; kaupa dýru verði, to buy dearly, at a high price; þér eruð dýru verði keyptir, 1 Cor. vi. 20. 2. precious, costly; bókina dýru, Fms. vii. 156; skjöldinn þann inn dýra, Eg. 698: enn Dýri dagr, vide dagr, Ann. 1373, Mar. 96; eigi var annarr (gripr) dýrri í Noregi, Fas. ii. 65; því betr sem gull er dýrra en silfr, Ld. 126; dýrar hallir, lordly halls, Rm. 45; enn dýri mjöðr, the nectar, the godly mead, viz. the poetical mead of the gods, Hm. 106; hence dýr-gripr, a jewel. β. as a metrical term; enn Dýri háttr, the artificial metre, Edda 131: hence the phrase, kveða dýrt, to write in an artificial metre; dýrr bragr, bragar-háttr, an artificial air, tune, opp. to a plain one. γ. ó-dýrr, common, Lex. Poët., mod. cheap: fjöl-d., glorious, and many other poët. compds: the proverb, dýrt er drottins orð, vide dróttinn. δ. of high worth, worthy; en dýra drottning María, Mar. 18; Abraham er kallaðr dýrstr (the worthiest) allra höfuðfeðra, Ver. 12; skatna dýrstr, the best of men, Edda, Ht. 82; Jón Loptsson, er dýrstr maðr er á landi þessu, Sturl. i. 105; at því er at gæta við hversu dýran mann (noble, worthy man) þú átt málaferli, 33; af hinum dýrustum höfðingjum, Fb. l. c.: dýrr is not used in Icel. in the exact Engl. sense of beloved.

dýr-skinn, n. a deer-skin. N. G. L. iii. ch. 47.

dýr-tíð, n. a time of dearth, famine, N. T.

dægi-ligr, adj. [Dan. deilig], fair, (mod. and rare.)

dægn (dœgn), n. [Swed. dygn; Dan. dögn], = dægr, q. v., N. G. L. i. 335, Skálda 190; this form is very rare.

DÆGR (dœgr), n. [dagr; in Dan. dögn means the natural day = 24 hours, and answers to Icel. sólar-hringr, whereas Icel. dægr usually means both night and day, so that one day makes two dægr]: hence dægra-mót or dægra-skipti, n., denotes the twilight in morning and evening, Hom. 41, Sks. 218; í degi dægr tvau, í dægri stundir tólf, in a day two dægr, in a dægr twelve hours, Rb. 6; þau (Day and Night) skulu ríða á hverjum tveim dægrum umhverfis jörðina, Edda 7; tuttugu ok fjórar stundir skulu vera í tveimr dægrum, Sks. 54: hann sigldi á átta dægrum til þess er hann tók Eyjar á Íslandi, and below, ek skildumk fyrir fjórum nóttum (viz. Sunday to Thursday) við Ólaf konung Haraldsson, Fms. iv. 280; þeir vóru þrjú dægr í leitinni, Nj. 265; á hverju dægri, Grág. ii. 169; á dægrinu, 360; tvau dægr, Fb. i. 539; þrjú d., 431; skipti þat mörgum dægrum, id.:—in all these passages the sense seems clearly to be as above. 2. in some few cases it seems to be used of the astronomical day = 24 hours, or the Danish dögn; such is the case with the interesting passage Landn. 1. ch. 1; the journey between Iceland and Ireland is here reckoned as five dægr, between Norway and Iceland seven, between Iceland and Greenland four, and to the deserts of Greenland (the east coast) one, etc.: sjau dægra sigling, fjögra d. sigling, fimm dægra haf, i. e. a sail of six, four, five dægr, Landn. 25, 26. COMPDS: dægra-far, n. the division of day and night, Sks. 26, Fms. iv. 381. dægra-stytting, f., in the phrase, til dægra styttingar, to shorten the time, of pastime, Fas. iii. 39. dægra-tal, n. ‘day-tale,’ calculation of time, Rb. 488: sam-dægris (sam-dœgnis, O. H. L. 86), adv. the same day; also sam-dægrs: jafn-dægr or jafn-dægri, equinoctial time.

dægr-sigling, f. a day’s sail, Landn. 26.

dæl (dœl), f. [dalr, dól], a little dale, Nj. 253. Sd. 173, Sturl. ii. 100 C: of fjalldala ok dælar, Greg. 59.

dæla, u, f. I. a small dale, Sturl. ii. 100 (Ed.) II. a naut. term, a contrivance to serve the purpose of a ship’s pump, Edda (Gl.); hence dælu-austr, m. emptying a ship by a dæla, Fbr. 131, Grett. 95; dælu-ker, n. a kind of bucket: hann hað þrælinn færa sér í d. þat er hann kaliaði sjó, Landu. 251; hence the metaph. phrase, láta dæluna ganga, to pour out incessantly, chatter without ceasing, Grett. 98. The ancients cannot well have known the pump; but as dælu-austr is distinguished from byttu-austr, where the buckets were handed up, so dæla seems to have been a kind of groove through which the bilge water was made to run out into the sea instead of emptying every bucket by handing it overboard: in Norse döla means a groove-formed trough, eaves, a trench, and the like, D. N. iv. 751, Ivar Aasen s. v. dæla, p. 75.

dæld, f. = dæl, Fms. x. 319.

dæld, f. [a], gentleness, in the COMPD dældar-maðr (deildar-maðr, v. l.), m. a gentle, easy man, Ld. 68, 276.

dælir (dæll, sing.), m. pl. dales-men, O. H. L. 23: mostly in compds, as Lax-dælir, Vatns-dælir, Sýr-dælir, Svarf-dælir, Fljóts-dælir, etc., the men from Laxeydale, Waterdale, etc.

dæll, adj. gentle, familiar, forbearing; this word is no doubt akin to deila (qs. deill), i. e. one who is easy ‘to deal with;’ vertu nú dæl (i. e. keep peace, be gentle) meðan ek em brautu, Nj. 52; ekki þótta ek nú dæll heima, I was not good to deal with at home, Fms. xi. 51; ekki d. viðfangs, not easy to deal with, Grett. 127; dæll (easy, affable) öllu lands fólki, Orkn. 184: engum þótti dælt at segja konungi hersögu, Fms. i. 41; þat er eigi svá dælt (easy) at taka Sigurð jarl af lífdögum sem at drepa kið eðr kálf, 53; þótti þeim dælla at taka þat er flaut laust, vi. 262; þótti nú sem dælst mundi til at kalla, er ungr konungr réð fyrir ríki, Eg. 264: the phrases, göra sér dælt við e-n. to put oneself on a free, familiar footing towards one; Þórðr görði sér d. við þau Þorvald ok Guðrúnu, Ld. 134; ek mun nú gera mér dælt um ráðagörð við þik, I will take the liberty to give thee straightforward advice, Nj. 216; hann görði sér við þá dælt, Grett. 144; mun dælt við mik þykja, ef þú ert eigi í för, they will pay me little heed, unless thou art with me, Lv. 37; þótti vera spottsamr ok grár við alla þá er honum þótti sér dælt við, rude and taunting against all whom he thought his match to deal with, Bjarn. 3: proverb, dælt er heima hvat, at home anything will do, Hm. 5.

dæl-leikr, m. (-leiki, a, m.), familiarity, often with the notion of over great freedom, easy dealing; mjök kennir nú dælleika af várri hendi … er svá vándr dúkr er undir diski þínum, Bs. i. 475; fyrir dælleika sakir, Sks. 553; til þeirra dælleika, 482; gör allt í dælleikum við oss, make no ceremony with us (the king’s words to his host), Fms. vi. 390; hann (Moses) var svá í dælleikum við Guð, M. was in such familiarity with God, Ver. 23: affability, condescension, mildi ok dælleika, Fms. ix. 535, v. l. (of a duke): ú-dæll, overbearing; inn-dæll, delightful.

dællig-leikr (-leiki), m. = dælleikr, Sks. 482, 553, v. l., Sturl. i. 215 C.

dæl-ligr, adj. [hence Dan. deilig], genteel, fine to look at, Edda 58. β. = dæll, familiar, Al. 33.

dælska, u, f. familiarity. β. idle talk, nonsense, Edda 110, Karl. 437.

dælskr, adj. [ó], belonging to a dale, mostly in compds: Breið-dælskr, from Broaddale, Sturl. i. 112 C. β. [Engl. dull], moody, dull; en til dælskr af dul, Hm. 56; d., fólskr, impertinent, foolish. Fms. iv. 205.

DÆMA, d or ð, [dómr; Ulf. dômian; A. S. dêman; Engl. deem (as in demster); O. H. G. tomjan; lost in mod. Germ.; Swed. dömma; Dan. dömme]:—a law term, to give judgment, pass sentence; d. mál, to give judgment in a case, Nj. 56, Eg. 417; hvat sem at dæma er, Þorst. St. 55; lét dæma vörnina, caused judgment to be given on the part of the defence (in relerence to a curious Norse custom, by which both plaintiff and defendant pleaded before different courts, which had finally to adjust the sentence according to rules varying with the circumstances), Nj. 240; d. dóm, to pass sentence, Fms. xi. 246; d. rangan dóm, Sks. 109 B: the fines etc. in acc., d. fé, útlegðir, sekð, to pass sentence to a fine, outlawry, payment, etc., Grág. i. 320; útlegðir þær er á alþingi eru dæmðar, 3; fé þat á dæmask á heimili þess er sóttr er, 320; á þá at dæmask féit þannug, then the money is to pass (by sentence) to them, 378; dæma eindaga á fé, to fix a term for payment, 3; d. lög, to pass a lawful sentence, Fms. xi. 224; d. af, to make void, Sks. 11: d. um e-t, to judge of a thing, 625. 60: with acc. of the person, d. e-n skógarmann, to proclaim one an outlaw, Nj. 240; d. sýknan, sekan, etc.: adding dat. of the person, d. e-m e-t, to adjudge a thing to one; d. e-m fé, or the like; even, dæma e-m dóm, to deal a sentence out to one, Fms. xi. l. c.: adding prep. af, d. fé af e-m, to give judgment against his claim, Bs. ii. 91; but more usually, d. e-n af e-u, to declare one to have forfeited; the instances in Grág., N. G. L., and the Sagas are almost endless. β. to ‘deem,’ give an opinion, judge. II. to chatter, talk, mostly in poetry; esp. in the allit. phrase, drekka ok d., vide Lex. Poët. and drekka; en er þeir áttu of þessa hluti at d., when they were talking of those things, 623. 55.

dæmi, n., usually in pl., [dómr.] 1. an example, case; hörð dæmi, a hard fate, Hkv. 2. 2; úlfa d., the case (doings) of wolves, Hðm. 30; kvenna d., womanish example, behaving like a woman, Þorst. St. 52; at mér verði vargsins d., Band. (MS.) 35: in plur., forn dæmi ok siðu foreldra sinna (cp. the Germ. weisthümer, alterthümer), old tales and customs of their forefathers, Fagrsk. ch. 219; þessi dæmi (i. e. verses) öll eru kveðin um þenna atburð, Mork. 114; þó hafa mörg dæmi orðið í forneskju, many things have happened in olden times, Ó. H. 73 (margs d., Fms. iv. 172, less correctly), cp. dæmi-saga; spekingr at viti ok at öllu fróðr, lögum ok dæmum (old lore, tales), mannfræði ok ættfræði, Fms. vii. 102; Ari prestr hinn Fróði, er mörg d. spakleg hefir saman töld, Bs. i. 145, cp. also Barl. 47, 73, 112; hence fá-dæmi, an unexampled, portentous thing; eins dæmi, in the proverb, eins dæmin eru vest, viz. a singular, unexampled fate is the worst: used even of pictures, a story represented by drawing, Pm. 122: gramm. a citation, proof, nú skal láta heyra dæmin, now let us hear the proofs, Edda 49; þessi dæmi (those references) ok nóg önnur, Anecd. 6, 15, 18, 21; draga dæmi af bókum, Sks. 468. β. example, generally; djarfari en d. eru til, Fms. iv. 311; vita dæmi til e-s, Róm. 234; umfram d., or dæmum, unexampled, portentous, Stj. 143, Fms. i. 214, viii. 52; svá sem til dæmis at taka, to take an example. Mar. 40, Bs. ii. 116; hence the mod. adverb, til dæmis (commonly written short t.d. = e. g.), for example; sem d. finnask, Fagrsk. ch. 9, Barl. 50; meir en til dæma, beyond example, Stj. 87, 167, 179. γ. example for imitation (eptir-dæmi, example); eptir dæmum Kristinna manna, Fms. v. 319; eptir þínum dæmum, Niðrst. 4; d. dæmi af e-u, to take example by it, Greg. 134. 2. judgment, only in compds as, sjálf-dæmi, rétt-dæmi, justice, etc. COMPDS: dæma-fátt, n. adj. almost unexampled. dæma-fróðr, adj. wise in old lore, Fms. iv. 89. dæma-lauss, adj. unexampled, Stj. 391. dæma-maðr, m. a man to be imitated, Greg. 12.

dæming, f. judgment, Grág. i. 235, Skálda 211.

dæmi-saga, u, f. a fable, parable; in old eccl. translations, the parable of the N. T. is rendered by ‘dæmisaga,’ Greg. 22; but in mod. versions and writers since 1540 a distinction is made, and dæmisögur are fables, e. g. of Aesop, Reynard, or the like; whereas the parables of the N. T. are called ‘eptir-líking;’ heyrit mik ok mína dæmisögu, Stj. 399. Judges ix. 7: an old saw, Fms. vii. 102, v. l.: a proverb, Stj. 560. 1 Kings iv. 32, (rare.)

dæmi-stóll, m. the judgment seat, 623. 12, 13, 73, 625. 79.

dæsa, t, to utter a deep groan, Sturl. ii. 154: reflex. to lose breath from exhaustion, Sks. 231: part. dæstr, exhausted, breathless, Grett. 98.

dæsur, f. pl. groanings; með stunum og dæsum.

DÖF, f., pl. dafar, the rump, Scot. doup; hér yfir skipunum uppi mættusk döfin ok höfuðit dýrsins (of a bear), Fas. ii. 172, while 510 has dausin; cp. Norse dov = rump, Ivar Aasen. 2. a kind of spear, Edda (Gl.), Akv. 4, 14. II. [cp. dafna, and Swed. däfven = moist], suck (?) and metaph. rest, in the poët. phrase, vær döf, sweet rest; milli Belindar brjósta-kúlna búið hefi eg þér væra döf, Grönd. 67; hreppa væra döf, sweet rest (of one dead), Feðga-æfi, 83 (in a verse).

DÖGG, f., old gen. döggvar. Korm., Sks. 606, Fms. ii. 278, mod. daggar; old pl. döggvar, Vsp. 19, Vþm. 45; mod. daggir, Sks. 40; dat. sing. döggu, Vtkv. 5, 656 A. 18: [A. S. deaw; Engl. dew; Germ. thau; Dan. and Swed. dug]:—dew; nátt-dögg, night-dew; morgun-dögg, morning-dew, Vþm. 45, Hkv. Hjörv. 28. COMPD: (mod. daggar-, old döggvar-), döggvar-drep, n. a dew-track, Fms. ii. l. c.

dögg-fall, n. dew-fall, Stj. 17.

dögg-litr, adj. dew-besprinkled, Hkv. 2. 41.

döggóttr, adj. bedewed, Hkv. 1. 46.

dögg-skór, m. [Swed. dopsko], the tip or chape of a sheath, etc., Fas. i. 173, Gullþ. 47, Gísl. 115.

dögg-slóð, f. the slot or track left in the dew, Gísl. 67.

döggva, að or ð, to bedew; pres. döggvar, Stj. 73, 397; hon döggvaði, fætr Drottins, 655 xxxi. 2; á morni hverjum döggvir hann jörðina af méldropum sínum, Edda 7; döggðu andlit sin í tárum, 623. 58; d. hjörtu manna, Skálda 210, Hom. 45.

döggvan, f. bedewing, Stj. 14.

Döglingr, m., poët. a king, descendant of king Dag, Edda 105, Hdl. 18. 2. mockingly, a draggle-tail, Sturl. i. 62.

dögun, dögurðr, v. dagan, dagverðr.

dökk, dökð, f. [dock], a pie, pool, Gþl. 393, Mart. 107.

Dökk-álfar, n. pl. the Dark elves, as opp. to Ljósálfar, Edda 12, answering to the huldu-folk of mod. legends.

dökk-blár, adj. dark blue, Sturl. ii. 212.

dökk-brúnaðr, adj. dark brown, Fas. i. 172.

dökk-grænn, adj. dark green, Stj. 62.

dökk-hárr, adj. dark haired, Hkr. iii. 281.

dökk-jarpr, adj. dark auburn, Ld. 274.

dökk-litaðr, adj. dark coloured, Sturl. ii. 212, Fms. vii. 239.

dökkna, að, to darken, Fms. i. 216, x. 284, Fas. iii. 12.

DÖKKR, adj., acc. dökkvan etc., with v inserted, [Swed.-Dan. dunkel; Germ. dunkel, A. S. deark, Engl. dark, may be identical, rk = nk], dark, Rb. 108; ský dökt ok dimt, Fms. xi. 136; dökkvir hjálmar, vi. 150; dökkt yfirbragð, i. 97; d. á har, dark of hair, Nj. 39; dökkvan skima, Sks. 229: compar., dökkvara liós, 203; dökkvir villustigar, Fms. i. 138.

dökk-rauðr, adj. dark red, Þiðr. 178.

dökkva, ð, to darken; eigi döktusk augu hans, Stj. 348. Deut. xxxiv. 7; þa er dökkvir skilning, 656 C. 33: impers., dökkvir þik, andskoti, art thou in darkness? 623. 31; dag (acc.) dökði, the day darkened, Skálda (in a verse).

dökkvi, a, m. a dark spot, Fas. iii. 560.

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