F

F (eff), the sixth letter, was in the Gothic Runes, on the Bracteats, and on the stone in Tune, marked ᚠ, a form evidently derived from the Greek and Latin; hence also comes the Anglo-Saxon Ꝼ called feoh, and in the Scandinavian Runes ᚠ called (= fee, money), fé veldr frænda rógi, Rkv. I. The Runic alphabet makes f the first letter, whence this alphabet is sometimes by modern writers called Fuþork. The first six letters are called Freys-ætt, the family of Frey; perhaps the Goths called this Rune Frauja = Freyr, the lord. Only in very early Icel. MSS. is the old Latin form of f used: at the beginning of the 13th century the Anglo-Saxon form F (derived from the Rune) prevailed; and it was employed in printed Icel. books till about A. D. 1770, when the Latin f came into use. In very early MSS. ff and ft are very difficult to distinguish from ſf and ſt. Emendations may sometimes be made by bearing this in mind, e. g. hóstú, Am. 95, should clearly be read hóftú = hóft þú, from hefja,—proving that this poem was in writing not later than about A. D. 1200, when the Anglo-Saxon letter was introduced.

A. PRONUNCIATION.—At the beginning of a syllable always sounded as Engl. f; but as a medial and final, it is often pronounced and sometimes spelt v, especially after a vowel, so that in af, ef, lauf, gefa, hafa, grafa, lifa, líf, gröf, f is pronounced like the v, as in Engl. grave. Foreign proper names, Stefan (Stephen), etc., are exceptions, where f not initial has an aspirate sound. For the exceptional spelling of f as b vide introduction to B, (pp. 48, 49.) The Icel. dislike a double f sound, which is only found in a verv few modern foreign words, such as kaffe, coffee; straff, Germ. strafe, punishment; koffort, a box (from French or Germ.); offur, an offer; skoffin, a monster; skeffa, a ‘skep’ or bushel; skúffa, a drawer; eff, the name of the letter itself, cp. Skálda 166.

B. SPELLING: I. as an initial the spelling never changes; as medial and final the form f is usually retained, as in álfr, kálfr, sjálfr, silfr, arfr, orf, úlfr, etc., af, gaf, haf, etc., although the sound is soft in all these syllables. Some MSS. used to spell fu, especially after an l, sialfuan (ipsum), halfuan (dimidium), etc.; in the 14th century this was common, but did not continue; in Swedish it prevailed, hence the mod. Swed. forms gifva, drifva, etc. II. the spelling with f is against the true etymology in many cases, and here also the spelling differs; this is especially the case with the final radical v or u (after a vowel or after l or r), which, being in some cases suppressed or obsolete, reappears and is differently spelt; thus, örfar, arrows (from ör); snjófar (nives), snow, and snjófa, to snow (from snjór); háfan (acc.), high (from hár); mjófan, thin (from mjór); sæfar (gen.), the sea (from sær): the partly obsolete dat. forms ölvi, mjölvi, Mávi, bölvi, heyvi, hörvi, smjörvi, lævi from öl (ale), mjöl (meal), hey (hay), etc. are also spelt ölfi … heyfi, cp. e. g. Eb. 94 new Ed. note 8: so also adjectives, as örfan (acc. from örr), liberal: nouns, as völfa or völva, a prophetess. III. the spelling with pt in such words as, aptan, evening; aptr, after; leiptr, lightning; dript, drift; dupt, Germ. duft; heipt, cp. Germ. heftig; kraptr, Germ. kraft;; aptari, eptri, = aftari, eftri, aft, behind; eptir, after; skipta, to shift; lopt, Germ. luft; kjöptr, Germ. kiefe; opt, often; nipt (from nefi), a sister; hapt, a haft, hepta, to haft; gipta, a gift; raptr, a rafter; tópt, cp. Engl. toft, Dan. toft; skapt, Engl. shaft, Dan. skaft; þopta, Dan. tofte,—is against the sense and etymology and is an imitation of Latin MSS. The earliest MSS. and almost all Norse MSS. use ft, and so also many Icel. MSS., e. g. the Flateyjar-bók, Hauks-bók, etc.; pt, however, is the regular spelling, and hence it came into print. The present rule appears to be to use pt wherever both consonants are radicals, but ft if the t be inflexive—thus haft, part. from hafa, líft from lifa, hlíft from hlífa; but in speaking pt and ft are both sounded alike, regardless of etymology, viz. both as ft or vt with a soft f sound; hence phonetic spelling now and then occurs in MSS., e. g. draft—drapt, from drepa, Fb. i. 149; efðe = æpði = æpti, from æpa, to weep, Bs. i. 342; keyfti, from kaupa, Greg. 50; steyfti, from steypa. β. a digraph fp or pf occurs a few times in MSS., efptir, 673 A. 2; lopfti = lopti, Greg. 72 (vide Frump. 100), but it never came into use; it reminds one of the pf which in modern German is so frequent: fmf or m, e. g. nafm—nafn or namn, Mork. 60 and N. G. L. passim; fft = ft also occurs in old MSS.

C. CHANGES.—The final soft Icel. f answers to Engl. f, ve, e. g. Icel. líf = Engl. life, but Icel. lifa = Engl. to live; gefa, to give; hafa, to have; leifa, to leave. Again, the spurious Icel. f (B. II) usually answers to Engl. w or the like, e. g. örfar = Engl. arrow; snjófar = Engl. snow; már náfi, cp. Engl. mew; Icel. nær (the v is here suppressed), cp. Engl. narrow; Icel. lævi, cp. Engl. lewd, etc. etc. In Danish the soft f is usually spelt with v, e. g. halv, kalv, hav, give, love, sove,—Icel. hálfr, kálfr, haf, gefa, lofa, sofa, whereas the Swedes frequently keep the f. In German a final b answers to Icel. f; Germ. geben = Icel. gefa, Engl. give; Germ. kalb, erbe, = Icel. kalfr, arfi, etc., see introduction to B. Again, in German a final f or ff answers to Icel. and Engl. p, e. g. Germ. lauf = Icel. hlaup, Engl. leap; Germ. kauf = Icel. kaup, Engl. cheap; Germ. schiff = Icel. skip, Engl. ship, also skiff; Germ. treff = Icel. drep; Germ. tief = Icel. djúpr, Engl. deep; Germ. haufen = Icel. hópr, Engl. heap; Germ. rufen = Icel. hrópa; Germ. schaffen = Icel. skapa, Engl. shape; Germ. saufen = Icel. súpa, Engl. to sup; Germ. hofte = Icel. huppr, Engl. hip; Germ. greifen = Icel. grípa, Engl. to grapple, grip; Germ. gaffen = Icel. gapa, Engl. gape; Germ. offen = Icel. opinn, Engl. open; Germ. affe = Icel. api, Engl. ape; Germ. triefen = Icel. drjúpa, Engl. drip; Germ. tropfen = Icel. dropi, Engl. drop. As to the use of the initial f, the Engl., Icel., Swed., and Dan. all agree; the High Germ. spelling is confused, using either f or v, but both of them are sounded alike, thus voll = Engl. full, Icel. fullr; vier = Engl. four, Icel. fjórir; vater = Engl. father, Icel. faðir, etc.: but fisch = Engl. fish, Icel. fiskr; fest = Engl. fast, Icel. fastr. This German v, however, seems to be dying out (Grimm, introduction to F). 2. for the change of fn and mn, see introduction to B: f changes to m in a few Icel. words, as himin, qs. hiffin, cp. Engl. heaven; helmingr, a half, from halfr, half.

D. INTERCHANGE.—The Greek and Latin p answers to Teutonic and Icel. f; thus, pater, paucus, piscis, πέντε, πυρ, πωλος, pecu, pellis, πίων, pinguis, plecto, pes, ποδ-ός, pallor, etc., cp. Icel. faðir, fár, fiskr, fimm, furr, foli, fé, fell (feldr), feitr, flétta, fet and fótr, fólr, etc.; Lat. portare = færa, Engl. to ford; se-pelio = fela; πτερόν = fjöðr and fiðr; πνέω and πνευμα, cp. fnasa; Lat. per, pro, προ-, cp. fyrir; Lat. plēnus, pleo, πλέον, πλέος, cp. fullr; πλοιον = fley; Lat. prior, πρωτος, cp. fyrir, fyrstr: Lat. primus, cp. frum-; Lat. plūres, plērique, πολλός, πλειστος, πολύς, = fjöl-, fjöd, fleiri, flestr; Lat. plicare = falda; Lat. prētium, cp. friðr, fríðendi, etc. (vide Grimm). Again, where no interchange has taken place the word is usually borrowed from the Greek or Latin, e. g. forkr, Engl. fork = Lat. furca; Icel. fals, falskr = Lat. falsus; Icel. fálki = Lat. falco, etc.

faðerni, n. fatherhood, paternity, Fms. vii. 164; at f. eðr móðerni, on father’s or mother’s side, Eg. 267, Fms. ix. 251; verða sekr um f., to be convicted of fatherhood, Grág. i. 86; ganga við f., to acknowledge one’s fatherhood, Fms. i. 257, ii. 19, iii. 130; faðerni opp. to móðerni, vi. 223. β. patrimony, Skv. 3. 67. γ. a parent, the father; ekki var breytt um f. Kolla, Bjarn. 45 MS. (Ed. wrongly föðurinn); hann var ljóss ok fagr eptir f. sínu, as his father, Edda 7. δ. eccl. = Lat. paternitas, Bs. ii. 14, 80, 151, Th. 12, Mar., etc.

FAÐIR, m., gen. dat. and acc. föður: pl. nom. and acc. feðr, gen. feðra, dat. feðrum; there also occurs a monosyllabic nom. föðr or feðr, gen. föðrs or feðrs, dat. and acc. föðr or feðr, the pl. as in faðir; this form occurs passim in MSS. and editions, but is less correct and quite obsolete, Eg. 178, Fms. i. 6, N. G. L. i. 52, Stj. 130: in mod. usage in gen. both föður and föðurs, better föðrs: feðr nd veðr are rhymed, Edda 95; cp. also the compds all-föðr (of Odin), but Al-faðir of God in mod. usage: [Goth. fadar; A. S. fader; Early Engl. fader, mod. father; O. H. G. fatar, mod. vater; Swed.-Dan. fader; Lat. pāter; Gr. πατήρ; all of them bisyllabic]:—a father, N. G. L. i. 30, Grág. i. 170, Stj. 71, Hom. 47, passim:—in eccl. sense, Lat. pater, a father of the church, Stj. 126; speki feðra, Eluc. 2, K. Á. 30; faðir ok forstjóri, father and ruler, Mar.:—God, heavenly Father, N. T.; Foðir Vor, Our Father (i. e. the Lord’s Prayer, Lat. Pater Noster). Proverb or saying, fleygir fúsum til föður húsa, swift is the ride towards a father’s house. COMPDS: föður-afi, u, m. a grandfather on the father’s side. föður-arfr, m. inheritance after a father, Eg. 470, Rd. 282, Fb. ii. 172. föður-bani, a, m. slayer of another man’s father, Nj. 120, Landn. 286, Fms. vi. 367, vii. 220, Fb. i. 555. Föður-betringr, m. better than one’s father, Grett. 110. föður-bróðir, m. a father’s brother, uncle, Grág;. i. 171, ii. 185, Nj. 4: föðurbróður-sonr, a father’s brother’s son, Fms. x. 390. föður-bætr, f. pl. weregild for a father, Fms. ii. 109, Hkr. iii. 387. föður-dauði, a, m. a father’s death, Ísl. ii. 116, Fas. i. 34. föður-dráp, n. a father’s slaughter, Ísl. l. c., v. l. föður-erfð, f. = föðurarfr, Landn. 214, v. l. föður-faðir, m. a father’s father, Grág. i. 171, ii. 185, Jb. 14, Fms. i. 67, vii. 16. föður-frændi, a, m. a kinsman on the father’s side, Gþl. 261, Ld. 24. föður-garðr, m. a father’s house, Fas. iii. 250, cp. K. Á. 58. föður-gjöld, n. pl. weregild for one’s father, Edda 48, Ísl. ii. 216. föður-hefndir, f. pl. revenge for one’s father if slain, Ld. 260, Rd. 305, Vd. 94, Al. 7; as to this heathen custom, vide Sdm. 35, Skv. 3. 12, Nj. ch. 120 (en þó er þér meiri nauðsyná at hefna föður þíns), Heiðarv. S. (the revenge of Gest), Fms. vi, Har. S. harðr. 103 (the taunts of Halli), Ld. ch. 60, cp. also Eb. ch. 38, etc. föður-hús, n. a father’s house, Stj. 398, 463. föður-kyn, n. father’s kin, Eg. 266. föður-land, n. [Germ. vaterland, Dan. fædreland], fatherland, Bær. 17, a rare word, sounding even now affected and mod.; Icel. prefer saying ætt-jörð, fóstr-jörð, or the like. föður-lauss, adj. fatherless, H. E. i. 237. föður-leifð (föður-leif, Bær. 5, Fms. x. 386), f. a patrimony, viz. land and estates, Fms. i. 52, v. 117, vii. 176, Ld. 104. föður-liga, adv. and föður-ligr, adj. fatherly, Stj. 63, Fms. vi. 70, Finnb. 226. föður-móðir, f. a father’s mother, Nj. 25, Grág. i. 171. föður-systir, [whence Dan. faster], f. a father’s sister, Grág. i. 171, Fms. iv. 24; füðursystur-dóttir, the daughter of a father’s sister, a niece, Hkr. iii. 170. föður-verringr, m. a degenerate son, Mag. föður-ætt (or -átt), f. kinsfolk on the father’s side, Grág. i. 171, Nj. 25, Gþl. 158. II. in many COMPDS used as adj., e. g. föður-ást, f. and föður-elska, u, f. fatherly love; föður-hendr, f. pl. fatherly hands; föður-hirting, f. fatherly punishment; föður-hjarta, n. fatherly heart. 2. guð-faðir, a god-father; tengda-faðir, a father-in-law; stjúp-faðir, a step-father; fóstr-faðir, a foster-father; al-faðir, all-father.

faðma, að, to embrace, Stj. 185, Barl. 29, Gg. 3: recipr. to embrace one another. Sks. 572: metaph. to grasp with the arms, Sturl. i. 169, Al. 86.

faðman, f. embracing, Str.

faðm-byggvir, m., poët. a dweller in one’s arms, husband, Lex. Poët.

faðm-lag, n., esp. in pl. embraces, Ísl. ii. 269, Fms. iii. 129, Bret. 24: metaph., Sks. 550, Mar. 119.

FAÐMR m. [cp. Goth. faþa = φραγμός; A. S. fæðem; Engl. fathom; O. H. G. fadam; Germ. faden or fadem = Lat. filum; Dan. favn; Swed. famn; the root is akin to that of Gr. πετάννυμι, cp. Lat. patere, pandere, prop. to stretch out]:—a fathom: 1. a measure = two passus, Hb. 732. 5, Grág. ii. 262, 336, Landn. 35, 131, Fms. viii. 416, Eluc. 43, Gísl. 14; very freq. used in measuring depths or heights; thus fertugt djúp, þrítugr hamarr, etc. invariably means forty fathoms deep, thirty fathoms high; whereas roads are measured by ‘fet’, stuffs, etc. by ‘ells’. 2. the arms; brjóst ok f., Fms. v. 344, Sturl. i. 214, Rm. 16, Th. 9, Am. 73; sofa í faðmi e-m, to sleep in one’s arms, Hm. 114; hafa barn í faðmi, Fms. vii. 31: the bosom, Stj. 260. Exod. iv. 6: often in the phrase, fallask í faðma, to square one thing with another, set off against, Landn. 307, Orkn. 224, Glúm. 396, Bs. i. 696, Fs. 139, Gullþ. 19.

FAGNA, að, [Ulf. faginon = χαίρειν; A. S. fægnian; Hel. faganon; cp. Engl. fain, Icel. feginn]:—to be fain, to rejoice, Greg. 20, 40, Sks. 631; fagnið þer og verið glaðir. Matth. v. 12, John xvi. 20; fagnið með fagnendum, Rom. xii. 15: with dat., fagna e-u, to rejoice in a thing; allir munu því fagna, 623. 43, Nj. 25, Ld. 62. 2. fagna e-m, to welcome one, receive with good cheer, Nj. 4; var honum þar vel tagnað, 25, Eg. 36, Fms. iv. 131, ironic, vii. 249, x. 19. β. with prep., fagna í e-u, to rejoice in a thing, Th. 76; fagna af e-u, id., Stj. 142, Th. 76. γ. the phrase, fagna vetri (Jólum, sumri), to rejoice, make a feast at the beginning of winter (Yule, summer); þat var þá margra manna siðr at f. vetri … ok hafa þá veizlur ok vetrnátta-blót, Gísl. 18; ef ek mætta þar í veita í haust vinum mínum ok f. svá heimkomu minni, Fms. i. 290; þat er siðr þeirra at hafa blót á haust ok f. þá vetri, Ó. H. 104.

fagnaðr and fögnuðr, m., gen. fagnaðar, pl. ir, [Goth. faheds = χαρά], joy, Greg. 68, Hom. 85; gaudium er fögnuðr, Bs. i. 801; eilífr f., Hom. 42, Stj. 44; himinríkis f., heavenly joy, Fms. x. 274; óvina-fögnuðr, triumph, joy for one’s foes, Nj. 112. β. metaph. welcome, good cheer, Hkr. i. 50, Eg. 535, Fms. i. 72, iv. 82; görðu henni fagnað þá viku alla, 625. 86: the phrase, kunna sér þann fagnað, to be so sensible, so clever, Band. 9, Hkr. ii. 85, v. l.; öl ok annarr fagnaðr, ale and other good cheer, Grett. 98 A. In the N. T. χαρά is often rendered by fögnuðr, Mark iv. 16, Luke i. 14, ii. 10, viii. 13, x. 17, xv. 7, 10, John iii. 29, xv. 11, xvi. 21, 22, 24, xvii. 13, Rom. xiv. 17, xv. 13, 2 Cor. ii. 2, etc., in the same passages in which Ulf uses faheds; fögnuðr is stronger than gleði. COMPDS: fagnaðar-atburðr, m. a joyful event, Barl. 88. fagnaðar-boðskapr, m. glad tidings. fagnaðar-dagr, m. the day of rejoicing, Fms. x. 226. fagnaðar-eyrendi, n. a joyful message, Bs. fagnaðar-eyru, n. pl., heyra f., to hear with joyful ears, Hom. 143. fagnaðar-fullr, adj. joyful, Bs. i. 201, Fms. i. 244. fagnaðar-fundr, m. a joyful meeting, Fms. x. 405, xi. 438. fagnaðar-grátr, m. weeping for joy, 655 xxvii. 9. fagnaðar-heit, n. a joyful promise, Th. 9. fagnaðar-kenning, f. joyful teaching. fagnaðar-krás, f. a dainty, Stj. 443. fagnaðar-lauss, adj. (-leysi, n.). joyless, Bs. i. 462, 801: wretched, poor, 464, Fms. xi. 445. fagnaðar-lúðr, m. a trumpet of joy, Stj. 631. fagnaðar-mark, n. a sign of joy, Hom. 104. fagnaðar-óp, n. a shout of joy, Al. 13, Róm. 214. fagnaðar-raust, f. a voice of joy, Stj. 434. fagnaðar-samligr, adj. (-liga, adv.), joyful, Hom. 140, Stj. 148. fagnaðar-skrúð, n. raiment of joy, Eluc. 46. fagnaðar-staðr, m. a place of joy, Hom. 147. fagnaðar-sæll, adj. delightful, Fms. vi. 441, Pass. xxvii. 12. fagnaðar-söngr, m. a song of joy, Hom. 140, Sks. 754, Stj. 434. fagnaðar-tíð, f. and fagnaðar-tími, a, m. a time of joy, Stj. 141, Bs. i. 131, Fms. ii. 196. fagnaðar-tíðindi, n. pl. joyful, glad tidings, Hom. 88, Fms. ii. 253, iv. 250. fagnaðar-veizla, u, f. a feast of joy, Stj. fagnaðar-vist, f. an abode of joy, 625. 6. fagnaðar-öl, n. a joyful banquet, merry feast, Al. 150, Hkr. ii. 31.

fagna-fundr, m. a joyful meeting (of friends); varð þar f., there was great joy, good cheer, Eg. 130, 180, 198, 515, Ísl. ii. 387, Fms. iv. 305, v. 41, x. 405, Stj. 478. β. a happy discovery, Stor. 2 (MS.), of the poetical mead; the edition wrongly þagna-fundr.

FAGR, adj., fem. fögr, neut. fagrt; compar. fagrari or better fegri, superl. fagrastr or better fegrstr; mod. fegurri, fegurstr; [Ulf. fagrs = ευθετος; A. S. fœger; Engl. fair; O. H. G. fagar; Dan. favre, in Dan. ballads favre mö = fair maid; Swed. fager]:—-fair; used very freq. and almost as in Engl., except that the Icel. does not use it in a moral sense, like Engl. fair, unfair: 1. of persons, the body, etc.; fögr mær, a fair maid, Nj. 2, Vkv. 2; fagr sýnum, fair to see, Fms. i. 116; f. álitum, id., Edda 5, Skv. 1. 27; fögr hönd, a fair hand (hand-fögr), Fms. ix. 283; fógr augu, fair eyes (fagr-eygr); fagrt hár, fair hair, Ísl. ii; fagrar brúðir, fair brides, Sdm. 28; mær undarliga fögr, a wonderfully fair maid, Hkr. i. 40; fegra mann (a fairer man) eðr tígurlegra, Fms. vi. 438. 2. of places; fögr er Hlíðin svá at mér hefir hón aldri jafnfögr sýnzk, Nj. 112; fagra túna (gen.), a fair abode (‘toun’), þkv. 3; salr sólu fegri, Vsp. 63; fagrar lendur,fair fields, Ld. 96: freq. in local names, Fagra-brekka, Fagr-ey, Fagri-dalr, Fagra-nes, Fagri-skógr, etc., = Fair-brink, -isle, -dale, -ness, -wood, etc., Landn. 3. of light, wind, weather, etc.; fagrt ljós, a bright light, Hom. 111, Fms. i. 230; skína fagrt, to shine brightly (of the sun); fagr byrr, a fair wind, Fms. ii. 182, Orkn. 356; fagrt veðr, fair weather, Ó. H. 216. 4. as an epithet of tears; in the phrase, gráta fögrum tárum, cp. Homer’s θαλερον δάκρυ; hence grát-fagr, beautiful in tears, Edda 63. 5. of the voice; fögr rödd, a sweet voice; fagr söngr, a sweet song, Bs. i. 168; fögr orð, a fine speech, Mork. 6. of other things; fagrt skip, a fine ship, Eg. 173; fagr borði, Nj. 24; fagrt kvæði, a fine poem, Ísl. ii. 237. II. metaph., fagrt líf, a fair, goodly life, Mork. 72; lifa fagrt, to live a happy life, Hm. 53; fagrir siðir, fine manners, Sks. 279. β. as an epithet of victory; fagr sigr, með fögrum sigri (freq.) γ. mæla (tala) fagrt, to speak fair, Hm. 91, Ísl. ii. 339; talaði fagrt, en hugði flátt, spoke fair, but thought false, Fms. ii. 91; heita fögru, to promise fair, Hm. 131, Eg. (in a verse); lota öllu fögrv, cp. the Dan. ‘love guld og grönne skove’; biðja fagrt, to bid fair (with false intention), Am. 37.

B. In COMPDS, with nouns, adjectives, fair, fine, gracious: I. prefixed, e. g. munn-fagr, fine-mouthed; augna-fagr, fair eyed; hand-fagr, fair-handed; gang-fagr, with a fair, gracious gait; lit-fagr, of fair hue; hár-fagr, fair-haired, etc. II. suffixed, e. g. fagra-hvel, n. the fair wheel or disk, the sun (poët.), Alm. 17. fagra-ræfr, n. the fair roof, the sky (poët.), Alm. 13. fagr-bláinn, m. fair blue, a shield (poët.), Lex. Poët. fagr-blár, adj. light-blue. fagr-blóm, n., botan. trientalis, Hjalt. fagr-búinn, part. ‘fair-boun’, bright-dressed, chiefly as an epithet of a lady, Eg. 77, Hkr. iii. 290, Hom. 120, Am. 29: of a ship, Hkv. 1. 31. fagr-bygg, n. the fair ‘bigg’, gold (poët.), Lex. Poët., cp. Edda 83. fagr-dæll, adj. a man from Fairdale, Sturl. iii. 181, Landn. fagr-eygr (-eygðr), adj. fair-eyed, Bs. i. 127, 178, Hkr. ii. 2, Fms. xi. 205. fagr-ferðugr, adj. graceful, virtuous, Stj. 136, v. l. fagr-flekkóttr, adj. fair-flecked (of a snake), Stj. 97. fagr-gali, a, m. a fair, enticing song, enchantment, flattery. fagr-gim, n. the fair gem, the sun (poët.), Lv. 2. fagr-glóa, adj. fair-glowing, bright (poët.), Alm. 5 (the Sun as bride). fagr-grænn, adj. light-green, Fms. xi. 335, Hkr. i. 71 (of a field or tree). fagr-gulr, adj. light-yellow. fagr-hárr (-hærðr), adj. fair-haired, Nj. 16, Fms. xi. 205. fagr-hljóðr (-hljóðandi, -hljóðaðr), adj. sweet-voiced, Grett. 159, Fms. ii. 199. fagr-kinn, f. (fögrum-kinni, m., Fms. xi), fair-cheek, soubriquet of a lady, Sd. fagr-klæddr, part. fair-clad, Greg. 24, Dropl. 25. fagr-kolla, u, f., botan. hieracium, hawkweed, Hjalt. fagr-limi, a, m. ‘fair-branch’, a wood (poët.), Alm. 29. fagr-læti, n. blandishment, Barl. 119. fagr-máll, adj. fair-spoken, Fms. vi. 52. fagr-mæli, n. fair language, Barl. 24, 117, Nj. 167. Fms. i. 74. fagr-mæltr, part. bland, Fms. vi. 52, v. 1. fagr-orðr (-yrðr), adj. fair-spoken, bland, Sks. 370, 432, Sturl. ii. 133. fagr-raddaðr, part. sweet-voiced. fagr-rauðr, adj. light-red (opp. to dökk-rauðr or dumb-rauðr, dark-red), Þiðr. 181, Fas. i. 172, Vsp. 34. fagr-rendr, part. painted with fine stripes (of a shield), Hornklofi. fagr-skapaðr, part. fair-shapen, Sks. 627. fagr-skrifaðr, part. finely drawn, painted in bright colours, Greg. 26. fagr-skygðr, part. transparent as crystal (of a shield), Lex. Poët. fagr-strykvinn, part. painted with fair streaks (of a ship), Lex. Poët. fagr-varinn, part. wearing fine clothes (of a lady), Vkv. 37. fagr-vaxinn, part. of fair stature (of a lady), Band. (in a verse). fagr-yrði, n. pl. fair words, Fms. x. 104.

fagrendi, n. pl. costly, fair things, Barl. 176.

fagr-leikr, m. beauty, Fms. v. 281, xi. 428.

fagr-leitr, adj. of fair complexion, beautiful, Fms. vii. 321, Gísl. 71.

fagr-liga (fagrla, Ó. H. in a verse), mod. fallega, adv. fairly, beautifully. Fms. i. 141, vii. 147, x. 243, Fs. 145.

fagr-ligr, adj., mod. contracted fallegr (cp. fallega above), which word is at the present time in Icel. used very much as fine, nice are in Engl., that is to say, of almost everything, whereas this form is hardly found in old writers:—fair, fine, Vtkv. 6; f. penningar, fine money, Fs. 6; f. skrúði, a fine dress, Stj. 142; f. sigr, Fms. x. 231; f. hljóðan, sweet tunes, Bs. i. 155.

FALA, að, [falr], to demand for purchase, with acc., Fms. i. 135, iii. 159, Ld. 28, Eg. 714; f. e-t af e-m (better f. e-t at e-m), Fms. iii. 208, x. 4, Nj. 73, Ld. 144.

falan and fölun, f. a demand for sale; leggja f. á e-ð.

FALDA, in old writers this word (if used in sense II) always follows the strong form and is declined like halda, viz. pret. félt, Landn. 166, vide Lex. Poët. passim, pl. féldu; pres. sing. feld; imperat. falt; pret. subj. féldi, Orkn. (in a verse); part. faldinn; but in signf. I (to fold) it is weak (faldar, faldaði), though it seldom occurs in old writers in this sense: in mod. usage the weak form only is used: [Ulf. falþan = πτύσσειν in Luke iv. 20. to fold or close the book; A. S. fealdan; Engl. to fold; Germ. falten; Dan. folde; Swed. fålla; Fr. fauder; cp. Lat. plicare]:—to fold, with acc.: I. gener. to fold; ek skal f. hana saman, I shall fold her up, Str. 9; tók hón þá skyrtuna ok faldaði saman, id.; sem hón hafði saman faldat, id.; f. fald eptir, to unfold a fold, id.; at engi mundi þann fald aptr f., id.; ef hón gæti aptr faldat skyrtu þína, 13. β. to hem; falda dúk, klút, etc., to hem a towel, kerchief, or the like; cp. faldaðr, ófaldaðr. II. esp. to hood or cover the head, chiefly used of ladies wearing the fald, q. v.: α. with acc. of the person, dat. of the dress; ek mun falda þik með höfuðdúki, Nj. 201; at hón hefði nú faldit sik við motrinum, Ld. 210; Brandr var faldinn, B. was hooded as a lady, Fs. 109; Hildr Eyvindar-dóttir félt honum, H. hooded him, 194 (Ed. fylgði wrongly); at hón hefði nú faldit (Ed. wrongly faldat) sik við motrinum, that she had hooded herself with the motr, Ld. 210; mundi Guðrún ekki þurfa at falda sik motri til þess, at sama betr en allar konur aðrar, id.; hennar höfut er faldit þremr skautum, her head is hooded in three sheets (hence skauta-faldr), Mar. 48 (Fr.) β. with dat. of the person; þá segir Hrefna, at hón vill falda sér við motrinn (better motrinum), Ld. 192; ef maðr feldr sér til vélar við konu, eðr ferr hann í kvennklæði, if a man hoods his head wilily mocking a woman, Grág. i. 338 (liable to the lesser outlawry); f. þér við höfuðdúki, Nj. l. c., v. l.; aldri hefi ek frétt at konur féldi höfuðdúkum, Orkn. (in a verse); ek félt hjálmi, I covered my head in a helmet, Sighvat. γ. the phrases, falda sítt, to hood the head so that the eyes and face cannot be seen; far á meðal kvenna, ok falt þér sítt, at ekki verðir þú kend, Post. 656 B. 11; brúðirnar falda sítt, svá at úgerla má sjá þeirra yfirlit, Fms. xi. 106; enn fyrsta aptan hafa brúðirnar síð-faldit, Jv. 29 (Ed. 1824); sú (kona) hafði sítt faldit, Fms. vii. 161, cp. Gen. xxxviii. 14; falda hátt, to wear a tall fald, cp. Eb. 136 (in a verse); falda blá, or svörtu, to hood the head in black, to mourn, Ísl. ii. 351 (in a verse): the metaph. phrase, f. rauðu, to hood the head in red, to die a bloody death, Landn. l. c. 2. part. faldinn, used as adj. hooded, mod. faldaðr, hooded, bordered, hemmed, etc., in compds, eld-faldinn, hooded with flames, poët. epithet of the foaming waves, Lex. Poët.; hjálmi faldinn, hooded with a helmet (poët.), Hkv. 1. 47; járn-faldinn, iron-hooded, helmed, Eb. 208 (in a verse): hag-faldin, hooded with hedges, poët. epithet of the goddess Earth, Fms. vi. 140 (in a verse); hvít-faldin, white-hooded, of glaciers or foaming waves, Snót 12, 16.

falda, u, f. = faldr, Korm. 240 (in a verse).

fald-laus, f. adj. hoodless, having her fald pulled off, Sd. 181.

FALDR, m. [A. S. feald; Engl. fold; Germ. falte; O. H. G. fald; Dan. fold; Ital. falda, and faldetta (in Malta); Fr. fauvetta and faudage]:—a fold, of a garment, Str. 9, 13, l. 19, 21, where it is even spelt foldr; in Icel. hardly ever used in this sense. β. the hem of a garment; hún gékk á bak til ok snart fald hans klæða, Luke viii. 44; og fald sinna klæða stækka þeir, Matth. xxiii. 5; og báðu hann, að þeir mætti snerta að eins fald hans fata, Mark vi. 56; kyrtill hlaðbúinn í fald niðr, a kirtle laced down to the hems, Fms. iv. 337; allt í fald niðr, Mag. (Fr.) 63; klæða-faldr, Pass. 36. 9. II. a white linen hood, the stately national head-gear worn by ladies in Icel., of which drawings are given by Eggert Itin. pp. 24, 27, Sir Joseph Banks in Hooker’s Travels, the account of the French expedition of the year 1836 sq., and in almost all books of travels in Iceland. In old Sagas or poems the fald is chiefly recorded in Ld. ch. 33 (the dreams of Guðrún Osvifs datter), cp. Sd. ch. 25; in the Orkn. S. ch. 58 the two sisters Frakök and Helga, daughters of the Gaelic Moddan, wore a fald (þá hnyktu þar af sér faldinum, ok reyttu sik), 182. In the Rm. (a poem probably composed in the Western Isles. Orkneys) all the three women, Edda, Amma, and Móðir, wore the fald; the words in Þkv. 16, 19—ok haglega um höfuð typpum, and let us cleverly put a topping on his head, of Thor in bridal disguise—seem to refer to the fald. Bishop Bjarni, a native of the Orkneys (died A. D. 1222), gives the name of ‘fald’ to the helmet; Kormak, in the 10th century, speaks of the ‘old falda.’ In Normandy and Brittany a kind of ‘fald’ is still in use; it may be that it came to Icel. through Great Britain, and is of Breton origin; a French fald (Franseiskr, i. e. Britain?) is mentioned, D. N. iv. 359. In Icel. the fald was, up to the end of the last century, worn by every lady,—áðr sérhver fald bar frú | falleg þótti venja sú, a ditty. The ladies tried to outdo each other in wearing a tall fald; keisti faldr, the fald rose high, Rm. 26; falda hátt, Eb. (the verse); hence the sarcastic name stiku-faldr, a ‘yard-long fald;’ stífan teygja stiku-fald, Þagnarmál 53, a poem of 1728; 1 Tim. ii. 9 is in the Icel. version rendered, eigi með földum (πλέγμασι) eðr gulli eðr perlum,—since with ancient women, and in Icel. up to a late time, braiding of the hair was almost unknown. In mod. poetry, Iceland with her glaciers is represented as a woman with her fald on; minn hefir faldr fengið fjúka-ryk og kám, Eggert: the sails are called faldar mastra, hoods of the masts, faldar mastra blöktu stilt, Úlf. 3. 14; hestar hlés hvíta skóku falda trés, id., 10; faldr skýja, the folds of the clouds, poët., Núm. 1. 11; faldr af degi, of the daybreak, 4. 86; vide krók-faldr, sveigr, a crooked fald. falda-feykir, m. a magical dance in which the falds flew off the ladies’ heads, Fas. iii; cp. Percy’s Fryar and Boy, also the Wonderful Flute in Popular Tales.

Fal-hófnir, m. barrel-hoof, hollow-hoof, a mythol. horse, Edda.

FALL, n., pl. föll, [common to all Teut. idioms except Goth.], a fall:—defined in law, þat er fall ef maðr styðr niðr kné eðr hendi, Grág. ii. 8, Ísl. ii. 246, Al. 76, Sd. 143: the proverb, fall er farar heill, a fall bodes a lucky journey, Fms. vi. 414 (of king Harold at Stamford-bridge), viii. 85, 403, Sverr. S.; sá er annarr orðs-kviðr at fall er farar heill, ok festir þú nú fætr í landi, Fb. i. 231, cp. Caesar’s ‘teneo te, Africa;’ falls er ván að fornu tré, Stj. 539; stirð eru gamalla manna föll; flas er falli næst, flurry is nigh falling: föll berask á e-n, one begins to reel, stagger. Fas. iii. 429; koma e-m til falls, to cause one to fall, Edda 34; reiddi hann til falls, he reeled, Eb. 220. 2. a fall, death in battle, Lat. caedes, Fms. i. 11, 43, 89, Nj. 280, Eg. 37, 106, Ó. H. 219, passim; the proverb, í flótta er fall vest, Fms. viii. 117; val-fall, Lat. strages; mann-fall, loss of men in battle. β. the ‘fall,’ a plague in cattle or beasts, murrain, 655. 2, Bs. i. 97, 245, 456. γ. the carcase of a slaughtered animal; baulu-fall, sauðar-fall, nauts-fall, hrúts-fall, Stj. 483. 3. medic. in compds, brot-fall, the falling sickness, epilepsy; blóð-fall, klæða-föll, bloody flux; lima-fall, paresis. β. childbirth, in the phrase, vera komin að falli, to be in an advanced state, (komin að burði is used of sheep, cows.) 4. the fall or rush of water; vatns-fall, a waterfall, large river; sjávar-föll, tides; að-fall, flood-tide; út-fall, ebb-tide; boða-fall, a breaker, cp. Bs. ii. 51. 5. in gramm. a case, Lat. casus, Skálda 180, 206: quantity, 159, 160, Edda 126: a metric. fault, a defective verse, dropping of syllables, Fb. iii. 426. II. metaph. downfall, ruin, decay; fall engla, the fall of the angels, Rb. 80; til falls ok upprisu margra í Ísrael, Luke ii. 34; hafa sér e-t til falls, to run risk of ruin, Hrafn. 30; gózin eru at falli komin, the estates are dilapidated, Mar.; á-fall, a shock; frá-fall, death; ó-fall, mishap; jarð-fall, an earth-slip. 2. eccl. a sin, transgression, Bs. i. 686, Mar. 77 (Fr.) 3. a law term, breach, failure, non-fulfilment, in eið-fall, vegar-fall, Gþl. 416; messu-fall, orð-fall, veizlu-fall. 4. mod. a case, occasion.

FALLA, pret. féll, 2nd pers. féllt, mod. féllst, pl. féllu; pres. fell, pl. föllum; part. fallinn; reflex. féllsk, fallisk, etc., with the neg. suffix fellr-at, féll-at, féllsk-at, Am. 6, vide Lex. Poët. [Common to all Teut. languages except Goth. (Ulf. renders πίπτειν by drjûsan); A. S. feallan; Engl. fall; Germ. fallen; Dan. falde; Swed. falla.]

A. to fall; as in Engl. so in Icel. falla is the general word, used in the broadest sense; in the N. T. it is therefore used much in the same passages as in the Engl. V., e. g. Matth. v. 14, vii. 25, 27, x. 29, xii. 11, xiii. 4, xxi. 44, Luke xiv. 5, John xii. 24, Rom. xi. 11, xiv. 4, 1 Cor. x. 12, 1 Tim. vi. 9, Rev. viii. 10: blómstrið fellr, James i. 11: again, the verbs hrynja and hrapa denote ruin or sudden fall, detta a light fall, hrasa stumbling; thus in the N. T. hrynja is used, Luke xxiii. 30, Rev. vi. 16; hrapa, Luke x. 18, xi. 17, xiii. 4, Matth. xxiv. 29; hrasa, Luke x. 30; detta, xvi. 21: the proverb, eigi fellr tré við hit fyrsta högg, a tree falls not by the first stroke, Nj. 163, 224; hann féll fall mikit, Bs. i. 343; hón féll geigvænliga, id.; falla af baki, to fall from horseback, 344; f. áfram, to fall forwards, Nj. 165; f. á bak aptr, to fall on the back, 9; f. um háls e-m, to fall on one’s neck, Luke xv. 20; f. til jarðar, to fall to the ground, fall prostrate, Fms. vii. 13, Pass. 5. 4: to fall on one’s face, Stj. 422. Ruth ii. 10; f. fram, to fall down, Matth. iv. 9; f. dauðr ofan, to fall down dead, Fær. 31; ok jafnsnart féll á hann dimma og myrkr, Acts xiii. 11; hlutr fellr, the lot fell (vide hlut-fall), i. 26. 2. to fall dead, fall in battle, Lat. cadere, Nj. 31, Eg. 7, 495, Dropl. 25, 36, Hm. 159, Fms. i. 8, 11, 24, 38, 95, 173, 177, 178, ii. 318, 324, 329, iii. 5, iv. 14, v. 55, 59, 78, 85, vi. 406–421, vii–xi, passim. 3. of cattle, to die of plague or famine, Ann. 1341. 4. medic., falla í brot, to fall in a fit, Bs. i. 335; f. í óvit, to swoon, Nj. 210: the phrase, f. frá, to fall, die (frá-fall, death), Grág. i. 139, 401, Fms. iv. 230, vii. 275; f. í svefn, to fall asleep, Acts xx. 9. II. to flow, run, of water, stream, tide, etc.: of the tide, særinn féll út frá landi, ebbed, Clem. 47; féll þar sær fyrir hellismunnann, the sea rose higher than the cave’s mouth, Orkn. 428; síðan féll sjór at, the tide rose, Ld. 58; ok þá er út féll sjórinn, Þorf. Karl. 420; sjórinn féll svá skjótt á land, at skipin vóru öll á floti, Fms. iv. 65: also used of snow, rain, dew, Vsp. 19; snjó-fall, a fall of snow: of the ashes of a volcano, cp. ösku-fall, s. v. aska: of a breaker, to dash, menn undruðusk er boði féll í logni, þar sem engi maðr vissi ván til at fyrri hefði fallit, Orkn. 164: of a river, nema þar falli á sú er eigi gengr fé yfir, Grág. ii. 256; vötn þau er ór jöklum höfðu fallit, Eg. 133; á féll (flowed) við skála Ásólfs, Landn. 50, A. A. 285; þeir sá þá ós (fors, Hb.) mikinn falla í sjóinn, Landn. 29, v. l., cp. Fms. i. 236; Markar-fljót féll í millum höfuð-ísa, Nj. 142; á fellr austan, Vsp. 42; falla forsar, 58; læk er féll meðal landa þeirra, Landn. 145: of sea water, sjár kolblár fellr at þeim, the ship took in water, Ld. 118, Mar. 98; svá at inn féll um söxin, that the tea rushed in at the stern, Sturl. iii. 66. 2. to stream, of hair; hárit silki-bleikt er féll (streamed) á herðar honum aptr, Fms. vii. 155. β. of clothes, drapery, Edda (Ht. 2) 121. III. to fall, of the wind; féll veðrit ok görði logn, the wind fell, Eg. 372; þá féll byrrinn, Eb. 8; ok fellr veðrit er þeir koma út at eyjum, Ld. 116; hón kvaðsk mundu ráða at veðrit félli eigi, Gullþ. 30; í því bili fellr andviðrit, Fbr. 67; þá féll af byrrinn, Fms. vi. 17. 2. falla niðr, to fall, drop; mitt kvæði mun skjótt niðr f., my poem will soon be forgotten, Fms. vi. 198; mun þat (in the poem) aldri niðr f. meðan Norðrlönd eru bygð, 372; féll svá þeirra tal, their speech dropped, they left off talking, Fas. iii. 579; as a law term, to let a thing drop, lát niðr f., Fs. 182; féllu hálfar bætr niðr fyrir sakastaði þá er hann þótti á eiga, Nj. 166, 250, Band. 18; þat eitt fellr niðr, Grág. i. 398, Fms. vii. 137; falla í verði, to fall in price, etc. IV. to fail, be foiled, a law term; sá (viz. eiðr) fellr honum til útlegðar, i. e. if he fails in taking the oath he shall be liable to outlawry, N. G. L. i. 84 (eið-fall); en ef eiðr fellr, þá fari hann útlægr, K. Á. 214; fellr aldri sekt handa á milli, the fine is never cancelled, N. G. L. i. 345; f. á verkum sínum, to have been caught red-handed, to be justly slain, Eg. 736; vera fallinn at sókn, to fail in one’s suit, N. G. L. i. 166; hence metaph. fallin at frændum, failing, bereft of friends, Hðm. 5; fallinn frá minu máli, having given my case up, Sks. 554, 747; því dæmi ek fyrir dráp hans fallnar eignir ykkar, I sentence your estates to lie forfeited for his slaughter, Fs. 122; f. í konungs garð, to forfeit to the king’s treasury. Fms. iv. 227; reflex., ef honum fellsk þessor brigð, if his right of reclamation fails, Gþl. 300; ef menn fallask at því, if men fail in that, N. G. L. ii. 345; ef gerð fellsk, if the reparation comes to naught, id.; ef gerðar-menn láta fallask, if they fail to do their duty, id., cp. i. 133, 415; to fail, falter, in the phrase, e-m fallask hendr, the hands fail one; bliknaði hann ok féllusk honum hendr, Ó. H. 70; þá féllusk öllum Ásum orðtök ok svá hendr, their voice and hands alike failed them, Edda 37; en bóndum féllusk hendr, því á þeir höfðu þá engan foringja, Fms. vi. 281; féllusk þeim allar kveðjur er fyrir vóru, their greeting faltered, i. e. the greeting died on their lips, Nj. 140; vill sá eigi fallask fáta andsvör, he would not fail or falter in replying, Hkr. i. 260; féllskat saðr sviðri, her judgment did not fail, Am. 6. V. metaph., falla í villu, to fall into heresy, Ver. 47; f. í hórdóm, to fall into whoredom, Sks. 588; f. í vald e-s. to fall into one’s power, Ld. 166; f. í fullsælu, to drop (come suddenly) into great wealth, Band. 31; f. í fullting við e-n, to fall a-helping one, to take one’s part, Grág. i. 24; lyktir falla á e-t, to come to a close, issue, Fms. ix. 292. xi. 326; f. á, to fall on, of misfortune, vide á-fall. 2. falla undir e-n, to full to one’s lot, of inheritance, obligation; arfr fellr undir e-n. devolves upon one, Gþl. 215; f. frjáls á jörð to be free born, N. G. L. i. 32; f. ánanðigr á jörð, to be born a bondsman, Grág. ii. 192. 3. falla við árar, to fall to at the oars, Fms. xi. 73, 103; Þorgeirr féll þá svá fast á árar (pulled, so bard), at af gengu báðir háirnir, Grett. 125 A; f. fram við árar, id., Fas. ii. 495 (in a verse). VI. to fall out, befall; ef auðna fellr til, if it so falls out by luck, Fms. iv. 148; ef auðna vildi til f. með þeim, xi. 267; litlu siðar fellr til fagrt leiði, a fair wind befell them, 426; alla hluti þá er til kunni f., Nj. 224; öll þingvíti er til f., all the fines that may fall in, be due, Gþl. 21; nema þörf falli til, unless a mishap befalls him, i. e. unless he be in a strait, 76; mér féll svá gæfusamliga, it befell me so luckily, Barl. 114; verðuliga er fallit á mik þetta tilfelli, this accident has justly befallen me, 115; sem sakir f. til, as the case falls, Eg. 89. 2. to fall, be produced; þat (the iron) fellr í firði þeim er Ger heitir, Fas. iii. 240; þar fellr hveiti ok vín, 360. VII. impers. in the phrases, e-m fellr e-t þungt, létt, etc., a thing falls lightly, heavily upon, esp. of feeling; þetta mun yðr þungt f., it will fall heavily on you, Band. 18; felir þá keisaranum þyngra bardaginn, the battle fell out ill to (turned against) the emperor, Fms. xi. 32; at oss mundi þungt f. þessi mál, Nj. 191. 2. the phrases, e-m fellr e-t nær, it falls nigh to one, touches one nearly; svá fellr mér þetta nær um trega, Nj. 170; sjá einn var svá hlutr, at Njáli féll svá nær, at hana mátti aldri óklökvandi um tala, this one thing touched Njal so nearly, that he could never speak of it without tears, 171; mér fellr eigi firr en honum, it touches me no less than him, Blas. 41; henni féll meinit svá, nær, at …, the illness fell on her so sore, that …, Bs. i. 178; féll henni nær allt saman, she was much vexed by it all (of illness), 351; e-t fellr bágliga, hörmuliga etc. fyrir e-m, things fall out sadly for one. Vígl. 30, El. 15.

B. Metaph. to fall in with, agree, fit, suit, Germ. gefallen: I. to please, suit; kvað sér þat vel falla til aftekta, said that it suited him well for drawing taxes from, Fb. ii. 122: en allt þat, er hann heyrði frá himnaguði, féll honum harla vel, pleased him very well, Fms. i. 133; honum féll vel í eyru lofsorð konungs, the king’s praise suited his ears well, tickled, pleased his fancy, Bret. 16: reflex., þat lof fellsk honum í eyru, 4; jarli fellsk þat vel í eyru, the earl was well pleased to hear it, Bjarn. 7. β. falla saman, to fall in with, comply, agree; en þó at eigi félli allt saman með þeim, though they did not agree in all, Bs. i. 723. γ. féllsk vel á með þeim, they loved one another, Fas. i. 49; féll vel á með þeim Styrkári, i. e. he and S. were on good terms, Fms. iii. 120. δ. honum féllsk þat vel í skap, it suited his mind well, pleased him, Fas. i. 364; féllsk hvárt öðru vel í geð, they agreed well, liked one another well, Band. 9; fallask á e-t, to like a thing; brátt kvartar að mér fellst ei á, Bb. 3. 23. 2. to beseem, befit; heldr fellr þeim (it befits them), at sýna öðrum með góðvilja, Str. 2. 3. falla at e-u, to apply to, refer to; þetta eitt orð er at fellr eiðstafnum, Band. MS. 15 (Ed. 18 wrongly eiðrinn instead of eiðnum). 4. the phrase ‘falla við’ in Luke vi. 36 (bótin af því hinu nýja fellr eigi við hið gamla) means to agree with; hence also viðfeldinn, agreeable:—but in the two passages to be cited falla við seems to be intended for falda við, to enfold; hvergi nema þar sem falli við akr eða eng, unless field or meadow be increased or improved, N. G. L. ii. 116; ekki má falla (qs. falda) við hamingju-leysi mitt, ‘tis impossible to add a fold to my bad luck, it cannot be worse than it is, Al. 110. II. part. fallinn; svá f., such-like, so framed; eitt lítið dýr er svá fallið, at …, a small animal is so framed, that …, Stj. 77; hví man hinn sami maðr svá fallinn, how can the same man be so framed? Fms. xi. 429:—in law phrases, such-like, as follows, svá fallinn vitnisburð, testimony as follows, Vm. 47; svo fallinn órskurð, dóm, etc., a decision, sentence … as follows, a standing phrase; þá leið fallinn, such, such-like (Germ. beschaffen), Stj. 154. 2. fallinn vel, illa, etc., well, ill-disposed; hann var vænn maðr ok vel fallinn, Fms. xi. 422; þau vóru tröll bæði ok at öllu illa fallin, Bárð. 165; fitted, worthy, bezt til konungs fallinn, Fms. i. 58; ok er hann bezt til þess f. af þessum þremr, vi. 386; at hann væri betr til fallinn at deyja fyrir þá sök en faðir hans, that he more deserved to die than his father did, x. 3; Ólafr er betr til yfirmanns f. enn mínir synir, Ld. 84; margir eru betr til fallnir fararinnar, Ísl. ii. 327; Hallgerðr kvað hann sér vel fallinn til verkstjóra, Nj. 57; sá er til þess er f., Sks. 299; ‘worthy,’ 1 Cor. vi. 2. 3. neut. fit; ok hætti þá er honum þótti fallit, when he thought fit, Fms. vi. 364; slík reip sem f. þykir, as seems needful, Sks. 420; væri þat vel fallit, at …, it would do well, to …, Fms. ii. 115; þat mun nú vel fallit, that will be right, that will do well, Nj. 145; kallaði vel til fallit, said it was quite right, Fms. xi. 321. 4. of a thing, with dat. suited to one; eigi þyki mér þér sú ferð vel fallin, i. e. this journey will not do for thee, will not do thee good, Fms. vi. 200; cp. ó-fallit, unfit.

fallegr, adj. fair. falliga, adv., vide fagrligr.

fallerask, að, dep. [for. word, Lat. fallere], to prove false, Stj. 4, K. Á. 224; to fall, of a woman, H. E. ii. 190.

fall-hætt, n. adj. staggering, in danger of falling, Eb. 240.

fall-jökull, m. or fall-jaki, a, m. an ice-berg, Sks. 176.

fall-sótt, f. a murrain, plague, Grág. i. 458.

fall-staðr, m. a falling place, Fms. viii. 435.

fall-stykki, n. a big gun, (mod.)

fall-valtr, adj. reeling, metaph. in eccl. writers, faltering, changeable, uncertain, of worldly things, opp. to heavenly; f. heimr, f. líf. Post. 656 B. 11, Magn. 504; f. hlutir, opp. to eilífr hlutir, Hom. 42; f. fagnaðr þessa lífs, Fms. i. 225; fallvaltan rikdóm, 1 Tim. vi. 17.

FALR, m. [fal, Ivar Aasen], the socket of a spear’s head in which the handle is put, often richly ornamented (spjóts-falr), Fas. iii. 388, Stj. 461, Eg. 285, 726, Edda 83, Ld. 98, Nj. 108, K. Þ. K. 96, Fms. iv. 278, 338, Fs. 127; vide Worsaae 344 sqq., 498.

FALR, adj. [A. S. fæle; O. H. G. fali; Germ. feil; Swed. and Dan. fal]:—venal, to be sold, Fms. i. 185, Sd. 188, Ld. 146; e-m er e-t falt, or eiga (láta) e-t falt, to have a thing for sale, Grág. ii. 243, N. G. L. i. 237, Fms. vii. 20, Nj. 32; gjaf-falr, Fms. vii. 124; metaph., er mér eru falastir til þungs hlutar, i. e. I should not mind if they fared ill, Lv. 105, Mag. 59, Trist. 8, 11 (Fr.)

FALS, n. [for. word, Lat. falsum], a fraud, cheat, deceit, imposture, Fms. viii. 265; f. ok svik, ix. 283; illusion, in a dream, xi. 371; adulteration, ii. 129, Gþl. 490–493.

fals, adj. = falskr, false, Barl. 134, 144, 149, 152, Fms. ii. 210.

fals-, in compds, false, fraudulent, forged: fals-blandaðr, part. blended with fraud, Stj. 142; fals-bréf, n. a forged deed, Bs. i. 819; fals-guð, n. a false god, Fms. i. 304, Sks. 308; fals-heit, n. pl. false promises, Art.; fals-kona, u, f. a false woman, harlot, Korm. 76; fals-konungr, m. a false king, pretender, Bær. 15, Fms. ix. 433, Gþl. 35; fals-kristr, m. a false Christ, Matth. xxiv. 24; fals-penningr, m. false money, Karl.; fals-postuli, a, m. a false apostle, 1 Cor. xi. 15; fals-silfr, n. bad silver, Fær. 217; fals-spámenn, m. false prophets, Matth. vii. 15, xxiv. 24; fals-trú, f. false doctrine, heresy, Barl.; fals-vitni, n. a false witness, H. E. i. 522, Barl. 142.

falsa, að, to defraud, impose upon, Nj. 106, Fms. ii. 129; to cheat, Hkr. i. 8; f. e-t af e-m, to cheat one of a thing, Fms. viii. 295; to spoil, El. 12; brynjan falsaðisk, the coat of mail proved false. Fas. i. 507. 2. to falsify, forge; f. bréf, K. Á. 222; neut., f. ok hégóma, to use false and vain language. Stj. 131; part. falsaðr, false, Fms. i. 139, Stj. 58. 592.

falsari, a, m. an impostor, deceiver, Fms. viii. 295. ix. 261, 262, El. 31.

falskr, adj. [for. word, Germ. falsch], false; f. bræðr, 1 Cor. xi. 26; it occurs first in the 15th century.

fals-lauss, adj. guileless, Edda 20; f. máli. good money, Fms. vi. 245; f. kaup, a bargain in good faith, Bs. i. 719. falslaus-ligr, adj. (-liga, adv.), sincere, in good faith, Stj. 149.

fals-leikr, m. a falsehood, Post. 98.

fals-ligr, adj. (-liga, adv.), crafty, vile, Flóv. 43; false, Fms. v. 242.

fals-óttr, adj. deceitful, Stj. 144.

fals-samligr, adj. (-liga, adv.), false, crafty, Sks. 404.

fals-vitr, adj. crafty, cunning, Stj. 144 (MS. 227).

faltrask, að, dep. to be cumbered; f. við e-t, to be puzzled about a thing, Fær. 174; cp. fatrask.

fal-vigr, f. a spear with an ornamented socket, Mork. 200.

FAMBI, a, m. a simpleton, Hm. 103.

FANG, n. [for the root vide fá], a catching, fetching: 1. catching fish, fishing, Eb. 26, Ám. 32; halda til fangs, to go a-fishing, Ld. 38: a take of fish, stores of fish, hann bað þá láta laust fangit allt, þat er þeir höfðu fangit, Fms. iv. 331; af öllu því fangi er þeir hljóta af dauðum hvölum, Ám. 36; f. þat er þeir áttu báðir, cp. veiði-fang, her-fang, prey. 2. in plur., α. baggage, luggage, Nj. 112; föng ok fargögn, luggage and carriage, 266; ok er þeir höfðu upp borit föngin, carriage, Orkn. 324: stores, forn korn ok önnur föng, Fms. iv. 254. β. provisions, esp. at a feast; öll vóru föng hin beztu, Fms. iv. 102; kostnaðar-mikit ok þurfti föng mikil, Eg. 39; Þórólfr sópask mjök um föng, 42; veizla var hin prúðlegsta ok öll föng hin beztu, 44; hann leitaði alls-konar fanga til bús síns, 68, Fs. 19, 218; hence, borð með hinum beztum föngum, board with good cheer, Fms. i. 66; búa ferð hennar sæmiliga með hinum beztum föngum, x. 102. γ. metaph. means, opportunity; því at eins at engi sé önnur föng, Fms. iv. 176; meðan svá góð föng eru á sem nú, 209; hafa föng á e-u, or til e-s, to be enabled to do a thing, viii. 143, x. 388, Eb. 114, Gullþ. 30, Eg. 81, Ld. 150, Odd. 18; urðu þá engi föng önnur, there was no help (issue) for it (but that …), Fms. vii. 311; af (eptir) föngum, to the best of one’s power, x. 355; af beztu föngum býr hón rúmið, Bb. 3. 24; at-föng, q. v.; bú-föng (bú-fang), q. v.; öl-föng, vín-föng, store of ale, wine. 3. the phrase, fá konu fangi, to wed a woman, N. G. L. i. 350: fangs-tíð, n. wedding season, 343; hence kván-fang, ver-fang, marriage. II. an embryo, fetus, in sheep or kine; ef graðungr eltir fang ór kú, Jb. 303: the phrase, láta fangi, to ‘go back,’ of a cow. β. a metric. fault, opp. to fall, Fb. iii. 426 (in a verse). III. that with which one clasps or embraces, the breast and arms; kom spjótið í fang honum, the spear pierced his breast, Gullþ. 23, Fms. ii. 111; reka í fang e-m, to throw in one’s face, Nj. 176; hafa e-t í fangi sér, to hold in one’s arms, Bdl. 344; hné hón aptr í f. honum, Ísl. ii. 275; taka sér í fang, to take into one’s arms, Mark x. 16; cp. hals-fang, embraces. 2. an apron, Edda (Gl.) 3. færask e-t í fang, to have in one’s grip, metaph. to undertake a thing, Fms. vii. 136; færask e-t ór fangi, to throw off, refuse, Sturl. iii. 254: the phrase, hafa fullt í fangi, to have one’s hands full. 4. wrestling, grappling with, Ísl. ii. 445, 446, 457; taka fang við e-n, Edda 33; ganga til fangs, Gþl. 163: the saying, fangs er ván at frekum úlfi, there will be a grapple with a greedy wolf, Eb. 250, Ld. 66, Fms. v. 294, Skv. 2. 13. β. the phrases, ganga á fang við e-n, to grapple with one, provoke one, Ld. 206; ganga í fang e-m, id., Band. 31; slíka menn sem hann hefir í fangi, such men as he has to grapple with, Háv. 36; fá fang á e-m, or fá fang af e-m, to get hold of one; fékk engi þeirra fang á mér, Nj. 185, Fms. x. 159; sá þeir, at þeir fengu ekki f. af Erlingi, they saw that they could not catch E., vii. 300, xi. 96. 5. an armful; skíða-fang, viðar-fang, an armful of fuel: Icel. call small hay-cocks fang or föng, hence fanga hey upp, to put the hay into cocks: fanga-hnappr, m. a bundle of hay, armful. IV. in the compds vet-fangr, hjör-fangr, etc. the f is = v, qs. vet-vangr, hjör-vangr, vide vangr. COMPDS: fanga-brekka, u, f. a wrestling ground, Glúm. 354. fanga-fátt, n. adj. falling short of provisions, Fms. viii. 367. fanga-hella, u, f. = fanghella. fanga-kviðr, m. a law term, a body of jurymen taken at random, opp. to búa-kviðr, defined Grág. ii. 99, 140. fanga-lauss, adj. void of means, of provisions, Fms. viii. 419. fanga-leysi, n. want of stores, Róm. 263. fanga-lítill, adj. vile, not worth fetching, Vm. 119. fanga-mark, n. mark of ownership, a monogram. fanga-ráð, n. a device, stratagem, a wrestling term, Nj. 253, Lv. 92, Orkn. 50. fanga-stakkr, m. a wrestling jerkin, Ísl. ii. 443. fanga-váttr, m. a law term, a witness fetched (summoned) at random, Gþl. 547–549.

fanga, að, [Germ. fangen = to fetch, whence Dan. fange], to fetch, capture, Stj. 122, Vígl. 29, Bs. i. 881, ii. 118, Fb. i. 240; áðr en hann var fangaðr, Ísl. (Harð. S.) ii. 105; f. dauða, to catch one’s death, to die, Ór. 39: this word is rare and borrowed from Germ., it scarcely occurs before the end of the 13th century; part. fanginn vide s. v. fá and below.

fangaðr, part. having means (föng) for doing a thing, K. Á. 118, Ann. 1425.

fangari, a, m. a wrestler, Sd. 142, Barl. 148: a gaoler, (mod.)

fang-brögð, n. pl. wrestling, Fs. 131.

fang-elsi, n. [Dan. fængsel; Swed. fängelse], a prison, gaol, Fms. iv. 167, xi. 240, (a rare and unclass. word); cp. dýflissa, myrkva-stofa.

fang-hella, u, f. a stone set on edge in the arena, Ísl. ii. 446.

fangi, a, m. a prisoner, Mar., (rare and unclass.); cp. Dan. fange.

fanginn, part. captured, Stj. 71, Ann. 1299, Bs. i. 698: metaph. enticed, Fas. i. 60; cp. ást-fanginn, captured by love, in love.

fang-lítill, adj. yielding little produce, Bs. i. 335.

fang-remi, f. a deadly struggle, Korm. (in a verse).

fang-staðr, m. something to grasp or lay hold of, in the phrases, fá f. á e-m, to catch hold of one, Vápn. 14, Th. 14; ljá fangstaðar á sér, to let oneself be caught, Fms. iv. 282.

fang-sæll, adj. having a good grasp, Eb. 250: lucky, Vellekla.

fang-taka, u, f. taking hold, in wrestling, Barl. 8.

fang-vinr, m. and fang-vina, u, f. an antagonist in wrestling, Grett. 124 (in a verse), Eg. 103 (in a verse).

FANIR, f. pl. [Swed. fan, Engl. fan; cp. Germ. fahne, Goth. fana], a fan, in tálkn-fanir, the gill-flaps of a whale.

fann-fergja, u, f. heavy snow-drifts.

fann-hvítr, adj. white as driven snow (fönn), Stj. 206.

fann-koma, u, f. a fall of snow.

fann-mikill, adj. snowy, Grett. 112.

FANTR, m. [Ital. fanti = a servant; Germ. fanz; Dan. fjante = an oaf; the Norwegians call the gipsies ‘fante-folk,’ and use fante-kjæring for a hag, fille-fant for the Germ. firle-fanz, a ragamuffin, etc.: the word is traced by Diez to the Lat. infans, whence Ital. and Span, infanteria, Fr. infanterie, mod. Engl. infantry, etc.,—in almost all mod. European languages the milit. term for foot-soldiers. In Norse and Icel. the word came into use at the end of the 12th century; the notion of a footman is perceivable in the verse in Fms. viii. 172 (of A. D. 1182)—fant sé ek hvern á hesti en lendir menn ganga, I behold every fant seated on horseback whilst the noblemen walk:—hence it came to mean] a landlouper, vagabond, freq. in Karl., Str., El., Flóv.; fantar ok glópar, Mar.; hversu vegsamligr var konungrinn af Ísrael í dag, hver eð afklæddist fyrir ambáttum þénara sinna, og lék nakinn sem fantar, and danced naked like a buffoon, Vídal. i. 220, cp. 2 Sam. vi. 20.

fanz, m. a gang, tribe; Odd sá þekti allr fans, Stef. Ól.; þræla-fanz, a gang of thralls. β. lumber, Úlf. 8. 64; akin to fantr.

FAR, n. I. motion, travel; rare in this sense, as the fem. för and ferð, q. v., are used instead. β. of the clouds, in the phrase, far á lopti, drift in the sky. II. a means of passage, a ship; far er skip, Edda 110, Skálda 163: the allit. phrase, hvert fljótanda far, every floating vessel, Fms. xi. 125, Fær. 260; at bjarga fari á floti, Hm. 155. 2. in compds, a trading vessel; Íslands-far, an Iceland-trader, Fms. vi. 370, vii. 32; Englands-far, an English-trader, ix. 41; Dýrlinnar-far, a Dublin ship, Eb. 254; fjögra-, tveggja-, sex-manna-far, a four-, two-, six-oared boat. 3. passage, in the phrases, taka sér (e-m) fari, fá sér fari, ráða sér fari, usually so in dat., but in mod. usage acc. (taka, ráða sér far), to take a passage in a ship, Gþl. 516, Grág. ii. 400, 406 (acc.), Ld. 50, Landn. 307, Eg. 288, Nj. 111, 112, Ísl. ii. 199, Eb. 194; beiðask fars, id., Grág. i. 90, Fms. vi. 239; banna e-m far, to forbid one a passage, stop one (far-bann), Landn. 307; synja e-m fars, to deny one a passage (far-synjan), Hbl. 54; at þeir hafi allir far, Jb. 393. III. a trace, track, print, Hom. 120; Sveinki rak lömb sín til fjöru í förin, at eigi mátti sjá tveggja manna för, Njarð. 376; nú villask hundarnir farsins, the hounds lost the track, Fms. v. 147, cp. O. H. L. 83: metaph., of et sama far, on the same subject, of a book, Íb. (pref.): in many compds, a print, mark of anv kind, fóta-för, footprints; skafla-för, the print of a sharp-shod horse; nálar-far, a stitch; fingra-för, a finger-print; tanna-för, a bite; nagla-för, the marks of nails, John xx. 25; knífs-far, a knife’s mark; eggjar-far, the mark of the edge, in a cut; járna-far, the print of the shackles; kjal-far, the keel’s track, wake of a ship; um-far, a turn, round; saum-far, a rim on a ship’s side. IV. metaph. life, conduct, behaviour; hugar-far, geðs-far, lundar-far, disposition, character; ættar-far, a family mark, peculiarity; dag-far, daily life, conduct of life; í góðra manna fari ok vándra, 677. 3; hvat þess mundi vera í fari konungsins, in the king’s character, Fms. v. 327; ek vissa þá marga hluti í fari Knúts konungs, at hann mætti heilagr vera, xi. 287; nokkut af fyrnsku eptir í fari hans, iii. 131. 2. estate, condition; ok gefa þeir eigi gaum um hennar far, N. G. L. i. 226; sem hann hafði skírt far sitt, made known his state, how he fared, 34; aldar-far, Lat. genius seculi; dægra-far, q. v.: sára-far, the state of the wounds; víga-far, q. v.; heilindis-far, health, Mar. 124; far veðranna, the course of the winds, Eb. 218; þá skrifaða ek þessa (bók) of et sama far, on the same subject, Íb. (pref.) 3. the phrase, at forni fari, of yore, of old, Gþl. 85, 86, Eg. 711; at fornu fari ok nýju, of yore and of late, D. N.; at réttu fari, justly. β. the phrase, göra sér far um e-t, to take pains about a thing.

B. = fár, q. v., bale, ill-fate (rare); far er reiði, far er skip, Edda 110; at hann mundi fara þat far sem hans formaðr, that he would fare as ill as his predecessor, Bs. i. 758: cp. the dubious phrase, muna yðvart far allt í sundi þótt ek hafa öndu látið, your ill-fate will not all be afloat, i. e. cleared off, though I am dead, Skv. 3. 51; vera í illu fari, to fare ill, be in a strait, Orkn. 480; ok vóru í illu fari hér um, Stj. 394. Judges viii. 1, ‘and they did chide with him sharply,’ A. V.; at hann skyldi í engu fari móti þeim vera, that he should not be plotting (brooding mischief) against them, Sturl. iii. 121 C.

FARA, pret. fóra, 2nd pers. fórt, mod. fórst, pl. fóru; pres. ferr, 2nd pers. ferr, in mod. pronunciation ferð; pret. subj. færa; imperat. far and farðu (= far þú); sup. farit; part. farinn; with the suffixed neg. fór-a, Am. 45; farið-a (depart not), Hkr. i. 115 MS. (in a verse). [In the Icel. scarcely any other verb is in so freq. use as fara, as it denotes any motion; not so in other Teut. idioms; in Ulf. faran is only used once, viz. Luke x. 7; Goth. farjan means to sail, and this seems to be the original sense of fara (vide far); A. S. faran; the Germ. fahren and Engl. fare are used in a limited sense; in the Engl. Bible this word never occurs (Cruden); Swed. fara; Dan. fare.]

A. NEUT. to go, fare, travel, in the widest sense; gékk hann hvargi sem hann fór, he walked wherever he went, Hkr. i. 100; né ek flý þó ek ferr, I fly not though I fare, Edda (in a verse); létt er lauss at fara (a proverb), Sl. 37: the saying, verðr hverr með sjálfum sér lengst at fara, Gísl. 25; cp. ‘dass von sich selbst der Mensch nicht scheiden kann’ (Göthe’s Tasso), or the Lat. ‘patriae quis exul se quoque fugit?’ usually in the sense to go, to depart, heill þú farir, heill þú aptr komir, Vþm. 4; but also to come, far þú hingat til mín, come here, Nj. 2. 2. to travel, go forth or through, pass, or the like; þú skalt fara í Kirkjubæ, Nj. 74; fara ór landi, to fare forth from one’s country, Fms. v. 24; kjóll ferr austan, Vsp. 51; Surtr ferr sunnan, 52; snjór var mikill, ok íllt at fara, and ill to pass, Fms. ix. 491; fóru þeir út eptir ánni, Eg. 81; siðan fór Egill fram með skóginum, 531; þeim sem hann vildi at færi … Njáll hét at fara, Nj. 49; fara munu vér, Eg. 579; Egill fór til þess er hann kom til Álfs. 577, Fms. xi. 122; fara þeir nú af melinum á sléttuna. Eg. 747; fara heiman, to fare forth from one’s home, K. Þ. K. 6; alls mik fara tíðir, Vþm. 1; fjölð ek fór, far I fared, i. e. travelled far, 3: the phrase, fara utan, to fare outwards, go abroad (from Iceland), passim; fara vestr um haf, to fare westward over the sea, i. e. to the British Isles, Hkr. i. 101; fara á fund e-s, to visit one, Ld. 62; fara at heimboði, to go to a feast, id.; fara fæti, to fare a-foot, go walking, Hkr.; absol. fara, to travel, beg, hence föru-maðr, a vagrant, beggar; in olden times the poor went their rounds from house to house within a certain district, cp. Grág. i. 85; ómagar er þar eigu at fara í því þingi eðr um þau þing, id.; ómagar skolu fara, 119; omegð þá er þar ferr, 296: in mod. usage, fara um and um-ferð, begging, going round. β. with prep.: fara at e-m, to make an inroad upon one, Nj. 93, 94, 102 (cp. at-för); fara á e-n, to mount, e. g. fara á bak, to mount on horseback; metaph., dauðinn fór á, death seized him, Fms. xi. 150; f. saman, to go together, Edda 121, Grág. ii. 256; f. saman also means to shudder. Germ. zusammenfahren, Hým. 24: metaph. to concur, agree, hversu má þat saman f., Nj. 192; þeim þótti þat mjök saman f., Fms. iv. 382; fara á hæl, or á hæli, to go a-heel, i. e. step back. retreat, xi. 278, Eg. 296; fara undan, metaph. to excuse oneself, refuse (v. undan), Nj. 23, Fms. x. 227; fara fyrir, to proceed; fara eptir, to follow. 3. with ferð, leið or the like added, in acc. or gen. to go one’s way; fara leiðar sinnar, to proceed on one’s journey, Eg. 81, 477, Fms. i. 10, Grág. ii. 119; fara ferðar sinnar, or ferða sinna, id.. Eg. 180, Fms. iv. 125; fara derð sina, id.. Eg. 568; fara förum sínum, or för sinní, id., K. Þ. K. 80, 90; fara dagfari ok náttfari, to travel day and night, Fms. i. 203; fara fullum dagleiðum, to go full days-journeys, Grág. i. 91; or in a more special sense, fara þessa ferð, to make this journey, Fas. ii. 117; f. stefnu-för, to go a-summoning; f. bónorðs-för, to go a-courting, Nj. 148; f. sigr-för, to go on the way of victory, to triumph, Eg. 21; fara sendi-för, to go on a message, 540. β. in a metaph. sense; fara hneykju-för, to be shamefully beaten, Hrafn. 19 (MS.); fara ósigr, to be defeated, Eg. 287; fara mikinn skaða, to ‘fare’ (i. e. suffer) great damage, Karl. 43; fara því verrum förum, fara skömm, hneykju, erendleysu, úsæmð, to get the worst of it, Fms. viii. 125. 4. with the road in acc.; hann fór Vánar-skarð, Landn. 226; f. sjó-veg, land-veg, K. Þ. K. 24; fór mörg lönd ok stórar merkr, Fas. ii. 540; fara sömu leið, Fms. i. 70; f. sama veg, Luke x. 31; f. fjöll ok dala, Barl. 104; fara út-leið, þjóð-leið, Fms. iv. 260; also, fara um veg, fara um fjall, to cross a fell, Hm. 3; fara liði, to march, Fms. i. 110. II. in a more indefinite sense, to go; fara búðum, bygðum, vistum, to move, change one’s abode, Ld. 56, Hkr. ii. 177, Nj. 151, Vigl. 30; fara búferla, to more one’s household, Grág. ii. 409; fara vöflunarförum, to go a-begging, i. 163, 294, ii. 482. 2. the phrases, fara eldi ok arni, a law term, to move one’s hearth and fire. Grág. ii. 253; fara eldi um land, a heathen rite for taking possession of land, defined in Landn. 276. cp. Eb. 8, Landn. 189, 284. 3. fara einn-saman, to be alone. Grág. ii. 9; the phrase, f. eigi einn-saman, to be not alone, i. e. with child, Fms. iii. 109; or, fór hón með svein þann, Bs. i. 437; cp. ganga með barni. 4. adding an adj., to denote gait, pace, or the like; fara snúðigt, to stride haughtily, Nj. 100; fara mikinn, to rush on, 143; fara flatt, to fall flat, tumble, Bárð. 177; fara hægt, to walk slowly. β. fara til svefns, to go to sleep, Nj. 35; f. í sæti sitt, to go to one’s seat, 129; f. í sess, Vþm. 9; f. á bekk, 19; fara á sæng, to go to bed, N. G. L. i. 30; fara í rúmið, id. (mod.); fara í mannjöfnuð, Ísl. ii. 214; fara í lag, to be put straight, Eg. 306; fara í vöxt, to wax, increase, Fms. ix. 430, Al. 141; fara í þurð, to wane, Ld. 122, l. 1 (MS.); fara í úefni, to go to the wrong side, Sturl. iii. 210; fara at skakka, to be odd (not even). Sturl. ii. 258; fara at sölum, to be put out for sale, Grág. ii. 204. 5. fara at fuglum, to go a-fowling, Orkn. (in a verse); fara at fugla-veiðum, id., Bb. 3. 36; fara í hernað, í víking, to go a-freebooting, Fms. i. 33, Landn. 31; fara at fé, to watch sheep, Ld. 240; fara at fé-föngum, to go a-fetching booty, Fms. vii. 78. β. with infin., denoting one’s ‘doing’ or ‘being;’ fara sofa, to go to sleep, Eg. 377; fara vega, to go to fight, Vsp. 54, Gm. 23; fara at róa, Vígl. 22; fara leita, to go seeking, Fms. x. 240; fara að búa, to set up a household, Bb. 2. 6; fara að hátta, to go to bed. γ. akin to this is the mod. use of fara with an infin. following in the sense to begin, as in the East Angl. counties of Engl. it ‘fares’ to …, i. e. it begins, is likely to be or to do so and so; það fer að birta, það er farit að dimma, it ‘fares’ to grow dark; það fer að hvessa, it ‘fares’ to blow; fer að rigna, it ‘fares’ to rain. etc.:—no instance of this usage is recorded in old Icel., but the Engl. usage shews that it must be old. δ. with an adj. etc.; fara villr, to go astray, Sks. 565; fara haltr, to go lame, Fms. x. 420; fara vanstiltr, to go out of one’s mind, 264; fara hjá sér, to be beside oneself, Eb. 270; fara apr, to feel chilly, Fms. vi. 237 (in a verse); fara duldr e-s, to be unaware of, Skálda 187 (in a verse); fara andvígr e-m, to give battle, Stor. 8; fara leyniliga, to go secretly, be kept hidden, Nj. 49. 6. to pass; fór sú skipan til Íslands, Fms. x. 23; fara þessi mál til þings, Nj. 100; hversu orð fóru með þeim, how words passed between them, 90; fóru þau orð um, the runner went abroad, Fms. i. 12; ferr orð er um munn líðr (a saying), iv. 279; þá fór ferligt úorðan, a bad report went abroad, Hom. 115. 7. fara fram, to go on, take place; ferr þetta fram, Ld. 258; ef eigi ferr gjald fram, if no payment takes place, K. Þ. K. 64; ferr svá fram, and so things went on without a break, Nj. 11, Eg. 711; veizlan ferr vel fram, the feast went on well, Nj. 11, 51; spyrr hvat þar færi fram, he asked what there was going on. Band. 17; fór allt á sömu leið sem fyrr, it went on all the same as before, Fms. iv. 112; fara fram ráðum e-s, to follow one’s advice, Nj. 5, 66, Fms. vii. 318; allt mun þat sínu fram f., it will take its own course, Nj. 259; nú er því ferr fram um hríð, it went on so for a while, Fms. xi. 108; a law term, to be produced, gögn fara fram til varnar, Grág. i. 65; dómar fara út, the court is set (vide dómr), Grág., Nj., passim. 8. borð fara upp brott, the tables are removed (vide borð), Eg. 247, 551; eigi má þetta svá f., this cannot go on in that way, Nj. 87; fjarri ferr þat, far from it, by no means, 134; fór þat fjarri at ek vilda, Ld. 12; fór þat ok svá til, and so if came to pass, Fms. x. 212. 9. to turn out, end; hversu ætlar þú fara hesta-atið, Nj. 90; fór þat sem likligt var, it turned out as was likely (i. e. ended ill). Eg. 46; svá fór, at …, the end was, that …, Grett. 81 new Ed.; ef svá ferr sem ek get til, if it turns out as I guess, Dropl. 30, Vígl. 21; ef svá ferr sem mín orð horfa til, Fms. v. 24; ef svá ferr sem mik varir, if it comes to pass as it seems to me, vi. 350; svá fór um sjóferð þá, Bjarni 202; á sömu leið fór um aðra sendi-menn, Eg. 537; to depart, die, þar fór nýtr maðr, Fs. 39; fara danða-yrði, to pass the death-weird, to die, Ýt. 8. 10. to fare well, ill, in addressing; fari þér vel, fare ye well, Nj. 7; biðja e-n vel fara, to bid one farewell, Eg. 22, Ld. 62; far heill ok sæll, Fms. vii. 197: in a bad sense, far þú nú þar, ill betide thee! Hbl. 60; far (impers.) manna armastr, Eg. 553; Jökull bað hann fara bræla armastan, Finnb. 306; fari þér í svá gramendr allir, Dropl. 23. 11. fara í fat, í brynju (acc.), etc., to dress, undress; but fara ór fötum (dat.), to undress, Fms. x. 16, xi. 132, vii. 202, Nj. 143, Gh. 16, etc. III. metaph., 1. to suit, fit, esp. of clothes, hair, or the like; ekki þykkir mér kyrtill þinn fara betr en stakkr minn, Fas. ii. 343; hárið fór vel, Nj. 30; jarpr á hár ok fór vel hárit, Fms. ii. 7; gult hár sem silki ok fór fagrliga, vi. 438, Fs. 88; klæði sem bezt farandi, Eb. 256; var sú konan bezt f., the most graceful, lady-like, Ísl. ii. 438; fór ílla á hestinum, it sat ill on the horse, Bs. i. 712. 2. impers. it goes so and so with one, i. e. one behaves so and so: e-m ferr vel, ílla, etc., one behaves well, ill, etc.; honum hafa öll málin verst farit, he has behaved worst in the whole matter, Nj. 210; bezta ferr þér, Fms. vii. 33; vel mun þér fara, Nj. 55; at honum fari vel, 64; þer hefir vel farit til mín, Finnb. 238; e-m ferr vinveittliga, one behaves in a friendly way, Nj. 217; ferr þér þá bezt jafnan ok höfðinglegast er mest liggr við, 228; mun honum nokkurn veg vel f., Hrafn. 10; údrengiliga hefir þér farit til vár, Ld. 48; ferr þér illa, Nj. 57; hversu Gunnari fór, how (well) G. behaved, 119. 3. fara at e-u, to deal with a thing (i. e. proceed) so and so; svá skal at sókn fara, thus is the pleading to be proceeded with, Grág. i. 323; svá skal at því f. at beiða …, 7; fara at lögum, or úlögum at e-u, to proceed lawfully or unlawfully, 126; hversu at skyldi f., how they were to proceed, Nj. 114; fara mjúklega at, to proceed gently, Fms. vii. 18; hér skulu vér f. at með ráðum, to act with deliberation, Eg. 582; Flosi fór at öngu óðara (took matters calmly), en hann væri heima, Nj. 220. β. impers. with dat., to do, behave; ílla hefir mér at farit, I have done my business badly, Hrafn. 8; veit Guð hversu hverjum manni mun at f., Fms. x. 212: in mod. phrases, to become, ironically, þér ferr það, or þér ferst það, it becomes thee, i. e. ‘tis too bad of thee. γ. hví ferr konungrinn nú svá (viz. at), Fms. i. 35; er slíkt úsæmiliga farit, so shamefully done, Nj. 82; hér ferr vænt at, here things go merrily, 232; karlmannliga er farit, manfully done, 144. δ. to mind, care about; ekki ferr ek at, þótt þú hafir svelt þik til fjár, it does not matter to me, I do not care, though …, Nj. 18; ekki munu vit at því fara (never mind that), segir Helgi, 133. ε. fara eptir, to be in proportion; hér eptir fór vöxtr ok afl, his strength and stature were in proportion, Clar. 4. fara með e-t, to wield, handle, manage; fór Hroptr með Gungni, H. wielded Gungni (the spear), Kormak; f. með Gríðar-völ, to wield the staff G., Þd. 9: as a law term, to wield, possess; fara með goðorð, to keep a goðorð, esp. during the session of parliament, Dropl. 8, Grág. and Nj. passim; fara með sök, to manage a lawsuit, Grág., Nj.; or, fara við sök, id., Nj. 86. β. metaph. to practise, deal in; fara með rán, to deal in robbing, Nj. 73; fara með spott ok háð, to go sporting and mocking, 66; f. með fals ok dár, Pass. 16. 5; fara með galdra ok fjölkyngi, K. Þ. K. 76; f. með hindr-vitni, Grett. 111; cp. the phrase, farðu ekki með það, don’t talk such nonsense. γ. to deal with, treat, handle; þú munt bezt ok hógligast með hann fara, thou wilt deal with him most kindly and most gently, Nj. 219; fara af hljóði með e-t, to keep matters secret, id.; Ingimundr fór vel með sögum (better than sögur, acc.), Ing. dealt well with stories, was a good historian. Sturl. i. 9. δ. with dat.; fara með e-u, to do so and so with a thing, manage it; hversu þeir skyldi fara með vápnum sínum, how they were to do with their weapons, Fms. ix. 509; sá maðr er með arfinum ferr, who manages the arfr, Grág. i. 217; ef þeir fara annan veg með því fé, 216; fara með málum sínum, to manage one’s case, 46; meðan hann ferr svá með sem mælt er, 93; Gunnarr fór með öllu (acted in all) sem honum var ráð til kennt, Nj. 100; ef svá er með farit, Ld. 152; f. vel með sínum háttum, to bear oneself well, behave well, Eg. 65; Hrafn fór með sér vel, H. bore himself well, Fms. vi. 109; undarliga fara munkar þessir með sér, they behave strangely, 188; við förum kynlega með okkrum málum, Nj. 130; vant þyki mér með slíku at fara, difficult matters to have to do with, 75; f. málum á hendr e-m, to bring an action against one, Ld. 138; fara sókn (to proceed) sem at þingadómi, Grág. i. 463; fara svá öllu máli um sem …, 40, ii. 348; fara með hlátri ok gapi, to go laughing and scoffing, Nj. 220; cp. β above. IV. fara um, yfir e-t, to pass over slightly; nú er yfir farit um landnám, shortly told, touched upon, Landn. 320; skjótt yfir at f., to be brief, 656 A. 12; fara myrkt um e-t, to mystify a thing, Ld. 322; fara mörgum orðum um e-t, to dilate upon a subject, Fbr. 124, Nj. 248, Fms. ix. 264. β. in the phrase, fara höndum um e-t, to go with the hands about a thing, to touch it, Germ. befühlen, esp. medic. of a healing touch; jafnan fengu menn heilsubót af handlögum hans, af því er hann fór höndum um þá er sjúkir vóru, Játv. 24; ok pá fór hann höndum um hann, Bs. i. 644; þá lét Arnoddr fara aðra höndina um hann, ok fann at hann var berfættr ok í línklæðum. Dropl. 30; cp. fóru hendr hvítar hennar um þessar görvar, Fas. i. 248 (in a verse): note the curious mod. phrase, það fer að fara um mig, I began to feel uneasy, as from a cold touch or the like. γ. impers. with dat.; eigi ferr þér nær Gunnari, en Merði mundi við þik, thou camest not nearer to G. than Mord would to thee, i. e. thou art just as far from being a match for G. as Mord is to thee, Nj. 37; þá ferr honum sem öðrum, it came to pass with him as with others, 172; þá mun mér first um fara, I shall fall much short of that, Fms. vi. 362; því betr er þeim ferr öllum verr at, the worse they fare the better I am pleased, Nj. 217. V. reflex., esp. of a journey, to fare well; fórsk þeim vel, they fared well, Eg. 392, Fms. xi. 22; honum fersk vel vegrinn, he proceeded well on his journey, ii. 81; hafði allt farizt vel at, all had fared well, they had had a prosperous journey, Íb. 10; fórsk þeim þá seint um daginn, they proceeded slowly, Eg. 544; mönnum fórsk eigi vel um fenit, Fms. vii. 149; hversu þeim hafði farizk, Nj. 90; at þeim færisk vel, Ísl. ii. 343, 208, v. l.: the phrase, hamri fórsk í hægri hönd, he grasped the hammer in his right hand, Bragi; farask lönd undir, to subdue lands, Hkr. i. 134, v. l. (in a verse). 2. recipr., farask hjá, to go beside one another, miss one another, pass without meeting, Nj. 9; farask á mis, id., farask í móti, to march against one another, of two hosts; þat bar svá til at hvárigir vissu til annarra ok fórusk þó í móti, Fms. viii. 63, x. 46, Fas. ii. 515. VI. part., 1. act., koma farandi, to come of a sudden or by chance; þá kómu hjarðsveinar þar at farandi, some shepherds just came, Eg. 380; Moses kom farandi til fólksins, Sks. 574; koma inn farandi, 369, Fbr. 25. 2. pass. farinn, in the phrase, á förnum vegi, on ‘wayfaring,’ i. e. in travelling, passing by; finna e-n á förnum vegi, Nj. 258, K. Þ. K. 6; kveðja fjárins á förnum vegi, Grág. i. 403; also, fara um farinn veg, to pass on one’s journey; of the sun. sól var skamt farin, the sun was little advanced, i. e. early in the morning, Fms. xi. 267, viii. 146; þá var dagr alljós ok sól farin, broad day and sun high in the sky, Eg. 219; also impers., sól (dat.) var skamt farit, Úlf. 4. 10: the phrase, aldri farinn, stricken in years, Sturl. i. 212; vel farinn í andliti, well-favoured, Ld. 274; vel at orði farinn, well spoken, eloquent, Fms. xi. 193; mod., vel orði, máli farinn, and so Ld. 122; gone, þar eru baugar farnir, Grág. ii. 172; þó fætrnir sé farnir, Fas. iii. 308. β. impers. in the phrase, e-m er þannig farit, one is so and so; veðri var þannig farit, at …, the winter was such, that …, Fms. xi. 34; veðri var svá farit at myrkt var um at litask, i. e. the weather was gloomy, Grett. 111; hversu landinu er farit, what is the condition of the country, Sks. 181; henni er þannig farit, at hón er mikil ey, löng …, (the island) is so shapen, that it is large and long, Hkr. ii. 188; er eigi einn veg farit úgæfu okkari, our ill-luck is not of one piece, Nj. 183: metaph. of state, disposition, character, er hánum vel farit, he is a well-favoured man, 15; undarliga er yðr farit, ye are strange men, 154; honum var svá farit, at hann var vesal-menni, Boll. 352: adding the prepp. at, til, þeim var úlíkt farit at í mörgu, they were at variance in many respects, Hkr. iii. 97; nú er annan veg til farit, now matters are altered, Nj. 226; nú er svá til farit, at ek vil …, now the case is, that I wish …, Eg. 714; hér er þannig til farit, … at leiðin, 582; þar var þannig til farit, Fms. xi. 34. ☞ Hence comes the mod. form varið (v instead of f), which also occurs in MSS. of the 15th century—veðri var svá varit, Sd. 181; ér honum vel varið, Lv. 80, Ld. 266, v. l.; svá er til varið, Sks. 223, 224,—all of them paper MSS. The phrase, e-m er nær farit, one is pressed; svá var honum nær farit af öllu samt, vökum ok föstu, he was nearly overcome from want of sleep and fasting.

B. TRANS. I. with acc.: 1. to visit; fara land herskildi, brandi, etc., to visit a land with ‘war-shield,’ fire, etc., i. e. devastate it; gékk siðan á land upp með liði sínu, ok fór allt herskildi, Fms. i. 131; land þetta mundi herskildi farit, ok leggjask undir útlenda höfðingja, iv. 357; (hann) lét Halland farit brandi, vii. 4 (in a verse); hann fór lvist eldi, 41 (in a verse); hann hefir farit öll eylönd brandi, 46 (in a verse); fara hungri hörund, to emaciate the body, of an ascetic, Sl. 71. 2. to overtake, with acc.; hann gat ekki farit hann, he could not overtake (catch) him, 623. 17; tunglit ferr sólina, the moon overtakes the sun, Rb. 116; áðr hana Fenrir fari, before Fenrir overtakes her, Vþm. 46, 47; knegut oss fálur fara, ye witches cannot take us, Hkv. Hjörv. 13; hann gat farit fjóra menn af liði Steinólfs, ok drap þá alla, … hann gat farit þá hjá Steinólfsdal, Gullþ. 29; hann reið eptir þeim, ok gat farit þá út hjá Svelgsá, milli ok Hóla, Eb. 180; Án hrísmagi var þeirra skjótastr ok getr farit sveininn, Ld. 242; viku þeir þá enn undan sem skjótast svá at Danir gátu eigi farit þá, Fms. (Knytl. S.) xi. 377 (MS., in the Ed. wrongly altered to náð þeim); hérinn hljóp undan, ok gátu hundarnir ekki farit hann (Ed. fráit wrongly), Fas. iii. 374; ok renna allir eptir þeim manni er víg vakti, … ok verðr hann farinn, Gþl. 146: cp. the phrase, vera farinn, to dwell, live, to be found here and there; þótt hann sé firr um farinn, Hm. 33. II. with dat. to destroy, make to perish; f. sér, to make away with oneself; kona hans fór sér í dísar-sal, she killed herself, Fas. i. 527; hón varð stygg ok vildi fara sér, Landn. (Hb.) 55; ef þér gangit fyrir hamra ofan ok farit yðr sjálfir, Fms. viii. 53; hví ætla menn at hann mundi vilja f. sér sjálfr, iii. 59; fara lífi, fjörvi, öndu, id.; skal hann heldr eta, en fara öndu sinni, than starve oneself to death, K. Þ. K. 130; ok verðr þá þínu fjörvi um farit, Lv. 57, Ýt. 20, Fas. i. 426 (in a verse), cp. Hkv. Hjörv. 13; mínu fjörvi at fara, Fm. 5; þú hefir sigr vegit, ok Fáfni (dat.) um farit, 23; farit hafði hann allri ætt Geirmímis, Hkv. 1. 14; ok létu hans fjörvi farit, Sól. 22; hann hafði farit mörgum manni, O. H. L. 11. β. to forfeit; fara sýknu sinni, Grág. i. 98; fara löndum ok lausafé, ii. 167. 2. reflex. to perish (but esp. freq. in the sense to be drowned, perish in the sea); farask af sulti, to die of hunger, Fms. ii. 226; fellr fjöldi manns í díkit ok farask þar, v. 281; fórusk sex hundruð Vinda skipa, xi. 369; alls fórusk níu menn, Ísl. ii. 385; mun heimr farask, Eluc. 43; þá er himin ok jörð hefir farisk, Edda 12; farask af hita, mæði, Fms. ix. 47; fórsk þar byrðingrinn, 307; hvar þess er menn farask, Grág. i. 219; heldr enn at fólk Guðs farisk af mínum völdum, Sks. 732: of cattle, ef fé hins hefir troðisk eðr farisk á þá lund sem nú var tínt, Grág. ii. 286. β. metaph., fersk nú vinátta ykkur, your friendship is done with, Band. 12. γ. the phrase, farask fyrir, to come to naught, Nj. 131; at síðr mun fyrir farask nokkut stórræði, Ísl. ii. 340; en fyrir fórusk málagjöldin af konungi, the payment never took place, Fms. v. 278; lét ek þetta verk fyrir farask, vii. 158; þá mun þat fyrir farask, Fs. 20; en fyrir fórsk þat þó þau misseri, Sd. 150: in mod. usage (N. T.), to perish. δ. in act. rarely, and perhaps only a misspelling: frá því er féit fór (fórsk better), K. Þ. K. 132; fóru (better fórusk, were drowned) margir Íslenzkir menn, Bs. i. 436. 3. part. farinn, as adj. gone, undone; nú eru vér farnir, nema …, Lv. 83; hans tafl var mjök svá farit, his game was almost lost, Fas. i. 523; þá er farnir vóru forstöðumenn Tróju, when the defenders of Troy were dead and gone, Ver. 36; tungl farit, a ‘dead moon,’ i. e. new moon, Rb. 34; farinn af sulti ok mæði, Fms. viii. 53; farinn at e-u, ruined in a thing, having lost it; farnir at hamingju, luckless, iv. 73; f. at vistum, xi. 33; f. at lausa-fé;. iii. 117: in some cases uncertain whether the participle does not belong to A.

far-ald, n. [A. S. fareld], a journey, only in the phrase, hverju faraldi, how, by what means, expressing wonder at one’s appearance, escape, or the like; mátti þat engi maðr vita hverju f. þangat mundi farit hafa, Bs. i. 338, Rd. 235, Sturl. iii. 219, Fs. 147 (where wrongly fem.), Mar. 98.

far-aldr, m. (neut. Fb. l. c.), medic. pestilence, cp. Bs. i. 662 (the verse), Fb. i. 583 (the verse): in mod. usage plague, among animals.

farand-kona, u, f. a beggar-woman, Nj. 66; vide fara A. I. 2.

far-angr, m., gen. rs, luggage, Ísl. ii. 362, Fbr. 140.

farar-, vide för, a journey.

far-bann, n. a stopping of trade, an embargo, Eg. 403, Fms. vii. 285, ii. 127, Ann. 1243, Bs. i. 510.

far-bauti, a, m. a ‘ship-beater,’ destroyer, an ogre, Fms. xi. 146: mythol. a giant, the father of Loki, Edda.

far-beini, a, m. furthering one’s journey, Eg. 482, v. l.; better forbeini.

far-borði, a, m. a ship’s board or bulwark above water when loaded, cp. Grág. ii. 399; hence the metaph. phrase, sjá (or leita) sér farborða, to take precautions, so as to get safe and sound out of a danger, Fms. vi. 430, vii. 142, v. l.

far-búinn, part. ‘boun’ to sail (or depart), Hkr. iii. 193.

far-búnaðr, m. equipment of a ship, 673. 61.

far-dagar, m. pl. flitting days, four successive days in spring, at the end of May (old style), in which householders in Icel. changed their abode; this use is very old, cp. Glúm. ch. 26, Grág. Þ. Þ. ch. 56, Edda 103, Bs. i. 450, the Sagas and laws passim; hence fardaga-helgi, f. the Sunday in fardagar, Grág. ii. 12; fardaga-leiti and fardaga-skeið, n. the time of fardagar, Ísl. ii. 26.

FARÐI, a, m. [Fr. fard; Old Engl. fard. farding; Norse fare, Ivar Aasen], scum (in milk, curds), and farða, að, to have scum formed on it.

far-drengr, m. a sea-faring man, Edda 107, Fms. ii. 23, Þorf. Karl. 402.

FARFI, a, m. [Germ. farbe], colour, (modern and scarcely used.)

far-flótti, adj. fugitive, exiled, Hkr. i. 252: with gen., Fas. iii. 103.

far-fúss, adj. eager for departing, Bs. ii. 35, 130.

far-fýsi, f. eagerness to depart or travel, Fms. iii. 45, Fs. 46.

FARG, n. [cp. Ulf. fairgunia mountain], a press, press-weight; vera undir fargi, to be under a press, Bjarni 132.

farga, að, I. with acc. to press, Hom. 152, Bs. ii. 118. II. with dat. to destroy, make away with, Bb. 1. 7.

farga, u, f. [for. word, cp. farga. Du Cange], a sort of stuff, Pm. 6.

far-gögn, n. pl. luggage, Nj. 266: sing., Stj. 367.

far-görvi, n. travelling gear, Eg. 727, Edda 110.

far-hirðir, m. a ferryman, Gþl. 415, Hbl. 52 (fé-hírðir MS.)

fari, m. a sea-farer, in compds, Dyflinnar-fari, a Dublin trader; Englands-fari, an English seaman, Baut. 387, Rafn 217, Fms. vi. 240; Hlymreks-fari, a Limerick seaman, Landn.; Hallands-fari; Hólmgards-fari, one who trades to Holmgard; Jórsala-fari (a traveller to Jerusalem). Fms., Ann.

far-kona, u, f. a beggar-woman, Sturl. ii. 108. farkonu-sótt, f., medic. erysipelas (?), Ann. 1240.

far-kostr, m. [Swed.-Norse farkost; Scot. farcost], a ferry-boat, a ship, Fms. vi. 219, Edda 48, Grág. ii. 130, Fb. i. 546, Ver. 8, Thom. 29.

far-lami, adj. lame and unable to go, Bs. i. 303.

far-land, n., poët. the land of ships, the sea, Lex. Poët., cp. Og. 31.

far-leiga, u, f. passage-money, Gþl. 415.

far-lengd, f. travels, journey, Bs. i. 450, 758. Fms. v. 273. Thom. 173.

far-leysi, n. miscarriage, opp. to farsæld, Art. 4.

far-ligr, adj. comfortable: farlig sæng, a soft bed, Vellekla.

far-ljós, f. adj. light enough for travelling, of the night, Eg. 88, Fbr. 97 new Ed.

far-lög, n. pl. nautical law, Grág. ii. 399.

far-maðr, m. a seaman, sea-faring man, Landn. 180, Bs. i. 66, Nj. 61, Eg. 154, Fms. i. 11, iv. 124, 174. Þorst. hv. 44, Grág. i. 190. COMPDS: farmanna-búðir, f. pl. merchant booths. K. Þ. K. 34. farmanna-lög, n. pl. = farlög, Jb. 7.

far-móðr, adj. weary from travelling, Fms. ix. 233, v. 288.

FARMR, m. a fare, freight, cargo, Jb. 411, Eg. 129, Band. 5, Fms. iv. 259, Grág. ii. 395: metaph. a load in general, vide Lex. Poët.: in the Edda, Odin is Farma-guð and Farma-týr, m. the god and helper of loads,—he also was invoked bv sailors; skips-f., a ship’s freight: viðar-f., timbr-f., korn-f., hey-f., etc., a load of wood, timber, corn, hay, etc.

farnaðr and förnuðr, m., gen. ar, furtherance, speed; tíl farnaðar mér ok til ferðar, Grág. ii. 21, Skv. 1. 8, Fms. viii. 31; ú-farnaðr, bad speed; þar til hon kynni sér f., till she knew how to speed in the world, Ld. 116.

far-nagli, a, m. the water-peg in a ship’s bottom, in mod. usage negla, Edda (Gl.); cp. var-nagli.

farnask, að, dep. to speed well, Fms. iv. 56.

far-nest, n. viands. Eb. 196, Skálda 173.

farning, f. a ferrying over, passage; veita e-m f., Pd. 16, K. Þ. K. 24, Glúm. 371, Fbr. 158, Sturl. i. 18. Ísl. ii. 386, Grág. i. 98.

far-rek, n. shipwreck, in a metaph. sense; þat hafði Þórði orðit til farreks, at hestar hans báðir vóru í brottu, i. e. Th. was wrecked, in that he had lost both his ponies, Ísl. ii. 318; skulu vér frændr þínir veita þér styrk til þess at þú komir aldri síðan í slíkt f., in such a strait, Fms. iv. 270.

FARRI, a, m. [A. S. fearr; Germ. farre = a bullock], a bullock, Ýt. 14, Edda (Gl.) β. [farri, Ivar Aasen], a landlouper, vagrant, Clar. (Fr.) COMPD: farra-fleinn, m. prop. a landlouper; Alm. 5 spells fjarra-fleinn, N. G. L. ii. 154, v. l. fira-fleinn, both wrongly as it seems, cp. farra-trjóna, f. ‘bullock-snout,’ Ýt. l. c., cp. also Germ. farren-schwanz and farren-kope (Grimm); the verse in Alm. 5 is probably addressed to the dwarf, not (as in the Edd.) the dwarf’s own words.

far-serkr, m. travelling sark or jacket, a nickname, Landn.

far-skip, n. a ferry-boat, Gþl. 416.

far-snilli, f. nautical art, Fb. iii. 385.

far-sumar, n. the season for sea-faring, Ann.

far-synjan, f. refusing to ferry one, Hbl. 59.

far-sæla, u, f., prop. good speed (in travelling); but only used metaph. good speed, prosperity, happiness, freq. in that use, esp. in eccl. sense, 623. 52. Stj. 327; f. þessa heims, Hom. 29, 76. Fms. i. 104, vi. 155, x. 276, 409.

far-sælask, d, dep. to speed, have luck, Fs. 34.

far-sæld, f. = farsæla; friðr ok f., peace and happiness, Fms. xi. 438, Barl. 62: in pl., 655 xxxii. 9; ó-farsæld, misfortune.

far-sæll, adj. speeding well in voyages; svá f. at hann kaus sér jafnan höfn, Korm. 140; þat er mælt at þú sért maðr farsælli en aðrir menn flestir, Fb. iii. 385: farsælli en aðrir menn, Band. 5, Barl. 195: of a ship, farsælla en hvert annarra, Fs. 27 (obsolete). 2. metaph. prosperous, very freq., esp. in eccl. sense: ó-farsæll, unhappy.

far-sælligr, adj. (-liga, adv.), prosperous. Fms. ii. 36, v. 37.

far-tálmi, a, m. hinderance in one’s journey, Gþl. 417, Al. 61.

far-tekja, u, f. taking a passage in a ship, Jb. 377, N. G. L. i. 58.

far-tíðr, m. a ferry-boat, Germ. fahrzeug (poët.), Edda (Gl.)

far-vegr, m. a track, Fms. v. 225, ix. 366, xi. 316; manna f., a track of men, Gþl. 538, Stj. 71: metaph., Sks. 565 B. 2. a ‘fair way,’ a channel, bed of a river, Landn. 65, Grág. ii. 281, Stj. 230, Fms. iv. 360 (freq.) 3. a road, journey; langr f., Fms. xi. 16, v. 225.

far-viðr, m. [farvid, Ivar Aasen], faggots, Björn.

far-vísi (?), a happy voyage; uggir mik at ferð þín sé farleysi en eigi farvísi, Art. 4.

far-þegi, a, m. [þiggja], a passenger, Finnb. 278, Ann. 1425, Ld. 86, 112, Bs. ii. 47, Fas. ii. 171.

FAS, n. gait, bearing; Icel. say, vera hægr, stilltr í fasi, or fas-góðr, fas-prúðr, adj. of gentle gait and bearing; fas-mikill, adj. rushing: this word, though in freq. use at the present time, seems never to occur in old writers, unless it be in arga-fas, q. v.: the etymology is uncertain, perhaps from Engl. fashion, face; it seems at all events to be of foreign origin; at the time of Pal Vídalín it was in full use, cp. Skýr. 90.

fasi, a, m. a nickname, Fms. x. 27.

FASTA, u, f. [Ulf. fastubni; O. H. G. fastá; Germ. faste; Swed. fasta; Dan. faste; a word introduced along with Christianity; the old Scandinavians could have no such word, as voluntary fasting was unknown in the heathen rites, and at the first introduction of Christianity the practice was sorely complained of, cp. Hkr. Hák. S. Góða, ch. 17]:—a fast, fasting, Hom. 73, K. Þ. K. 122, Rb. 82; the word therefore occurs first in poets of the beginning of the 11th century, e. g. Fms. vi. 86, cp. boð-f., lög-f., etc. COMPDS: föstu-afbrigð, f. breaking the fast, K. Á. 192. föstu-bindandi, f. abstinence in fasting, Stj. 147. föstu-dagr, m. a fast-day, K. Á. 186, 187, Nj. 165; the Icel. name of Friday, Rb. 112, Grág. i. 146; Föstudagr Langi, Good Friday, Nj. 158. Föstudags-nótt, f. Friday night, K. Þ. K. 122. Föstu-kveld, n. Friday evening, Fms. vii. 159, Nj. 187. föstu-matr, m. fast-day food, Sturl. i. 139, Fms. iv. 283, v. l. Föstu-morgin, m. Friday morning, Orkn. 370. Föstu-nátt, f. Friday night, Nj. 186: fast-nights, K. Þ. K. 122. föstu-tíð, f. fast-time, Fms. v. 199, K. Þ. K. 134, Am. 37. föstu-tími, a, m. fast-time, Stj. 148. II. Lent, Fms. viii. 28, Ld. 320, N. G. L. i. 12; distinction is made between the Easter Lent, (sjö-vikna Fasta, seven weeks Lent, also called langa F., the long Fast, K. Þ. K. 122, Bs. i. 801, and passim; níu-vikna F., the nine weeks Lent, K. Þ. K. 122, Grág. i. 325), and Jóla-f., (the Yule Lent, the time from Advent to Yule, Grág. l. c., Rb. 46, K. Þ. K. 124.) Föstu-gangr or Föstu-ígangr and -inngangr, m. beginning of these seasons, esp. Lent; fimm eru föstu-ígangar, Clem. 58, Sturl. iii. 81, Rb. 4 (v. l.), 48, 76. Föstu-prédikan, f. a Lenten sermon. Föstu-tjald, n. hangings used in churches during Lent, Vm. 52, 109.

fasta, að, to fast: 1. eccl., Hom. 71, 73, Ld. 200, K. Á. 160, Bs. passim, Fms. ii. 250, N. G. L. i. 141, 144. 2. secular; af fastanda manns munni, Sks. 450, Lækn. 471.

fasta, adv. = fastlega, Lex. Poët.

fasta-eign, mod. fast-eign, f. landed property, Stj. 224, H. E. ii. 85, 223.

fasta-far, n., í fastafari, eagerly, Th. 76, Stj. 287, 291.

fasta-land, n. the mainland (Germ. festes land), opp. to ey-land.

fast-aldi, a, m. a cognom., Landn., prop. of a bear.

fastendi (fastyndi), n. pl. surety, N. G. L. i. 449, H. E. i. 247.

fast-eygr, adj. firm-eyed, Sturl. ii. 133, Bs. i. 127.

fast-garðr, m. a fastness, stronghold, Fas. i. 266.

fast-haldr, adj. fast-holding, tenacious, saving, Fms. x. 409. β. as subst. a key, Edda (Gl.): a shackle, Fastaldr var á Fenri lagðr, Mkv.

fast-heitinn, adj. true to one’s word, Sturl. iii. 122.

fast-heldi, f. tenacity, perseverance, Stj. 155, Fb. ii. 14.

fast-hendr, adj. close-fisted, Sks. 440.

FASTI, a, m., poët. fire, Lex. Poët., root uncertain: the phrase, færa e-n í fasta, to bring one into a strait, ‘between two fires,’ Þd.

fast-liga, adv. firmly, strongly, Sks. 374. β. metaph., Hom. 114, Fms. v. 217, Fas. i. 4; trúa f., to believe firmly, Fms. v. 242; bjóða f., Stj. 54: e-t horfir f., it looks hard, unyielding, difficult, Lv. 94; vera f. kominn, to be fast shut up, Eg. 519, Ld. 52.

fast-ligr, adj. fast, firm, strong, Stj. 26, Sturl. iii. 140, Bs. i. 517.

fast-lyndr, adj. strong-minded, Finnb. 210.

fast-máll, adj. trusty.

fast-mæli, n. a fast engagement, Fms. i. 206, iii. 85, vii. 164, Bjarn. 58.

fast-mæltr, adj. hard-speaking.

fastna, að, to pledge; f. lögbót, K. Þ. K. 24. β. esp. to betroth, to give the bride away at the betrothal, Grág. i. 302 sqq.; fastnaði Mörðr Rúti dóttur sína, Nj. 3, 51, Band. 3, Ísl. ii. 8, 163, 206, Ld. 22. γ. reflex. to be betrothed, given awav. Fms. x. 284.

fastnaðr, m. betrothal, H. E. i. 246, 247; vide festar.

fastnandi, part. a betrother, one who gives a bride away, Grág. i. 305.

fast-næmr, adj. fast, firm, trusty, Dropl. 6, Valla L. 208, Fs. 13.

fast-ofinn, part. stout, of stuff, Lex. Poët.

fast-orðr, adj. true to one’s word, Fms. vi. 52, vii. 120.

FASTR, adj. [wanting in Ulf., who renders βέβαιος etc. by tulgus; but common to all other Teut. idioms; A. S. fæst; Engl. fast; O. H. G. fasti; Germ. fest; Swed.-Dan. fast]:—fast, firm, esp. with the notion of sticking fast to the spot; hrútr f. (held fast, entangled) á meðal viða, 655 vii. 2; fastr á velli, standing fast, e. g. in a battle, Fms. xi. 246; vera, standa f. fyrir, to stand fast, Þorst. St. 53; f. á fótum, of a bondsman whose feet are bound fast to the soil, Grág. ii. 192, Nj. 27: grið-fastr, home-bound, of a servant: the phrase, e-t er fast fyrir, a thing is hard to win, difficult, Lv. 94, Fms. xi. 32, Ld. 154. β. fast, close; f. í verkum, hard at work, Grág. i. 135 (Ed. 1853); þeir menn allir er í dómi sitja eðr í gögnum eru fastir, engaged, 488; fastr ok fégjarn, close and covetous, Fms. x. 420; f. af drykk, Sturl. iii. 125. γ. of a meeting; þá er sóknar-þing er fast, i. e. during the session, Grág. i. 422: sam-fastr, fast together, continuous, 156; á-fastr, q. v. δ. firm; metaph., fast heit, loforð, etc., a fast, faithful promise, word, Eg. 29; föst trú, fast faith, cp. stað-f., steadfast; geð-f., trú-f., vin-f., etc. ε. bound to pay; at aurum eigi meirum en hann var fastr, to the amount of his debt, N. G. L. i. 36. ζ. gramm., fast atkvæði, a hard syllable ending in a double consonant, Skálda 171. 2. neut. in various phrases; sitja fast, to sit fast, Sks. 372; standa fast, to stand fast, Edda 33; halda f., to hold fast, Fms. i. 159; binda fast, to bind fast, Ísl. ii. 103, Fas. i. 530; liggja fast, to be fast set, steadfast, of the eyes, Sturl. ii. 189; drekka fast, to drink hard, Fms. ii. 259; sofa fast, to be fast asleep, i. 9; þegja fast, to be dumb, not say a word, 655 xxxi A. 4; leita fast eptir, to urge, press hard, Ld. 322; fylgja fast, to follow fast, Dropl. 26, Fas. ii. 505; eldask fast, to age fast, Eb. 150; ryðjask um fast, to make a hard onslaught, Nj. 9; leggja fast at, to close with one in a sea-fight, Fms. ii. 312, hence fastr bardagi, a close engagement, Róm. 272; telja fast á e-n, to give one a severe lesson, Fms. ii. 119. β. as adv., hyrndr fast, very much horned, Lv. 69. γ. the phrase, til fasta, fast, firmly; ráða, mæla, heita til f., to make a firm agreement, Bjarn. 61, Band. 20, Fms. ii. 125; cp. the mod. phrase, fyrir fullt ok fast, definitively.

FASTR, n. the prey of a bear which he drags into his lair; cp. Ivar Aasen s. v. fastra, of a bear, to drag a carcase into his lair (Norse); hence the phrase, liggja á fasti, of a wild beast devouring its prey, Landn. 235 (of a white bear). Icel. now say, liggja á pasti, and in metaph. sense pastr, vigour, energy; pastrs-lauss, weak, feeble, etc.

fast-ráðinn, part. determined, Eg. 9. 19, Fms. ix. 252.

fast-ríki, n. a strong, fast rule, Ver. 54.

fast-tekið, part. n. resolved, Fms. ii. 265.

fast-tækr, adj. headstrong, stubborn, Fms. ii. 220, Glúm. 323.

fast-úðigr, adj. staunch, firm, Fms. vii. 102, viii. 447, v. l.

fastúð-ligr, adj. = fastúðigr, Hkr. iii. 252.

fast-vingr, adj. a fast friend, Þiðr. 20, = vinfastr.

FAT, n., pl. föt, [as to the root, cp. Germ. fassen = to compass, which word is unknown to Icel.; A. S. fæt; Old Engl. fat, mod. vat; O. H. G. faz; Germ. fass; Dan. fad; Swed. fat]:—a vat; kona vildi bera vatn, en hafði ekki fatið, Bs. ii. 24: eitt fat (basket) með vínberjum, G. H. M. iii. 98; vín ok hunang í fötum fullum, N. G. L. iii. 122. β. luggage, baggage; bera föt sín á skip, Jb. 406; bera föt á land, Eg. 393; elti Hákon á land ok tók hvert fat þeirra, Fms. vii. 215; hafa hvert fat á skipi, vi. 37, Grág. ii. 59; fyrr en hann fari á brot ór vist með föt sín frá bóanda, i. 300. 2. in pl. clothes, dress; hann hafði föt sín í fangi sér, en sjálfr var hann naktr, Lv. 60, Bs. ii. 47, Hrafn. 23: metaph., falla ór fötum, to be stripped, forgotten, 655 xxxi. 1. COMPDS: fata-búningr, m. apparel, 656 C. 24. fata-búr, n. [Swed. fata-bur; Dan. fade-bur], wardrobe, Stj. 205, Grett. 160, 44 new Ed., Bs. i. 840. fata-görvi, n. luggage, gear, Eg. 727. fata-hestr, m. a pack-horse, Flór. 77. fata-hirzla, u, f. wardrobe, Grág. fata-hrúga, u, f. a heap of clothes, Landn. 179, Grett. 176 new Ed. fata-kista, u, f. a clothes-chest, Rd. 314, Sturl. i. 10. fats-töturr, m. tatters, Bs. i. 506.

fata, u, f. a pail, bucket, Fb. i. 258, Bs. ii. 24, N. G. L. i. 30, Stj. 394; vatns-fata, a pail of water, freq. in western Icel.; in the east of Icel. usually skjóla, q. v. fötu-barmr, m. the rim of a pail, etc.

fata, að, to clothe (mod.): to step = feta, Bs. i. 291.

fat-kanna, u, f. a vat, Dipl. v. 18.

fatlaðr, part. impeded; fjötri fatlaðr, fettered, Bkv. 16: in mod. usage, impeded as to the limbs, e. g. lame.

fat-lauss, adj. without luggage, Fas. iii. 537. β. without clothes, Karl. 534.

fatl-byrðr, f. [fetill], a burden fastened with straps, N. G. L. i. 380.

fatli, a, m., bera hönd í fatla, to have one’s arm tied up, vide fetill.

fatnaðr, m. clothing, Fms. x. 379, 655 x. 2.

fat-prúðr, adj. dressy, Hom. 97, 656 C. 24.

fat-prýði, f. dressiness, Greg. 24.

fatr, n. impediment, delay, Mork. 109; cp. fjöturr.

fatrask, að, dep. to be entangled and puzzled, Mork. 106.

FATTR, adj. bowed backward; standa fattr, opp. to lútr. β. slender, of the fingers; fatta hafði hann fingr og smá, Snót 202; fingr fattir ok at öllu vel vaxnir, Þiðr. 6, v. l., freq. in mod. usage; cp. fetta.

fatt-skolptaðr, part. with upturned snout, of the hippopotamus, Stj. 78.

FAUSKR, m. (fouski, a, m., Hom. 152), a rotten dry log, esp. dug out of the earth; fausk ok fúka, Barl. 206; f. ok stofna, Grág. ii. 297, Jb. 239, Bs. ii. 183, Barl. 134; fauska-gröptr, m. digging dry logs out of the earth for fuel, Landn. 303. II. metaph. of an old man, ertú náliga f. einn, Róm. 195; sem fúinn f., Karl. 361. Hom. l. c.; karl-fauskr, an old man.

FAUTI, a, m. a headstrong man, hence fauta-legr, adj. frantic, headstrong; fauta-skapr, m. frenzy.

FAX, n. [A. S. feax], a mane, Edda 7, Sks. 100, El. 29: poët., vallar-fax, the field’s mane, the wood, Alm. 29.

faxaðr, part. = fextr, matted, Al. 168.

faxi, a, m., freq. name of a horse, cp. Sturl. iii. 155; Skin-faxi, Hrím-faxi, Edda; Frey-faxi, Hrafn.; Gló-faxi, etc.

FÁ, pret. sing. fékk, sometimes spelt feck or fieck, pl. fengu; pres. fæ, 2nd pers. fær, mod. færð, pl. fám, mod. fáum; pret. subj. fengja, mod. fengi; pres. fá, mod. fái; imperat. fá; sup. fengit; part. fenginn: the forms fingit, finginn, and pret. fingu (cp. Germ. fingen) are obsolete, but occur in some MSS. (e. g. Arna-Magn. 132 and 122 A): the poets rhyme—Erlingr var þar finginn; with the neg. suff., fær-at, fékk-at, Lex. Poët.: [Goth. fahan and gafahan = πιάζειν, καταλαμβάνειν; A. S. fón; Hel. fâhan; Germ. fahen, whence fahig = capax; in the Germ., however, the nasal form fangen prevailed, but in the Scandin., Swed., and Dan. or faae; the Dan. fange is mod. and borrowed from Germ.; Icel. fanga is rare and unclass. and only used in the sense to capture, whereas fá is a standing word; the ng reappears in pl. pret. and part. pass. fengu, fengit, vide above; cp. Old Engl. fet, mod. fetch]:—to fetch, get, etc. 1. to fetch, catch, seize; fengu þeir Gunnar, they fetched, caught G., Akv. 18; Hildibrandr gat fengit kirkju-stoðina, Sturl. i. 169; hón hefir fengit einn stein, she has fetched a stone, Ísl. ii. 394; fá á e-u, to get hold of, grasp with the hand, faðir Móða fékk á þremi, Hým. 34. β. also, fá í e-t, to grasp; fengu í snæri, they grasped the bow-strings, bent the bow, Am. 42; hann fékk í öxl konungi, he seized the king’s shoulder, Fms. viii. 75. γ. to take, capture, but rare except in part.; hafði greifi Heinrekr fengit Valdimar, Fms. ix. 324; verða fanginn, to be taken, Germ. gefangen werden, i. 258, Stj. 396. 2. to get, gain, win, with acc. of the thing; sá fær er frjár, he who wooes will win (a proverb), Hm. 91; hann skal fá af Svart-álfum, he shall get, obtain from S., Edda 69; fá brauð, mat, drykk, Fms. x. 18; þat fékk hann eigi af föður sínum, xi. 14; bað konunnar ok fékk heitið hennar, he wooed the woman and got her hand, Edda 23; fá sitt eyrindi, to get one’s errand done, Fms. i. 75; fa fljóðs ást, to win a woman’s love, Hm. 91; fá hærra hlut, to get the better, 40; ek ætla at fá at vera yðvarr farþegi, Ld. 112; hence fá, or fá leyfi, to get leave to do a thing: eg fæ það, fékk það ekki, fá að fara, etc.: Icel. also say, eg fæ það ekki af mér, I cannot bring myself to do it. β. to suffer, endure; fá úsigr, to get the worst of it, Fms. iv. 218; sumir fengu þetta (were befallen) hvern sjaunda vetr, Sks. 113; fá skaða, to suffer a loss, Hkr. ii. 177; fá úvit, to fall senseless, Nj. 195; fá líflát, to fall lifeless, Grág. i. 190; fá bana, to come by one’s death, Nj. 110. γ. fá góðar viðtökur, to get a good reception, Eg. 460, 478, Fms. iv. 219; sá mun sæll er þann átrúnað fær, blessed is he that gets hold of that faith, Nj. 156; hann hafði fingit úgrynni fjár, Fms. xi. 40; fá skilning á e-u, to get the knowledge of a thing, i. 97. 3. to get, procure; þá fékk konungr sveitar-höfðingja þá er honum sýndisk, Eg. 272; ek skal fá mann til at biðja hennar, Fs. 88; þeir fengu menn til at ryðja skip, they got men to clear the ship, Nj. 163; mun ek fá til annann mann at göra þetta, I will get another man to do it, 53; fá sér bjargkvið, Grág. i. 252; hann fékk sér gott kván-fang, Fms. i. 11; fám oss ölteiti nökkura, let us get some sport, vii. 119; fá sér (e-m) fari, to take a passage, vide far; fengu þeir ekki af mönnum, they could fetch no men, ix. 473; þeir hugðusk hafa fengit (reached) megin-land, vii. 113. 4. fá at veizlu, blóti, to get provisions for a feast, etc.; hann fékk at blóti miklu, Landn. 28; lét Þorri fá at blóti, Orkn. 3; Þórólfr Mostrar-skegg fékk at blóti miklu, Eb. 8; er fengit at mikilli veizlu, Fas. i. 242; var síðan at samkundu fingit, a meeting was brought about, 623. 52; sá dagr er at Jólum skal fá, the day when preparations are to be made for Yule, K. Þ. K. 110, hence atfanga-dagr, the day before a feast, q. v.; þá var fengit at seið, Hkr. Yngl. S. ch. 17. II. to give, deliver to one, put into one’s hands; hér er eitt sverð, er ek vil fá þér, Ísl. ii. 44; fá mér (fetch me, give me) leppa tvá ór hári þínu, Nj. 116; þá er keisarinn hafði fingit honum til föru-neytis, Fms. xi. 40; konungr fær honum veizlur, Eg. 27; horn þat er Bárðr hafði fingit Ölvi, 207; fáit nú konungi festu (give the king bail) þá er honum líki, Fms. iv. 268; fá e-m sök, to charge one, Sks. 708; var sá sveinn fenginn í hendr okkr, delivered into our hands, Fms. i. 113; fékk hann búit í hendr Valgerði, iii. 24, Nj. 4; honum fékk hverr maðr penning til, Íb. 5; hon fékk biskupinum tuttugu mánaða mataból, B. K. 125; fá e-m e-t at geyma, to give a thing into one’s charge, Stj. 177; fá þá sonum þínum í hendr til geymslu, id. III. metaph. with a following pass. part. or sup. to be able to do; hón fær með engu móti vakit þá, she could by no means awaken them, Fms. i. 9; þú fékkt ekki leikit þat er mjúkleikr var í, vii. 119; þeir munu mik aldri fá sótt, they will never be able to overcome me, Nj. 116; ok fáit þér hann eigi veiddan, if you cannot catch him, 102; hann fékk engi knút leyst, Edda 29; fengu þeir honum ekki náð, they could not catch him, Fagrsk. 167; at Vagn mun fá yfir-kominn Sigvalda, that V. will overcome S., Fms. xi. 96: skulu vér þá freista at vér fáim drepit þá, i. 9; skaltú hvergi fá undan hokat, thou shalt have no chance of sneaking away, xi. 61; fá gaum gefinn at e-u, to take heed to a thing. Fas. ii. 517; menn fingu hvergi rétt hann né hafit, Eg. 396; at þeir mundu komit fá til lands hvalnum, Grág. ii. 381; en fékk þó eigi víss orðit …, but he could not make out for certain …, Fms. x. 170. β. to grow, get, become; Hjörleif rak vestr fyrir land, ok fékk hann vatnfátt, he became short of water, Landn. 34: of travellers, to fall in with, etc., þar fengu þeir keldur blautar mjök, they got into bogs, Eb. 266; þeir fengu hvergi blautt um Valbjarnar-völlu, Sturl. ii. 50; fengu þeir veðr stór, they met with foul weather, Eg. 160. IV. with gen., 1. to take, gain, earn, win; renna þeir á land upp, ok fá mikils fjár, Fms. v. 164; þeir fengu fjár mikils, they took a rich booty, Nj. 137; gáðu þeir eigi fyrir veiðum at fá heyjanna, ok dó allt kvikfé þeirra um vetrinu, Landn. 30; vel er þess fengit, it is well earned, well done, 7; nú mun ek fara þessa ferð ef þú vill; hann segir, vel er þess fengit, well done, said he, Fas. ii. 517; hann var eigi skáld, ok hann hafði eigi þeirrar listar fengit, he had not got that gift, Fb. i. 214; at þá mundi þykkja fengit betr, people would think that it suited better, Nj. 75; fá verðar, to take a meal, Hm. 33; hann fékk sér sveitar (raised a band) ok görðisk illvirki, 623. 15: but chiefly in the phrase, fá konu, to get a wife, marry; Haraldr fékk þeirrar konu, Fms. i. 4; at ek munda fá þín, that I should get thy hand, Nj. 24; betr er þá séð fyrir kosti systur minnar at þú fáir hennar (gen., i. e. that thou marry her), en víkingar fái hana (acc., i. e. to fetch, capture her) at herfangi, Fs. 8; hón var átján vetra er Þorsteinn fékk hennar, Ísl. ii. 191. 2. to conceive, of sheep, cattle; fá burðar, Stj. 97; er hann (sauðrinn) fær lambs, Skálda 162: absol., við þeim hafði hón (the mare) fengit, Landn. 195; at eigi fái ær við, Grág. i. 418, (cp. fang, fetus.) 3. denoting to affect, touch, etc.; þat fékk mikils hinum hertekna menni, it touched much the captive, Orkn. 368: svá fékk honum mikils, at hans augu vóru full af tárum, Fms. i. 139; henni fékk þetta mikillar áhyggju, it caused her great care, iv. 181; fær honum þat mikillar áhyggju ok reiði. Nj. 174; nú fær mér ekka (gen.) orð þat þú mælir, Skv. 1. 20; fá e-m hlægis, to make one a laughing-stock, Hm. 19: even with acc. or an adv., þá fær Þorbirni svá mjök (Th. was so much moved) at hann grætr, Hrafn. 13. β. fá á e-n, to affect, chiefly of intoxicating liquors; er drykkr fékk á Hákon jarl, when the drink told on earl Hacon, Magn. 508; fær á þá mjök drykkrinn, Fms. xi. 108; aldregi drakk ek vín eðr annan drykk svá at á mik megi fá, Stj. 428; en er á leið daginn ok drykkr fékk á menn, Fms. vii. 154; drykkr hefir fengit yðr í höfuð, Fas. i. 318; á-fengr or á-fenginn, q. v. γ. opt fá á (entice) horskan, er á heimskan né fá, lostfagrir lítir, Hm. 92. V. impers. to be got, to be had, cp. Germ. es giebt; vápn svá góð, at eigi fær önnur slík (acc.), so good, that the like are not to be got, Nj. 44; at varla fái vitrara mann, a wiser man is hardly to be found, Sks. 13; eigi fær þat ritað, it cannot be recorded, viz. being so voluminous, Fms. viii. 406; þat skip fær vel varit eldi, that ship can well be guarded against fire, ix. 368; svá mikill herr at varla fékk talit, a host so great that it could hardly be numbered, xi. 261 (Ed. fékst wrongly). VI. reflex. in the phrase, fásk í e-u, to be busy, exert oneself in a matter; drottningin mátti þar ekki í fásk, Fms. x. 102; Helgi leitaði þá ef Sigurðr vildi í fásk við Þorvald, if S. would try with Th., Fb. i. 379; vildir þú fásk í því sem þér er ekki lánat, 215; segir hana ljúga ok fásk í rógi, (and deal in slander) fyrir höfðingjum, Karl. 552. β. fásk við e-n, to struggle against; ef nokkut væri þat er hann mætti við fásk, which he could try, Grett. 74 new Ed.: to wrestle with, skaltú fásk við blámann várn, Ísl. ii. 444; um fangit er þú fékksk við Elli, when thou strugglest against Elli, Edda 34; at Þorleikr ætti lítt við elli at fásk, Ld. 160; fámsk vér eigi við skrafkarl þenna, let us have naught to do with this landlouper, Háv. 52; ok fásk eigi við fjánda þenna lengr, Ísl. ii. 45; fást um e-t, to make a fuss about a thing: the passage, Hrólfi fékksk hugr, Fas. iii. 203, is prob. an error for Hrólfi gékksk hugr, H. was moved: the phrase, fásk þú at virði vel, take thou a good meal, Hm. 117. 2. as a pass., esp. in the sense to be gotten; sumt lausa-féit hafði fengisk (had been gotten) í hernaði, Fms. i. 25; at honum fengisk engi fararbeini, that no means of conveyance could be got, Grág. i. 298; eigu þeir þat allt er á (aðilðunum) fæsk, all the fines that accrue from the aðilð, 281; fékksk þat, it was obtained, Jb. 17; er hljóð fékksk, when silence was obtained, so that he could speak, Fms. i. 34: ef þeir fásk eigi, if they cannot be taken, Odd. 12 (very rare); sem úviða muni þinn jafningi fásk, thy match is not easily to be got, Nj. 46. VII. part. fenginn as adj. given to, fit to; ok er hann vel til þess fenginn, Fms. vi. 389; Jón var mjök fenginn (given) fyrir kvenna ást, Bs. i. 282; fæsk eigi því níta, it cannot be denied, Am. 32. 2. again, fanginn denotes captured, hence taken by passion; fanginn í ílsku, Fb. i. 280.

FÁ, ð, part. fát, fáð or fáið, cp. fáinn or fánn; a contracted verb = fága:—to draw, paint, Fms. v. 345; gulli fáðr, gilded, Gísl. 21; fá rúnar, to draw runes, magic characters, Hm. 143; vér höfum fáða unga brúði á vegg, we have painted the young bride on the wall, Landn. 248 (from a verse about the middle of the 10th century): of precious stuffs, fáð ript, Skv. 3. 63.

fáan-ligr, adj. to be gotten.

fá-bjáni, a, m. an idiot.

fá-bygðr, part. few, i. e. thinly, peopled, Glúm. 359.

fá-dæmi, n. pl. monstrosities, portents, 623. 39, Fms. v. 206: með fádæmum, ofdirfð ok níðingskap, vii. 18; vera með fádæmum, to be portentous, viii. 52, v. l., Sturl. iii. 274; heyrit f., shame! Háv. 45: joined to an adj. or adv., fá-dæma-, portentous; f. mikill, f. stór, f. vel, etc., Þiðr. 187, Krók. 49.

fá-dæmiligr, adj. (-liga, adv.), portentous, Fms. iii. 167.

fá-einn, adj., chiefly in pl. only a few, Eg. 573, Sturl. iii. 3; vide einn.

fá-fengiligr, adj. (-liga, adv.), vain, empty.

fá-fengr, adj. empty, Luke i. 53.

fá-fróðr, adj. ‘few-knowing,’ ignorant, Fms. viii. 447, Barl. 13, 17.

fá-fræði, f. want of knowledge, Fms. vi. 265, Gþl. 266, Bs. i. 137, 280.

fága, að, to polish, clean; f. saltkatla, Fas. ii. 499, Eg. 520 (vide eik); f. hest, to curry a horse, Sks. 374; öll fáguð (painted) með brögðum, Fms. v. 345. 2. metaph. to cultivate; fága jörðina, to till the earth, 549 B; f. akr, Mar. 188: of arts, science, sem hann fágaði þá iðn lengr, Lv. 115. β. to worship; f. heiðin guð, Stj. 576; f. heiðin sið, Lex. Poët.; f. helga menn, H. E. i. 243.

fágan, f., Lat. cultus, worship, Stj. 577, Fms. v. 163, Barl. 138.

fágandi, part. a tiller; víngarðs f., Greg. 48.

fágari, a, m. a tiller, cultivator, Magn. 474.

fá-glýjaðr, part. sad, of little glee, Hkr. i. 167 (in a verse).

fágu-ligr, adj. neatly polished, Róm. 302.

fá-gætr, adj. ‘few to get,’ rare, Nj. 209, Fms. i. 99, vi. 142.

fá-heyrðr, part. unheard, Finnb. 248, Sks. 74, Fms. v. 224, 264, xi. 247.

fá-heyriligr, adj. (-liga, adv.), unheard, Fms. viii. 279. v. l., Barl. 65, Mar. 234.

fá-hjúaðr, part. few in family, Fas. iii. 209.

fá-hæfr, adj. of little use, valueless, Vm. 9, Pm. 55.

fái, a, m. a painted figure, vide mann-fái.

fáinn and fánn, [faaen = pale, Ivar Aasen], pale, white; fánn hrosti, the pale brewing, of the good ale of the giant Egir, Stor. 18; fán (MS. fanz) fleski, light-coloured hams, bacon, Rm. 29.

fá-kátr, adj. sad, gloomy. Fas. i. 50.

fák-hestr, m. = fákr, Karl.

fá-klæddr, part. thinly clad, Grett. 141.

FÁKR, m. [Dan. fag]. a horse ‘uno testiculo,’ a jade, in prose, Sturl. i. 40; it occurs in Kormak, and is often used in poetry of any horse.

fá-kunnandi, f. ignorance, Fms. iv. 318: as part. ignorant.

fá-kunnasta, u, f. id., Fr.

fá-kunnigr, adj. ‘few-knowing,’ ignorant, Barl. 62, Jb. 4.

fá-kunnligr, adj. unusual, rare, Bs. i. 348, 355.

fá-kynstr, n. a shocking accident, Gísl. 34.

FÁLA, u, f. a giantess, Edda (Gl.): a romping lass, Fas. iii. 521; cp. flagð, flenna, skass, skersa, all of them names of giantesses, but also used of hoydenish women.

fá-látr, adj. silent, cold, Fs. 23, Nj. 177, Fms. i. 19, ix. 246.

fá-leikr, m. coldness, melancholy, Nj. 14, Fms. vi. 147, vii. 103.

fá-liðr (fáliða, fáliðaðr, Fb. ii. 285), adj. with few followers, Sturl. ii. 5 C, Ld. 242, Fms. iv. 370, ix. 43, xi. 358, Bs. i. 763.

fá-liga, adv. coldly, Fms. i. 237, iii. 79, vii. 113, Bs. ii. 27.

fá-ligr, adj. cold, reserved, Fms. iii. 116, iv. 301, v. 306.

FÁLKI, a, m. [from Lat. falco], a falcon, Jb., Árna S., Hák. S. (Fms. x). COMPDS: fálka-kaup, n. buying falcons, Bs. i. 738. fálka-veiðr, f. catching falcons, Bs. i. 720, 737. This foreign word came into use as a trade term, and only occurs in the 13th century. The white falcon (‘falco Islandicus’) was during the Middle Ages much sought for, and sometimes the king or bishops claimed the exclusive right of exporting these birds: they were sent to England even as late as A. D. 1602, and sought for by English noblemen of that time; cp. the anecdote told in Feðga-æfi 10.

FÁLMA, að, [Dan. famle; Swed. famla], to fumble, grope about, as in blindman’s-buff: Hrappr vildi f. til mín, Ld. 98; hann fálmaði til Egils (of the blind giant), Fas. iii. 385; fálma höndum, to fumble with the hands, Fms. iii. 125; or with a weapon, þá f. jötuninn til agn-saxinu, Edda 36. 2. metaph. to flinch; láta geð f., to flinch or falter (Eyvind); f. ok skjálfa, Niðrst. 107; f. af hræðslu, 5; flýja eðr f., Fms. vii. 260, 297, vide Lex. Poët.

fá-lyndi, n. coldness, reserved manners, Bjarn. 50.

fá-lyndr, adj. cold, reserved, Fms. iv. 109, v. 240; eigi fályndr, i. e. gay, merry, Lv. 75.

fá-læti, n. = fáleikr, melancholy.

fá-máligr, adi. ‘few-speaking,’ silent, Fms. i. 155, iv. 76, xi. 78; hljótt ok fámálugt, Bjarn. 54.

fá-menni, n. few men, a little host, Nj. 93, Fms. x. 407.

fá-mennr, older form fá-meðr, mod. fá-menntr, adj. having few men, few followers, Fas. i. 25, Fs. 71, Nj. 95, Fms. vii. 250: compar., fámennari, iii. 18; fámeðri, Hkr. ii. 22. β. neut., fámennt, thinly peopled, solitary; f. og danfligt, Lv. 22: cp. the Icel. phrase, hér er fámennt og góðmennt, here are few but good people.

fá-mæltr, part. few-speaking, Ó. H. 94, Fms. x. 39: melancholy, vii. 162.

fá-nefndr, part. seldom named, having a strange name, Fbr. 93.

FÁNI, a, m. [Ulf. fana; A. S. fana; Hel. and O. H. G. fano; Germ. fahne; Lat. pannus]:—a standard, gunn-fáni, Hbl. 40, etc.; else it is rare and hardly used in old prose; even in old poetry vé is the usual word:—metaph. a buoyant, high-flying person is now called fáni; so, fána-ligr, adj. buoyant; fána-skapr, m. buoyancy in mind or temper; the sense given under ‘metaph.’ belongs no doubt to a different word, borrowed in the 15th century from the Engl. fawn; thus fánast uppá e-n = Engl. to fawn upon.

fá-nýtr (fá-neytr), adj. worn, of little use or value, Vm. 98, B. K. 83, Pm. 18, 19, 22, Sks. 244.

fá-orðr, adj. of few words, Sturl. iii. 80.

FÁR, f. [Dan. faar], a sheep, D. N. ii. 312, Boldt 165; vide fær.

FÁR, n. [A. S. fær; Hel. fâr = dolus; Germ. fahr = treason, gefahr = danger; Engl. fear = terror; cp. also Germ. furcht:—but in the old Scandin. languages the word does not rightly mean either fear or danger; the mod. Dan. fare and Swed. fara are borrowed from Germ.]:—evil passion, bale, harm, mischief; fár ok fjandskapr, Gísl. 125; eigi standa orð þín af litlu fári, baleful words, Fas. i. 195; lesa fár um e-n, to speak foul calumnies of one, Hm. 23; af fári, from evil passion, Og. 12. Hm. 151; er þú felldir mér fár af höndum, that thou brakest my spell, Og. 10; flytjandi fárs, bringing mischief, Am. 4; ef ek vissa þat fár fyrir, if I could foresee that bale, Skv. 2. 7; halda kvið til fárs e-m, to withhold the verdict to the injury of the other party, Grág. i. 58; verða e-m at fári, to be one’s bale, Korm. 12 (in a verse); full skal signa ok við fári sjá, i. e. make a sign over the cup to prevent harm in it, Sdm. 8; þat er fár mikit (‘tis a bad omen), ef þú fæti drepr, Skv. 2. 24; þá er hann réttlauss ef hann þiggr fár á sér, if he receives bodily harm, N. G. L. i. 255. 2. plague, esp. of animals; hunda-fár, sickness among dogs; kúa-fár, nauta-fár, cattle plague, cp. heljar-fár, morð-fár, murderous pestilence; urðar-fár, a weird plague, Sturl. ii. 213 (in a verse); feikna-fár, deadly pain, Pass. 2. 11; vera í fári, to be in an extremity; í dauðans fári, in the death-agony, etc. β. of men, a dangerous illness; lá hann í þessu fári nær viku, Bs. i. 761; cp. fár-veikr, dangerously ill; fár er nokkurs-konar nauð, Edda 110, cp. far B. γ. wrath; fár er reiði, Edda 110; vera í íllu fári (vide far B), to be bent on doing mischief. 3. as a law term, fraud, such as selling sand or dirt instead of flour or butter, defined N. G. L. i. 24; kaupa fals, flærð eða fár, 324. COMPDS: fár-hugr, m. wrath, Am. 86. fár-leikr, m. disaster, Greg. 40, where it is opp. to friðr. fár-liga, adv. wrathfully, Fms. xi. 94, Bs. i. 813, Pass. 4. 13. fár-ligr, adj. disastrous, Fms. xi. 433, Fas. i. 394. fár-ramr, adj. awfully strong, Fs. 7. fár-reiðr, adj. wroth, fierce. fár-skapr, m. fierceness, Nj. 54. fár-sótt, f. pestilence, Bs. i. 325, N. G. L. i. 29. fár-sumar, n. the plague summer, Ann. fár-veikr, adj. very ill. fár-verkr, m. a severe pain, Bs. i. 339. fár-viðri, n. a hurricane, tempest, Bjarn. 34, Gullþ. 6, Gísl. 106. fár-yrði, n. pl. foul language, Nj. 50, 185. fárs-kona, u, f. a hag, violent woman, Gísl. 52. fárs-maðr, m. an abusive man, Þorst. Síðu H. 175. fárs-sótt, f. dangerous illness.

FÁR, fem. fá, neut. fátt; dat. fám; acc. fá (paucos and paucam); fán (paucum); fár (paucae and paucas), but in mod. usage dissyllabic, fáum, fáa, fáan, fáar: gen. pl. fára, mod. fárra:—compar. færi, mod. færri with a double r; superl. fæstr, in books of last century sometimes spelt færstr,—a form warranted neither by etymology nor pronunciation: færst, however, occurs in the old MSS. Arna-Magn. 132. Ld. 210: [Lat. paucus; Ulf. faus; A. S. feá Engl. few; Hel. fáh; O. H. G. foh; lost in mod. Germ.; Dan. and Swed. or faa]:—few; Margr við Mývatn, en Fár í Fiskilækjar-hverfi (a pun), Rd. 311, Glúm. 361; með fá liði, with few men, Eg. 51; færa sauðfé, fewer sheep, Grág. (Kb.) 159; færi sauði, i. 423; í fám orðum, in few words, Stj. 29; við fá menn, Fms. i. 35; við fára manna vitni, Ld. 260; færi öfundarmenn, 204; fleiri … færi, Grág. i. 38; fáir einir, only a few; fá eina menn, Sturl. iii. 3; hjón fá ein, Eg. 573, vide einn. 2. used as noun, few, in the sense of few or none, none at all; fáir hafa af því sigrask, Nj. 103; þeir kváðu fá fúnað hafa fyrir honum, 263. β. esp. in old sayings; e. g. fár er fagr ef grætr, Fb. i. 566; fár veit hverju fagna skal, Kvöldv. i. 47; fár bregðr hinu betra ef hann veit hit verra, Nj. 227: fár er hvatr er hrörask tekr ef í bernsku er blauðr, Fm. 6; fár er full-rýninn, Am. 11; fár hyggr þegjanda þörf, Sl. 28; fás er fróðum vant, Hm. 107; fátt er of vandlega hugat. Kvöldv. ii. 198; fátt veit sá er sefr, Mork. 36; fátt er svo fyrir öllu íllt að ekki boði nokkuð gott; fátt segir af einum, Volks. 62; fátt er ramara en forneskjan, Grett. 144; fátt er sköpum ríkra, Fs. 23; fár gengr of sköp norna, Km. 24; fátt er betr látið en efni eru til, Band. 2; fár er vamma vanr, Mirm. 68; fátt veit fyrr en reynt er, Fms. vi. 155; fátt gat ek þegjandi þar, Hm. 104. Many of these sayings are household words, and this use of the word is typical of the dry northern humour. II. metaph. dismal, cold, reserved; Sigurðr konungr hafði verit nokkut fár (dismal, in low spirits) öndverðan vetr, en nú var hann glaðr ok spurall, Fms. iv. 82; varð hann fyrst fár ok úkátr, 192; vóru menn allir fáir við þá, v. 307; Vigdis varð fá um, Vigdis became silent about it, i. e. disliked it much, Sturl. iii. 180; var þá Gunnarr við hana lengi fár, for a long time G. was cold to her, Nj. 59. 2. neut. fátt, coldness, coolness; fátt var með þeim Rúti um samfarar, there was coolness between R. and his wife, Nj. 11; var fátt um með þeim bræðrum, 2, Eg. 199; var et fæsta með þeim, Ld. 234; verið hefir fátt með okkr, Gísl. 100: fátt kom á með þeim Gretti, Grett. 99. III. neut., konungr svarar fá (dat.), Ó. H. 94; Guðrún talaði hér fæst um, Ld. 210; var eigi boðit færa en hundraði, not fewer than a hundred, Nj. 17; fátt af þeirra mönnum, only a few of their men, Fms. v. 290; fátt eina, only a few, Ld. 328: with gen., fátt manna, few men, Nj. 130; fátt góðs, but little good, Hom. 38; fátt einna hverra hluta, few of things, i. e. few things, Fms. iv. 175: þeir ugðu fátt at sér, they heeded them but little, Fms. vii. 201; hlutask til fás, Hrafn. 17. β. as adv., in the phrases, sofa fátt, to sleep but little, be wakeful; leika fátt, to play but little, i. e. be in a dismal humour; tala fátt, to speak but little; syrgja fátt, to sorrow but little, i. e. to be gay, cp. Lex. Poët. γ. with numerals, less than, short of, minus, save; vetri fátt í fjóra tigu, i. e. forty years save one, i. e. thirty-nine, Fms. x. 2, v. l.; tveimr ertogum fátt í átta merkr, eight marks less two ortogs, B. K. 84; lítið fátt í fimm tigi vetra, little short of fifty years, Fms. iii. 60; hálfum eyri fátt á átta merkr, eight marks less half an ounce; þremr mörkum fátt á laup, a bushel less three marks, B. K. 84, 11: at fæstu, the fewest, least, the minimum; tveir et fæsta, two at least, Grág. i. 9; sex menn et fæsta, 378; cp. the neut. afl-fátt, svefn-fátt, dag-fátt, q. v.

fárast, að, dep., in the phrase, f. um e-ð. to make a fuss about a thing.

fá-ráðr, adj. little-prudent, helpless, Fms. ii. 96.

fá-ræðinn, adj. ‘few-talking,’ silent, Fms. ii. 144, iv. 218, Fas. iii. 654.

fá-rætt, part. n. little spoken of, Bjarn. 34, Fms. ii. 154.

fá-sénn (fá-séðr), part. seldom seen, costly, Ld. 84, Fms. x. 260, xi. 428.

fá-sinna, u, f., Lat. amentia, want of reason, melancholy, (mod.)

fá-sinni, n. loneliness, isolation, Nj. 185, Fb. i. 543.

fá-skiptinn, adj. little meddling, quiet, Ld. 94, Finnb. 336, Fas. iii. 529.

fá-staðar, adv. in few places, Fms. vii. 70.

FÁT, n. fumbling; göra e-t í fáti, to fumble about a thing; fát kemr á e-n, to be confounded; mæðisk nú brátt, svá at hann leggsk til fáta, vesall karl, so that he is quite confounded. Mar. 1056. fáta, að, to fumble.

fá-talaðr, part. ‘few-speaking,’ silent, Fms. ii. 76, ix. 52, Sks. 474: gramm., sem þessi er tungan fátalaðri, as this language has fewer vowels, Skálda 161.

fá-tíðindi, n. pl. rare, strange tidings, Bs. i. 148.

fá-tíðligr, adj. rare, strange, Hom. 114. fá-tíðliga, adv., Bs. ii. 110.

fá-tíðr, adj. id., Fms. v. 211, Hom. 108, Fas. i. 183.

fá-tækdómr, m. [Dan. fattigdom], poverty, Stj. 212, Mar.

fá-tæki, n. [taka], want, poverty, Stj. passim, Al. 61; ganga á f., to go a-begging, Jb. 174, 655 xxxii. COMPDS: fátækis-fólk, n. poor folk, Stj. 652, Fms. v. 95. fátækis-land, n. land of affliction, Stj. 212, Gen. xli. 52. fátækis-lið, n. poor people, Bs. i. 332. fátækis-maðr, m. a poor man, 655 xxxii. 24.

fátæk-leikr, m. poverty, Skálda 211.

fá-tækliga, adv. poorly, Stj. 423, Fms. i. 70.

fá-tækligr, adj. poorly, Fms. i. 69, v. 194.

fá-tæklingr, m. a poor person, a pauper.

fá-tækr, adj. [Swed.-Dan. fattig], poor, Nj. 196, Fs. 84, Fms. i. 33, 197, Edda 81, Bs. i. 81, 104, 110, 139, 840, 850 (passim), Sl. 70, K. Þ. K. (passim): fátækr is the standing Icel. word, answering to Lat. pauper.

fá-tækt, f. poverty, Barl. 8, Stj. 212, 421; old writers prefer fátæki, which is now obsolete, but in mod. usage fátækt is a standing word; snauðr, q. v., is only used in a peculiar sense; fátækt (from fár and taka) properly means ‘few-taking,’ having little between the hands, hence poverty, want; it occurs in many compds.

fá-vingat, part. n. having few friends, Fms. iii. 144.

fá-vitr, adj. ‘few-wise,’ little-wise, Stj. 558, v. l. fá-vizkr, adj. id., id.

fá-vizka, u, f. folly, Fms. i. 104, vi. 211, Fb. i. 379.

fá-víss, adj. little-wise, Ld. 268, Fms. viii. 31 (v. l., = barbarous).

fá-þykkja, u, f. coldness.

FÉ, n., irreg. gen. fjár, dat. fé; pl. gen. fjá, dat. fjám; with the article, féit, féinu, féin, mod. féð, fénu, fén: [Lat. pecu; Goth. faihu; A. S. feoh; Engl. fee; Hel. fehu; O. H. G. fehu; Germ. vieh; Dan. fæ; Swed. ]:—cattle, in Icel. chiefly sheep; fé né menn, Grett. 101; fjölda fjár, Ld. 210; gæta fjár, to mind sheep, 232; en ef þeir brenna húsin þó at fé manna sé inni, Grág. ii. 164; þeir ráku féit (the sheep) upp á geilarnar, Ni. 119; kvik-fé, live-stock, q. v.: ganganda fé, id., opp. to dautt fé, dead property, Grág. passim. COMPDS: fjár-beit, f. pasture for sheep, Vm. 130. fjár-borg, f. a ‘burrow’ or shieling in which sheep are kept in the east of Icel., vide Eggert Itin. ch. 816. fjár-breiða, u, f. a flock of white sheep. fjár-dauði, a, m. cattle-plague, Ann. 1284. fjár-fellir, m. falling of cattle, from plague or starvation, Ann. 1341, Bs. i. 548. fjár-fóðr, n. fodder, Bs. i. 477. fjár-fæði, n. = fjárfóðr. Vápn. 30. fjár-fæling, f. [fóli], stealing cattle, Gþl. 395. fjár-ganga, u, f. and fjár-gangr, m. a sheep-walk, Grág. ii. 304. Jb. 287 A, Ld. 54. fjár-geymsla, u, f. keeping sheep and cattle, Krók. 37. fjár-gæzla, u, f. id., Grett. 111 C, Eg. 741. fjár-hagi, a, m. pasture-land, Grett. 115. fjár-heimtur, f. pl. sheep returning from the mountain pastures. fjár-hirðir, m. a shepherd. fjár-knappr and fjár-hópr, m. a flock. fjár-hundr, m. a shepherd’s dog. fjár-hús, n. a shed or shieling for sheep. fjár-kaup, n. pl. purchase of sheep. fjár-kláði, a, m. the scab on sheep. fjár-nyt, f. sheeps’-milk, Grág. i. 428, 431. fjár-pest, f. the cattle-plague. fjár-rekstr, m. a drove of sheep, Grág. ii. 228, Sd. 149. fjár-réttr, m. the driving of sheep from the mountain pastures in the autumn, Eg. 741; grazing, Grág. (Kb.) 200. fjár-sauðr, m. = færsauðr, sheep, Tristr. (Fr.) II. property, money; hvárt sem fé þat er land eðr annat fé, Grág. ii. 237: the allit. phrase, fé ok fjörvi, Sl. 1; hafa fyrir gört fé ok fjörvi, to forfeit property and life, Nj. 191: the proverbs, fé er fjörvi firr, life is dearer than money, 124; fé veldr frænda rógi, money makes foes of kinsmen, Mkv. 1. Common sayings, hafa fullar hendr fjár; afla fjár ok frægðar, to gain wealth and fame, Fms. i. 23 (a standing phrase); afla fjár ok frama, Fs. 7, fjár ok virðingar, id.; seint munu þín augu fylld verða á fénu, Gullþ. 7; þú munt ærit mjök elska féit áðr lýkr, id.; lát mík sjá hvárt fé þetta er svá mikit ok frítt, Gísl. 62; at Þorgils tæki við fjám sínum, Fs. 154; fagrt fé, fine money; at þeir næði féinu, Fms. x. 23; þegn af fé, liberal, Ísl. ii. 344; Auðr tekr nú féit, A. took the money, Gísl. 62; hér er fé þat (the money) er Gunnarr greiddi mér, Nj. 55; fé þat allt er hann átti, Eg. 98; alvæpni en ekki fé annat, Fms. i. 47: skemman var full af varningi, þetta fé …, v. 255; Höskuldr færði fé allt til skips, Nj. 4; hversu mikit fé er þetta, id.; heimta fé sín, Grág. i. 87; þiggit þat herra, fé er í því, there is value in it, Fms. vii. 197. COMPDS: fjár-afhlutr, m. a share of money, Fas. iii. 198. fjár-aflan, f. making money, Fms. x. 305. fjár-afli, a, m. stock, Eg. 137, Ld. 88, Fms. xi. 422. fjár-auðn, f. losing all one’s money, Stj. 570, Fms. v. 270. fjár-agirnd (-girni), f. greed for money, Nj. 15, Bs. ii. 159, Rb. 424. fjár-bón, f. begging, Nj. 141. fjár-burðr, m. bribery, Fms. vi. 12. fjár-dráttr, m. (unfairly) making money, Eg. 71, Fms. vi. 191. fjár-efni, n. means, Grett. 31 C. fjár-eigandi, part. owner of means, Fbr. 19 new Ed. fjár-eign, f. wealth, property, Fms. vii. 33, Ísl. ii. 216. fjár-eyðsla, u, f. spending money. fjáreyðslu-maðr, m. a spendthrift, Fms. iii. 83. fjár-fang, n. booty, plunder, Sks. 183, Anecd. 30, Fms. ii. 2. fjár-far, n. money affairs, Nj. 40, Fms. ii. 12. fjár-forráð, n. administration, management of one’s money, Nj. 98, Bs. i. 128, 129. fjár-framlag, n. laying out contributions of money, Band. 1. fjár-fundr, m. a ‘find’ of money, Fms. vi. 272, Fas. i. 20. fjár-gjald, n. payment, Fms. v. 162. fjár-gjöf, f. a gift of money, Fms. v. 175, v. l. fjár-gróði, a, m. making money, Stj. 176, v. l. fjár-gæzla (fjár-geymsla), u, f. hoarding money. fjárgæzlu-maðr, m., mikill f., a thrifty man, Sturl. i. 225. fjár-hagr, m. money-matters, Nj. 10, Sd. 176, Bs. i. 854, Sturl. ii. 195. fjárhaga-maðr, m., góðr, lítill f., a good, bad, manager, Fms. v. 321. fjár-hald, n. money affairs, Edda 48; withholding one’s money, Sturl. ii. 22, iii. 292; administration of one’s money, esp. of a minor, Gþl. 222, 259; hence, fjárhalds-maðr, m. a guardian, 260. fjár-heimt (-heimta and -heimting), f. a claim for money owing one, Eg. 519, Nj. 15, Grág. i. 280 (and Kb. 158). fjár-hirðsla, u, f. a money-chest, Fas. iii. 395, Sks. 229, Acts viii. 27. fjár-hlutr, m. a lot, share of money, Eg. 182, Sks. 668, Landn. 226, Fms. v. 216, vii. 152, xi. 116. fjár-kaup, n. a bargain, Gþl. 211, v. l. fjár-kostnaðr, m. expenses, Bs. i. 686. fjár-kostr, m. means, Sturl. fjár-krafa, u, f. pecuniary claim, N. G. L. i. 21. fjár-lag, n. the fixed value of property, D. I. i. 316; a money contract, Grág. i. 226; partnership = fé-lag, Gþl. 257. fjár-lán, n. a loan of money, Ísl. ii. 223. fjár-lát, n. loss of money, Ísl. ii. 359. fjár-leiga, u, f. rent, N. G. L. i. 25, Fms. i. 256. fjár-megin, m. amount of stock, Gþl. 257, N. G. L. i. 4, K. Á. 82. fjár-met, n. valuation of property, Grág. i. 452. fjár-missa, u, f. (fjár-missir, m.), loss of money, Hom. 111, H. E. i. 561, Grett. 136. fjár-munir, m. pl. property, valuables, Fms. xi. 321, Hkr. iii. 114, Hom. 111. fjár-nám, n. seizure of money, plunder, Hkv. 1. 11, D. N. fjárorku-maðr, m. a wealthy man, Fas. iii. 30. fjár-pína, fjár-pind, f. extortion, H. E. i. 391, Bs. i. 720. fjár-rán, f. robbery, cheating for money, Grág., Kb. 224, Ld. 140. fjár-reiða, u, f. money-matters, used chiefly in pl., Glúm. 364, Grág. i. 332, 334, 383, Bjarn. 39, 40, Ld. 212. fjár-reita, u, f. cheating, plunder, Bjarn. 17. fjár-saknaðr, m. = fjárauðn, Grett. 159 C. fjár-sekt, f. a fine in money, Lv. 94. fjár-sjóðr, m. a treasure, Fas. i. 20. fjár-skaði, a, m. loss in money, Bs. i. 146, Grág. ii. 195. fjár-skakki, a, m. an unjust sharing, Fms. ii. 201. fjár-skilorð, n. conditions (as to payment), N. G. L. i. 75. fjár-skipti, n. division of property, heirship, Nj. 22, Sturl. ii. 77. fjár-skuld, f. debt, N. G. L. i. 332. fjár-sóan, f. expenditure, Bs. i. (Laur. S.) fjár-sókn, f. a lawsuit or money claim, Gþl. 475, N. G. L. i. 143, K. Á. 182, cp. N. G. L. i. 14. fjár-staðr, m. a place for money, i. e. an investment, Band. 11, Vápn. 13. fjár-tak, n. (fjár-taka or fjár-tekja, u, f.), seizure of money, confiscation, Fas. ii. 350, Fms. vii. 209, Grág. i. 188, Sturl. i. 76. fjár-tal, n. and fjár-tala, u, f. payment to the full amount or to a certain proportion, Bs. i. 287, Grág. i. 335, ii. 250. fjár-tapan, f. loss of money, N. G. L. i. 321. fjár-tilkall, n. a claim for money, Eg. 341. fjár-tillag, n. and -tillaga, u, f. a contribution, Fms. xi. 79. fjár-tjón, n. loss of money, Fms. iii. 12, Sks. 352. fjár-upptak, n., -upptaka, u, f., and -upptekt, f. seizure of one’s property, Band. 10, Fms. xi. 153, Ísl. ii. 146, Sturl. i. 13, Fas. ii. 468. fjár-útlát, n. pl. outlay, Fms. xi. 430. fjár-varðveizla, u, f. management, administration of another’s property, Grág. i. 410, Nj. 4, Landn. 304, Grett. 111. fjárvarðveizlu-maðr, m. a trustee, Grág. i. 282. fjár-ván, f. expectancy of money, by inheritance or the like, Grág. i. 410. fjár-verðr, adj. valuable, Fms. x. 417. fjár-viðtaka, u, f. receipt of money, Ísl. ii. 146. fjár-vöxtr, n. increase of rent or money, Dipl. iii. 14. fjár-þarfnaðr, m. and fjár-þurft, f. need of money, H. E. i. 562, Fms. xi. 299, Hkr. iii. 429. fjár-þurð, f. an emptying of one’s purse, H. E. i. 563. fjár-þurfi, adj. wanting money, El. 22.

B. Fé- in COMPDS, usually in sense II, sometimes in sense I: fé-auðna, u, f. money luck. féauðnu-maðr, m. a man lucky in making money, Band. 4. fé-boð, n. an offer of money, Lv. 62, Fms. v. 26, 369, 656 A. 17; a bribe, Grág. i. 72. fébóta-laust, n. adj. without compensation, Glúm. 358. fé-brögð, n. pl. devices for making money, Fms. xi. 423, 623. 21. fé-bætr, f. pl. payments in compensation, esp. of weregild, opp. to mann-hefndir, Nj. 165, Eg. 106, Fs. 53, 74, Ísl. ii. 386. fé-bættr, part. paid for weregild, Gullþ. 12. fé-drengr, m. an open-handed man, Nj. 177. fé-drjúgr, adj. having a deep purse, Ld. 46. fé-fastr, adj. close-fisted, Ísl. ii. 392, Bs. i. 74. fé-fátt, n. adj. in want of money, Eg. 394, Fms. iii. 180, Hkr. iii. 422. fé-fellir, m. losing one’s sheep, Lv. 91. fé-festi, f. close-fistedness, Grett. 155 C. fé-fletta, tt, to strip one of money, cheat one, Fas. iii. 103, v. l. fé-frekr, adj. greedy for money, Rd. 314. fé-föng, n. pl. booty, plunder, spoil, Fms. iii. 18, vii. 78, Eg. 57, 236, Gullþ. 5, Sks. 183 B. fé-gefinn, part. given for (and to) gain, Band. 4, Valla L. 201. fé-girnd, f. avarice, Hom. 86, Al. 4, Pass. 16. 7, 10. fé-girni, f. = fégirnd, Sks. 358, Band. 11, Sturl. i. 47 C. fégjafa-guð, m. the god of wealth, Edda 55. fé-gjald, n. a payment, fine, Nj. 111, 120, Band. 11, Fms. vii. 248. fé-gjarn, adj. greedy, avaricious, Eg. 336, Fs. 133, Nj. 102, Fms. i. 52, vii. 238. fé-gjöf, f. a gift of money, Fs. 11, 21, Fms. i. 53, xi. 325, Ld. 52. fé-glöggr, f. close-handed, Eb. 158. fé-góðr, adj. good, i. e. current, money, D. N. fé-grið, n. pl. security for property, Grág. ii. 21. fé-gyrðill, m. [early Dan. fägürthil], a money bag, purse, worn on the belt, Gísl. 20, Fbr. 66, Þiðr. 35. fé-gætni, f. saving habits, Glúm. 358. fé-göfugr, adj. blessed with wealth, Ísl. ii. 322. fé-hirðir, m. a shepherd, Fas. i. 518, Fms. viii. 342, Gþl. 501: a treasurer, Hkr. i. 36, Eg. 202, Fms. x. 157, vi. 372, viii. 372. fé-hirzla, u, f. a treasury, Fms. vi. 171, vii. 174, Eg. 237, Hom. 9. féhirzlu-hús, n. a treasure-house, Stj. 154. féhirzlu-maðr, m. a treasurer, Karl. 498. fé-hús, n. = fjós, a stall, D. N. (Fr.): a treasury, Róm. 299. fé-kaup, n. a bargain, N. G. L. i. 9. fé-kátliga, adv., Thom. 403. fé-kátr, adj. proud of one’s wealth, Róm. 126. fé-kostnaðr, m. expenditure, expense, Stj. 512, Fms. iv. 215, xi. 202, Hkr. i. 148. fé-kostr, m. = fékostnaðr, Orkn. 40. fé-krókar, m. pl. money-angles, wrinkles about the eyes marking a greedy man (vide auga), Fms. ii. 84. fé-kvörn, f. a small gland in the maw of sheep, in popular superstition regarded, when found, as a talisman of wealth, vide Eggert Itin. ch. 323. fé-lag, n. fellowship, and fé-lagi, a, m. a fellow, vide p. 151. fé-lauss, adj. penniless, Fms. vi. 272, Fs. 79, Gullþ. 5, Landn. 324 (Mant.) fé-lát, n. loss of money, Landn. 195. fé-leysi, n. want of money, Fms. viii. 20. fé-ligr, adj. valuable, handsome, Fms. viii. 206. fé-lítill, adj. short of money, Eg. 691, Sturl. i. 127 C, Fms. v. 182, vi. 271: of little value, Vm. 74, Jm. 13; fé-minstr, yielding the least income, Bs. i. 432. fé-maðr, m. a monied man, Sturl. i. 171, iii. 97, Dropl. 3. fé-mál, n. money affairs, Nj. 5; a suit for money, Fms. viii. 130, Nj. 15, Grág. i. 83. fé-mikill, adj. rich, monied, Sks. 252, Sturl. i. 171 C: costly, Fms. v. 257, xi. 85, Bs. i. 295, Hkr. iii. 247, Eb. 256: expensive, Korm. 224 (in a verse). fé-mildr, adj. open-handed, Nj. 30. fé-missa, u, f. and fé-missir, m. loss of cattle, Jb. 362: loss of money, Grett. 150 C. fé-munir, m. pl. valuables, Hkr. i. 312, Grág. i. 172, Hrafn. 19, 21, Fms. vi. 298, viii. 342. fé-múta, u, f. a bribe in money, Nj. 215, 251, Gullþ. 7, Fms. v. 312, Bs. i. 839, Thom. 72. fé-mætr, adj. ‘money-worth,’ valuable, Fms. i. 105, Ísl. ii. 154, Orkn. 386. fé-neytr (fé-nýtr), adj. money-worth, Fms. iv. 340, cp. Hkr. ii. 253. fé-nýta, tt, to turn to account, make use of, Bs. i. 760, Grág. ii. 155. fé-penningr, m. a penny-worth, Bs. i. 757. fé-pína, u, f. a fine, H. E. i. 511. fé-prettr, m. a money trick, N. G. L. i. 123. fé-pynd, f. extortion, Bs. i. 757. fé-ráð, n. pl. advice in money-matters, 656 C. 16. fé-rán, n. plunder, Fs. 9, Fms. vi. 263, Fb. i. 215 (in a verse):—execution, confiscation, in the law phrase, féráns-dómr, m. a court of execution or confiscation to be held within a fortnight after the sentence at the house of a person convicted in one of the two degrees of outlawry, vide Grág. Þ. Þ. ch. 29–33, and the Sagas passim, esp. Hrafn. 21, Sturl. i. 135; cp. also Dasent, Introd. to Burnt Njal. fé-ríkr, adj. rich, wealthy, Fms. ix. 272, Gullþ. 7, Ld. 102, Skálda 203. fé-samr, adj. lucrative, Sturl. i. 68 C. fé-sátt (fé-sætt), f. an agreement as to payment, of weregild or the like, Grág. i. 136, Nj. 189, Ld. 308. fé-sekr, adj. fined, sentenced to a fine, Grág. i. 393. fé-sekt, f. a fine, Nj. 189, Finnb. 276. fé-sinki, f. niggardliness, Sks. 421, 699. fé-sinkr, adj. niggardly, Sturl. i. 162. fé-sjóðr, m., prop. a bag of money, Band. 6, Fbr. 35 new Ed., Nj. 55, Fas. iii. 194: mod. esp. in pl. a treasury, treasure, in Matth. vi. 20, Col. ii. 3, Heb. xi. 26. fé-skaði, a, m. loss in money, Bs. i, Fs. 4, Fms. iv. 327. fé-skipti, n. a sharing or division of property, Nj. 118, Ld. 134. fé-skjálgr, adj., féskjálg augu, eyes squinting for money, Band. 6. fé-skortr, m. shortness of money, Rd. 284. fé-skuld, f. a money debt, Finnb. 350. fé-skurðr, m. detriment, Ld. 44. fé-skygn, adj. covetous, Fms. v. 263. fé-skylft (fé-skylmt), n. adj., in the phrase, e-n er f., one has many expenses to defray, Grett. 89, 159, Eb. 98. fé-snauðr, adj. poor in money, penniless, Bs. i. 335. fé-sníkja, u, f. (fé-sníkni), begging, intruding as a parasite, Sks. 669, 451, 585. fé-snúðr, m. lucre, Band. 5, 655 xi. 4. fé-sparr, adj. sparing, close-handed, Band. 6, Fms. iii. 190. fé-spjöll, n. pl. an απ. λεγ. in Vsp. 23, fee-spells, i. e. spells wherewith to conjure hidden treasures out of the earth, where we propose to read,—valði hón (MS. henne, dat.) Herföðr (dat.) … f. spakleg, she (the Vala) endowed the father of hosts (Odin) with wise fee-spells; the passage in Yngl. S. ch. 7—Óðinn vissi of allt jarðfé hvar fólgit var—refers to this very word; Odin is truly represented as a pupil of the old Vala, receiving from her his supernatural gifts. fé-sterkr, adj. wealthy, Fms. iv. 231, Sks. 274. fé-stofn, m. stock. fé-sæla, u, f. wealth, Hkr. i. 15, Edda 16. fé-sæll, adj. wealthy, Edda 15. fé-sök, f. a suit, action for money, Nj. 15, Grág. i. 138. fé-útlega, u, f. a fine, outlay, N. G. L. i. 85. fé-vani, adj. short of money, Fms. iv. 27. fé-ván, f. expectancy of money, Gullþ. 7, Eg. 241, Fms. iv. 27, Orkn. 208. fé-veizla, u, f. contributions, help, Sks. 261, v. l. fé-vél, n. a trick, device against one’s property, N. G. L. i. 34. fé-víti, n. mulct, Grág. fé-vænliga, adv. in a manner promising profit, Fms. v. 257. fé-vænligr, adj. promising profit, profitable, Sturl. i. 138, Fms. v. 257. fé-vænn, adj. = févænligr, Sturl. i. 138. fé-vöxtr, m. increase in property, gain, Eg. 730. fé-þurfi, adj. in need of money, Eb. 164, Fms. ii. 80, Lv. 108, Fas. i. 392. fé-þúfa, u, f. a ‘money-mound,’ used in the Tales like Fortunatus’ purse; in the phrase, hafa e-n fyrir féþúfu, to use one as a milch cow, to squeeze money out of one. fé-þyrfi and fé-þörf, f. need of money, poverty, Rd. 236. fé-örk, f. a money-chest, 224.

feðgar, m. pl. [faðir], father and son (or sons), Eg. 18; Kveldúlfr ok þeir feðgar, Kveldulf himself and his son, 84; við feðgar, we, father and son, Nj. 8, Stj. 190; þeim feðgum, Fms. vii. 65, Fbr. 22; vin þeirra Sturlu feðga, a friend of Sturla and his father, Sturl. ii. 111; lang-feðgar, q. v., lineage of agnates.

FEÐGIN, n. pl. parents, (in Icel. the neut. is the collective gender for male and female); in old writers only in this sense, but about the time of the Reformation it was replaced by foreldrar, Germ. vorältern, which word in old writers means forefathers, whereas feðgin is the word for parents only; várra fyrstu feðgina, of our first parents (Adam and Eve), Stj. 39; feðgin vár, Lil. 18; hans feðginum, Stj. 127; einberni sinna feðgina, Mar.; börn ok þeirra feðgin, K. Á. 146; frænda eðr feðgina, Barl. 122; feðginum eða ná-frændum, parents or near kinsfolk, Fms. ii. 227; feðgrina barnsins, N. G. L. i. 392; hjá feðginum sínum ok forellris-mönnum, by his parents and forefathers, Stj. 190; sing., hvárttveggja feðginit, 97: this sense still remains in guð-feðgin, q. v., god-parents; and it has slipped into two passages of the Icel. N. T., viz. þetta sögðu hans feðgin, John ix. 22; fyrir því sögðu hans feðgin, 23; (for in all the other passages foreldrar or foreldri is used.) II. mod. father and daughter, cp. mæðgin, mother and son; systkin, brother and sister, all of them neut.

feðma, d, [faðmr], to span or encompass with the arms, Fas. ii. 149.

feðra, að, to father.

fegin-grátr, m. tears of joy, Pass. 31. 17.

fegin-leikr, m. joyfulness, Lv. 54, Fms. x. 231, Bs. ii. 172.

FEGINN, adj. [fagna; A. S. fægen; Engl. fain; Hel. fagin], glad, joyful; verða feginn, to rejoice, Eg. 567; fegnari en frá megi segja, exceeding happy, Th. 9: with dat. to rejoice in a thing, Bs. i. 133; verða eyrindi feginn, to enjoy one’s errand, bring it to a happy end, Ísl. ii. 340; urðu menn þeim fegnir, people were fain to see them again, Nj. 47; ok er fegit orðit hjarta mitt tilkvámu þinni, 175; Ingi konungr varð honum hinn fegnasti, i. e. king Inge was fain at his coming, Fms. vii. 247; íllu feginn ver þú aldregi, never rejoice in mischief, Hm. 129; glaðr ertú nú Sigurðr, ok gagni feginn, rejoiced at thy victory, Fm. 25: with subj., feginn létsk þó Hjalli at hann fjör þægi, H. would fain save his life, Am. 59 (rare). β. freq. with infin. or absol. and almost adverb, as in Engl., e. g. eg vil feginn gera það, I will fain do that; það vil eg feginn, or eg varð feginn að sleppa, I was fain to escape. II. the phrases, á fegins-degi, on the day of joy, the day of resurrection, re-meeting, Fms. viii. 98, Sl. 82; taka fegins-hendi við e-u, to receive with glad hand, with heart and hand, Fms. iii. 98, Fb. i. 257, Nj. 106; á fegins-lúðri, on the mill of joy (poët.), Gs. 5. COMPDS: fegin-saga, u, f. joyful news, 623. 40, Hkr. i. 73, Bs. i. 134. fegins-morgun, m. a morning of joy, Fms. vii. 86 (in a verse).

fegin-samliga, adv. joyfully, Eg. 149, 169, Bs. i. 76, Fms. iii. 228, iv. 207.

fegin-samligr, adj. joyful, Greg. 27.

fegra, að and ð, fegrðe, Ó. T. 1, and fegrir (pres.), Skálda 180, Eluc. 4, Hom. 149, Mork. (in a verse), cp. Fms. vi. 336: but fegraði, Fms. x. 320; fegrað (sup.), Bs. ii. 165, and in mod. usage always so, [fagr]:—to adorn, beautify, make fair; at kanna siðu manna ok fegra, to improve, better, Bs. i. 521; ekki þarf þat orðum at fegra, nothing is gained by extenuating it, Nj. 175; fegra um e-t, to mend, polish, Bs. i. 60.

FEGRÐ, mod. fegurð, f. beauty, fairness, of a woman; fegrð hennar, Fms. vi. 71, Stj. 548; fegrð sólarinnar, 26; fegrð Baldrs, Edda 15; fegrð ok prýði (pomp), Fms. vii. 157: in pl., 677. 10, Sks. 228; freq. in mod. use. fegrðar-lauss, adj. (-leysi, n.), void of beauty, Stj. 16.

fegringr, m. a cock (poët.), Edda (Gl.)

fegrir, m. an adorner, Lex. Poët.

fei, fei, fy, fy! Jón Þorl. i. 350.

feigð, f. [A. S. fægð], ‘feyness,’ approach or foreboding of death: in proverbs, koma mun til mín feigðin hvar sem ek em staddr, Nj. 103; ferr hverr er feigðin kallar, Fas. i. 420; ætla ek þetta munu vera fyrir feigð yðvarri, a foreboding that you are ‘fey,’ Fms. v. 66; því at hón feigð fíra fjöl-margra sá, Gs. 20; þú sátt þegar í dag feigðina á honum, thou sawest the ‘fey-tokens’ on him to-day, Fms. xi. 154; þær (the Valkyrjur) kjósa feigð á menn ok ráða sigri, Edda 22: cp. the phrase, feigð kallar að e-m, the ‘feigð’ (death) calls upon him, one behaves as a ‘fey’ man. feigðar-orð, n. or feigðar-yrðr, f. the death-weird, Ýt. 1.

feig-ligr, adj. looking ‘feylike,’ Al. 30.

FEIGR, adj., [this interesting word still remains in the Dutch a veeg man and in the Scot. fey; cp. A. S. fæge, early Germ. veige; in mod. Germ. feig, but in an altered sense, viz. coward, craven, whence mod. Dan. feig]:—in popular language a man is said to be ‘fey’ when he acts in an unusual or strange manner, as when a miser suddenly becomes open-handed, Icel. say, eg held hann sé feigr, I hold that he is ‘fey;’ cp. feigð; or when a man acts as if blinded or spell-bound as to what is to come, and cannot see what all other people see, as is noticed by Scott in a note to the Pirate, ch. 5; again, the Scottish notion of wild spirits as foreboding death is almost strange to the Icel., but seems to occur now and then in old poetry, viz. mad, frantic, evil; svá ferr hann sem f. maðr, he fares, goes on like a ‘fey’ (mad) man, Fagrsk. 47 (in a verse); alfeig augu = the eyes as of a ‘fey’ man, Eg. (in a verse); feigr (mad, frantic) and framliðinn (dead) are opposed, Skm. 12; feikna fæðir, hygg ek at feig sér, breeder of evil, I ween thou art ‘fey,’ Skv. 3. 31, and perhaps in Vsp. 33, where the words feigir menn evidently mean evil men, inmates of hell; cp. also Hbl. 12, where feigr seems to mean mad, frantic, out of one’s mind:—cp. Scott’s striking picture of Kennedy in Guy Mannering. II. death-bound, fated to die, without any bad sense, Hðm. 10; the word is found in many sayings—fé er bezt eptir feigan, Gísl. 62; skilr feigan ok úfeigan, Bs. i. 139, Fb. iii. 409; ekki má feigum forða, Ísl. ii. 103, Fms. vi. 417, viii. 117; ekki kemr úfeigum í hel, 117; ekki má úfeigum bella, Gísl. 148; allt er feigs forað, Fm. 11; fram eru feigs götur, Sl. 36; verðr hverr at fara er hann er feigr, Grett. 138; þá mun hverr deyja er feigr er, Rd. 248; bergr hverjum nokkut er ekki er feigr, Fbr. 171, Sturl. iii. 220, all denoting the spell of death and fate; it is even used of man and beast in the highly interesting record in Landn. 5. 5; cp. also the saying, fiplar hönd á feigu tafli (of chess), the hand fumbles with a ‘fey’ (lost) game, also used of children fumbling with things and breaking them: the phrases, standa, ganga feigum fótum, with ‘fey’ feet, i. e. treading on the verge of ruin, Ísl. ii. (in a verse); mæla feigum munni, to talk with a ‘fey’ mouth, of a frantic and evil tongue, Nj. 9, Vþm. 55; göra e-t feigum hondum, with ‘fey’ hands, of an evil doer causing his own fate, Lv. 111; fjör og blær úr feigum nösum líðr, Snót 129: of appearances denoting ‘feigð,’ vide Nj. ch. 41, Glúm. ch. 19, cp. Hkv. Hjörv. (the prose), Am. 26, Heiðarv. S. ch. 26, Nj. ch. 128, the last two passages strongly resembling Homer’s Od. xx. (in fine), Ísl. Þjóðs. ii. 551, 552; gerum vér sem faðir vár vill, þat mun oss bezt gegna; eigi veit ek þat víst, segir Skaphéðinn, því at hann er nú feigr, Nj. 199; en fyrir þá sök at Þormóðr var eigi f., slitnaði …, Fbr. 160; en fyrir gný ok elds-gangi, ok þat þeir vóru eigi feigir, þá kómusk þeir undan, Fs. 84; ætla ek at ek sé eigi þar feigari en hér …, þat er hugboð mitt at þeir muni allir feigir er kallaðir vóru, Nj. 212; þat hefir Finni sét á þér, at sá mundi feigr, er þú segðir drauminn, Lv. 70, Fms. iii. 212; vilja e-n feigan, to wish one’s death, Nj. 269, Fms. iii. 70, 190.

feikinn, feikn (feikr, Lil. 9), adj. awful, monstrous, Hdl. 39.

FEIKN, f. [A. S. fæcen], portent, Skv. 3. 31, Landn. 153 (in a verse); in compds feikna- denotes portentous, immense. COMPDS: feikna-lið, n. an immense host, Hkv. i. 32. feikna-mikill, adj. immense. feikna-veðr, n. a hurricane, Fas. ii. 117.

feikn-ligr, adj. terrible, Nj. 185, v. l.

feikn-stafir, m. pl. [A. S. fácen-stafas], banes, evils, Gm. 12, Fas. i. (in a verse): baleful runes, Sl. 60.

FEILA, að, [early Germ. feilen, mod. fehlen, usually derived from Lat. fallere], to falter, be shy; Sinfjötli lét sér ekki feilask, Fas, (Völs. S.) i. 133; mod., feila sér, id. This word hardly occurs before the 14th century; cp. however fól, fælinn, fæla, which are all of Teut. origin.

feilinn, adj. faltering, shy, vide ú-feilinn.

feima, u, f. [prob. of Gaelic origin, fjamh = fear, Armstrong], poët. a bashful girl, a young lass, in Edda 108, Gl., Rm. 22, Fms. xi. (in a verse of the year 994).

feiminn, adj. bashful, and feimni, f. shyness, bashfulness.

feita, tt, to fatten, K. Þ. K. 130, Hm. 82, Hom. 72, Greg. 44.

feiti, f. fatness, Stj. 106, 309.

feiting, f. fattening, Eb. 316.

feit-laginn, part. disposed to grow fat.

feit-leikr, m. fatness, ubertas, Stj. 167.

feit-meti, n. fat meat, butter, etc.

FEITR, adj. [Lat. pinguis; Gr. πίων; A. S. fætt; Engl. fat; Hel. feit; early High Germ. feiss; mod. but Low Germ. form fett; Dan. feed; Swed. fet]:—fat, Nj. 52, Eg. 137, Fbr. 19, Lv. 18, Fms. i. 36, v. 93, x. 303, Stj. 42; vide fita.

feit-æti, n. = feitmeti; feit-ætr, adj. liking fat.

FEL, f. [fill or fela = a maw, Ivar Aasen], the rough inside of an animal’s maw. β. metaph. a ragged coat: hann lagði í felina (acc. sing. with the article), he pierced the rags of the cloak, Lv. 85.

FELA, pret. fal, 2nd pers. falt, pl. fálu; pres. fel; pret. subj. fæli; part. fólginn: in mod. usage, pret. faldi, part. falinn, and sup. falið, with weak declension, if in the sense to hide; but fól, pl. fólu, part. fólginn, if in the sense to commend; thus, undir trjánum sig faldi, Pass. 33. 6; einn fyrir engum faldist, 33. 7; but, þá Frelsarinn í Föðurs hönd fól nú blessaðr sína önd, 45. 1; fól and falinn, however, never occur in old MSS.:—[Ulf. filhan = κρύπτειν, θάπτειν; Hel. bi-felhan; O. H. G. felahan; Germ. be-fehlen and emp-fehlen; Lat. se-pēlio contains the same root, properly meaning to hide, shut up: cp. Engl. bury, which really means to hide.] I. to hide, conceal; allt veit ek Óðin, hvar þú auga falt, Vsp. 22; þú falt fé þitt í svá mikilli þoku, Band. 12; hrís-kjarrit þat er Vaði risi fal sverðit, Þiðr. 69, Gm. 37; fálu þeir gullit í Rín, Edda 76; tóku likit ok fálu þar, Ó. H. 225 (fólu, Hkr. ii. 380, wrongly); ek mun fela yðr her í gamma mínum, Fms. i. 9: barnit var fólgit, Fs. 60, Gullþ. 26; fel sverð þitt, sheathe thy sword, Fms. xi. 348; felðu (= fel þú) sverð þitt í umgörð, 656 C. 4; þær austr ok vestr enda fálu, Hkv. 1. 2; fólgit, hidden, preserved, Vsp. 31; fólginn, hid, Þkv. 7, 8; örlög fólgin e-m, fate hidden, in store for one, Vsp. 36, Akv. 16; fólginn endi lífs, poët. the hidden thrum of life, i. e. death, Ýt. 17. β. to bury, Ýt. 24; liggja fulginn, to lie buried (in a cairn), on a Runic stone, Rath 178. 2. metaph., hefir þú fólgit nafn hennar í vísu þessi, Eg. 325; fólgit í rúnum, Edda 47; yrkja fólgit, to use obscure phrases (in poetry), 110. 3. impers., fal þá sýn (acc.) milli þeirra, they lost sight of one another, with the notion of a hill or object coming between, Ó. H. 182; þegar er sýn fal í milli þeirra Egils, Eg. 545. 4. the phrase, fela e-n á brott (= in mod. usage koma e-m fyrir), to put one out (for alimentation), of one sick or old, a child, etc., Grág. i. 155; or, fela e-n inni, id.; sá bóandi er hann felr sik inni, the husbandman with whom he boards and lodges, 158; ef sá maðr andask er fólginn var inni, 155: of cattle, to put out to keep, nú felr maðr búfé inni at manni at fúlgu-mála réttum, N. G. L. i. 25; hence fúlga, q. v. = meðgjöf. II. to give into one’s keeping, entrust; hann fal Óðni allan þann val, he gave all the slain to Odin, Fas. i. 454; mey frumunga fal hann (entrusted to) megi Gjúka, Skv. 3. 4: to invest, auð hefi ek minn ílla fólginn, Fms. vii. 49 (in a verse). β. in the phrase, fela e-m e-t á hendi (mod. á hendr); þér fel ek á hendi, Skarphéðinn, at hefna bróður þíns, Nj. 154; fal hón sik ok allt sitt föruneyti á hendr lifanda Guði, Fms. i. 226; Kristi á hendi fólgin, 655 xxiii; fel’k þér á hendi ábyrgð hans at öllu, Grág. i. 245; fálu sik ok sálur sínar Guði Almáttkum á hendi, Bs. i. 139; at Jón Loptsson fæli Petri postula á hendi þá hjörð … en Jesus Kristr fal sína hjörð á hendr Föður sínum, 145; fela undir e-m, to put under one’s charge; er und einum mér öll um fólgin hodd Niflunga, i. e. all the hoard of Niflung is kept by me only, Akv. 26; fela ván sína alla undir Guði, 686 B. 2; mun hér öll vár vinátta undir felask, all our friendship will depend upon this, Eb. 130: a law term, skulu þeir fela undir eið sinn, they shall avouch it on their oath, Grág. i. 9; fela undir þegnskap sinn, to vouch upon one’s honour; þó rangt sé undir þegnskap fólgit, 33. III. reflex. to hide oneself; ek mun felask, Fs. 48: hann falsk í Kröflu-helli, Landn. 183; mörg leyni þau er felask mátti í, Fms. x. 218; í skógi þar er þeir höfðu fólgizk, Ó. H. 152; en fálusk at degi, id.; felask í faðmi e-m, to be shut in one’s arms, Hkv. 2. 27. 2. felask á hendi e-m, to put oneself in another’s hands, enter his service; Kolskeggr falsk á hendi Sveini Dana-konungi, Nj. 121.

FÉ-LAG, n. [this word and the following are of Scandin. origin, and found neither in early A. S. nor South-Teut. dialects; the Germans use genosse and genossenschaft; the E. Engl. felaw (mod. fellow) is a northern word]:—prop. a laying one’s fee together, i. e. fellowship, partnership, Grág. i. 330, ii. 72, 73 (passim); eiga félag saman, Fbr. 102; nú leggja menn félag sitt saman, ok verja ór einum sjóð, Jb. 406; skipta til félags, to share in partnership, Sks. 32; eiga félag við e-n, to be in partnership with one, Eg. 76; leggja félag við e-n, to enter into partnership with one, Fms. iv. 124; hafa félag við e-n, id., 296: Hallr fór milli landa, ok hafði félag Ólafs ens Helga konungs, Hall traded in divers countries, and was in partnership with king Olave, Ó. H. (pref.), Fb. iii. 239; leggja til félags, to contribute to a common fund, Fms. vi. 183, viii. 20: in the law even matrimony is a félag or partnership (between man and wife),—in respect to the common fund of mundr and heiman-fylgja, vide the Grág.—In COMPDS, denoting common: félags-bú, n. household in common, Sturl. i. 180; félags-fé, n. a common fund, Landn. 33; félags-görð, f. entrance in partnership, Grág. i. 331, Sks. 33, 632: a contract, nema annan veg hafi mælt verít í f. þeirra, Grág. i. 331; félags-hross, n. a horse owned in partnership with others, Grág. i. 436; félags-lagning, f. a ‘laying’ of, or entering into, partnership, Grág. i. 331; félags-maðr, m. a partner, Hkr. ii. 157, Sks. 32; félags-vætti, n. a witness in matters of félag, Grág. i. 330, v. l. II. a society, association; mann-félag, an association of men; mannlegt félag, etc.; vísinda-f., etc., literary society, is a modern turn of the word, and scarcely occurs earlier than the 17th or 18th century. It is now used in a great many compds: the passage in Sd. ch. 5, p. 123, where it means agreement, is a sure proof that these chapters are spurious.

fé-lagi, a, m. [E. Engl. felaw, vide félag]:—prop. a ‘fee-layer,’ i. e. a partner, shareholder of any kind, esp. in trade, Fbr. 74 new Ed., cp. konungs-félagi, a king’s partner, for the kings of old carried on trade, Fbr., Fb. iii. l. c.; sailors who had food in common were félagar; the law provides that even a poor man, if he contributes all that he has, is a lawful félagi, Grág. ii. 72; enda á hann hvárki félaga né mötu-naut, er einn í mötu-neyti ok á engan félaga, 73, passim in the Grág.: félaga-erfð, f. a partner’s inheritance, N. G. L. i. 50. β. in the law it is also used of married people (vide félag), a partner, mate, consort; hvat segir þú mér frá Hrúti félaga þínum, Nj. 12; ef því hjóna batnar heilsa er vitfirring hafði, þá skal þat hverfa aptr til félaga síns ok hjúskapar, Grág. i. 287; ek vil skilja við félaga minn, I wish to part with my mate, a formulary in pleading before a court of divorce, 326. 2. metaph. a fellow, mate, comrade; this sense of the word occurs as early as the old Hm. 51,—með hálfum hleif ok með höllu keri fékk ek mér félaga, where it however has some slight notion of partnership, with half a loaf and a half-drained cup I got me fellows; félagi is a frequent word in Icel., both ancient and modern, and used just as in English; gamansamr félagi, a merry fellow, Sks. 634; félagi minn ok frændi, my fellow and kinsman, Fms. x. 88; góðr félagi, a good fellow, Sks. 432: in addressing one, hverr ertu, f., who art thou, fellow? Fb. iii. 239: a dear fellow, þér mun ek þykkja úlíklega spyrja, f., Ld. 268; hversu hefir í dag at farit, f., Vápn. 4. β. in a pun, Fms. xi. 150. 3. mod. a fellow, member of a society.

félag-ligr, adj. ‘fellowlike,’ kind, H. E. i. 470.

félag-skapr, m. fellowship, partnership. Eg. 1. β. metaph. fellowship, friendship, Eg. 27; görðisk þar brátt f. góðr, they soon became intimate friends, Fms. iv. 127; binda saman lag sitt ok félagskap, to bind their fellowship together, enter into close alliance, 295; var þeirra f. at öllu merkilegr, Fs. 15; görðisk með þeim öllum enn mesti f., 29; þykki mér þú hafa lýst í því við mik mikinn félagskap, Boll. 346. II. association, mod. in many compds.

feld-kápa, u, f. = feldr, Ld. 274, v. l.; vide fellikápa.

FELDR, m., gen. feldar, pl. feldir, a cloak worn by the ancients, esp. one lined with fur; hvítr-f., a white cloak, Fbr. 145 sqq.; rauð-f., a red cloak, Landn. (a nickname); grá-f., a grey cloak, Hkr. i. 176; skinn-f., a skin cloak, Orkn. 326 (in a verse); bjarn-f., q. v., a bear-skin cloak; röggvar-f., a woollen cloak, Grett. 114; varar-f., a common cloak; loð-f., a shaggy cloak, a fur cloak, = loði; blá-f., a blue cloak, N. G. L. i. 74; feldr fimm alna í skaut, a cloak measuring five ells square, Korm. 86; a feld four ells long and two ells broad, Grág. i. 500, was in trade the usual size, but here the ell is a ‘thumb ell,’ measuring only about sixteen inches; stutt-f., a short cloak, Fms. vii. 152 (a nickname); feldr, kápa, and skikkja seem to be synonymous, cp. Ls. ch. 14, 15, Glúm. ch. 3, 8, Grett. ch. 23, Lv. ch. 17. Tac. Germ. ch. 17—‘tegumen omnibus sagum, fibulâ, aut, si desit, spinâ consertum;’ the cloaks were often made of (or lined with) costly furs, Glúm. ch. 6; breiða feld á höfuð sér, to wrap the head in a cloak, Nj. 164, Kristni S. ch. 11, Fms. vi. 43 (Sighvat), as a token of deep thinking: feldar-dálkr, m. a cloak-pin, Hkr., vide dálkr; feldar-röggvar, f. pl. the patches or ‘ragged’ hairs on the outside of a cloak, Lv. 55, cp. Grág. i. 500; feldar-skaut, n. (-blað, n., Finnb. 342), a cloak’s skirt, Fb. i. 416; feldar-slítr, n. pl. the tatters of a cloak, Grett. The etymology of feldr is uncertain, scarcely from Lat. pellis, but rather from falda, to fold, wrap; even Tacitus, l. c., makes a distinction between the ‘sagulum’ (= feldr) and ‘ferarum pelles,’ the latter being a mark of more savage habits, such as that of the berserkers; feldr is never used of a woman’s cloak (möttull, skikkja); the passage Fm. 43 is corrupt: the phrase, það er ekki með feldi, it is not right, something is wrong, is a corrupt form instead of með felldu, part. from fella, q. v.

feljóttr, adj. [filled, Ivar Aasen], shabby; f. sem laki, rough as a sheep’s maw, Fbr. 156.

FELL, n. a fell, wild hill, Hrafn. 4, Ísl. ii. 76, passim: freq. in local names; Helga-fell, Mos-fell, Mið-fell, Meðal-fell, Þórólfs-fell, and Fell alone, vide Landn. In Icel. fell is a single hill, and in pl. a range of hills; fjall (= Lat. mons) is a general name.

fell, n. [cp. Lat. pellis, A. S. fell, etc.], skin; occurs only in such compds as bók-fell. bjarn-fell; cp. ber-fjall and fjallaðr.

FELLA, d, a weak causal verb, answering to the strong neuter form falla; [absent in Goth.; A. S. fellan; Engl. fell; Germ. fällen; O. H. G. fallian; Swed. fälla; Dan. fælde.]

A. [Answering to falla A], to fell, make fall; fella við, to fell timber, Fms. ii. 84; fella mann, to fell a man, defined in the law, Grág. Vsl. ch. 3, cp. ch. 31; fella tár, to let tears fall, Sighvat; fella mel-dropa, to let the drops fall, Vþm. 14; fella segl, to take down sails, Bárð. 14; fella jörð undir e-m, to make the earth slip under one (by means of sorcery), Bs. i. 12; fella vatn í fornan farveg, to make the stream flow in its old bed, Grág. ii. 281. 2. to fell or slay, in battle, Eg. 80, 296, 495; Bróðir felldi Brján, Nj. 275; fella e-n frá landi, to slay or dethrone a king; hann hafði fellt hinn helga Ólaf konung frá landi, Orkn. 82; var felldr frá landi Haraldr Gráfeldr, H. Graycloak was slain, Fær. 38; síðan felldu þeir frá landi Hákon bróður minn, Fms. viii. 241, v. l.; fella her, val, etc., to make havoc, slaughter, (val-fall, strages), Lex. Poët. β. to lose sheep or cattle from cold or hunger (v. fellir); var vetr mikill ok felldu menn mjök fé sitt, Sturl. iii. 297. II. to make to cease, abolish; hann felldi blót ok blótdrykkjur, Fms. x. 393; f. niðr, to drop, put an end to, abandon; var hans villa svá niðr felld, Anecd. 98; þat felldi hann allt niðr, Fms. vii. 158; ef þú fellir niðr (gives up) þann átrúnað, ii. 88: to drop a prosecution, a law term, at konungr mundi þetta mál ekki niðr fella, vii. 127 (cp. niðr-fall at sökum); fella ræðu sína, to close one’s speech, ix. 331; þar skal niðr f. þrjá-tigi nátta, there shall [they] let drop thirty nights, i. e. thirty nights shall not be counted, Rb. 57; fella boð, f. herör, to drop the message, not let the arrow pass, N. G. L. i. 55, Gþl. 83 (vide boð, p. 71); fella skjót, to fail in supplying a vehicle, K. Á. 22. 2. to lower, diminish; fella rétt manns, fella konungs sakar-eyri, Gþl. 185; hann skal fella hálfri mörk, [they] shall lower it, i. e. the value shall be lowered by half a mark, Grág. ii. 180. 3. the phrases, fella heitstrenging (eið) á sik, to bring down on one’s head the curse for a breach of faith (vow, oath, etc.), Hrafn. 8. 4. fella hold af, to starve so that the flesh falls away, K. Á. 200, K. Þ. K. 130; hence fella af, absol. ellipt. to become lean, starved; cp. af-feldr: the phrase, f. blótspán, q. v., p. 71; fella dóm, to pass sentence, is mod., borrowed from Germ.

B. [Answering to falla B], to join, fit: I. a joiner’s term, to frame, tongue and groove; fella innan kofann allan ok þilja, Bs. i. 194; felld súð, a framed board, wainscot, Fms. vi. (in a verse), hence fellisúð; fella stokk á horn, to put a board on the horns of a savage bull, Eb. 324; eru fastir viðir saman negldir, þó eigi sé vel felldir, the boards are fast when nailed together, they are not tongued and grooved, Skálda 192 (felling); fella stein í skörð, to fit a stone to the crevice, Róm. 247: metaph., fella lok á e-t, to bring to an end, prop. to fit a cover to it, Grág. i. 67: also a blacksmith’s term, fella járn, to work iron into bars, Þiðr. 79. II. metaph. in the phrases, fella ást, hug, skilning, etc., til e-s, to turn one’s love, mind, etc., towards one; fellim várn skilning til einskis af öllum þeim, Stj. 4; Geirmundr felldi hug til Þuríðar, G. fell in love with Th., Ld. 114; Þórðr bar eigi auðnu til at fellasvá mikla ást til Helgu, sem vera átti, i. e. they did not agree, Sturl. i. 194; fella bæn at e-m, to apply prayer to one, beg of him, Ísl. ii. 481; fella sik við e-t, to fit oneself to a thing; ek hefi byrjað þitt erindi, ok allan mik við fellt, and have done my best, 655 xxxii. 13; felldi Þorkell sik mjök við umræðuna, Th. took a warm part in the debate, Ld. 322; hence such phrases as, fella sig (eigi) við e-t, to take pleasure (or not) in a thing; fella saman orð sín, to make one’s words agree, Grág. i. 53: to appropriate, fellir hann með því dalinn sér til vistar, Sd. 137. III. part. felldr, as adj. = fallinn; svá felldr, so fitted, such; með svá felldum máta, in such a way, Rb. 248; vera vel (illa etc.) felldr til e-s, to be well (ill) fitted for a thing, Fms. xi. 76; gamall ok þó ekki til felldr, Bs. i. 472, Fms. iii. 70; Hallgerðr kvað hann sér vel felldan til verkstjóra, H. said he was well fitted to be her steward, Nj. 57, v. l.: neut., þér er ekki fellt (it is not fit for thee) at ganga á greipr mönnum Haralds, Fms. vi. 210; svá lízt oss sem slíkum málum sé vel fellt at svara, such cases are well worth consideration, Ld. 90; ekki héldu þeir vel lög þau nema þat er þeim þótti fellt, they observed not the rules except what seemed them fit, Hkr. i. 169; þeirrar stundar er honum þótti til fellt, the time that seemed him fit, Bs. i. 161: in many compds, geð-felldr, skap-f., hug-f., pleasant, agreeable; hag-felldr, practical; sí-felldr, continuous.

fella, u, f. [Engl. falling], framework, a framed board, Fas. i. 393.

felli-, in compds: I. a falling off; felli-sótt, f. sudden illness, Fær. 190; felli-vetr, m. a hard winter when the cattle die, Sturl. i. 127, Ld. 120. II. a joining, framing; felli-hurð, f. a wainscotted door, Art. (Fr.); felli-kápa, u, f. a plaid, Ld. 274; felli-stokkr, m. a kind of plane Pm. 13, 112, 124; felli-súð, f. a kind of frame or wainscot, opp. to skar-súð.

felling, f. I. a felling, knocking down, Grág. ii. 133. II. a joining, framing, Skálda 192, Fas. i. 229. β. the folds of a garment.

fellir, m. death, esp. of cattle, Ann. 1377, 1380; vide mann-fellir.

fellu-járn, n. wrought iron, Grág. i. 501.

felmta, t, mod. felmtra, að,—en hjartað mitt á flótta fer | felmtrað í brjósti lyptir sér, Snót 128. [fálma]:—Lat. trepidare, to be in a state of fright and alarm; fari menn stilliliga ok felmti eigi, Fms. vii. 262; sá maðr felmti mjök, Bret. 90; felmtandi maðr, a man who has lost his head, Sks. 383.

FELMTR, m. [fálma], alarm, fear; f. eða flótti, Fms. i. 45, viii. 226. felms-fullr (or felmts-fullr), adj. alarmed, frightened, Fms. i. 217, Orkn. 16, Grett. 124.

felmtr, part. frightened; fara f., Njarð. 370: cp. the phrase, e-m verðr felmt, to be terrified, panic-stricken, Nj. 105, Fms. viii. 189, v. l.

felur, f. pl. a lurking-place; hlaupa í felur, to run and hide oneself.

FEN, n., gen. pl. fenja, dat. fenjum, [Ulf. fani = πηλός; A. S. fenn; Engl. fen; O. H. G. fenna; Dutch venn; a word common to all Teut. idioms]:—a fen, quagmire, Symb. 26 (of the Pontine marshes); mýrar ok fen, Hkr. iii. 227; fen eðr forað, Gþl. 383; kelda eðr fen, Ld. 204; fórsk þeim seint um fenin, the bogs, Fms. vii. 69; djúpt fen ok breitt fullt af vatni, a deep pool and broad, full of water, vi. 406, vii. 70, Orkn. 444, Eg. 577, 582, 767, Nj. 21, Eb. 326, Þorst. Síðu H. 186.

féna, að, to gain, profit; heldr fénar nú, Fms. vi. 349; fénaði þér nú, i. 167: reflex., Fas. iii. 4.

fénaðr, m. pl. ir, [answers to Lat. pecunia as fé to pecus], sheep, cattle, Nj. 119, Fms. ii. 92, xi. 33, Bárð. 170, Eg. 219, Ísl. ii. 155, Gþl. 119; menn ok f., man and beast, Grág. ii. 164, Fms. i. 266.

fengari, a, m. [Byzant. φεγγάρι], the moon, an απ. λεγ., Edda (Gl.)

fengi-ligr, adj. (fengi-liga, adv.), promising. a good haul, Bs. ii. 133.

feng-lítill, adj. of little value, Sturl. ii. 182, 238, Fms. vi. 367.

FENGR, m., gen. jar, pl. ir, (fengi, n., Fms. vii. 213, xi. 83, Hom. 130), [fá, fanga], a haul, take, of fish, K. Á. 90: gain, booty, Fær. 70, Fms. v. 287, Hkr. ii. 73: a store, supply, Ísl. ii. 138.

fen-grani, a, m. a kind of fish, Edda (Gl.)

feng-samr, adj. making large provision, Nj. 18, Bs. i. 652.

feng-semi, f. being fengsamr, Bs. ii. 88.

feng-sæll, adj. making a good haul, Sturl. i. 77.

fenjóttr, adj. fenny, boggy, Fms. x. 261.

FENNA, t, to be covered with snow (fönn); fennt yfir ofan, Bs. i. 196: impers., fennti fé (acc.), the sheep perished in the snow, Ann. 1380.

FENRIR, m. the monster wolf of heathen mythology, Edda, Vþm., Ls.

FER-, in compds, in fours: fer-elingr, m. four ells long, of a fish, Finnb. 220. fer-falda, að, to make fourfold, Stj. 148. fer-faldr, adj. fourfold, Rb. 334, El. 13, Fas. ii. 215, 343, Sturl. iii. 206, 656 A. 33. fer-fætingr, m. a quadruped, 656 C. 8. fer-fættr, adj. four-footed, Stj. 56, Sks. 628, Fas. iii. 272, N. G. L. i. 82; fjór-f., id., Sks. 628 B. fer-hyrndr, part. four-cornered, square, Stj. 57, 171, 205, Al. 109. fer-hyrningr, n. a square. fer-menningr, m. a fourth cousin, vide fjór-menningr. fer-nættingr, m. a period of four nights, K. Á. 182. fer-skepta, u, f. a stuff with fourfold warp, Vm. 52, 93, 115, Am. 50, 90, Jm. 9. fer-skeyta, tt, to square, 415. 18. fer-skeyttr, part. ‘four-sheeted,’ square, Edda, 623. 24: mathem., ferskeytt tala, a square number, Alg. 366; ferskeytt vísa, a quatrain, like the common ballad metre, as in the ditty—yrkja kvæði ólán bjó | eptir flestra sögu | en gaman er að geta þó | gert ferskeytta bögu. fer-skiptr, part. divided into four parts, Stj. 148, v. l. fer-strendr, adj. four-edged, Eg. 285, Sturl. ii. 134, Magn. 450. fer-söngr, m. a quartett, Bb. 2. 11. fer-tugandi, fer-tugasti, adj. fortieth, Fms. x. 73, v. l. fertug-faldr, adj. fortyfold, Stj. 147. fer-tugr (-tögr), adj. forty years old, Stj. 624, N. G. L. i. 106, Fms. iii. 26:—measuring forty (ells, fathoms, etc.). Fas. i. 298, Stj. 563; fertug drápa, a poem of forty verses, Fms. iii. 93; f. at rúma-tali. numbering forty ‘rooms,’ Fb. ii. 277. fer-ærðr, adj. four-oared, Ísl. ii. 74. fer-æringr, m. a four-oared boat. fer-ærr, adj. four years old, Dipl. ii. 16.

FERÐ, f. (farðir, pl. exploits, Haustl.), travel, journey, Fms. i. 3, iv. 3, Nj. 7, Ísl. ii. 126, Ann. 1242, Sturl. iii. 38, Ld. 96, Dipl. v. 18; ekki verða allar ferðir til fjár (a saying); um-f., a round, circuit; vel-f., welfare. COMPDS: ferða-bók, f. a book of travels, Dipl. v. 18. ferða-hugr, það er kominn á mig ferðahugr, of the restless feeling of one about to start on a journey. ferða-lag, n. travelling, Þórð. 64. ferða-maðr, m. a traveller, Stj. 400. Sturl. i. 89. ferðar-broddr, m. the van, Fms. viii. 400, Fas. ii. 178, Ld. 96. ferðar-leyfi, n. leave to travel, Stj. 406. ferðar-mót, n. a meeting, Hkr. ii. 194: ferð is very freq. in compds, whereas för (q. v.) is more obsolete. II. á-ferð, the texture of cloth.

fer-dagaðr, adj. four days old, Post. 640 (John xi, 17).

ferðask, að, dep. to travel, 655 xxxii. 20, Sturl. i. 24, Fms. ii. 136, Ísl. ii. 359.

ferð-búinn, part. (ferðar-búinn, Fms. vii. 3, Boll. 356, Finnb. 248), boun, i. e. ready, for a journey, Þórð. 69, Boll. 356.

ferð-lúinn, adj. weary from travelling, Bárð. 181.

ferð-ugr, adj. [borrowed from Germ. fertig], well-doing; vin sæl ok vel ferðug, Bs. i. 264: fit, belgir með ferðugum skinnum, Vm. 177.

fergin, n., botan. veronica, Hjalt.

fergir, m. [farg], poët. an oppressor, enemy, Lex. Poët.

fergja, ð, [farg], to press, lay under pressure: so also fergja, u, f. a pile or heap; fann-fergja, heaps of snow.

FERILL, m., dat. ferli, a track, trace, Eg. 579, Gþl. 448; kross-f., Pass. 11. 3; lífs-f., the course of life; blóð-f., q. v. β. the phrase, vera á ferli, to be on one’s legs, rise, be out of bed, Nj. 55, Grett. 145 (Ed. felli); vera snemma á ferli, to rise early. II. of persons, a traveller, esp. in pl. and in the compds, Róm-ferlar, pilgrims to Rome; veg-ferill, q. v., a way-farer.

ferja, u, f. a ferry, Bs. i. 355, D. I. i. 319, 320, Ld. 56, 324. COMPDS: ferju-ár, f. a ferryman’s oar, Sturl. ii. 70. ferju-búi, a, m. one who lives near a ferry, Grág. ii. 267. ferju-hald, n. charge of a ferry, Grág. ii. 266. ferju-karl, n. a ferry carle, ferryman, Sæm. 62. ferju-land, n. land belonging to a ferry, D. I. i. 319. ferju-maðr, m. a ferryman, Vm. 16: the inmate of a ferry-house, Sd. 226. ferju-máldagi, a, m. a ferry contract, D. I. i. 320. ferju-skattr, m. a ferry-toll, Þiðr. ferju-skip, n. a ferry-boat, Bs. i. 354. ferju-smíði, n. building a ferry, Þórð. 62. ferju-staðr, m. a ferry place, Vm. 15. ferju-stútr, m. the post to which a ferry-boat is fastened, Fbr. ferju-tollr, m. a ferry-toll, Þiðr.

ferja, old form farði, Fms. vi. (in a verse), Vellekla; pl. förðu, Grág. i. 274; part. farðr, K. Þ. K. 24, Blas. 5, Grág. ii. 267; acc. förðan, i. 273 (Kb., Ed. Arna-Magn. færðan wrongly); pres. ferr, Grág. i. 272; imperat. fer, Hbl. 3; mod. pret. ferjaði, Fms. v. 182, K. Á. 12: [Engl. ferry, cp. Germ. färge]:—to transport, carry by sea, and esp. to ferry over a river or strait; ferja e-n af landi, to carry one abroad, Grág. i. 145; eigi skal þá ferja yfir vötn eðr reiða, K. Þ. K. 82; ferja e-n aptr, to carry one back, 24: as a law phrase, ú-ferjandi, outlawed, Germ. vogelfrei, Grág., Nj. passim.

fer-liga, adv. monstrously, Lv. 78, Rd. 273, Karl. 476, Stj. 3, Bs. i. 349. The syllable fer- in this and the four following words denotes anything monstrous, and seems akin to firn and firin, q. v.

ferlig-leikr, m. abnormity, monstrosity, Barl.

fer-ligr, adj. [cp. Scot. ferlie], monstrous, Fms. iv. 175, vii. 156, 162, Nj. 185, Orkn. 218, Bs. i. 802, Fas. i. 194: metaph. monstrous, Orkn. 164, Ld. 86, Hom. 115, Fms. v. 150.

fer-líkan, n., prop. a monstrous shape: medic. an abnormity, monster, Fas. iii. 654, Bs. ii. 33.

fer-líki, n. = ferlíkan, Fas. i. 244, Al. 95, Greg. 52, Barl. 87, Karl. 157.

ferma, d, [farmr], to load, Ld. 32, 86, Sturl. iii. 33. II. [Lat. firmare is from a different root], eccl. to confirm, K. Á. 148, N. G. L. i. 350.

fermi-dregill, m. a ribbon worn at confirmation, N. G. L. i. 16.

ferming, f. confirmation, K. Á. 20.

fern, adj. distrib. esp. in pl. = Lat. quaterni, in sets of four, Fb. i. 521, Nj. 150, K. Þ. K. 86, Grág. i. 4; vide einn.

ferri, compar. = firri, farther off, Kormak.

FERSKR, adj. [O. H. G. frisc; Germ. fersch; Engl. fresh], fresh, of food, meat, fish, fruit, etc.; ferskr fiskr, N. G. L. iii. 193; fersk grös, fresh herbs, Bs. i. 258; fersk lykt, a fresh smell, Clar. 85; ferskar gjafir, Stj. 109: scarcely used in a metaph. sense as in Engl.

FESTA, t, [fastr], to fasten; lím er festir allart vegginn, Rb. 390. 2. to fasten with a cord, to fasten a thing afloat; festa skip, to make a ship fast, moor it, Eg. 161, Fms. vii. 314; þeir festu sik aptr við lyptingina, they made the ship fast, ii. 327; festa hval, Grág. ii. 337; festa við, of drift-timber, id. β. to hang up; festa út til þerris, to hang out for drying, Ld. 290; ef maðr festir upp vápn sitt þar er sjálft fellr ofan, Grág. ii. 65; festa á gálga, to hang on the gallows, Am. 55, Hðm. 22, Fms. i. 89; festa upp, to hang up, Nj. 9, Fær. 188, Fms. vi. 273, ix. 410; festa í stagl, to make fast to the rack, 656 C. 38; cp. stagl-festa, 623. 51. II. metaph. in many phrases; festa trúnað, to fix one’s faith on, to believe in, Eg. 59, Fms. i. 100; festa yndi, to feel happy in a place, 135; festa hug við e-t, to fix the mind upon a thing, hence hug-fastr; festa bygð, stað, to fix one’s abode (stað-fastr, steadfast); festa ráð, to make one’s mind up, iv. 149; festa e-t í minni, to fix in the memory, Edda (pref.), Fms. iv. 116, hence minnis-fast; also absol., festa kvæði, to fix a poem in the memory, learn it by heart; Síðan orti Egill alla drápuna, ok hafði fest, svá at hann mátti kveða um morguninn, Eg. 421. 2. in law phrases, to settle, stipulate; festa mál, sáttmál, to make a settled agreement, Eg. 34, Fms. x. 355; festa grið, to make a truce, Grág. ii. 194; festa kaup, verð, to wake a bargain, 399; festa fé, to give bail, Gþl. 482, N. G. L. i. 23, Fms. vii. 290; festa eið, to pledge oneself to take an oath, Gþl. 539; festa járn, to pledge oneself to the ordeal of red-hot iron, Fms. vii. 230; festa dóm e-s, or f. e-m dóm, iv. 227, vii. 311, Hkr. i. 168, N. G. L. i. 23; festa eindæmi, q. v., Sturl. ii. 22; festa e-t í dóm e-s, id., Fms. vii. 302; festa e-t á dóm e-s, id., iv. 327; festa lög fyrir e-t (= lög-festa), to claim a thing as one’s lawful property, and thus forbid another any use of it, K. Á. 184, N. G. L. i. 154, Gþl. 333, Jb. 151–249 (passim), cp. Vídal. Skýr. s. v. festa: absol. to pledge oneself, Eysteinn konungr festi at gjalda hálfan fimta tög marka gulls, Fms. vii. 290. β. to bind in wedlock; Ásgrímr festi Helga dóttur sína, Asgrim (the father) bound his daughter in wedlock to Helgi (dat.), betrothed her to him, Nj. 40; létu þeir nú sem fyrr, at hón festi sik sjálf, she should bind herself, 49: also of the bridegroom, the bride in acc. as the bargain stipulated, festi Þorvaldr Hallgerði, 17; nú festir maðr sér konu, N. G. L. i. 350, Glúm. 351, cp, Grág. F. Þ. passim. III. impers. in a pass. sense, to cleave, stick fast to; spjótið (acc.) festi í skildinum, Nj. 43, 262; kemr í skjöldinn svá at festi, 70; rekr hann (acc.) ofan á vaðit ok festi þar á steini, stuck fast on a stone, of a thing floating, 108; við eðr hval festir í vatns-bökkum, timber or whales aground in the shoals, Grág. ii. 355; ef við rekr at ám ofan, ok festir í eyrum, and sticks on the gravel banks, id.; nema festi í miðju vatninu, id.; eld festir, the fire catches, takes hold, Fms. i. 128. β. medic., bein (acc.) festir, a bone joins (after a fracture); fót festir, the leg grows firm, Bs. i. 743, cp. Eb. 316 and Bs. 5. 424. IV. reflex. to grow to, stick fast to; nafnið festisk við hann, Ld. 52, Fas. i. 86; ryðr festisk, rust sticks to it, it grows rusty, 519; festask í landi, ríki, absol. to get a fast footing in the land, Fms. i. 32, xi. 343: the milit. phrase, bardagi, orrosta festisk, the battle closes up fast, when all the ranks are engaged, Sturl. iii. 63, Fms. ii. 313.

festa, u, f. a bail, pledge; svardagi ok f., Nj. 164, 240, Fms. iv. 268, 285, ix. 432, Eg. 227, Js. 40. COMPD: festu-maðr, m. a bail, surety, Fms. vii. 39.

festi-band, n. a cord, string, Sks. 627 B.

festi-liga, adv. firmly, Eg. 711, Bs. Laur. S.

festing, f. a fixing, fastening, Gþl. 462; festingar-hvalr, m. a whale driven ashore and secured, Jb. 320. 2. the firmament, Stj. 12, Fas. iii. 664; festingar-himin, m. id., Rb. 78, 110, Fas. l. c., 655 xvii. 3. = festar, betrothals (rare), K. Á. 112, Jb. 131, Gþl. 236; festingar-fé, n. = festarfé, Stj. 468; festingar-stefna, u, f. a betrothal-meeting, N. G. L. i. 382; festingar-váttr, m. = festarváttr, Jb. 162 A.

festív-ligr, adj. (-liga, adv.), festive (Lat. word), Bs. i. 791, Stj. 51.

festr (mod. festi), f., dat. and acc. festi, gen. festar, pl. festar:—prop. that by which a thing is fastened, a rope, cord, Grett. ch. 68, 69, vide Guðm. S. ch. 54, Bs. ii. 111, Fms. ix. 3, 219, Eg. 324, Sks. 419, Ísl. ii. 49:—the cable to moor a ship to the shore, Eg. 195, Jb. 314, 319, Grág. ii. 354; cp. skut-festar, land-f., stafn-f., bjarg-f.:—a trap (rare), Hrafn. 27. COMPDS: festar-auga, n. the loop or eye at the end of a rope, Grett. 141, Fas. ii. 369. festar-garmr (and -hundr), m. nickname of a sailor, Ld. festar-hald, n. holding the rope, Grett. 96, 141. festar-hæll, m. a fastening pin, put in the eye of the rope to secure it, Edda 20, Grág. i. 150, Grett. 141. festar-lauss, adj. without a festr, Vm. 29, 56. festar-stúfr, m. the stump of a rope, a rope’s end, Grág. ii. 361. festar-vörðr, m. watcher of the moorings, Jb. 407: a chain, gull-f., silfr-f.; ketil-f., a kettle-chain, whereon to hang the kettle in cooking, = hadda. II. metaph. and as a law phrase, bail; festar-penningr, m. a pledge, bail, Fms. x. 199, Stj. Gen. xxxviii. 17, Fas. iii. 548. III. esp. in pl. festar, betrothals; respecting this matter see the first eight chapters of the Festa-þáttr, in Grág. i. 305–319, and the Sagas passim, Ld. ch. 9, 23, 34, 43, 68, Nj. ch. 9, 13, 33, Gunnl. S. ch. 4, Band. 3, Lv. ch. 12, Hænsa Þ. ch. 11, Harð. S. ch. 3, Sturl. passim; festar fara fram, the betrothal is performed, Fb. ii. 196, Ld. 92, 186; sitja í festum is said of a bride between betrothal and wedding, Nj. 4. COMPDS: festar-fé, n. a dowry, Fms. x. 284, Stj. 468. 1 Sam. xviii. 25. festar-gjöf, f. id., D. N. festar-gull, n. a bridal ring, D. N. (does not occur in old writers). festar-kona, u, f. a betrothed woman, = Germ. braut, viz. from the betrothal to the wedding, Ísl. ii. 217. Fms. ii. 9, Grág. i. 355. festar-maðr, m. a betrothed man, Grág. i. 355, Gþl. 212. festar-mál, n. pl. betrothal, affiance, Lv. 33, Fms. vi. 395, x. 393. festar-mær (mod. festar-mey), f. a betrothed maid, = festarkona, Fms. iv. 164, v. 33, Þórð. 67, Fas. i. 412. festar-orð, n. = festarmál, Mar. festar-váttr, m. a witness at betrothals, Grág. i. 335. festar-öl, n. betrothal-ale, Fas. iii. 62. festa-váttorð and festar-vætti, n. a witness or evidence to a betrothal, Grág. i. 313, 330. Festa-þáttr, m. the section in the Icelandic law treating of betrothal, Grág. l. c.

FET, n. [Swed. fjät = a track; it answers to Lat. pĕd-is, fótr to Gr. ποδ-ός]:—a pace, step; ganga, stíga, feti framar, to go a step forward, Lv. 59, Skm. 40; ekki fet, not a step; hann gékk fram þrjú fet, Karl. 438; ganga níu fet, Vsp. 56; ok bar níu fet, Fms. i. 129; Jón gékk fet frá kirkjunni, ok féll þá niðr, Sturl. ii. 119; ganga, fara fullum fetum, to go at full pace, Fms. iv. 299, also used metaph. to proceed in one’s own course; með linlegum fetum, with slow steps, Sks. 629; fetum (dat.) as adv. at a pace, Akv. 13. 2. as a measure, a foot, and so in mod. usage, three palm breadths make a ‘fet,’ Hb. 732. 5; a wall five ‘fet’ thick, Grág. ii. 262; ‘fet’ is called a subdivision of ‘passus,’ Rb. 482; a tombstone fourteen ‘fet’ long, Hkr. i. 122; it may, however, mean a pace in Korm. 86, K. Þ. K. 98, and Karl. 396.

feta, in old writers strong, pret. fat, pl. fátu; in mod. usage weak, fetaði, and so in paper MSS., Fas. iii. 492; fötuðu, Bs. i. 291, is undoubtedly an error for fátu: I. to step, with the notion to find one’s way, of one walking in a fog or darkness, α. act. with acc.; feta braut, Eb. 208 (in a verse); feta leið (acc.), Grág. ii. 44; feta veg sinn, Bs. l. c.; menn fátu trautt leið sína í sumum stöðum, Ann. 1300, cp. Bs. i. 804. β. absol., feta burt ór völundar húsi, to find the way out of a labyrinth, Lil. 91; en svá fjarri ferr at ek feta (subj.) þangat, Fas. ii. 284; blindr ok fat eigi til dyranna, Orkn. 192; var ok svá at hann fat af því heim, Grett. 46 new Ed.; fátu þeir eigi heim, Fb. i. 97; ætlaði at hann mundi feta til síðarr, Landn. 146; ok fátu hvergi, and could not find the way, Fas. iii. 401. II. as an auxiliary verb with an infin.; hve ek yrkja fat, how I did make my poem, Höfuðl. 19; hve ek þylja fat, how I did speak, 3; faztú at árna, thou didst earn, Sighvat; ek fet smíða, I do (can) work, Fms. vi. 170; hann fat gerða, he did gird, Fagrsk. 48; ek fat kjósa, I did choose, Edda 229 (App.); ek fet inna, I do record, Rekst. 29, v. l.; this use, however, although freq. in the poets of the 10th century, became obsolete, and is never met with in prose. β. in mod. usage, to step, esp. in the phrase, feta í fótspor e-s, to step in one’s foot-prints; þó eg feginn feta vildi fótspor þín, Pass. 30. 10.

feti, a, m. a stepper, pacer, in compds, há-feti, létt-feti, mál-feti, a high-stepper, light-stepper, etc., poët. names of a race-horse.

feti, a, m. [fete, Ivar Aasen], the blade of an axe, Nj. 27, 209. 2. a strand in the thread of the warp.

fetill, m., dat. fetli, pl. fetlar; an older dat. form fatli (cp. katli) seems to be left in the phrase, bera hönd í fatla (qs. fatli), to carry the arm in a sling: [Germ. fessel]:—the strap by which a bag is hung on the shoulder, N. G. L. i. 349: the strap or belt of a shield or sword (skjaldar-fetill, sverds-f., Gr. τελαμών), umgörð ok fetlar, Fas. i. 414, El. 22, 33, Edda 123, N. G. L. ii. 422; hence the sword is in poetry called fetil-stingi, a, m. a ‘belt-pin,’ etc. fetla-byrðr, f. a burthen carried by straps, N. G. L. i. 143.

fet-mál, n. a measured step, pace.

fetta, tt, [fattr], to bend back; fetta fingr, to bend the fingers back; fetta fingr úti e-t, to criticise (unfairly); vide fingr.

fettr, adj. slender, = fattr.

fettur, f. pl. mimics, in the phrase, fettur og brettur.

FEYJA, ð, in mod. usage inserting g, feygja, [cp. fúinn], to let decay, go to ruin; hann feyr (mod. feygir) hús niðr fyrir óræktar sakir, he lets the house decay, Gþl. 332.

FEYKJA, t, [fjúka], to blow, drive away, with dat., Ps. i. 4, Rd. 272: absol., Fas. ii. 238: metaph., feykja at e-m, to rush at one, Al. 40; hann feykir (rushes) inn í húsit sem kólfi skyti, Fms. vii. 342.

feyra, u, f. mites in cheese, etc.; feyrðr, part. mity.

feyskinn, adj. [fauskr], rotten, esp. of timber.

FIÐLA, u, f. [A. S. fidele; Germ. fiedel], a fiddle, Fms. vii. 97, xi. 353 (in a verse); fiðlu-sláttr, playing on a fiddle, Hom. 106.

fiðlari, a, m. a fiddler, Hkr. i. 30.

fiðra, að, to touch or tickle with a feather; fiðringr, m. the effect of being tickled; fiðraðr, part. feathered, of arrows, Fas. ii. 173.

FIÐRI, mod. fiðr, n. feathers (vide fjöðr), Edda 46, Stj. 83, Fms. vi. 85 (in a verse); sængr-f., the feathers of a bed; álptar-f., swan feathers; gæsar-f., goose feathers; again, a quill is fjöðr.

fiðrildi, n. a butterfly, vide fífrildi.

fiðr-varinn, part. wearing feathers, of a bird, Fas. i. 477 (in a verse).

fika, að, in the phrase, fika sig upp, to climb nimbly as a spider.

fikta, að, to fumble, grope with a thing, as a child, (mod.)

fila, u, f. [vide fjöl], a deal, thin board, N. G. L. i. 75.

FILLA, u, f. the greasy fat flesh, e. g. of a halibut; esp. the thick film of the head, in vanga-filla, kinn-f., haus-f., hnakka-f.

filungr, m. one who cuts deals, N. G. L. i. 101, Gpl. 80. II. a bird, procellaria maxima.

fimask, að, dep. to hasten, Karl. 382, (rare.)

FIMBUL-, [cp. Germ. fimmel = an iron wedge; Bohem. fimol; Swed. fimmel-stång = the handle of a sledge-hammer; in Icel. obsolete, and only used in four or five compds in old poetry], mighty, great, viz. fimbul-fambi, a, m. a mighty fool, Hm. 103; fimbul-ljóð, n. pl. mighty songs, Hm. 141; fimbul-týr, m. the mighty god, great helper, Vsp. 59; fimbul-vetr, m. the great and awful winter preceding the end of the world, Vþm. 44; fimbul-þul, f. the roaring of a river, Gm. 27, Edda (Gl.); fimbul-þulr, m. the great wise man, Hm. 143.

fimi, mod. fimni, f. nimbleness; vide vápn-fimi.

fim-leikr (-leiki), m. nimbleness, agility, Fms. ii. 5, 170, vi. 5, 225. fimleika-maðr, m. a nimble man, Ísl. ii. 191.

fim-liga, adv. (-ligr, adj.), nimbly, Fms. ii. 268, Bær. 19.

FIMM, a cardinal numb. [Lat. quinque; Gr. πέντε; Goth. fimf; A. S. fif; Engl. five; Germ. fünf; Swed.-Dan. fem]:—five, passim; fimm sinnum, five times, passim. COMPDS: fimm-deila, u, f. the fifth part, Ám. 111. fimm-deila, d, to divide into five shares, Ám. 84. fimm-faldr, adj. fivefold, Sks. 416. fimm-nættungr, m. a law phrase, a summons with five nights’ notice, N. G. L. i. 124, K. Á. 182, v. l. fimm-tíu, indecl., old fimm-tigir, m. pl. fifty. fimm-tugandi, mod. fimm-tugasti, the fiftieth, 686 C. 1, Stj. 110, Orkn. 360, Greg. 73. fimm-tögr or fimm-tugr, adj. fifty years old, Fms. xi. 75:—measuring fifty (ells, fathoms, or the like), cp. áttræðr.

fimmta, að, to summon (v. fimt), Gþl. 423.

fimm-tán, a cardinal numb. fifteen, passim, fimmtán-sessa, u, f. a ship with fifteen seats, Hkr. i. 215.

fimm-tándi, an ordinal numb, the fifteenth, passim.

fimmti, an ordinal numb, the fifth, passim. fimmti-dagr, mod. fimtu-dagr, m. the fifth day, Thursday (vide dagr), 415. 8, Bs. i. 237, Rb. 112, Fms. v. 97; Nj. 274.

fimmtungr, m. the fifth part, Eg. 266, Fms. i. 23, Rb. 136, N. G. L. i. 79, Gþl. 283.

FIMR, adj. nimble, agile, in bodily exercise; fimr við leika, Fms. ii. 91; fimr ok hverjum manni görvari at sér um alla hluti, viii. 343; sterkr ok fimr, Hkr. i. 290; fimr ok skjótr, Fms. x. 314; fimr í orrostum, ii. 106:—neut. as adv. dexterously, speedily, bændum fór eigi fimt at reka flóttann, viii. 407; nú lát við fimt at leita duranna, Hom. 120; víg-fimr, skilled in fight; orð-fimr, mál-fimr, quick of tongue, eloquent: the prop. noun Fima-fengr prob. means nimble-fingered, Ls.

FIMT or fimmt, f. a number of five: fimtar-tala, u, f. a set of five or multiple of five (as fifteen, fifty, etc.), Bs. i. 190. 2. [Swed. femt = a kind of court], a law phrase, a summoning before a court with a notice of five days: a standing phrase in the Norse law, so that the verb fimta means to summon: so, fimtar-grið, n. pl. a truce during a fimt, N. G. L. i. 342, 351; fimmtar-nafn, n. a citation with a fimt’s notice, 86; fimmtar-stefna, u, f. a citation before a court with a fimt’s notice, K. Á. 184: the phrase gera e-m fimt simply means to summon, N. G. L. i. 346, passim; one fimt is the shortest notice for summoning, five fimts the longest,—fimm fimtum hit lengsta, ef hann veit nær þing skal vera, 21:—the law provides that no summoning shall take place on Tuesday, because in that case the court-day would fall on Sunday, the day of summoning not being counted, N. G. L., Jb., and K. Á. passim.—This law term is very curious, and seems to be a remnant of the old heathen division of time into fimts (pentads), each month consisting of six such weeks; the old heathen year would then have consisted of seventy-two fimts, a holy number, as composed of 2 × 36 and 6 × 12. With the introduction of the names of the planetary days (vide dagr) and the Christian week, the old fimt only remained in law and common sayings; thus in Hm. 73,—‘there are many turns of the weather in five days (viz. a fimt), but more in a month,’ which would be unintelligible unless we bear in mind that a fimt just answered to our week; or verse 50,—‘among bad friends love flames high for five days, but is slaked when the sixth comes;’ in a few cases, esp. in ecclesiastical law, sjaund (hebdomad) is substituted for the older fimt, N. G. L. passim; it is curious that in Icel. law (Grág.) the fimt scarcely occurs, as in Icel. the modern week seems to have superseded the old at an early time. COMPDS: Fimtar-dómr, m. the Fifth High Court in the Icel. Commonwealth, vide dómr, Grág. Þ. Þ., etc.; the form of the word is irregular, as it means the Fifth Court (added to the four Quarter Courts) = dómr hinn fimmti, as it is also called in Grág. Þ. Þ. ch. 24 sqq.; the old Scandin. law term fimt seems to have floated before the mind of the founders, as fimtar-dómr etymologically answers to Swed. femt, i. e. a court before which one has to appear a ‘fimt’ from the citation. Fimtardóms-eiðr, m. the oath to be taken in the Fifth Court, Grág. Þ. Þ. ch. 26. 27, Nj. 241; in Sturl. ii. 128 used of an oath worded as the oath in the Fifth Court. Fimtardóms-lög, n. pl. the institution of F., Íb. 13, Nj. 166. Fimtardóms-mal, n. an action before the Fifth Court, Nj. 231. Fimtardoms-stefna, u, f. a citation before the Fifth Court, Nj. 168. Fimtardóms-sök, f. a case to be brought before the Fifth Court, Grág. i. 360, Nj. 244. fimtar-þing, n. a (Norse) meeting called so, Js. 41.

FINGR, m., gen. fingrar, mod. fingrs; dat. fingri; pl. fingr; a neut. fingr occurs in O. H. L. 73, 74, which gender is still found in Swed. dialects; the acc. pl. is in conversation used as fem., an Icel. says allar fingr, not alla fingr: [Goth. figgrs; A. S. finger, etc.; whereas Lat. digitus and Gr. δάκτυλος etymologically answer to Icel. tá, Engl. toe, Germ. zehe, a finger of the foot]:—a finger, Grág. i. 498, Hkr. ii. 380, 384, Magn. 518, passim: the names of the fingers—þumal-fingr, the thumb; vísi-f., the index finger, also called sleiki-f., lick-finger; langa-töng, long-prong; græði-f., leech-finger, also, but rarely, called baug-f., digitus annuli; litli-f., the little finger. Sayings or phrases:—playing with one’s fingers is a mark of joy or happiness—leika fingrum (Rm. 24), or leika við fingr sér (sína), Fms. iv. 167, 172, vii. 172, Orkn. 324, mod. leika við hvern sinn fingr; also spila fingra, id., Fbr. 198; vita e-ð upp á sinar tíu fingr, to know a thing on one’s ten fingers, i. e. have at one’s fingers’ ends; fetta fingr útí e-t, to find fault with; rétta e-m fingr, digito monstrare, Grett. 117; sjá ekki fingra sinna skil, not to be able to distinguish one’s fingers, of blindness, Bs. i. 118: other phrases are rare and of foreign origin, e. g. sjá í gegnum fingr við e-n, to shut one’s eyes to a thing, etc.; fingr digrir, thick fingers, of a clown, Rm. 8; but mjó-fingraðr, taper-fingered, epithet of a lady, 36; fingra-mjúkr, nimble-fingered; fingrar-þykkr, a finger thick, Al. 165; fingrar gómr, a finger’s end, Fs. 62; fingra staðr, the print of the fingers, Symb. 59; fingrar breidd, a finger’s breadth. In the Norse law (N. G. L. i. 172) the fingers are taxed, from the thumb at twelve ounces, to the little finger at one ounce—not so in the curious lawsuit recorded in Sturl. i. ch. 18–27. Also a measure, a finger’s breadth, Nj. 27, cp. MS. 732. 5: arithm. any number under ten, Alg. 362: botan., skolla-fingr, a kind of fern, lycopodium. fingra-járn, n. a ‘finger-iron,’ a thimble (?), Dipl. v. 18. fingr-hæð, f. a finger’s height, as measure.

fingr-björg, f. [Swed. finger-borg], a ‘finger-shield,’ a thimble.

fingr-brjótr, m. a ‘finger-breaker,’ a false move in chess, but uncertain which, Fms. iv. 366.

fingr-gull, n. a ‘finger-gold’, a ring, Nj. 16, Boll. 356, Bs. i. 641, Fms. iv. 130, Worsaae 243–246, 381–383, 433 sqq.

fingr-höggva, hjó, to hew one’s finger off, Ann. 1342.

fingrungr, m. a finger-ring, Stj. 191.

FINNA, pret. fann, 2nd pers. fannt, mod. fanst; pl. fundu; pres. finn and finnr; in old MSS. and poetry freq. fiðr, Hm. 23, but finnr 63; pret. subj. fynda; part. fundinn; sup. fundit; the forms funnu and funnit may be found in MSS., but were probably never so pronounced; for even in Haustl. hund and fundu rhyme together; with the neg. suff. fannka, Hm. 38: [Ulf. finþan; A. S. findan; Engl. find; Germ. finden; Swed. finna; Dan. finde]:—to find; Finnar kómu aptr ok höfðu fundit hlutinn, Landn. 174; hann leitar ok fiðr, Ísl. ii. 321; Knútr hinn Fundni, Canute the Foundling, Fms. i. 112; hann herjaði á Ísland ok fann þar jarðhús mikit, Landn. 32; fundu þeir Hjörleif dauðan, 35; þar fundusk undir bein, Ld. 328. 2. to meet one; hversu opt hann fyndi smala-mann Þórðar, Ld. 138; ok vildi eigi finna Hákon konung, Fms. x. 3. β. to visit; en þó gakk þú at finna konung, Nj. 7; veiztu ef þú vin átt … far þú at finna opt, Hm. 120. 3. to find out, invent, discover: Þorsteinn er fann sumar-auka, Landn. 131, Ld. 12; Nói fann vín at göra, Al. 64, Stj. 191; rúnar munt þú finna, Hm. 143: hann fann margar listir, þær sem áðr höfðu eigi fundnar verit, Edda (pref.) β. to discover a country; leita lands þess er Hrafna-Flóki hafði fundit, Fms. i. 238: þá er Ísland fannsk ok bygðisk, Landn. 24; þá rak vestr í haf ok fundu þar land mikit, 26; land þat er kallat er Grænaland fannsk ok bygðisk af Íslandi, Íb. 9; í þann tíma fannsk Ísland, Eg. 15. γ. metaph. finna e-n at e-u, a law phrase, to bring a charge home to one, Fms. xi. 75; hence also, vera fundinn að e-n, to be guilty of a thing; vera ekki at því fundinn, to be not guilty of a thing; cp. the Engl. to ‘find’ guilty. II. metaph. 1. to find, perceive, notice, feel; þú fannt at ek lauss lifi, Fm. 8; Gunnhildr finnr þat, Nj. 9; fundu þeir þá brátt, at þangat var skotið öllum málum, Eb. 330; hitki hann fiðr þótt þen um hann fár lesi, Hm. 23; þá þat finnr er at þingi kemr, 24, 63; þeir fundu eigi fyrr en fjölmenni dreif at þeim, Fms. i. 136, Nj. 79. β. impers. fann þat á, it could be perceived, Eg. 51; fann þó mjök á Dofra, er þeir skildu, i. e. D. felt much at their parting, Fms. x. 175; fann litt á honum, hvárt honum þótti vel eðr illa, it was little to be seen, whether …, Eb. 42. γ. finna til, to feel hurt, feel a sore pang, is a freq. mod. phrase, but rarely occurs in old writers: finnr þú nökkut til hverr fjándskapr, etc., Anal. 175; en Aldrían fann ekkí til þessa sjálfr, áðr einn riddari tók brandinn af honum, Þiðr. 358; hence tilfinning, feeling. 2. to find, bring forward; finna e-t til, in support of a charge; ok finna þat til foráttu, at …, Nj. 15; hvat finnr þú helzt til þess, how dost thou make that out? 49; hann fann þó þat til, at …, Fms. vii. 258; Eyólfr fann þat til, at …, Nj. 244; hvat finnr þú til þess, what givest thou as the reason? Eb. 184; finna e-t við, to make objection to; hvártz hinn fiðr við, at hann sé eigi þar í þingi, Grág, i. 22; þá fundu þeir þat við, um gjaforð þetta, Fms. x. 87, v. l. 3. as a law phrase, to find money, to pay, lay out; hann skal eigi finna meira af fé því, en kaupa leg, Grág. i. 207; allra aura þeirra er úmaginn skal finna með sér, 206; ok slíka aura f. honum, ii. 210; á hann enga heimting til þess er hann fann við, Jb. 421 (MS.); ef maðr selr úmaga til frafærslu ok finnr fé með, Grág. i. 266; þeim þræli er hann hefir fulla verðaura fyrir fundit, 358; hence in the old oath, ek hefka fé boðit í dóm þenna, hefka ek fundit, ok monka finna, hvárki til laga né úlaga (where bjóða and finna are opposed, i. e. bjóða to offer, finna to pay actually), 75: hence is derived the law phrase, at finna sjálfan sik fyrir, to pay with one’s self, according to the law maxim, that ‘he that cannot pay with his purse shall pay with his body,’ used metaph. to pay dear, to feel sorely; kvað makligt at hann fyndi sik fyrir, Sturl. iii. 213, Eb. 154; skaltú sjálfan þik fyrir finna, Fms. iii. 110, xi. 256, Þorst. Síðu H. 9; the pun in Anal. 177 is a mere play of words. 4. finna at e-u, to censure, Fbr. 112, Edda (pref.), very freq. in mod. usage, hence að-finnsla and að-fyndni, censure; nearly akin is the phrase, þat eitt finn ek Gunnlaugi, at mér þykir hann vera úráðinn, that is the only fault I find with Gunlaug, Ísl. ii. 217; ef nokkut væri þat er at mætti finna, if there was anything to blame, Sks. 69 new Ed. III. reflex., 1. recipr. to meet with one another, Fms. i. 19, Nj. 8, 48; eigi kemr mér þat á úvart þótt vit finnimk á Íslandi, Fs. 20. 2. for some instances where the sense seems purely passive, see above. 3. freq. in a half passive reflex. sense, to be found, to occur; finnask dæmi til, examples occur, Gþl. 45; þat finnsk ritað, it is found written, occurs in books, Fms. ii. 153; finnsk í kvæðum þeim er …, Eg. 589. β. metaph. to be perceived, fannsk þat mjök í ræðu Erlings, Fms. vii. 258: adding á, fannsk þat opt á jarli, Nj. 46; fannsk þat á öllu, at, it was easy to see, that …, 17, 90; þat fannsk á Arnkatli goða, at …, Eb. 178. γ. finnask til e-s, to be pleased with a thing: impers., fannsk Grími fátt til hans, Grim was little pleased with him, Eg. 190; ekki fannsk Eiríki til þessa verks, Eric was not much pleased with it, Fs. 149; fannsk mér fleira til hans en annarra, I liked him better than the rest, Fms. i. 141; e-m finnst til e-s, to value; honum finnsk ekki til, he thinks naught of it, thinks it worthless; Fas. i. 317, freq. in mod. usage: finnask at e-u, to admire, Sighvat (obsol.): so in the phrase, láta sér lítið um finnask, to pay little heed to, rather dislike, Hkr. iii. 244; konungr lét sér ekki um þat finnask, Fms. iv. 195; lét hann sér fátt um finnask, vii. 29; Dagr lét sér ekki um finnask eðr fátt, iv. 382; Ölvi fannsk mikit um hann, O. admired him much, Nj. 41; fannsk mönnum mikit um tal þeirra, 18; honum fannsk um mikit, he was much surprised, Hkr. iii. 355: e-m finnsk, one thinks, it seems to one; mér finnsk sem hann hafi önga verki, methinks he feels no pain, Barl. 101: finnsk mér svá, at engi maðr, methinks that no man, 15: very freq. in conversation, with infin. it seems to me, methinks. IV. part. finnandi, a finder, 655 xii. 2; finnanda-spik, n. blubber which is the perquisite of the finder of a whale, Grág. ii. 383: part. pass. fundit, beseeming, nú mun ok vel fundit, at …, Anal. 173.

FINNAR, m. the Finns and Lapps; Finnr, m. a Finn; Finna and Finn-kona, u, f. a Finn woman, Fms. x. 378; Finn-mörk, f. Finmark, Fms. passim; Finnland, n. Finland; Finnlendingar, m. pl. the Finns; the name Lapps only occurs in Orkn. ch. 1. and Ann. of the 14th century; Finn-ferð or Finn-för, f. or Finn-kaup, n. travelling or trading with the Finns or Lapps, Fms. vii, Eg. 25, Hkr. ii. 162; Finn-skattr, m. tribute paid by the Finns, Eg. 53, Fms. vi. 377; Finn-skref, n. cargo in a Finn merchant ship, Fas. ii. 515. 516; Finnskr, adj. Finnic, Lapp, etc., vide Fms. passim. The trade with the Finns or Lapps was in old times regarded as a royal monopoly, cp. esp. Eg. ch. 10, 14. Ó. H. ch. 122, Har. S. harðr. ch. 104, 106. and the deeds and laws passim. II. again the Finns or Lapps were in old times notorious for sorcery, hence the very names Finn and sorcerer became synonymous, cp. Vd. ch. 12, Landn. 3. 2, Har. S. hárf. ch. 25, 34, Hkr. Ól. S. Tr. ch. 36; the law forbids to believe in Finns or witchcraft (trúa á Finn eðr fordæður), N. G. L. i. 389, 403:—often in the phrase, Finn-ferð, f. going to the Finns; fara Finn-farar, f. pl. (N. G. L. i. 350) and fara á Finn-mörk at spyrja spá (352) are used like Germ. ‘to go to the Blocksberg;’ Finn-vitka, að, to ‘Finn-witch,’ i. e. bewitch like a Finn, Fb. ii. 78; Finn-bólur, f. pl. or Finnar, m. pl., medic. ‘Finn-pox,’ pustules in the face, Fél. ix. 209; Finn-brækr, f. pl. ‘Finn-breeks,’ wizard-breeks, concerning which see Maurer’s Volkssagen.

finnerni, mod. firnindi, n. pl. a wilderness, desert, in the phrase, fjöll ok f., Fms. viii. 432.

finn-gálkn, n. (finn-galp, Fas. iii. 473, wrongly), a fabulous monster, half man, half beast, Nj. 183, Landn. 317. v. l., Fms. v. 246: the word centaur is rendered by finngálkn, 673. 2, Rb. (1812. 17); hence finn-gálknað, part. n. a gramm. term to express incongruous metaphors and the like, cp. Horace’s ‘desinit in piscem …,’ Skálda 187, 204.

finnungr, m., botan. juncus squarrosus; sinu-f., töðu-f., nardus stricta, Norse Finna-skæg = Finn’s beard.

FIPA, að, fipa fyrir e-m, to disturb, confuse one in reading or speaking: reflex., e-m fipast, one is confounded, in reading or talking.

fipla, að, to touch, finger, Grett. 203 A: for the proverb vide feigr; fiplanda í loptið upp, rendering of Lat. ‘inanes auras sectantem,’ Vitae Patrum (Unger).

fipling, vide fífling.

firi, n. an ebbing; see ör-firi.

firin-verk, n. pl. lechery, Hkv. 1. 40.

firn, n. pl. (mod. firni), [Ulf. fairina = αἰτία], an abomination, shocking thing; mæltu margir at slíkt væri mikil firn, Nj. 156, Fs. 62, Sturl. i. 12, Fms. vi. 38, Gullþ. 13; svá miklum firnum, Eg. 765; f. ok endemi, or heyr á firn, what a monstrous thing! Fms. vii. 21, 25: the saying, firnum nýtr þess er firnum fær, cp. the Lat. ‘male parta male dilabuntur,’ Fbr. 28, Grett. 16 new Ed.: gen. pl. firna-, used as a prefix to adjectives and nouns, shockingly. COMPDS: firna-djarfr, adj. mad, Fms. vii. 65, xi. 54. firna-frost, n. an awful frost, Hom. 87. firna-fullr, adj. awful, Fas. i. 24. firna-harðr, adj. violent, Fms. viii. 225. II. in mod. usage, firni = a great deal, a lot; firnin o:ll, a vast lot.

firna, að, [Ulf. fairinon = μωμασθαι], to blame, with acc. of the person, gen. of the thing, Hm. 92, 93; firnattu mik, blame not me, Korm. 100 (in a verse); firna e-n um e-t, id., Mork. 36.

firnari, compar. one degree farther, of odd degrees of cousinship. e. g. three on one side and four on the other, Grág. i. 50. 171, passim: cp. D. l. i. 385.

FIRRA, ð, [fjarri], to deprive one of a thing, with dat. of the thing, acc. of the person; þegar er hann firði Þórð augum, whenever he lost sight of Thord, Fms. vi. 201; firðr ríki ok fóstrlandi, bereft of kingdom and ‘fosterland,’ iii. 6; firra e-n festar-konu sinni, Grág. i. 314; firra konu ráði lögráðanda, 343, cp. Kb. ii. 50. β. to save, defend; viðr því firri (defend) oss Guðs son, Stj. 152; firra e-n ámæli, Fms. v. 307; firra e-n úhæfu. vi. 383; úhöppum, Lv. 94 (Ed. fríum). 2. reflex. to shun; firrask fund e-s, Eg. 70: hann vildi f. alþýðu þys, Fms. i. 272; firsk þú eigi gæfu þína, don’t shirk thy good luck, Glúm. 382; firrask e-n eðr flýja, Grág. i. 233; ef kona firrisk bónda sinn, if a wife elopes from her husband, 353, cp. Hm. 163; heilsa firrisk e-n, health departs from one, Sturl. ii. 114 C. II. part. firðr or firrðr, as adj. bereft of, void of, Skv. 2. 7, 3. 13, 24; vammi firð, faultless, holy, Stor. 23.

firri, adj. compar. farther, Nj. 124, (vide fjarr.)

firring, f. a shunning, removal, Bs. i. 740.

firtur, f. pl. fretfulness; firtinn, adj. fretful; firtast, t, dep. to fret.

firzkr, adj. from fjörðr, q. v., in a great many compds, Breið-firzkr, Ey-firzkr, Skag-firzkr, etc., Landn., Sagas, passim.

fiska, að, to fish, vide fiskja.

fisk-bein, n. a fish-bone, Blas. 40, Bs. i. 368.

fisk-bleikr, adj. pale as a fish, Fms. vii. 269.

fisk-gengd, f. a shoal of fish, Grág. ii. 350.

fisk-hryggr, m. a fish-spine, Fms. viii. 221.

fiski, f., irreg. gen. fiskjar (as if from fiskr), fishing, Grág. ii. 383, Gþl. 422, Bs. i. 360; leysa net til fiskjar, 656 C. 2; róa, fara til fiskjar, to go a-fishing, Edda 35, Bs. i. 654, Fas. ii. 113; fara í fiski, Grág. i. 150; róa á fiski, Gullþ. 5, Fbr. 158; róa at fiski, Bs. i. 654; öll fiski í Laxá, Am. 91. COMPDS: fiski-afli, a, m. fishing stores. fiski-á, f. a fish-river, Jb. 305. fiski-bátr, m. a fishing-boat, 625. 63. fiski-bekkr, m. a brook full of fish, Fr. fiski-brögð, n. pl. fishing, fiski-búð, f. a fishing-booth, Grág. i. 471. fiski-dráttr, m. catching fish. fiski-dugga, u, f., vide dugga. fiski-fang, n. a catch of fish, Eg. 130, Fms. xi. 225; in pl. stores of fish, Bjarn. 34. fiski-fýla, u, f. ‘fish-fouler,’ a nickname of one who returns without having caught any fish, fara fýlu, Finnb. 352. fiski-færi, n. fishing-gear. fiski-för, f. a fishing expedition, Gþl. 425. fiski-gangr, m., -ganga, u, f., and -gengd, f. a shoal of fish, Vigl. 22. fiski-garðr, m. a fish-pond, B. K. 119. fiski-gjöf, f. a contribution in fish, N. G. L. i. 257. fiski-gögn, n. pl. fishing-tackle, Gþl. 424. fiski-hylr, m. a fish-pond, Fr. fiski-karl, m. a fisherman, Fas. i. 6: metaph. a spider = dordingull, q. v. fiski-kufl, m. a fishing-jacket with a cowl or hood, Fms. vi. 388. fiski-ligt, n. adj. fit for fishing, Bs. ii. 141. fiski-lækr, m. a brook full of fish, Glúm., Karl. 486. fiski-maðr, m. a fisherman, Bs. i. 360, Blas. 38, Fms. vii. 121, 122. fiski-mál, n. the range within which fishing is carried on, Gþl. 461. fiski-mið, n. the place where the fish-shoals are. fiski-net, n. a fishing-net. fiski-róðr, m. rowing out for fish in an open boat, Eb. 26, 28, Bárð. 169. fiski-saga, u, f. fish-news, viz. of shoals of fish, in the saying, flýgr fiskisaga, Þjal. 35. fiski-setr, n. a fishing-place, Boldt. fiski-skáli, a, m. a fisherman’s hut, Fms. v. 305, Grág. i. 471. fiski-skip, n. a fishing-boat, 656 C. 2, Bs. i. 326. fiski-stöð, f. a fishing-place, N. G. L. i. 257. fiski-stöng, f. a fishing-spear, Gísl. 21. fiski-tollr, m. fish-toll, Vm. 149. fiski-vatn, n. a lake full of fish, Gþl. 455, Stj. 91; in pl. as local name, Ld. fiski-veiðr, f. a catching of fish, Fms. v. 232, Grág. ii. 337, Vm. 158, 170. fiski-vél, f. a fishing device, D. N. fiski-ver, n. a fishing-place, fishing, Fms. xi. 225, Pm. 74, Band. 4, Hkr. ii. 272. fiski-vist, f. a fisherman’s abode, Vm. 155.

fiskinn, adj. good at fishing.

fiskja, t; pret. pl. fisktu, Landn. 271; fiskþi, Grág. Kb. i. 132; fiskja, N. G. L. i. 139, Bs. i. 326; pres. fiskir, Grág. i. 470, 471; fiscar, Kb. i. 132, is undoubtedly wrong; fiskt (sup.), 656 C. 2: in mod. usage always að, and so in MSS. of the 15th century; pres. fiskar, Gþl. 427; pret. fiskaði, Bs. i. 360; pl. fiskaðu, Fas. ii. 111, B. K. 120:—to fish; fiskja síld, Fms. x. 22; karl fiskti þá ýsu, en áðr hafði hann fiskt löngu, Frissb. 255.

fisk-laust, n. adj. ‘fish-less;’ and fisk-leysi, n. bad fishing.

fisk-lýsi, n. fish-oil.

FISKR, m. [Lat. piscis; Ulf. fisks; A. S. fisc; Engl. fish; Germ. fisch; Swed.-Dan. fisk]:—a fish, of both sea and fresh-water fish, esp. cod, trout, salmon are often κατ ἐξ. called ‘fish,’ Sks. 180, Hkr. ii. 385; var þar undir f. nógr, Bárð. 169; at miði því er þik man aldri fisk bresta, id.; þar var hvert vatn fullt af fiskum, Eg. 134; fugla ok fiska, Grág. ii. 345, Sturl. ii. 165, passim; of the zodiacal fishes, 1812. 17:—different kind of fish, heilagr fiskr (mod. heilag-fiski), halibut, Þorf. Karl., Bs. i. 365; flatr f., id., Edda 35; hval-f., a ‘whale fish;’ beit-f. (q. v.), bait fish; ill-fiskar, ill or evil fishes, sharks; skel-f., shell fish; blautr f., fresh fish, N. G. L. iii. ch. 2, 5; skarpr f., dried fish, Bs. i. 209, 365, 367, in mod. usage harðr fiskr; freð-f. = frer-f., frozen fish, preserved by being frozen: as to fishing vide Hým. 17 sqq., Bs. ii. ch. 2, 87, Guðm. S. ch. 87, Nj. ch. 11, Edda l. c., Eb. ch. 11, Fbr. ch. 40, Landn. 2. 5, Ld. ch. 12, 58, Bárð. ch. 9, Rafn S. ch. 10, D. I. and Bs. passim in the Miracle-books: the section of law regarding this important branch of livelihood in Iceland is wanting in the present Grágás, proving that this collection is not complete, but in a fragmentary state. β. the flesh of a fish, for in Icel. the word flesh can only be used of a land-animal; thus, hvítr á fiskinn, having white flesh. II. metaph., kinn-fiskar, the flesh on the cheeks (of a man); kinnfiska-soginn, with sunken cheeks: the phrase, e-m vex fiskr um hrygg, one’s back gains muscle, i. e. one gains strength: fjör-fiskr, live fish, a phrase for spasms of the muscles, the ‘growing pains’ common in children,—the fjör-fiskr is said to bound or leap (sprikla), which is regarded as a sign of good health and growth. III. fish were used as units of value, each = half an ell’s worth (vide alin), esp. in southern and Western Icel., cp. fiskvirði; hence the standing phrase in the title-page of books of later times, ‘charge so many fishes.’ COMPDS: fiska-á, f. = fiskiá, Jb. 305. fiska-ferð, f. = fiskigangr, B. K. 119. fiska-kaup, n. the purchase of (dried) fish, Bjarn. 34. fiska-kyn, n. a kind of fish, Stj. 18. fiska-merki, n. the zodiac, Rb. 104. fiska-pollr, m. a fish-pool, Bret. fiska-skip, n. a fishing-vessel, Fms. v. 101. fiska-stöð, f. = fiskistöð, Ld. 4. fiska-stöng, f. = fiskistöng, Gísl. 104. fiska-tíund, f. fish-tithe, Vm. 173. fiska-tollr, fiska-ver, vide fiski-, Am. 3, Fms. iv. 330, and endless other compds.

fisk-reki, a, m. ‘fish-driver,’ a kind of whale, Edda (Gl.), Sks. 125; as a nickname, Eb., Landn.: fish drifted ashore, Vm. 18.

fisk-veiðr, fisk-ver, etc., vide fiski-.

fisk-virði, n. the value of a fish, about two-pence Engl.; cp. fiskr III.

fisk-æti, n. fish-meat.

FIT, f., pl. fitjar, gen. fitja, dat. fitjum, the webbed foot of water-birds, (hence fit-fuglar opposed to kló-fuglar), Grág. i. 416, Sks. 169: also of a seal, 179. fitja-skamr, adj. havinga short f. (of a seal), Ld. 56. 2. the web or skin of the feet of animals, flá fit af fremra fæti, ok göra af skó, N. G. L. i. 31, Fas. iii. 386, Fms. iv. 336. II. metaph. meadow land on the banks of a firth, lake, or river, Fms. iv. 41, Vm. 168; á fitjum ár þeirrar er fellr millum húsa, Krók. 38, Eg. 132; Agnafit (in Sweden), very freq. in Icel. names of places, vide Landn. 2. the edge or hem of a sock, knitted things, etc., hence fitja upp, to begin knitting a piece; dúkr fitja-lagðr, a hemmed kerchief, Pm. 99.

fita, u, f. [feitr], fat, grease, Fms. iii. 186; in many compds.

fit-fugl, n. a web-footed bird, water-bird, Sks. 169.

fitja, að, [cp. A. S. fettan, Engl. to fit], to web, knit; hann lét fitja saman fingrna, he webbed the fingers together, like the foot of a duck or seal, in order to swim better, Grett. 148. β. fitja upp sokk, etc., to ‘cast on’ a sock or the like, i. e. make the first stitches in knitting it: metaph., fitja upp á nef sér, to knit or screw up the nose in anger, Dan. ‘slaa kröller paa næsen;’ so in Engl. ‘to knit the brows.’

fitla, að, to finger, to fidget; f. með fingrinum, Clar.; and fitl, n. fidgeting.

fitna, að, to become fat, Karl. 448.

fit-skór, m. a shoe made of fit (I. 2 = hemingr), Fms. vii. 297.

FÍFA, u, f. [Gr. πάππος], cotton grass, eriophorum, Stj. 40; Icel. say, léttr sem fifa, light as f.; fífu-kveykr, m. a wick of f. β. metaph. and poët. an arrow, Edda (Gl.): the name of a ship, from her swiftness, Orkn.

fífil-bleikr, adj. dandelion-yellow, used only of a horse, Vígl. 20, Finnb. 278.

FÍFILL, m., dat. fífli, pl. fíflar, a dandelion; the withered fífill is called bifu-kolla, q. v.: used in compds of divers wild flowers of similar kind, unda-fífill or skari-fífill, hawk-weed; Jakobs-f., Jacob’s staff; fjalla-f., common avens or herb bennet, geum; heiða-f., liver-wort, hepatica alba; tún-f. = common fífill, Björn, Hjalt.: metaph. a flower, blossom; renna upp sem fífill í brekku, to run up like a weed on a bank (of youth); fegri man eg fífil minn, I mind when my bloom was fairer, i. e. remember happier days, Eggert.

FÍFL, m. [A. S. fifal = monster], a fool, clown, boor, Gísl. 46 sqq., Korm. 76, Sd. 176, Fms. vi. 217; fífl ok afglapi, ii. 156: the proverb, því er fífl að fátt er kennt, no wonder one is a fool, if one has never been taught; dala-fífl, a ‘dale-fool,’ one born and bred in a low dale, Gautr. S. (Fas. iii), ch. 1 sqq., Parcevals S.; for popular tales respecting such characters vide Ísl. Þjóðs. ii. 505 sqq.; eldhús-fífl = Germ. asch-brödel; skáld-fífl, a poëtaster, Edda. fífls-ligr, adj. foolish; f. hjal, foolish talk, Flóv. 43.

fífla, u, f. a girl, Grett.

fífla, d, [fivle, Ivar Aasen], with acc. to fool one, Skálda 168. 2. to beguile a woman, Glúm. 377, Fs. 60, Nj. 107: reflex., fíflask at konu, id., Rd. 318, Bs. i. 663: of a woman, to fall into illicit love, Stj. 321, Bs. i. 653.

fíflingar, f. pl. beguilement, Lv. 5, Fs. 138, Eb. 142, Bs. i. 447.

fífl-megir, m. pl. an απ. λεγ., Vsp. 51, ‘monster-men,’ fiends; cp. A. S. fifal = monster.

fífl-ræða, u, f. foolish talk, nonsense, Mag. 6.

fíflska, u, f. foolishness, folly, Eg. 729; fíflsku-fullr, adj. full of folly, Hkr. iii. 274.

fífl-skapr, m. folly, 625. 192; hence the phrase, hafa e-t í fiflskaparmálum, to speak vainly of a thing (viz. sacred things).

fíflskr, adj. foolish, Landn.; a nickname.

fífl-yrði, n. pl. foolish, foul language, Gísl. 53.

FÍFRILDI, mod. fiðrildi through a false etymology, as if it were from fiðri, [O. H. G. viveltre; A. S. fifalde; provinc. Germ. feifalter; Swed. fjäril; Norse fivreld or fibrelde; Lat. pāpilio]:—a butterfly, Flor. 18.

fígúra, u, f. [Lat. word], a metaphor, Skálda 160, Alg. 356: a figure of speech, Skálda 183, 211, Stj. 524.

fíkinn, adj. [Dan. figen; Swed. fiken; wanting in Germ., Engl., and A. S.]:—greedy, eager; freq. in poët. compds, böð-f., gunn-f., morð-f., sigr-f., etc., warlike, valiant, Lex. Poët.

FÍKJA, u, f. [Lat. ficus; Germ. feige], a fig, Stj. 331. COMPDS: fíkju-kjarni, a, m. the kernels or seeds of a fig, Stj. 645. fíkju-tré, n. = fík-tré, N. T.

fíkjask, t, dep. to desire eagerly; f. á fé, Sl. 34; f. eptir e-u, id.

fíkjum, dat. used as adv. eagerly, very, freq. in the Jd.; fikjum grimm, 12; fíkjum íllt, 26; fíkjum haukligt, 41; fíkjum hátt, exceeding high, Hom. (St.) 58.

fíkni, f. eagerness.

fíkr, adj. eager, greedy, Fms. vi. 404 (in a verse).

fík-tré, n. a fig-tree, Stj. 36, 325, 399, 403, Mar. 32.

fíkula, adv. greedily, Fms. vi. (in a verse).

fíldr, part. fleeced, a sheep is said to be vel fíldr, ílla fíldr; cp. Lat. pilus, Engl. filt, as also þel.

FÍLL, m. [early Swed. and Dan. fil], an elephant; this interesting word, which is still in exclusive use in Icel., was borrowed from the Persian fil, and came to Scandinavia in early times, probably by the eastern road of trade through Russia and Constantinople; it occurs in a verse of the 10th century (Fb. i. 209), the genuineness of which may be doubtful, but at all events the word is old; freq. in Al., Stj., Flóv., and romances. But úlfaldi, Goth. ulbandus, A. S. olfend or olvend, a corruption of the Gr. ελέφαντ-, means camel. COMPDS: fíls-bein or fíla-bein, n. ivory, Al., Edda (pref.), Str. fíls-tönn, f. ivory, Mar.

FÍNN, adj. [Ital. fine and fino = perfect, from Lat. finis; Engl. fine; Germ. fein]:—fine; it occurs in the Icel. poems Nikulas-drápa and Skíða-rima, and prob. came to Icel. along with the English trade at the beginning of the 15th century; sax fínt sem spegill, Fas. iii. 543 (MS. 15th century): in a good sense, girnist þú barn mitt blezan fá, björg lífs og gæfu fína, fine luck, happiness, Pass. 37. 4. β. of clothes, ‘fínn’ is opp. to ‘coarse,’ but the use of the word is rare in Icel.

FÍRAR, m. pl. [A. S. firas], poët. men, people, Ls. 25, Hm. 25, Edda (Gl.); fjölð er þat er fíra tregr (a saying), Sdm. 30, passim.

físa, a strong verb, pret. feis, [Swed. fisa; Dan. fise; akin to Lat.], pedere, Hbl. 26; en hann feis við, Ísl. ii. 177.

físi-belgr, m. small bellows.

físi-sveppr, m. a kind of fungus, = gor-kúla.

fítón-, in compds; hence the mod. fítungr, m. frenzy; [from the Gr. Πύθων; mid. Lat. phitones = wizards, Du Cange; phitoness = Πυθώνισσα, a witch, Chaucer.] COMPDS: fítóns-andi, a, m. magic, Fms. i. 76, x. 223, Fas. iii. 457: mod. frenzy. fítóns-kona, u, f. a sorceress, Stj. 491. fítóns-list, f. magical art, Edda (pref.) fítóns-maðr, m. a sorcerer, Stj. 647, 651.

fjaðra-, vide fjöðr, a feather.

fjaðr-hamr, m. a ‘feather ham,’ winged haunch (in northern tales), like that of Icarus in the Greek legend, Þkv. 3, 5, 9, Þiðr. 92, 93, Al. 72.

fjaðr-klæði, n. pl. a feather-bed used as a coverlet, Js. 78.

fjaðr-lauss, adj. featherless, Edda 77.

fjaðr-sárr, adj. feather-wounded, of a bird changing feathers, K. Þ. K. 112, K. Á. 164.

fjaðr-spjót, n. a kind of spear, Grett. 121, Fs. 64.

fjaðr-stafr, m. the barrel of a quill, Stj. 79.

fjala-, vide fjöl, a deal, plank, board.

fjal-högg, n. a chopping block, Vápn. 24, Bs. i. 696.

FJALL, n., pl. fjöll, [a Scandin. word, Swed. fjäll, Dan. fjæld, but wanting in the Germ. and Saxon, not even used in the Ormul., but freq. in North. E. and Scot., where it is of Dan. origin]:—a fell, mountain, Nj. 25, Hkr. i. 228, Grett. 149, in endless instances: in the phrase, það gengr fjöllunum hæra, it mounts higher than the fells, cries to heaven, of injustice: in allit. phrases, fjöll og firnindi, fells and deserts (vide finnerni); fjall eðr fjörðr, fells or firths, Hm. 117, N. G. L. i. 117: the pl. fjöll is used of a mountain with many peaks, Eyja-fjöll, Vaðla-fjöll, Hafnar-fjöll, Fbr.; but Akra-fjall, Fagraskógar-fjall, of a single mountain: the pl. is also used of a chain of mountains, thus, Alpa-fjöll, the Alps; Pyrenea-fjöll, the Pyrenees; but Dofra-fjall, the Dofra range in Norway: in biblical names it is usually prefixed, e. g. fjallið Sinaí, fjallið Horeb, etc.; but also Gilboa-fjöll, Sam. Sálm. 2. 1, prob. for the sake of euphony: fjall is also used κατ΄ εξ., and as a pr. noun, of the Alps, in the phrase, fyrir norðan fjall, i. e. Germany north of the Alps; sunnan um fjall, i. e. Italy; the German emperor is called keisari fyrir norðan fjall, Fms. ix. 229, x. 101, Landn. 24, Fas. i. 223; Norway is also divided into sunnan fjall (i. e. Dofre) and norðan fjall; in mod. Norse, Norden-fjælds og Sönden-fjælds, Fms. x. 3. COMPDS: fjalla-bak, n. the back of a fell, the sun sinks að fjalla baki, behind the fells. fjalla-dalr, m. a valley, 673. 53. fjalla-fé, n. sheep on the fells or hill-pastures. fjalla-gol, n. a light breeze from the fells, Fær. 203, opp. to haf-gola, a breeze off the sea. fjalla-grös, n. pl., botan. lichen Islandicus. fjalla-klofi, a, m. a cleft or pass between fells, Stj. 87, Al. 26. fjalla-læða, u, f. ‘fell-sneaker,’ a mist leaving the fells clear, but covering the low land. fjalla-sýn, f. mountain-view, Bs. ii. 179, freq. in names of places, vide Landn. fjalla-tindr, m. a peak. fjalls-brún, f. the brow, edge of a fell, Stj. 402, D. I. i. 471. fjalls-hlíð, f. a fell-side, Fms. i. 211, ix. 527. fjalls-hyrna or fjalls-gnípa, u, f. the horn of a fell, a sharp peak. fjalls-hæðir, f. pl. summits, Stj. 59, 607. fjalls-múli, a, m. a ‘mull’ or crag projecting between two valleys, Landn. 313. fjalls-rætr, f. pl. the roots of a f., i. e. the foot of a mountain; the fells are metaph. regarded as trees rooted in the earth, but cp. the mythical tale in Edda 19 and 221 (App.) fjalls-öxl, f. the shoulder of a fell, Stj. 529, Fas. i. 53.

fjall, n. a fell, skin, Lat. pellis, vide berfjall, (rare.)

fjalla, að, to clothe with a fell, cover with fur; fjalla um þik með góðum klæðum, Clar.: metaph. to treat; hence comes the part. fjallaðr, adj. tinted, coloured; blá-fjallaðr, black, etc.; gull-fjallaðr, gilt, Fas. ii. 173.

fjalla-fæla, u, f. a bird, ‘mount-shunner,’ the sand-piper, Fjölnir viii.

fjall-berg, n. a crag, precipice, Fms. ii. 277.

fjall-borg, f. a hill-fort, Stj. 380.

fjall-bygð, f. a county among fells, 625. 87, Eg. 58, Hkr. ii. 65.

fjall-dalr, m. a dale in the fells, Eg. 137, Hkr. i. 47.

fjall-dýr, n. a beast of the fells, wild beast, Bs. ii. 137 (of a fox).

fjall-ferð, f. a ‘fell-trip,’ mountain excursion, Fs. 71.

fjall-ganga, u, f. going into the fell-pastures to gather sheep, Jb. 284, Vápn. 22. fjallgöngu-maðr, m. men searching the fells for sheep.

fjall-garðr, m. a wall of fells, range of hills, Hkr. i. 8, A. A. 287 (of the Alps), Sks. 143.

fjall-gola, u, f. a breeze from the fells.

fjall-hagi, a, m. a fell-pasture, Eb. 54, Jb. 243.

fjall-hola, u, f. a ‘fell-hole,’ cavern, Sks. 714.

fjalligr, adj. hilly, mountainous, Sks. 42, (rare.)

fjall-kona, u, f. ‘fell-queen,’ a giantess, Bs. ii. 26, (rare.)

fjall-maðr, m. = fjallgöngumaðr, Sd. 156.

fjall-nár, m. a law term, a man put to death by being exposed on a fell, opp. to gálg-nár hanged, sæ-nár drowned, vide Grág. Vsl. ch. 90, cp. Rd. ch. 21, 22.

fjall-rapi, mod. fjall-drapi, a, m. a kind of dwarf birch, Bs. i. 7, Edda (Gl.), Hjalt., Björn.

fjall-rota, u, f. [Norse rutte], a kind of wild partridge, Edda (Gl.)

fjall-rænn, adj. blowing from the fells, Kristni S. (in a verse).

fjall-skarð, n. a gap in the fell, mountain-pass, Krók. 64.

fjall-skerða, ð, a pun, Krók. l. c., = gilja, to beguile, (fjallskarð = gil.)

fjall-skora, u, f. a ‘fell-scaur,’ Hkr. iii. 323, v. l.

fjall-skógr, m. a mountain forest, Stj. 256, 644.

fjall-slétta, u, f. a mountain plain, table land, Flor.

fjall-stöng, f. a fellsman’s staff, Eb. 106.

fjall-tindr, m. a mountain peak, = fjalla-tindr, Edda (pref.)

fjall-vegr, m. a mountain road, Stj. 352, v. l., Ísl. ii. 349, Fms. viii. 50.

fjall-viðr, m. timber from the fells, Gþl. 455.

fjall-vindr, m. a land wind, opp. to hafvindr, Eg. 370.

fjall-þoka, u, f. fog from the fells.

fjalms-fullr, adj. = felmsfullr, O. H. L. 27.

FJARA, u, f., gen. fjöru, [a Scandin. word, which remains in Orphir in the Orkneys, vide ey]:—the ebb-tide, ebb, 415. 10, Edda 32–34, Fms. xi. 6, Fs. 157, Grág. ii. 352–366, passim. 2. [cp. fore- in the Engl. fore-shore], the fore-shore, beach, sea-board, Edda l. c., Grág. i. 91, Fas. ii. 148, Nj. 19, Eb. 292, Grett. 89, Orkn. 336, passim: the allit. saying, milli fjalls ok fjöru, between fell and fore-shore; var þá skógr milli fjalls ok fjöru, at that time it was forest between fell and fore-shore, i. e. all over the low land, Landn. 28, Íb. ch. 1; þar sem mætisk gras eðr f., where the grass and sea-beach join, Dipl. iii. 11. COMPDS: fjöru-borð, n. the sea-board, the breadth of the fjara, metaph. from a cup, cp. the mythical tale in Edda l. c. fjöru-grjót, n. the gravel on the beach, Fms. ii. 93, Fas. ii. 112. fjöru-grös, n. pl., botan. a kind of sea-weed, opp. to fjallagrös. fjöru-kóngr (fjöru-kúfungr), m. a kind of snail. fjöru-maðkr, m. a kind of worm used for bait. fjöru-maðr, m. the owner of the shore, Grág. ii. 367, Jb. 318. fjöru-mark, n. the land-marks on the shore, Jb. 320, Dipl. ii. 5, Grág. ii. 361. fjöru-mál, n. the rim of the shore between the flood line and the ebb, more usually flæðarmál, Sturl. ii. 35, v. l. fjöru-nytjar, f. pl. used of drift-timber, dead whales, sea-weed, or the like, Engl. jetsum, Vm. 75, 80. fjöru-steinn, m. shingle on the beach, Bs. i. 506:—mark stones, shewing the tide is so far out as to leave a way along the beach, 656 C. 31. fjöru-stúfr, m. a piece of strand or strand right belonging to a farm, Dipl. iii. 11.

fjara, að, (but fjarði, Korm. 118), to ebb; er fjarði, fjarar (pres.), Vm. 96, Korm. l. c.; fjara uppi, of a ship, to be aground, Hkr. i. 152; so, fjaraði um nótt út undan skipinu, the ship was left on dry land, Fms. xi. 241; fjarar nú undan skipinu, Ld. 56: metaph. to be upset, Str. 32 (badly): impers., skip (acc.) hans fjaraði uppi, his ship ran aground, Fms. iv. 65; sum skipin vóru þá uppi fjöruð, Hkr. i. 152.

fjarðar-, vide fjörðr, a firth.

fjarg-hús, n. pl. [farg, fergja, fjörgyn], huge, big houses, Akv. 39, 42.

fjarg-vefjask, dep. to groan and lament, Bjarn. 69 (in a verse), (MS. fiargvefiar, r = z = sk; the explanation given in Lex. Poët. cannot be right. Ls. 19 is corrupt, so that there is no evidence for the word fjörg = gods.)

fjarg-viðrask, að, dep. to groan as under a weight; f. dýrin sein og þung, Bb. 3. 35: the phrase, f. um e-t, to groan, make a fuss about nothing.

fjar-lægð, f. distance, Rb. 476, passim.

fjar-lægjask, ð, to leave far behind, A. R. ii. 151, Stat. 282.

fjar-lægr, adj. ‘far-lying,’ distant, Fms. i. 289, x. 227, Mar. 207.

fjarr, adj. being far off, an obsolete word; as to the dubious passage Alm. 5 vide farri.

fjarran, adv. [A. S. feorran; Old Engl. ferne; Germ. fern; Swed. fjärran; Dan. fjern], far off, Hkr. ii. 37, D. N. v. 24, = fjarri.

fjarri, compar. firr, mod. fjær, superl. first or firrst, mod. fjærst; [Gr. πύρρω; Goth. fairra, which is also used to transl. μακράν: A. S. feor; Engl. far; Hel. and O. H. G. fer]:—far off; því at útlendir höfðingjar vóru þeim jafnan fjarri, Ó. H. 34; svá at fjarri flugu brotin, flew far off, Edda 19; vide Ísl. ii. 483, passim; skattlöndin þau er fjarri lágu, the provinces that were at a distance (fjar-lægr), Eg. 536: with dat., sólu fjarri, Vsp. 44; hvárt sem eru nær kirkju eða fjarri kirkju-garði, far from the churchyard, K. Þ. K. 28; standa f. e-m, to stand far from one; hamingjan stóð honum eigi fjarri, Al. 82; stóðtu mér þá fjarri, Nj. 19; útibúr þat er first var húsum, farthest from the houses, 168; hvar fjarri öðrum mönnum, quite far from other men, Grett. 127; þeim mönnum er first bygðu megin-héruðum, who lived farthest from the chief counties, Fms. iv. 144; í þat horn lands síns er first er lýrittar-vörn hans, Grág. ii. 224; þóttusk þeir bazt hafa er first vóru þeirra samgangi, the farther off the better, Glúm. 380; svá hátt at þó mátti heyra gerla þótt þeir væri firr, Nj. 118; þó at skip leggi firr búð (dat.) en svá, Grág. i. 91; eigi firr garði en í örskots-helgi, 82; far þú firr sundi, begone from the sound, Hbl. 54; farit firr húsi, Am. 37; the phrase, ganga e-m hendi firr, to go out of one’s hand, be lost, Rd. 283, Grett. (in a verse); þykki mér hann jafnan betri firr mér en nær, Fms. iv. 330; hvárt þat er nær honum eða firr, Rb. 38, (mod., nær eða fjær); með hramminum þeim er firr var berginu, Grett. 101; firr meir, farther aloof; bónda-múgrinn sat firr meir, Fms. i. 280; ok því firr meir, at …, and so much more aloof, in order that …, Sks. 365: in the proverb, allt er fjörvi firr, all is farther than life, i. e. life is the nearest, dearest thing, Ld. 266, (or, fé er fjörvi firr); at firr, much less, Eg. ch. 14; þótt hann sé firr farinn, though be be far away, Hm. 33. II. metaph., taka e-u fjarri, to take a thing far, i. e. to take it coolly, deny it flatly; Ormr tók því ekki fjarri, Fms. i. 209; þeir tóku því ekki fjarri, 229; ek ætla þat nú eigi fjarri, well, I think it’s not far wrong, Nj. 248: with dat., ok er þat ekki fjarri hennar skapi, ‘tis not far from her mind, 49; þat er fjarri skapi föður míns, Lv. 87; þú talar þat eigi fjarri réttu, thou sayest what is not far from right, Fms. ii. 14; eigi fjarri því at lengd, i. e. about so long a time, Bs. i. 61; ferr eigi fjarri getu minni, Fms. iv. 312, vi. 104; the phrase, fjarri fer því, it ‘fares’ far from that, i. e. far from it, by no means; ok er því fjarri orðit er ek vilda at væri, it is far from what I had wished for, Valla L. 221; nú sé ek eigi at mér mætti firr um fara en þér, now I see not how I can fare worse than thou, Grett. 150. β. far from, bereft of; fjarri feðr-munum, bereft of my patrimony, Fm. 8; fjarri vinum, friendless, Sighvat; fjarri augum sem menjum, bereft of eyes and treasures, i. e. losing both life and money, Akv. 27.

fjarski, a, m. a far distance; vera, liggja, í fjarska, to be afar off, Fms. xi. 57, Sks. 183, Fas. iii. 459:—metaph. in mod. usage immensity, and in many COMPDS: fjarska-legr, adj. immense. fjarska-liga, adv. immensely, fjarska-mikill, fjarska-stór, adj. immensely big, etc.

fjar-stæðr, adj. ‘far-standing,’ far from; fjarstætt er um afl várt, there is a long way between our strength, i. e. no comparison, Fms. iii. 187.

fjar-sýnis, adv. far off, out of sight, Mar.

fjar-tæki, n. [taka fjarri], a flat refusal, Fas. iii. 527.

fjar-vist, f. living far off, Sks. 190.

FJÁ, ð, [Goth. fijan = μισειν; A. S. feon or fjan], to hate; an obsolete word, but occurs in Hým. 22, Ls. 35: reflex., fjásk e-n, to hate one, Skm. 33. Its participle however remains in all Teut. dialects, vide fjándi below.

fjáðr, part. [fé], monied, Bjarn. 18.

fjálbr or fjálfr, n. a dubious word, [akin to fela (?)], the deep, an abyss, Haustl. 18; undir-f., the lower deep, the abyss, Þd. 19.

fjálg-leikr, m. [felegbed = security, Dan. ballads], trust, faith, Hom. 122.

fjálgr, adj. [feleg = safe in Dan. ballads; fjelg = comfortable, Ivar Aasen; prob. from fela]:—safe, well kept, only in compds, glóð-fjálgr, hid in embers, of a fire, Ýt. 21; inn-f., stifled, of tears, Hkv. 2. 43.

fjánd-flokkr, m. a host of enemies, N. G. L. i. 34.

fjándi, a, m., mod. fjandi, pl. fjándr, mod. also féndr; dat. fjándum, mod. fjöndum; [Ulf. fiands = ὁ ἐχθός; A. S. feond; Engl. fiend; Germ. feind; Swed. fiende; Dan. fjende; the nd indicates the part.; whereas, Engl. foe seems to be formed from the infin.]:—prop. a hater. 1. an enemy, Hkv. 2. 30, 35, Rb. 380; freq. in old poetry, vide Lex. Poët.: in the allit. phrase, sem frændr, en eigi fjándr, as friends, not foes, Ísl. ii. 380: the heathen maxim, gefat þínum fjándum frið, give no truce to thy foes, Hm. 128. 2. [Dan. fanden; Swed. fan], after the introduction of Christianity fjándi came to mean a fiend, the fiend, Bs. i. 452, Niðrst. 4; fjándr en eigi menn, fiends and no men, Fas. ii. 535: Satan, K. Á. 74, Fms. i. 202, Stj. 40; ber þú sjálfr fjánda þinn, carry thy fiend thyself (of a bewitched banner), Nj. 274; fjánda-kraptr, fiendish power, Fms. vii. 295; fjánda-limr, a devil’s limb, viii. 221; fjánda-sonr, a fiend’s son, 656 C. 14; fjánda-villa, a fiendish heresy, Post. 645. 99: in mod. usage fjándi means a fiend. fjánda-fæla, u, f., botan. fuga daemonum, angelica, Germ. engel-kraut.

fjánd-ligr, adj. (fjánd-liga, adv.), fiendish, fiendishly, Fms. v. 162, Bær. 10, Þorst. hv. 44, Fas. ii. 150.

fjánd-maðr, m. a foe-man, Lv. 106, Fms. v. 273, Orkn. 224.

fjánd-mæli, n. the words of a foe, invectives, Lv. 39.

fjánds-boð or fjánd-boð, n. a law term, a foe’s bidding, a sham bidding at an auction; ok sé eigi fjándsboð, eigi skal hann at fjándsboði annars hafa, N. G. L. i. 117, cp. Gpl. 292.

fjánd-semi, f. enmity, Sturl. iii. 13.

fjánd-skapaðr, part. hostile, Fms. xi. 261.

fjánd-skapask, að, dep. to shew hostility towards, Sks. 337, Orkn. 226.

fjánd-skapr, m. hostility, Fms. i. 37, iv. 270, ix. 268, Nj. 49, Hom. 86, 196, Bret. 22. fjándskapar-fullr, adj. hostile, Sturl. iii. 223.

fjár-, vide fé, money.

fjári, a, m. a swearing, hverr fjárinn! fjárans karlinn! qs. fé-árr (?), a goblin, over hidden treasures.

fjárungr, m. gryllus, a locust, Fél. x. 226.

fjóla, u, f. a violet, Hjalt. (mod.)

fjón, f. [fjá], hatred; an obsolete word, occurs in old prose in the phrase, reka e-n fjónum, to persecute, Ver. 29, Rb. 388; or else in poetry, leggja fjón á e-n, to hate one, Hallfred: in pl., konungs f., the king’s wrath, Ad. 11; vekja f., to stir up quarrels, Sl. 76, vide Lex. Poët.; guð-fjón, an abomination, that which drives the gods away, Fbr. (in a verse): mod. poets use a verb fjóna, að, to hate (Bjarn. 67, 122), probably misled by the corrupt passage in Sl. 27.

FJÓR-, in many compds = fer-, q. v.: fjór-fættr, adj. four-footed; fjor-menningr, m. a fourth cousin, Js. 71, 96, Fms. i. 285, Gþl. 145; fjor-mynntr, part. ‘four-cloven,’ Sks. 394; fjór-nættingr, m., fjór-skeyttr, adj., vide fer-; fjór-skiptr, part. quartered, Stj. 148.

fjórði, adj. [Germ. vierte; Dan. fjærde], the fourth, Fms. i. 67 (passim).

fjórðungr, m., generally the fourth part, quarter, D. I. i. 470, Grág. i. 144; f. héraðsmanna, N. G. L. i. 352; f. rastar, the fourth part of a mile, Fms. viii. 63; fjórðungr vísu, the fourth part of a verse-system or stanza, = two lines, Edda (Ht.); hence fjórðunga-lok, n. the last quarter of a verse, Fms. vi. 387: a coin (cp. Engl. farthing), N. G. L. iii. ch. 13. 2. a liquid-measure = ten pots or twenty ‘merkr;’ fjórðungs-fata, a vat holding a quarter. 3. a weight = ten pounds or twenty ‘merkr,’ Jb. 375, Grág. Kb. 232, Dipl. iii. 4, Grág. ii. 362: the law allows a person to bequeath the fourth part of his property, this is called fjórðungs-gjöf, f., Gþl. 270, cp. Jb., Dipl. v. 1. 4. the Icel. tithe (tíund) was divided into four shares, each of them called ‘fjórðungr,’—to the poor, bishop, church, and priest, Grág., Tl., passim. II. in Norway counties were divided into fjórðungar quarters (þriðjungar ridings, sextungar sextants, áttungar octants, etc.), vide D. N.; hence fjórðungs-kirkja, a quarter church, parish church, N. G. L.; fjórðungs-maðr, a man from the same quarter or parish; fjórðungs-prestr, the priest of a fjórðungs-kirkja; fjórðungs-þing, the meeting of a f.; fjórðungs-korn, corn due to the priest, D. N., N. G. L., the statutes passim; fjórðungs-ból, a farm yielding a certain rent, and many others. Again, in Icel. the whole land was politically divided into quarters or fjórðungar (this division seems to have taken place A. D. 964, and exists up to the present time), thus, Austfirðinga-, Vestfirðinga-, Norðlendinga-, Sunnlendinga-fjórðungr, or east-, west-, north-, and south quarters; each of the quarters had three or four shires or þing, and each had a parliament called Fjórðungs-þing or Fjórðunga-þing, and a court called Fjórðungs-dómar, Quarter-courts, Eb. ch. 10, Landn. 2. 12; (it is uncertain whether the writer Eb. l. c. intended to make a distinction between Fjórðunga-þing and Fjórðungs-þing, denoting by the latter a ‘general quarter parliament,’ cp. also Landn. 150.) COMPDS: fjórðunga-mót, n. pl. the borders of the f., Grág. ii. 323, Landn. 251 (v. l.), 237. fjórðunga-skipti, n. a division into quarters. fjórðungs-höfðingi, a, m. a Tetrarch, N. T. fjórðungs-menn, m. pl. the inhabitants of a fjórðungr, Grág. Þ. Þ., Landn. 98, Nj. 100. fjórðungs-sekt, f. outlawry, exile from one of the quarters, Bs. ii. 75. fjórðungs-úmagi, a, m. a pauper charged to a f., Grág. i. 445.

fjórir, num. adj., fem. fjórar, neut. fjögur (fjugur); gen. fjogurra or fjögurra (fjugurra, N. G. L. i. 77, Sks. 173 B), mod. fjögra; dat. fjórum; acc. masc. fjóra, fem. fjórar, neut. fjögur: [Goth. fidvar; A. S. feover; Engl. four; Hel. fivar; O. H. G. fior; Germ. vier; Swed. fyra; Dan. fire; cp. also Lat. quatuor, Gr. τέσσαρες, Aeol. πίσυρες]:—four (passim). fjögra-manna-far, n. a four-oared boat.

fjór-tán, card. numb., [older form fjögr-tán or fjugr-tán, B. K. 9, 60, 62, 125, Sks. 179 B]:—fourteen (passim). fjórtán-sessa, u, f. a ship with fourteen oars, Fms. ix. 408, v. l.

fjór-tándi, ord. numb., [older form fjögr-tándi or fjugr-tándi, N. G. L. i. 49, 348, 350; fjogr-tándi, Fms. x. 398]:—fourteenth.

fjór-tugti, the fortieth, Dipl. ii. 15.

FJÓS, n., contr. form = fé-hús = ‘cow-house,’ [Norse fjös; the contracted form is usual even in the earliest writers]:—a cow-house, byre, stall, Ld. 98, Gísl. 28 sqq., Dropl. 28, Njarð. 368, Sturl. ii. 43, iii. 54, Fms. ix. 508; vera í fjósi, or fara í fjós, to attend to the cows. COMPDS: fjós-dyr, fjós-haugr, fjós-hlaða, fjós-hurð, fjós-reka, fjós-veggr, etc., the door, mound, barn, hurdle, spade, wall, etc. of a fjós. fjós-gata, u, f. the byre-path, Landn. 51. Fjósa-karlar, m. pl. the ‘byre-carles,’ the three stars in the sword of Orion. fjósa-kona, u, f. a byre-maid, Landn. (Hb.) 51: fjósa-konur, the ‘byre-maids,’ the three stars in the belt of Orion, because the dairy-work is in the winter months (Dec., Jan.) fixed by the rising of these stars. fjósa-verk, n. ‘byre work,’ attendance on the cows, Nj. 185, v. l.

FJÓS, mod. þjós, f. the carcase of a whale, Grág. ii. 360, 372, Jb. 310 B (passim).

fjúk, n. [cp. Engl. fog], a snow-storm: allit., frost ok fjúk, Fbr. 23; fjúk ok drifa, Bs. i. 158; fjúk var úti, 672; í fjúki, Landn. 235; stormr með fjúki, Fas. ii. 74: in swearing, fái þat fjúk, a ‘fjúk’ upon it.

FJÚKA, pret. fauk, 2nd pers. faukt, mod. faukst, pl. fuku; pres. fýk, pl. fjúkum; pret. subj. fyki; part. fokinn; sup. fokit: [Swed. fyka; Dan. fyga]:—to be driven on, tossed by the wind, of snow, dust, spray, or the like: allit., fjúka sem fys, as chaff; mold er fýkr, 623. 25; axhelmur þær sem fjúka … ef nokkut fýkr frá oss, Stj. 422: of snow, tók þá at f., it began to snow, Grett. 111; var fjúkanda veðr, there was a snow-storm, 144: hafði fokit yfir öndverðan vetr, they had been buried (had perished) in the snow, Glúm. 341; hence the metaph. phrase, nú er fokið í flest skjól, now all places of shelter are filled with snow, no refuge left, Gísl. 63, Nj. 258; útvegar Háreks eru foknir, all H.’s outgoings are stopped, Fms. xi. 423; sýndisk þeim sem eldr fyki um alla gluggana, of embers, Bs. i. 7; fauk svá sandrinn, at …, of the ashes from a volcano, 804, (sand-fok, a drift of sand or ashes.) 2. metaph. to fly off; fauk af höfuðit, Nj. 97, Ld. 291; fuku tennrnar ór Búa. Fms. xi. 139; láta fjúka í kveðlingum, to reply with sarcastic, extemporised ditties, Grett. 94.

fjúk-renningr, n. a snow-drift, Sturl. i. 155 C.

fjúk-saga, u, f. a floating rumour, Bret.

fjúk-viðri, n. a snow-storm, Sturl. ii. 31.

fjær, and compds, vide fjarri, farther off.

FJÖÐR, gen. fjaðrar; old pl. fjaðrar, later fjaðrir; dat. fjöðrum: [A. S. feðer; Engl. feather; Germ. feder; Gr. πτερόν]:—a feather, it may be used of either the plume or the quill, but usually a distinction is made between fiðri or fiðr, plumage, and fjaðrar, quills; væng-fjöðr, a wing-feather; stél-fjöðr, a tail-feather; dynja hana fjaðrar, Bm. 1; hár ok fjaðrar, Edda (pref.); plokkaði af fjaðrarnar, 77: phrases and sayings, það er ekki fjöðr af fati þínu, ‘tis no feather of thy gear, thou needst not be proud of it, cp. Aesop’s fable; verðr hverr að fljúga sem hann er fjaðraðr, every one must fly as he is feathered; draga fjöðr um e-t, to slur over a thing (vide draga), Fms. vii. 20: cp. the proverb in Rafns S. Bs. i. 647,—lítið er nef várt, en breiðar fjaðrar, our neb is small, but the feathers large, perhaps somewhat corrupt in the text, being taken from some fable about birds; the sense seems to be something like the Fr. ‘l’homme propose, Dieu dispose.2. metaph. of feather-formed things, α. the blade of a spear, Eg. 285, Stj. 461, Ld. 244, Grett. 121, Sturl. ii. 60, Fas. ii. 209, Fb. 111. 409. β. the fin of a fish, Fas. ii. 131; fiskr niðr frá beltis-stað ok fjöðr á, Fms. iv. 56 (rare). COMPDS: fjaðra-broddr, m. a feathered, i. e. double-edged, spike, Bárð. 170. fjaðra-lauss, adj. featherless, Fas. ii. 378; in the riddle, fuglinn flaug fjaðra-lauss, elti fuglinn fóta-lauss. fjaðra-sárr, adj. = fjaðr-sárr. fjaðra-spjót, n. a kind of sword-spear to thrust with, = fjaðr-spjót.

fjögur-tán, fjogurtándi, older form, = fjórtan.

FJÖL, f., gen. fjalar, old pl. fjalar, later fjalir, a deal, thin board, Fms. vi. 15, 281, x. 404: metaph. of snow shoes, Sks. 81 B: so in the proverb, það er ekki við eina fjöl fellt, ‘tis not joined with a single deal, ‘tis no plain matter, Mag. 86; or, hann er ekki við eina fjöl felldr, i. e. fit for many things; fóta-fjöl, a foot-board; höfða-fjöl, the head-board of a bed; rúm-fjöl, the side-board of a bed; gafl-fjöl, the barge-board in a gable, etc. COMPDS: fjala-brú, f. a bridge of planks, Fms. xi. 280. fjala-hlass, n. a load of deals, N. G. L. i. 142. fjala-köttr, m. a mouse-trap, Fms. iii. 74. fjala-stóll, m. a deal stool, Pm. 90, etc.

FJÖL-, [akin to Gr. πολύς; Ulf. filu = πολύς; A. S. fela; O. H. G. filu; Germ. viel; lost in Engl. and mod. Dan.; in Icel. freq., esp. as a prefix in poetry, but never used as an independent adj.]:—much, manifold. I. in a bad sense: fjöl-beiðni, f. begging, intruding, Al. 91. fjöl-breytinn, adj. false, whimsical, Edda 18. fjöl-kunnigr (fjöl-kundr, Barl. passim), adj. [kunna], skilled in the black art, Grett. 150, 153, Eg. 119, 179, Nj. 17, 272, Fms. i. 18, ii. 134, Hm. 114, passim. fjöl-kyngi (fjöl-kyndi, Barl. passim), f. the black art, witchcraft, Fms. i. 10, Korm. 222, Landn. 84, Grett. 151, Rb. 408, Stj. 647; galdrar ok fjölkyngi, K. Þ. K. 76, Grett. 155, etc., passim; fjölkyngis-bækr, f. pl. magical books, Post. 645. 61; fjölkyngis-fólk, n. wizard-folk, Hkr. i. 267; fjölkyngis-íþrótt, f. magic art, 623. 31, Fms. x. 307; fjölkyngis-kona, u, f. a sorceress, Fas. ii. 273; fjölkyngis-liga, adv. (-ligr, adj.), with sorcery, Gísl. 31; fjölkyngis-list, f. magic art, Stj. 73; fjölkyngis-veðr, n. a gale produced by sorcery, Fms. iv. 44. fjöl-lyndi, f. looseness, Lv. 78. fjöl-lyndr, adj. fickle, loose, Sturl. i. 225. fjöl-máligr, adj. tattling, Karl. 439, 686 B. 2. fjöl-mæli, n. tittle-tattle, slander, Fms. ix. 250, Hkr. ii. 35, Gþl. 195, N. G. L. i. 57, H. E. i. 479. fjölmælis-maðr, m. a tatler, slanderer, Gþl. 197. fjöl-orðr, adj. = fjölmáligr, Fs. 36, Fms. ix. 277, v. l. fjöl-ráðr, adj. fickle, loose, Fb. ii. 701. fjöl-ræði, n. fickleness, looseness, 655 ix. C. 2. fjöl-ræðinn, adj. too intimate, Fms. vi. 109. fjöl-skrúðigr, adj. dressy, showy, Eb. 256. II. in the simple sense of many: fjöl-auðigr, adj. very rich, wealthy, Landn. 79. fjöl-bygðr, part. thickly peopled, Landn. 168, 270, 321 (App.) fjöl-menna, t, to crowd, meet in crowds, Nj. 75: become peopled, Rb. 392, Edda (pref.) fjöl-menni, n. many people, a crowd, Nj. 2, Eg. 38, 271, Fms. i. 54, ii. 152, passim: the common people, bændr ok f., Anecd. 6, Sks. 5. fjöl-mennr, older form fjöl-meðr, adj. with many people, Fms. i. 37; rikr ok f., Bs. i. 651; riðu menn fjölmennir til þings, Ísl. ii. 254; far sem fjölmennastr, Fms. vii. 221: peopled, fjölmennt þing, veizla, etc., Nj. 167; gildi f., Eg. 22, 46, Ísl. ii. 259, Fms. vii. 265: neut., vera, hafa fjölmennt, Eg. 5, Sturl. ii. 245; fjölmennt ok góðmennt, many people and good, Eg. 201. fjöl-skylda and fjöl-skyld, f., Rd. 293; fjöl-skyldi, n., N. G. L. ii. 9, Fms. xi. 68, Hom. i, Grág. i. 225: much business, many duties, with a notion of toil and trouble, Fms. i. 53, iv. 179, vi. 60, xi. 68, 429, Hom. 135, Bs. i. 90, 686 (of debt); mæðing ok f., Sks. 569; álög né f. (duties), Fms. xi. 224; annask um f., to be very busy, Rd. l. c.; eiga f. um at vera, id., N. G. L. l. c.: in Hom. 1. Lat. occupatio is rendered by fjölskyldi; hvárki fé né fjölskyldi, neither in money nor in work, Grág. i. 225:—in mod. usage, encumbrance with many people (children), a large family, household, but this scarcely occurs in old writers. fjöl-skyldr (-skyldugr, Mar. 232), adj. busy; f. embætti, Sks. 38, 257 B. III. poët. as a prefix to adj. as an ornamental epithet, e. g. fjöl-blíðr, -dyggr, -dýrr, -errinn, -gegn, -góðr, -kostigr, -kænn, -mætf, -nenninn, -snerrinn, -sviðr, -varr, -vitr, denoting exceeding good, wise, valiant, etc. fjöl-höfðaðr, adj. many-headed, Vþm. fjöl-margr, adj. very many, Gs. 20; vide Lex. Poët.

fjölð, f. = fjöldi, a multitude, Fms. ii. 199, Róm. 383: esp. in poetry, with gen. a plenty of, Höfuðl. 16, Am. 8. 92, Gs. 5, Þkv. 23, Skv. 3. 2, Gh. 18: used as adv. [Germ. viel], much, Vþm. 3, passim, Hm. 17, 73, Sdm. 30.

fjöldi and fjölði, a, m. multitude, Fms. i. 37, Eg. 74, 79, Nj. 8; fjöldi manna = fjölmenni, N. G. L. i. 30.

fjölga, að, to make to increase, Sturl. iii. 242: impers., Fas. i. 73. 2. to become numerous, Edda (pref.) β. reflex., Fas. iii. 10, Stj. 21.

fjölgan, f. increase in number, Fms. v. 276.

fjöllóttr, adj. mountainous, Fb. i. 431, Stj. 94.

fjöl-móði, a, m. the sea-snipe, tringa maritima, so called from its wailing note, Edda (Gl.); hence fjölmóða-víl, n. pitiful wailing, vide Ísl. Þjóðs. pref. p. xi.

FJÖR, n., dat. fjörvi, mod. fjöri, [Ulf. renders κόσμος by fairvus; A. S. feorh, pl. feoru = life; Hel. firah; obsolete in Engl., Germ., Swed., and Dan.]:—life, Vsp. 33; með fjörvi, 623. 49: esp. freq. in allit. phrases, eiga fótum fjör at launa; fjör ok fé, Fms. iv. 77, Grág. ii. 21, Sl. 1; frekr er hver til fjörsins, Þorst. St. 54, Nj. 124; allt er fjörvi firr, Ld. 266. 2. in poetry it seems to be used of the vital parts, the body; fleinn hitti fjör, Höfuðl. 9, Hm. 7, Vellekla Hkr. i. 175, Gh. 18, Skm. 20; cp. Germ. leib, leben, and the Goth. and A. S. sense of this word. 3. in mod. usage freq. in the sense of vitality, vigour, energy, spirits; thus, fjör-fiskr, m., vide fiskr: fjör-kálfr, m. one bounding with life as a young calf,—hann er mesti fjörkálfr; vera með fullu fjöri, to be in the full vigour of life; fjör-lauss, adj. life-less, listless: fjör-maðr, m. a vigorous man: fjör-mikill, adj. full of life. II. in poetry fjör is used in a great many compds, chiefly those denoting loss of life, death, e. g. fjör-bann, -grand, -lag, -lát, -lot, -nám, -rán, -spell, -tál: the heart is fjör-segi, a, m. the ‘life-clod,’ Fm. 32.

fjör-baugr, m. ‘life-money,’ a law term, a fee amounting to a mark, to be paid by a convict of the lesser degree to the executive court (féránsdómr); and if this was not paid, the convict was henceforth a full outlaw::—hence the convict is called fjörbaugs-maðr and the lesser outlawry or conviction fjörbaugs-garðr, m., because within a fixed space (garðr), the convict was safe, having paid the life-money, vide esp. Grág. Þ. Þ. ch. 32 sqq., ch. 40, Nj. 240, and the Sagas and laws passim. In two passages, viz. Flóam. S. ch. 10 and Glúma ch. 24, fjörbaugsgarðr is used in the same sense as þing-helgi, q. v., viz. of the sacred boundary of a meeting, regarded by the heathens as a sanctuary, cp. Eb. ch. 4 fine; in the Edit. of Flóam. S. the passage ‘til Lóns’ is false, the probable reading being ‘til Lopz,’ i. e. Lopts; in the old MS. Vatnshyrna the shank of the p was prob. obliterated so as to make it look like n, and so one transcriber read ‘Lóns,’ another ‘Jóns;’ the reading ‘Lopts’ is born out by the historical context, cp. also Landn. 5, ch. 8; the word fjörbaugr is diffusely commented on in H. E. i. 137 sqq. COMPDS: fjörbaugs-sekt, f. penalty of f., = fjörbaugs-garðr, Grág. Þ. Þ. ch. 40. fjörbaugs-sök, f. a case liable to fjörbaugr, Eg. 723, Nj. 164, Grág. i. 90.

fjör-brosa, n, f. a lovely smile; sumir menn mæla at móðir þín sé engi f., some people say that thy mother is no f., Mirm. 69.

fjör-brot, n. pl. the death-struggle, esp. of wild beasts, Fær. 49, Fm. 21, Bs. i. 345: Norse, a taking of life, manslaughter, N. G. L. i. 156.

FJÖRÐ or fjorð, adv. [early Germ. fert, used by Luther, but obsolete in mod. Germ.; Swed. and Dan. fjord; cp. Sansk. parut]:—the past year; in Icel. this word is obsolete, and scarcely ever occurs in old prose writers; but the mod. ‘í fyrra’ is derived or corrupted from an older phrase ‘í fjörð,’ which is still used all over the Scandin. continent; in D. N. ‘í fjörð’ repeatedly occurs, cp. Fr.; the ‘fjörð’ in the following passages—Hkr. i. 186, Fms. ii. 328, vi. 88, Fs. 95 (Hallfred), all of them poems of the 10th and 11th centuries—is doubtless to be taken in this sense; and the explanation given in Lex. Pool., s. v. fjörð and following, cannot be right.

fjörð-gamall, adj. a year old, D. N.

fjörðingi, a, m. one who has dwelt for a year in a place, N. G. L. i. 201.

FJÖRÐR, m., gen. fjarðar; dat. firði; pl. firðir, gen. fjarða: acc. fjörðu, mod. firði: [Swed.-Dan. fjord; North. E. and Scot. firth, frith; Engl. ford is a kindred word, but not identical]:—a firth, bay, a Scandin. word; but a small crescent-formed inlet or creek is called vík, and is less than fjörðr, hence the saying, fjörðr milli frænda, en vík milli vina, let there be a firth between kinsmen, but a creek between friends, denoting that kinship is not always so trustworthy as friendship: the allit. phrase, fjall ok fjörðr, vide fjall; freq. in Icel. and Scandin. local names combined with some other word expressing the shape, etc., Breiði-f., Mjófi-f., Djúpi-f., Grunni-f., Eyja-f., Lima-f. or Eylíma-f., Arnar-f., Alpta-f., Vatns-f., etc. In Icel. and old Scandin. countries the shore districts are freq. divided into counties, bearing the name of the firth, just as the inland is divided into dales; thus Eyja-f. and Skaga-f. denote both the firth and the county bordering on the firth. The western and eastern parts of Icel. are called Vest-firðir and Aust-firðir; in Norway a county is called Firðir; cp. Rb. 324 sqq., where over a hundred names of Icel. fjords are recorded, Landn. (Index), and the Sagas: fjarða-gol, n. a breeze blowing off a fjord, Fær. 203, Fms. iv. 302; fjarðar-botn, m. the bottom or head of a fjord, Eb. 188; fjarðar-horn, n. the creek at the head of a fjord, Gísl. 55, also freq. as a local name; fjarðar-íss, m. fjord-ice, Eb. 242, Bs. i. 327; fjarðar-kjöptr or fjarðar-minni, n. the mouth (opening) of a fjord, Sturl. i. 121, Hkr. iii. 118; fjarðar-menn, m. pl. the inhabitants of a fjord county, Sturl. ii. 199.

fjör-gamall, adj. stone-old, (mod.); cp. fjörðgamall.

fjör-gjafi, a, m. one who saves another’s life, = lífgjafi, Al. 98, Mork. 109.

fjör-grið, n. pl. truce for one’s life, Grág. ii. 21.

Fjörgyn, f. [Goth. fairguni = a mountain], Mother-earth, Edda.

fjör-löstr, m. loss of life, Grág. i. 187, Fms. xi. 135; used in the phrase, verða e-m að fjörlesti, to cause one’s death, Gísl. 62.

fjörr, m. a kind of tree, the fir (?), Edda (Gl.)

fjör-ráð, n. a law term, a plotting against one’s life (cp. Germ. verrathen), Grág. ii. 116, Al. 127. COMPDS: fjörráða-sök, f. a case of fjörráð, Sturl. ii. 152. fjörráðs-maðr (fjörs-maðr, Fagrsk. 181), m. a traitor against one’s life. fjörráðs-mál, n. a suit for fjörráð, Eb. 129.

fjörræði, n. = fjörráð, Matth. x. 21.

fjör-sjúkr, adj. sick unto death, Og. 9.

fjör-skaði, a, m. ‘life-scathe,’ injury to one’s life, N. G. L. i. 169.

fjörsungr, m. [Norse fjærsing], a fish, draco marinus, Edda (Gl.); arfr fjörsunga, the heirloom of dragons, a hoard, cp. Fáfnis arfr, Hkv. 2. 23.

fjörugr, adj. full of life, sprightly, (mod.)

fjör-vél, f. a plot against one’s life, N. G. L. i. 34.

fjötra, að, to fetter, Eg. 239, Nj. 136, Fms. iv. 264, vi. 378; fjötra hest, to hobble a horse, Glúm. 378, = mod. hepta (q. v.)

fjötur-lauss, adj. unfettered, Fms. xi. 226.

fjötur-láss, m. a fetter lock (for a door), Fms. viii. 341, v. l.

FJÖTURR, m., dat. fjötri, pl. fjötrar; [A. S. fetor; Engl. fetter; Germ. fesser; cp. Lat. com-ped-is]:—a fetter of iron, a shackle; sprettr mér af fótum fjöturr en af höndum hapt, Hm. 150; fjöturr á fótum, Fms. iv. 15; fjötur allsterkan, annan fjötur, Edda 19; fjöturr af hinu sterkasta stáli, Fms. x. 172, Hom. 118, 119; sitja í fjötri, Fms. ii. 12; sitja í fjötrum, id.; þeir brutu af sér fjötrana, Nj. 136. β. metaph., sleða-fjötrar, the straps of a sledge, Sdm. 15: the straps on a smith’s bellows, Vkv. 22, 32. COMPDS: fjötra-brot, n. pl. the fragments of a fetter, Fms. xi. 290. fjötrar-rauf, f. the holes in a sledge through which the straps go, Eb. 190.

FLAÐR, n. low flattery, fawning.

flaðra, að, to fawn; f. at e-m, to fawn on one, Fas. iii. 282 (mod. flaðra upp á e-n). flaðrari, a, m. a fawner, [cp. Germ. and Engl. flatter.]

FLAG, n. [Engl. flaw], the spot where a turf has been cut out; mó-flag, moldar-flag, freq.:—so also flaga, n, f. a flag or slab of stone. Bs. i. 609, cp. Fms. viii. 320. In the East Angl. counties of Engl. flag is still used of turf as well as stone.

flagari, a, m. a loose person, an impostor.

flagari, prep. a flayer, knacker; cp. Ivar Aasen flagar.

flag-brjóska, n. the cartilage of the breast-bone, Edda 76, Bs. i. 378.

FLAGÐ, n., pl. flögð, an ogre, giantess, Fas. i. 59. Fms. iii. 122, 125, 133, xi. 136, Bs. i. 468: the saying, opt eru flögð í fögru skinni, oft is a witch under a fair skin, Eb. 46: demons = tröll, Hkr. iii. 299 (in a verse), Fas. iii. 35 (in a verse). COMPDS: flagða-háttr, m. a kind of metre, Edda (Ht.) 34. flagða-lag, id., Ht. R. 32.

flagð-kona, u, f. a giantess, Fas. ii. 518, iii. 560, Gullþ. 20.

flagna, að, to flake off, as skin or slough. Bs. i. 618.

flag-spilda, u, f. a slice, cut, Ísl. ii. 32.

FLAK, n. the hood of a cap; ok saumat flökin at höfði hennar, Sturl. ii. 77 C, (Ed. flókinn); hence flaka-ólpa, u, f. a cap with a hood or flap, Sturl. l. c. β. the flapper or fin, e. g. of a halibut.

flak, n. a wreck, in skips-flak.

flaka, ð, to gape, esp. of wounds; f. sundr af sárum, Fas. iii. 485; flakti frá síðan, ii. 139. β. to flap, be loose, of garments etc.

flaki and fleki, a, m. a ‘flake,’ esp. a hurdle or shield wicker-work, used for defence in battle, Fms. ix. 30 (v. l.), 421, Hkr. ii. 11, Sks. 416 B.

flakk, n. a roving, roaming about.

flakka, að, to rove about as a beggar, Fas. ii. 228, Fms. viii. 240, Sturl. i. 70 (MS.): metaph., Vápn. 4.

flakna, að, to flake off, split, Fms. viii. 380, v. l.

flaksa, að, to hang loose.

FLAN, n. a rushing; feigðar-flan, ‘mad-rush’ (a saying).

flana, að, to rush heedlessly.

flangi, a, m. a coaxer, fawner; hence flangsast, dep. to fawn and coax.

flangrast, að, to fawn, of a dog; f. uppá e-n, (mod.)

flann-fluga, u, f. an adulteress, one who runs away from her wedded husband, a law term, N. G. L. i. 28.

flanni, a, m. a giddy person.

FLAS, n. and flas-fengni, f. a headlong rushing.

flas, n. = face; in the phrase, reka það framan í flasið á e-m, to throw it rudely in one’s face; or það kom rétt framan í flasið á honum! (mod.)

flasa, að, to rush, cp. Germ. flatschen.

flaska, að, to split, in the popular phrase, flaska á skeri, to split on a skerry or rock, of a ship, cp. Grett. 148 (in a verse).

flaska, u, f. [a word prob. of Byzantine origin, from Gr. φλάσκη, φλάσκιον; Dan. and Swed. flaska or flaske; Germ. flasche; Engl. flask; Ital. fiasco; Span. flasco; Fr. flacon; cp. Du Cange s. v. flasco and flasca]:—a flask; but it must be old, as flösku-skegg, n. bottle-beard, occurs in Landn. as a nickname of an uncle of the old Njal.; flösku-bakr, m. bottle-back, which occurs as a nickname in Grett., cp. Landn.

flaski, a, m. a flaw in timber or the like.

flat-bytna, u, f. a flat-bottomed boat, a barge, Jm. 1.

flat-ligr, adj. flat; flat-liga, adv. flatly, Bs. ii. 129.

flat-maga, að, to bask in the sun, lie as a dog, (cant.)

flat-nefr, adj. flat-nebbed, Lat. simus, a nickname, Landn.

flatneskja, u, f. a plain, Lat. planities; cp. Engl. flats, as in the Essex flats etc.

flatningr, m. a flat fish, Mk. 53.

FLATR, adj., fem. flöt, neut. flatt; [Engl. and Swed. flat; Dan. flad; Germ. platt]:—flat, level, of land; slétta dala ok flata völlu, Sks. 629: of other things, flatt skjaldþili, Eg. 233; flattr fiskr, a flat fish, Edda 35, Fs. 129, Bs. ii. 179. β. flat; falla flatr, Sturl. i. 85, Hkr. i. 38; draga e-n flatan, to drag one flat on the ground, Nj. 247; kasfa sér flötum niðr, to throw oneself down flat, Fas. i. 53. γ. or the flank of a thing, the phrases, stýra á flatt, to steer on the flank (side) of another ship, Korm. 230, Fas. ii. 523; bregða flötu sverði, to deal a blow with the flat of a blade, Fms. vii. 157; öxin snerisk flöt, the axe turned so as to strike flat, Grett. 151; bregða við flötum skildi, Nj. 262: metaph., fara flatt fyrir e-m, to fare ill, be worsted, metaphor from a ship, Sturl. iii. 233, Fms. vi. 379; koma flatt upp á e-n, to come ‘flat’ on one, take one by surprise. flata-fold, f. a flat-field, Bs. ii. 69.

flat-sigling, f. sailing with a side wind.

flat-skjöldr, m. = Lat. pelta, Stj. 572. 1 Kings x. 16, 17.

flat-smíði, n. things wrought flat with a plane or hammer, Grág. i. 504.

flat-streymi, n. an eddy coming on the side of a ship.

flat-sæng, f. a bed made on the floor, Fær. 259.

flat-særi (proncd. flassæri), n. a flat wound, as from a blister.

flat-vegr, m. the flat, broad side, Grett. 151; opp. to an edge.

flat-viðr, m. flat timber, planks, boards, Gþl. 455.

FLAUG, f. [fljúga], flying, flight, Sks. 114 B; fugla f., 655 B. 3; fugl á flaug (mod. fugl á flugi), Sks. 81; þessi f., Hem. 40; hefja flaug, Hom. 142: metaph., Am. 23, Sks. 423 B: the phrase, vera á för ok flaugum, to be unsteady and fluttering, Nj. 196. II. [Dan. flöj], a vane, Bs. i. 422, ii. 50, Edda (Gl.); hence flaugar-skegg, n. the edge or tail of the vane.

flaum-ósi (mod. flumósa), adj. rushing heedlessly on, metaph. from the sudden swelling of a torrent, Gísl. 30, Fs. 30.

FLAUMR, m. [Norse flom; A. S. fleam; Dutch. fleem]:—an eddy, Bs. ii. 5: poët. the din of battle, hildar f., göndlar f., Lex. Poët. 2. metaph. a bevy, crowd; kvenna f., a bevy of ladies, Fs. (Hallfred): in the phrase, nema e-n flaumi, to bereave one of company and glee, Jd. 5, Ísl. ii. 252 (in a verse); flaums felli-dómr, the hasty judgment of a crowd, (Sighvat). COMPDS: flaum-semi, f. flimsiness, Mar. flaum-slit, n. pl. a forsaking one, abandonment, Hm. 122.

flaumr, Norse flom, read flaum, see Ivar Aasen.

FLAUST, n. [akin to fley], poët. a ship, Lex. Poët. passim.

flaustr, n. fluster, hurry; flaustra, að, with dat. to be flustered.

FLAUTIR, f. pl. [A. S. flet; Dan. flöde = cream], a kind of whipped milk, Sturl. iii. 16, 31.

flá, f. the float or quill of a net, Jb. 317, Grág. ii. 358: metaph. strips of meadow land = fit, Róm. 310.

FLÁ, pres. flæ,; pret. fló, pl. flógu or flóu; part. fleginn; [akin to flag]:—to flay, Finnb. 250; ok flóu af skinn, Sd. 154; áðr enn flái húð af, Gþl. 502; öll húð af honum sem flegin væri, Fms. vii. 227, Edda 72; flegnir, 28; flá e-n kvikan, Fms. viii. 227: the saying, þar er ekki feitan gölt að flá: metaph. to strip, flá e-n at gripum, to strip one for one’s money, Bjarn. 16: síðan flógu þeir hann ór klæðum, stripped him, Fms. vii. 352; þá flógu þeir þá ór fötum, 623. 33: also with acc. of the thing, hann fló af sér yfir-klæði sitt, stripped his over-garment off him, Sturl. ii. 231 C: reflex., flæzk hann ór kyrtlinum, he pulled the cloak off, Bs. i. 442.

fláki, a, m. flat moors, moor-land; fúa-f., móa-f., etc.

FLÁR, fem. flá, neut. flátt, compar. flári, superl. flástr, prop. gaping; flár saumr, a loose ill-stitched seam. 2. metaph. in the saving, mæla fagrt, en hyggja flátt, to speak fair, but think false, Fms. ii. 91, Hm. 90, Bjarn. 21, Al. 102.

flá-ráð and flá-ræði, n. falsehood, Boll. 348, Fms. x. 390. Sks. 618.

flá-ráðr, adj. false, deceitful, Fas. i. 23, Hm. 119.

fleða, u, f. a sleek, bland person. fleðu-ligr, adj. bland.

flegða, u, f. = flagð, a giantess.

FLEINN, m. [A. S. flán], a bayonet-like pike, Fms. iii. 224, Sks. 394, cp. Grett. 141. β. the fluke of an anchor, Nj. 42, Orkn. 362; vide akkeris-fleinn. 2. a kind of shaft, a dart, = A. S. flán, Höfuðl. 10, 13, Rm. 32, Fms. i. 45, cp. Hkr. i. 159, Hm. 85, 151; hence poët. flein-drífa, u, f. a drift or shower of shafts; flein-stökkvandi and flein-varpaðr, m. epithets of archers. 3. a pr. name, Landn.; hence Fleins-háttr, m. a metre attributed to an old poet of that name, Edda (Ht.)

FLEIPR, n. babble, tattle, Mag. 56.

fleipra or fleipa, að, to babble, prattle, Gísl. 98, Ísl. ii. 151, Grett. 148 B, Fas. ii. 507.

FLEIRI, compar., and FLESTR, superl., (fleirstr is a bad form, freq. in books of the 18th century), [cp. Lat. plerique, plūres; Gr. πλειστοι, πλείονες; Dan. flere, flest; Ulf. uses managistr = πλειστος and managiza = πλείων; vide margr]:—more, most; sex dómendr eða fleiri, Grág. i. 37; eru þeir fleiri er þat sanna, Fms. x. 275; hinir vóru þó miklu fleiri (more numerous), Ld. 170; ef hann þarf fleiri bjargkviðu, Grág. i. 55; á því vígi eigi fleirum mönnum á hendr at lýsa, ii. 34; vil ek heyra fleiri manna órskurð, Fms. i. 42: neut. fleira, more, féll miklu fleira lið hans, 121: with gen., hafði hann nokkuru fleira manna, Eg. 77, Bs. ii. 167; fleira barna, Fs. 75; ekki sagði hann þessum manni fleira, Fms. i. 145. β. metaph. more communicative, hearty, cp. fár and margr; er nú fleira í frændsemi með þeim, Band. 20 new Ed.; hann görðisk við hann fleiri ok fleiri, more and more intimate, Finnb. ch. 7; fannsk mér þá ok æ síðan fleira til hans, i. e. I liked him then and better ever since, Fms. i. 141: in the sense of more, er fleira drekkr, the more he drinks, Hm. 12; fleiri vásbúð hafði hann, en vér höfum haft, Fb. i, Ó. T. ch. 26. II. superl., forsjálir um flest, Eg. 73; þér erut um flest einráðir Íslendingar, Ld. 314; flest allt, almost all (vide allr), Fs. 174; flest allt stórmenni, Landn. 39, v. l.; flest öll hof, Sks. 234; þeir eru hér flestir menn at mikils munu virða mín orð, Ld. 184; flestir allir nema fáir menn, Niðrst. 7; flest lið, the greater part of the people or troops, Korm. 236, Eg. 92. β. with the notion of all; flestr maðr, most people, Höfuðl. 3; þat tel ek fyrst er flestr um veit, Ad. 17; reyndr var flestr í fastri fleindrífu, Fbr. (in a verse); flestan dag, all day long, Gm. 15; flestan aldr, all ages, for ever, Arnór; dag-lengis flestan, all day long, Kormak; því at ek brúðar á flest um ráð sem faðir, Alm. 5, Lex. Poët.: the saying, flestir kjósa fyrðar líf, all men cling to life, Kvöldv. i. 194, as motto to the fable of Death and the Old Man with the Sack.

fleka, að, with acc. to deceive, beguile.

fleki, a, m. = flaki, Fms. v. 167, viii. 429, ix. 30, 421, v. l., Sks. 417.

FLEKKA, að, to fleck, stain, pollute, 655 xxxii. 4, Magn. 474: reflex., H. E. i. 476, Stj. 142.

flekka, u, f. a kind of chequered jacket, Sturl. ii. 218: a fleck, spot, in flekku-sótt f. scarlet fever, Fél. ix.

flekkan, f. pollution, 655 xxxii. 3, Stj.

flekkja, að, to rake the hay into rows for drying.

flekk-lauss, adj. unspotted, eccl., 625. 70, 183, Stj. 49.

flekk-óttr, adj. flecked, spotted, of sheep, dogs, cattle (skjóttr, of horses), Stj. 98, 177, 178, Rb. 354; flekkótt hekla, Landn. 319, v. l.; rauð-f., svart-f., blá-f., etc., red-, black-, blue-flecked, etc.

FLEKKR, m., pl. flekkir, gen. flekkja, a fleck, spot, Stj. 124, Fms. x. 332, Nj. 68, Fb. i. 258: metaph. a blot, stain, Þorst. St. 51, H. E. i. 505; blóð-f., q. v.; án flekk, sine contaminatione, Mar. 2. a row of hay spread out for drying.

flenging, f. whipping, Grett. 135.

flengja, d, to whip, Fas. iii. 312: to ride furiously, (mod.)

flenna, t, to put wide open (cant word), Eg. 305, v. l., Fb. iii. 335, 427.

flenna, u, f. [flanni], a gadding, giddy woman.

flenn-eygr, adj. having wide-staring eyes, Fb. i. 276.

flens, n. kissing, licking, coaxing; kossa-flens, kissing and coaxing.

flensa, að, [Germ. flansen], to kiss, lick (cant word), Fms. vi. 359, cp. Mork. 75, where it is spelt flenssa: of an ox, Fas. iii. 500.

fleppinn, adj. [Scot. flypin], crest-fallen.

FLES, f., pl. flesjar, [cp. flas, flaska], a green spot among bare fells and mountains, Edda 52 (in a verse), Þd. 12.

FLESK (fleski, Rm. l. c.), n. [A. S. flæsc; Engl. flesh; Germ. fleisch; not in Ulf.; in Icel. and all northern languages kjöt (Swed. kött, Dan. kjöd) is the common word, and flesk is only used of pork or bacon; Dan. flæsk; Swed. fläsk]:—pork, esp. ham and bacon, often used in pl.; fán fleski, Rm. 29; fleska bezt, Gm. 18; forn fleski, Snót 226; brauð ok lítið fleski, Bs. i. 819; galtar flesk, Edda 23; hveiti ok flesk, Fms. vi. 263: a dish of kale and bacon was a dainty, hence the saving, drepa fleski í kál, to dip bacon into kale, Fas. iii. 381; e-m fellr flesk í kál, the bacon drops into one’s kale, cp. the Engl. ‘roasted larks flying into one’s mouth;’ honum þótti, ef þetta prófaðisk satt, náliga flesk fallit í kál sitt, Bs. i. 717; feitt flesk féll þér í kál (Ed. ketil wrongly), ef þú kannt at súpa, Fms. xi. 348. COMPD: fleski-sneið, n. a cut or slice of bacon, Finnb. 212, v. l., Fms. iii. 112.

FLET, n. [cp. Scot. and Engl. flat = a story of a house; Dan. fled in fled-föring; A. S. flett = aula; O. H. G. flazi; Hel. fletti = coenaculum, domus; mod. provinc. Germ. fletz]:—a set of rooms or benches, and hence metaph. the house itself; often in pl., chiefly used in poetry and in law. 1. rooms; flet fagrlig, Vtkv. 6; sitja á fleti fyrir, Hm. 1; ef lengi sitr annars fletjum á, 34; flets strá, rooms strewed with straw, Ls. 46; setjask miðra fletja, to be seated in the middle, Rm. 4; vaxa upp á fletjum, 34; láttu á flet vaða gull-skálir, let the golden goblets go round the benches (as the Engl. loving cup), Akv. 10; stýra fletjum, to dwell, keep house, Helr. 10; bera hrör af fletjum, Scot. to lift and carry a body out of the house, to bury, Stor. 4; um flet ok um bekki, Fas. ii. 164. 2. in law phrases, a house; setja hann niðr bundinn á flet sýslu-manns, to place him bound in the bailiff’s house, Gþl. 147, cp. 534; þá skulu þeir hafa vitni til, ok setja þann mann bundinn á flet hans, N. G. L. i. 162, of compulsory alimentation, cp. Dan. fled-föring; er dóttir hans á fleti, if he has a daughter in the house, 341; ganga á flet ok á borð e-s, to board and lodge with one, D. N. ii. 442. 3. a couch, in the phrase, rísa ór fleti, to rise up from bed, of a lazy fellow, Gullþ. 14; the word agrees with the mod. use of flet, a flat bed on the floor, = flat-sæng. COMPDS: flet-björn and flet-vargr, m., poët. = a house.

flet-genginn, part. a law phrase = arfsals-maðr, q. v., Dan. fled-föring.

fletja, flatti; pres. flet; part. flattr:—to cut open; þorskr flattr, dried cod, stock fish, Grág. ii. 354 B, Jb. 317: reflex. to stretch oneself, Fas. ii. 147: impers., skip (acc.) fletr, to drift aside (with the current).

flet-roð, n. a ‘clearing the flats,’ of a furious onslaught in battle, Jómsv. 39.

fletta, tt, to strip; fletta klæðum, Nj. 209, Fms. viii. 77, 264; fletta e-n af brynju, vii. 227, viii. 121; fletta e-u af e-m, to strip (the clothes) off, iii. 125, Al. 89: metaph., Th. 24. β. to strip, plunder, Sturl. ii. 208, Fms. ix. 383, Stj. 282; cp. fé-fletta. 2. the phrase, fletta bók (dat.), to turn the leaves of a book, (mod.)

FLÉTTA, tt or að, [Lat. plectere; Ulf. flehtan; Germ. flechten; Dan. flette; the word is scarcely borrowed from the Germ.]:—to plait; hár fléttað, Karl. 335: reflex., hárið fléttask niðr á bringu, the hair fell down in braids on the breast, 226.

flétta, u, f. a braid, string; hár-f., plaited hair. COMPDS: fléttu-band, n. plaited string, cord. fléttu-grjót, n. sling-stones, Sks. 422, Ó. H. 185 (in a verse). fléttu-skepta, u, f. a kind of shaft, hasta amentata, = skepti-flétta, q. v.

fletting, f. a stripping, plunder, Ann. 1242.

fléttingr, m. braids, knots, Karl. 299, 335, Mag. 33, El. 27, 29.

flettu-selr, m, a kind of seal, Sks. 177.

FLEY, n. a kind of swift ship (= snekkja, q. v.); only found in poets, as Thiodolf calls the sea fleyja flatvöllr, the flat-field of the fleys, cp. Hkv. 2. 4; fley ok fagrar árar, a fley and beautiful oars, Egill; used by poets also in many compds, as fley-braut, fley-vangr, the road-field of the fleys, etc.; never in prose, except in pr. names, as Gesta-fley, Fms. viii, Sverr. S.; but fley-skip occurs not only in verse, Fb. i. 528, but also in a deed of the year 1315, N. G. L. iii. 112:—also used of merchant ships, Ann. The Span. flibóte, Engl. fly-boat (Johnson) point to a form fley-bátr = fley-skip, though that form has not been found; from the Span. flibóte prob. came the Ital. flibustiero, Anglo-American filibuster: perh. also the Germ. freibeuter, Engl. freebooter, Dutch vrijbuiter represent the same word, altered so as to give an intelligible sense in the respective languages.

fleyðr, n. a scratch.

fleyðri, f., something belonging to a ship-shed; liggja við þrír aurar við staf hvern, ok svá fyrir staflæju hverja, ok svá fyvir fleyðri hverja, a plank in the floor (?), N. G. L. i. 101.

fleygi-ferð, f. flying speed.

fleygi-gaflok, n. a javelin, Sks. 386, 387.

fleygi-kvittr, m. a loose rumour, Fagrsk. ch. 277.

FLEYGJA, fleygði, [fliúga, flaug], to ‘let fly,’ throw, with dat., Fms. ii. 17, v. 223, xi. 72, Ld. 166, Bs. ii. 87, Rm. 32 (where read fleini): absol., Vsp. 28, Fms. vi. 137; fleygja af hendi, 623. 31. β. impers., mönnum ok fénaði fleygði (were thrown) til jarðar, Ann. 1339.

fleygr, adj. able to fly, Grág. ii. 346, Hom. 89.

fleygr, m. a wedge.

fleymingr, m. [flaumr], jest, sport, in the phrase, hafa e-t í fleymingi, to make sport of, 655 xxxii. 15, Hkr. ii. 187, Grett. 95 A, Sturl. passim; sometimes spelt flymingi or flæmingi, but less correct.

fley-skip, n. a ‘fly-ship,’ Fb. i. 528 (in a verse), N. G. L. iii. 112, where it is opp. to langskip: cp. fley.

FLEYTA, tt, [fljóta, flaut], to float, launch, with dat.; fleyta skipum, Hkr. iii. 433, Eg. 359. β. to lift slightly from the ground, Fms. iii. 211: reflex. fleytask, metaph. to pass, go through, but with the notion of a narrow escape, as a boat in shallow water, Band. 7 (v. l.) new Ed.

flika, u, f. a rag, = flík, Thom. 471.

FLIKKI, n. a flitch of bacon, Fms. x. 204, Fas. ii. 473, Dipl. iii. 4. COMPD: flikkis-sneið, n. a cut or slice of bacon, Fms. iii. 112.

FLIM and flimt, n., esp. as a law phrase, a lampoon, libel (in verses), Nj. 70, Bjarn. 42.

flim-beri, a, m. a flouter, Fb. iii. 242.

flimska, u, f. mockery, Hb. 14.

flimta, að and t, to flout, lampoon; ef þú flimtar mik, Fms. ii. 9; flimtaði, Fs. 89; but þeir flimtu Þorgrím, Fms. vi. 31 (flimtuðu, v. l.); flimtaði (subj.), Fs. 89.

flimtan, f. a lampooning, quizzing, satire, Nj. 50, Eg. 209, Fms. vi. 193, Sturl. ii. 57, iii. 80; vide danz.

FLIPI, a, m. a horse’s lip; (granir, of a cow; vör, of a man.)

FLISSA, að (and fliss, n.), [Swed. fliss], to titter.

FLÍK, f., pl. flíkr (but flíkar, Þorf. l. c.), [Germ. flick and flicken], a ‘flitch,’ tatter, rag, flap, Þorf. Karl. 436, Pass. 24. 1, 2.

flíka, að. in flíka e-n, to have to spare; þó hefði ei fé að flíka, Húst.

flírur, f. pl. caresses; flíru-ligr, adj. bland; flíru-læti, n. pl.

FLÍS, f. [Germ. fliese; Swed. flisa; Dan. flise], a splinter, N. G. L. i. 38, Fms. x. 30: a slice, Mar. (Fr.)

flísask, að, dep. to be split into slices, be splintered, Stj. 641.

FLJÓÐ, n. a woman, only used in poetry, Hm. 78, 91, 101, Alm 5, Rm. 22, Edda 108; etym. uncertain. II. in pl., a local name in Norway, Fms. xii.

FLJÓT, n. [A. S. fleôt = ostium; cp. the Fleet River in London, whence Fleet Street, Northfleet and Southfleet in Kent; Germ. fliess, usually fluss, whence Dan. flod]:—in old writers scarcely used except as a pr. name of a river, viz. Markar-fljót (and simply Fljót) in the south of Icel., whence Fljóts-hlíð, f. the county, Landn. and Nj. passim; and the county Fljót (pl.) in the north of Icel., whence Fljóta-menn, m. pl. the men from Fljót, Sturl. i. 138: in mod. usage it may be used as an appell. a river, as in Dan. and Germ., but scarcely except in poetry, e. g. Núm. 7. 1. 2. á fljóti, afloat, Fms. iv. 65; better á floti, vide flot.

FLJÓTA, pret. flaut, 2nd pers. flauzt; flautt scarcely occurs, pl. flutu; pres. flýt, pl. fljótum, pret. subj. flyti; part. flotinn; sup. flotið: [A. S. fleôtan; Engl. float; O. H. G. fliozan; Germ. fliessen; Dan. flyde; Swed. flyta] 1. to float on the water; sá þar fljóta langskip tjaldat, Eg. 88; þar sem þat flaut í höfninni, 359; láta þeir f. skipit, Fms. x. 347; par sá þeir f. fyrir skip Þorvalds, Korm. 234; hverir láta fljóta fley við bakka, Hkv. 2. 4; flýtr meðan lifir en sökkr þegar dautt er, Rb. 352: in the saying, flýtr meðan ekki sökkr, a phrase answering to the Engl. sink or swim; fugla er f. á vatni, fowls that swim, Grág. ii. 346; þá flýtr hann til lands, floats ashore, Sks. 94; séðú hve flotinn flýtr, Skálda 163. β. metaph. to float about, spread, of news, Bs. ii. 143; láta orð f., Mar. 14; þat hefir flotið um þrjá bæi eðr fjóra, N. G. L. i. 141, Hom. 45. γ. reflex., láta fljótask, to drift, Sks. 133. 2. to run, stream, of running waier; svá sem rennandi vötn f. at ýmissum uppsprettum, Fms. ii. 89: to form a pool, vötnin flutu fjórtán álna djúp, Stj. 58; með fljótandum tárum, with gushing tears, Mar. β. intrans. to be flooded; flaut hann allr í tárum, he was in floods of tears, Fms. x. 24; flutu í vatni augun klár, Pass. 2. 11; flaut í blóði gólf allt, the floor was flooded with blood, Eg. 217; jörðin flaut af hunangi, Stj. 453; ketillinn flýtr með feiti, Bs. ii. 135; flaut allt land af mönnum, Fms. viii. 400.

fljót-endi, n. the float or cork of a net, Gþl. 428.

fljót-fanga, adj., Bs. i. 360, read fljót fanga-ráðs.

fljót-leikr (-leiki), m. fleetness, speed, Fms. x. 344. xi. 428, Sks. 82.

fljót-liga, adv. fleetly, swiftly, Fms. i. 69: metaph. promptly, iv. 295.

fljót-ligr, adj. fleet, Ld. 232: metaph. speeding, Bs. i. 423.

fljót-mæltr, part. talking quickly, opp. to sein-mæltr.

fljótr, adj. fleet, swift, of a horse, Flóv. 30: of a ship, Fs. 28, Fms. vi. 262. β. metaph. ready, speedy; Ólafr var þess ekki fljótr, ok fór þó at bæn Bolla, Ld. 186. II. neut. used adverb. fleetly, swiftly; nú lát við fljótt ok leita dyra, Fms. v. 147; svá fljótt, so soon, 168; sem fljótast, the soonest, at once, Fb. i. 539; þat fljótast sem þú getr, as soon as thou canst, Fms. iii. 94; fljótara, sooner, Dipl. v. 5. 2. metaph. promptly; hann tekr honum eigi fljótt, he received him coolly, Sd. 139; þeir tóku eigi fljótt undir þat, Fms. ii. 32.

fljót-ráðr, adj. rash, Hkr. iii. 87, v. l.

fljót-ræði, n. rashness.

fljót-tækr, adj. quick at taking in or apprehending, Fms. xi. 427.

fljót-virki, f. quickness in working, Fms. xi. 431, Th. 19.

fljót-virkni (fljót-virkt, Bs. ii. 96), f. hurried work.

fljót-virkr, adj. quick in working, Mar.; but also opp. to góðvirkr, working hastily, ‘scamping’ the work.

FLJÚGA, pres. flýg, pl. fljúgum; pret. flaug, 2nd pers. flaugt, mod. flaugst, pl. flugum; another old pret. fló, Haustl. 2, 8, Þkv. 5, 9, Gh. 17, Ýt. 14, and prose passim; the form flaug is very rare, in old poets; fló is now quite obsolete, flaug, pl. flugu, being the current form: part. floginn; sup. flogit; pret. subj. 1st pers. flygja, 3rd pers. flygi; with the neg. suf. flýgrat, Hm. 151: [not on record in Goth., as the Apocal. is lost in Ulf.; A. S. fleôgan; Engl. fly; O. H. G. fliôgan; Germ. fliegen; Dutch vliegen; Swed. flyge; Dan. flyve: cp. flug]:—to fly, Lat. volare, of birds; in the allit. phrase, fuglinn fljúgandi; valr flýgr, Grág. ii. 170; fló sá hrafn aptr um stafn, Landn. 29; fló hann þangat til, Niðrst. 4; at fljúga eigi upp fyrr, Edda 60; Johannes flaug upp til himins, Hom. 47. 2. metaph., fljúga á e-n (á-flog, q. v.), to fly at one another, in a fight, Nj. 32: recipr., fljúgask á, to join in a fight, N. G. L. i. 46, Nj. 56. β. of weapons, sparks, rumour, and the like; spjótið fló yfir hann fram, Nj. 58: kesjan flaug í völlinn, Eg. 379; gneistarnir (the sparks) flugu, Fms. viii. 8; at vápn skyli falla at manni eðr f. at honum, Grág. Kb. 108; fljúgandi fleinn, Hm. 85, 151; fleinn floginn, Höfuðl. 12: um konu þá fló út ferlegt úorðan, Hom. 115; sá kvittr fló í bygðinni, Fms. ix. 237: flaug þat sem sinu-eldr, i. 21. γ. of shooting pains (vide flog); þaðan af fló á hann mein þat, Bs. i. 446. II. in old poetry and on Runic stones, used = flýja (q. v.), to flee, Lat. fugere; sá er eigi fló at Uppsölum, who fled not at Upsala, Baut. 1169; en þínir fjándr flugu, Hkm. 12; fló ór landi, fled from the land, Ýt. 14.

flog, n. [fljúga], a flying, flight, old form = flug, Barl. 56: medic. a shooting pain, verkjar-flog, or flog-verkr, m., and flog-kveisa, u, f. rheumatism, Fél. ix.

flogall, adj. volatile, Lat. volatilis, Hb.

FLOKKR, m. akin to fólk, [A. S. floc; Engl. flock; Dan. flok; Swed. flock]:—a body of men; in law five men make a flokkr; flokkr eru fimm menn, Edda 108; þat heitir f. er fimm menn eru saman, N. G. L. i. 61:—a company, host, party, þeir gengu allir í einum flokki, Nj. 100; engla flokkar, a host of angels, Greg. 34; marga flokka, Th. 3; hlaupa í gegn ór öðrum flokki, Grág. ii. 10: adverb., flokkum, in crowds, 656. 18; flokkum þeir fóru, Sl. 63:—a troop, band, hefja flokk, to raise a band, to rebel, Fms. viii. 273, ix. 4; ofríki flokkanna, vii. 293; fara með flokk, to roam about, 318:—a tribe, company, in a good sense, Stj. 321, 322, passim, and so in mod. usage. COMPDS: flokka-atvígi, n. an attack in bands, uproar, N. G. L. i. 165. flokka-ferð, f. a marching in troops, Grett. 124 B. flokks-foringi, a, m. a captain, leader, Fbr. flokks-höfðingi, a, m. a head, chief, Stj. 322. flokks-maðr, m. a man belonging to a f. Fms. vii. 252, Sturl. iii. 242. flokks-víg, n. a law term, manslaughter in a faction fight or mêlée, N. G. L. i. 64. II. a short poem, Ísl. ii. 237, Fms. v. 227, vi. 391, xi. 203, 204: as the name of poems, Brands-flokkr, Sturl. iii. 90; Tryggva-f., Fms. iii. 54, 116; Kálfs-f., 123; Valþjófs-f., vi. 426; cp. esp. Gunnl. S. and Knytl. S. l. c., vide drápa. 2. in mod. usage an epic poem consisting of several cantos is called flokkr or rímna-flokkr; thus Úlfars-rímur, Núma-rímur, Þrymlur, etc. are each of them a flokkr, but the Skíða-ríma or Ólafs-ríma, being single rhapsodies, are not so called.

flokk-stjóri, a, m. a captain or leader of a f., Ld. 268.

florin, m. (for. word), a florin, Bs. ii. 43.

FLOS, n. the ‘floss’ or pile of velvet.

flosa, u, f. a splinter, = flís, Bev.

flosi, a, m. a pr. name, Landn., Nj. β. [Norse flös], a fop. COMPDS: flosa-háttr, m. flutter. flosa-legr, adj.; cp. flysjungr.

flosna, að, to hang loose, prop. of threads: to wither, þar flosna aldregi blómar, Hb. 6. β. metaph., flosna upp, to break up one’s household, be bankrupt.

FLOT, n. [fljóta], the fat, grease, esp. from cooked meat, Fms. i. 36, Sd. 163, Dipl. iii. 4, v. 18: in the phrase, sjaldan hefi eg flotinu neitað, Ísl. Þóðs. i. 437. II. afloat, only in the phrases, á flot, with the sense of motion, ‘setting’ afloat, Fms. vi. 249; á floti, ‘being’ afloat; vera á floti, Hm. 155, Fms. vii. 287, Grág. ii. 357, N. G. L. i. 45.

flota, að, to float, launch, with dat., Fær. 162, Fms. ii. 107, ix. 447.

flota-hólmr, m. an islet, = um-flotin ey, Sks. 93.

flot-brúsi, a. m. a floating jar, poët. a boat, Hým. 26.

flot-bytta, u, f. a grease-tub, a cognom., Fms.

flot-fundinn, part. found afloat, of a whale, Grág. ii. 383.

floti, a, m. [Germ. floss; Dan. flaade], a float, raft, Lat. ratis, Skálda 163, Gþl. 411, Fms. viii. 32. 2. a fleet, Lat. classis, Hkv. 1. 27, 35, 2. 18, Fms. i. 169, viii. 222, passim. II. = flet, a movable seat, bench, Fms. v. 332, v. l., perhaps a misspelling.

flot-kyndill, m. a tallow-candle, Art. 114.

flotna, að, to come afloat, Fms. viii. 380, Stj. 123: metaph., flotna upp, to float up, come to the surface, Bs. i. 724.

flotnar, m. pl., poët. seamen, freebooters, Edda 107, Lex. Poët.

flot-rennr, adj. passable by a float or raft, of a river, Gþl. 414.

FLÓ, f., pl. flær, a layer, stratum, Edda 83. II. [A. S. fleâ; Engl. flea; Germ. floh], a flea, Fas. i. 394: the saying, vera eins og fló á skinni, i. e. never at rest; mar-fló [Germ. floh-krebs], cancer pulex. flóa-bit, n. flea-bite.

FLÓA, að, to boil milk or fluids; hence, flóuð mjólk, boiled milk; óflóuð mjólk, unboiled milk; sólin heitir ok flóar alla veröld, Mar. 56; hón flóar ok heitir kólnuð hjörtu. 60. II. to flood; Lögrinn gengr svá upp á löndin at víða flóar, Ó. H. 17; af hans sárum flóaði svá mikit blóð, Mar. (Fr.): in mod. usage always declined with ð, flóir and flóði, if in this sense.

FLÓÐ, n., it is used fem. in Hb. (1865) 14, 39. [Ulf. flôdus = ποταμός, Luke vi. 49; A. S. flôd; Engl. flood; Swed.-Dan. flod; Germ. fluth]:—a flood, inundation, deluge, Rb. 336; flóðit mikla, Ann. 1199, Fms. xi. 393; vatns-flóð, water-flood. 2. of the tide, flood = flæðr, Fms. vii. 272, Eg. 195; þá er flóð, er tungl er í vestri ok í austri, 415. 10; flóð eðr fjara, Gullþ. 13; at flóði, Fms. viii. 389, Orkn. 428, v. l., Landn. 57: in the west of Icel. always flæðr, q. v. 3. a flood, river or sea, only in old poetry; the allit. phrase, fiskr í flóði, fish in flood, esp. of salmon, Gm. 21; hvat er þat fiska er renn flóði í, Skv. 2. 1, Fas. i. 483 (in a verse); fold skal við flóði taka (a saying), Hm. 138; cp. meðan jörð heldr flóði, vide Lex. Poët. 4. a snow-slip, avalanche, Gísl. 33; snæ-flóð or snjó-flóð (freq.) II. metaph. tumult, uproar; en hinn vegni yrði fyrir því flóði, that the slain should be swept away in that flood, Grág. ii. 140; var Páll í því flóði, Paul perished in the tumult, Sturl. iii. 83 C; í þessu flóði urðu þeir Hringr, Fms. v. 268; veit ek hverir hér munu andask, ok monat þú í því flóði verða, thou shalt not perish along with them, Greg. 75; í því flóði urðu fjórir tigir riddara, Blas. 38: in a good sense, í því flóði græddi hann konu þá er Sintica heitir, Post. 656 B. 11: in the mod. phrase, vera í flóði e-s, to be in one’s train, under one’s protection.

flóð-skítr, m. a duck, podiceps cornutus, Edda (Gl.), = flóa-skítr.

FLÓI, a, m. [Norse flaa-vand, flaa-bygd; cp. the Kelpie’s flow in Scott’s Bride of Lammermoor; also the ice-floe of Arctic navigators]:—a marshy moor, Ísl. ii. 345, Fms. iv. 359, Jb. ii. 280; fúa-flói, a rotten fen; flóa-barð, n. the edge of a f.; flóa-skítr, m. = flóð-skítr; flóa-sund, n. a strip of moor; and many other compds. β. a district in the south of Icel., hence Flóa-menn, m. pl. the men of F., and Flóa-manna Saga, u, f. the name of a Saga. II. a bay or large firth, Þórð. 7 new Ed.: freq. in local names, Stranda-flói, Grett. 13 new Ed.; Húna-flói, Sturl. iii. 58 sqq.; Faxa-f. (old Faxa-óss). Flóa-fundr, m. the battle in F., Sturl., Ann.—Deep water in a bay is also called flói, opp. to the shallow water near the coast, Bjarneyja-flói.

FLÓKI, a, m. ‘flock,’ felt, hair, wool, etc.; ullar-flóki, Edda 237, Fas. ii. 207 (freq.): of a goat’s beard, Eb. 92. COMPDS: flóka-hattr, m. and -hetta, u, f. a felt-hat, Hkr. ii. 202, Eb. 240. flóka-ólpa, u, f. a jacket with a felt cowl, Sturl. flóka-stakkr, m. id., Fas. ii. 242. flóka-trippi, n. a foal with a shaggy skin, Fas. i. 9. 2. metaph. of dense black clouds, Vígl. 22; ský-flóki, Eb. 260. II. [A. S. flôc], a kind of halibut, passer, solea, Edda (Gl.) III. a pr. name, Landn.; hence in names of places, Flóka-dalr, etc., Landn.

flókinn, part. clotted, entangled, Fms. x. 192: of a cloud, Sks. 226.

FLÓN, m. an oaf, fool; flónska, u. f. foolishness; flóns-háttr, m. id.; no example has been found in old writers.

flóna, að, to become warm; þá tók at flóna líkit, Stj. 615, 2 Kings iv. 34; þá flóna þeir til ástar við Guð, Mar. 99.

FLÓR, m. [for. word; A. S. flôr; Engl. floor; O. H. G. fluor; Germ. flur; Dutch vloer]:—a floor, pavement, in Icel. only used of the floor of a cow-stall, Bjarn. 32; moka flór, to clean the floor. Fas. ii. 341: in Norway = cow-stall, Bk. 98, D. N. i. 233. flór-fili, n. floor-deals, N. G. L. i. 38.

FLÓTTI, a, m. [Engl. flight; Germ. flucht, whence Dan. flugt; cp. flýja]:—flight = Lat. fuga (never = volatus): kom flótti í lið Eireks-sona, Fms. i. 38, Al. 142, passim; snúa á flótta, Eg. 290; flótti brestr, Fms. passim, vide bresta. β. a flying host; reka flótta, to pursue the flying host, Eg. 290, 299, Fms. passim. COMPDS: flótta-gjarn, adj. craven, Stj. 263. flótta-menn, m. pl. a flying host, Fms. i. 45, Orkn. 106. flótta-rekstr, m. pursuit of the flying host, Stj. 483, Fms. vi. 323. flótta-stigr, m. a path of flight, Sks. 728. Poët. compds: flótt-skjarr, flótt-styggr, adj. ‘flight-shy,’ i. e. valiant, Lex. Poët.

flótt-reka, rak, to put to flight, Bs. ii. 82, (rare.)

FLUG, n., but in old writers usually, if not always, flugr, m. [cp. fljúga I]:—flight, Lat. volatus; fuglanna flug (acc.), Stj. 17; þá beinir hann fluginn, Edda 60; (hann) dró arnsúg í flugnum, 46; í sínum flug, Stj. 270: the phrase, á flugi, in the flight; fugl á flugi, a bird of flight, Od. xii. 62; mætir hón hamrinun á flugi, Edda 58; á ferð ok flugi, ‘faring and flying,’ all in motion, Fas. i. 6, Núm. 2. 99: metaph., var hón öll á flugi, she was all in a flutter, Fb. ii. 335. II. = flótti, Lat. fuga, flight, only in poetry; trauðr flugar, unwilling to flee, bold, Hkv. 1. 52, Fms. xi. 186 (in a verse); flugar-trauðr, adj. bold, Hkv. 1. 54; cp. flug-skjarr, flug-styggr, flug-trauðr, flug-varr, adj., flug-þverrir, m. firm in battle, unflinching, all epithets of heroes, Lex. Poët. III. neut. a sheer precipice; hann er svá hár, ok þat flug fyrir ofan at …, Fas. ii. 231; hence fluga-björg, n. pl. and fluga-hamarr (mod. flug-hamarr), m. precipices, Bs. i. 330, Fms. viii. 18. 49, Fb. iii. 408, Fas. ii. 231: also of a current, fluga-fors, m., Mag.; fluga-straumr, m. a rapid vortex, eddy, Edda 67 (in a verse):—other compds in mod. use, flug-beittr, adj. keen-edged, as a razor; flug-gáfaðr, flug-næmr, flug-skarpr, adj. keen, acute, quick to learn; flug-háll, adj. (flug-hálka, u, f.), very slippery; flug-ríkr, adj. immensely rich.

fluga, u. f., gen. pl. flugna, a fly, gnat, moth, Stj. 23, 91, Pr. 474, Edda 70, Ver. 20; gesta-fluga, a moth; mý-f., a gnat; bý-f., a bee; randa-f., a wasp; hunangs-f., a honey-fly, a kind of Icel. bee; mel-f., a clothes-moth; þev-f., a kind of tipula: myki-f., a dung-fly: maðka-f., a maggot-fly, all three musca, etc., vide Eggert Itin. ch. 688: the phrase, eins og fluga, swift as a fly. Wizards were said to bewitch flies and send them to kill their enemies (vide galdra-fluga, gand-fluga), hence the phrase, gína við flugu, or taka flugu, to swallow the fly or to carry the fly, i. e. to be the tool of another man, esp. in a wicked and fatal business, Eb. 164; ef Hallgerðr kemr annarri flugu í munn þér, if H. puts another fly in thy mouth, i. e. makes thee to carry another lie, Nj. 64; þeir gina við þessi flugu, Al. 9; era mínligt flugu at gína, ‘tis not ‘mine-like’ to open the mouth for flies, i. e. lies and slander, Kristni S. (in a verse of the year 998); hann fær komit þeirri flugu í munn eins skiptings, Fms. xi. 445. COMPDS: flugu-maðr, m. ‘a man of flies,’ a wizard, occurs in this sense in the old Swed. law (Verel.): hence metaph. a hired bandit, an assassin, Landn. 181, N. G. L. ii. 51, Fms. v. 45, 190, vi. 188, Glúm. 361, Rd. 307, Lv. 57. flugu-mannligr, adj. looking assassin-like, Fs. 65.

flugði, a pret. of a lost verb flygja, to shudder; hón flugði öll, she shuddered all over (from horror), Eb. 318.

flug-dreki, a, m. a flying dragon, a mythic monster, Nj. 183, Bjarn. 12, Gullþ., Al., Sks. 79; cp. dreki fljúgandi, Vsp.

flug-dýr, n. a flying insect, Pr. 476.

flug-ormr, m. a flying snake, winged serpent, mythol., Pr.

flug-sjór, m. the giddy deep, Fas. ii. 231, v. l.

flug-skjótr, adj. swift as one winged, Fas. iii. 455.

flug-snarr, adj. = flugskjótr, Art. 149.

flug-stigr, m. a path of flight, poët., Hkv. 2. 47: the popular phrase, eg var kominn á flugstig að fara, I was just about to go (or do a thing), but always with the notion that one is prevented at the last moment.

flutning, f., used as masc. (flutningr) in Norse writers, Gþl. 432, in mod. usage masc. throughout, [flytja]:—transport, carriage of goods; flutning hálfa, Pm. 122; f. öll, Vm. 150; allar flutningar, Grág. ii. 357, 359, Fms. iv. 121, viii. 179, Band. 2:—conveyance of persons, Eg. 75, 477: in mod. usage also = farmr. 2. masc. in the metaph. sense, help, negotiation, intervention, Hrafn. 14, Fms. vii. 17, ix. 295; mála-f., pleading, Hrafn. 17:—report, var þat þeirra flutningr, they reported, Fms. x. 97, Bs. i. 702, 775; but fem., 701. COMPDS: 1. fem., flutningar-maðr, m. a carrier of goods, Grág. ii. 383, Glúm. 393, Vm. 16. flutninga-skip, n. a ferry-boat, Vm. 15. 2. masc., flutnings-maðr, m. a pleader, Eg. 172, 467, Hkr. iii. 27, Sturl. ii. 17.

FLÚÐ, f. low skerries or reefs flooded by the sea; á flúð eða skeri, Mar.; flúð ok fall, Bs. ii. 51.

FLÚR, n. [for. word; Lat. flos], a flower, blossom, Fms. v. 345, Barl., Flor., Stj., Bs. ii, freq. in old translations, but now obsolete, except in a metaph. sense, a flowery style of writing. II. flour, Fms. viii. 250, v. l., Bs. i. 707, 713. COMPDS: flúr-brauð, n. flour-bread, Stj. 121, Fms. ix. 241. flúr-hleifr, m. a flour-loaf, El. 21.

flúraðr, part. flowery, esp. in a bad sense, of an affected style, etc.

flúrur, f. pl. = flúð; hált er helzt á flúrum, Hallgr.

FLYÐRA, u, f. a flounder, Edda (Gl.), Bs. ii. 179.

flygill, m. [Germ. flügel], a wing, Þiðr. 92, where it seems borrowed from German ballads.

flyka (and flyksa), u, f. a flake, rag, metaph. a phantom, Grett. 111.

flykkjask, t, dep. [flokkr], to crowd, Fms. viii. 81, 411, Hom. 65, Fas. ii. 80, Orkn. 372 (in a verse).

flysja, að, [flos], to split or cut into slices, Háv. 31 new Ed.; cp. flís.

flysjungr, m. a fop, charlatan.

FLYTJA, pres. flyt: pret. flutti; sup. flutt:—to cause to flit, carry, Gísl. 133; flytja vöru til skips, Nj. 4, Skálda 163, Eg. 125, 194: of trade, to export or import, þenna fjárhlut f. menn þaðan, Sks. 184; kaupmenn er mest gæði flytja landi þessu, Fms. vii. 122; frillu þá er þú hefir flutt af Noregi, Ld. 34. 2. metaph., flytja fórn, to bring an offering, Sks. 781. β. to perform; flytja skírslu, járnburð, Ld. 58, Fms. viii. 149, Hkr. ii. 229. γ. to proclaim, preach; hvaða skiru hann flytti, 625. 90: pass., Fms. x. 161: to recite, deliver a poem, speech, etc., flytja kvæði, Ísl. ii. 222; flytja ræðu, to deliver a sermon (mod.): metaph., var sú vísa mjök flutt, the verse was much repeated, went abroad, Fms. i. 48: pass. to be told, Stj. 59, K. Á. 200. δ. to help, plead, intercede; flytja eyrindi, Fms. x. 44, v. l.; göfgir menn fluttu þetta mál með honum, Fms. i. 13; nú hefi ek flutt sem ek mun at sinni, Hrafn. 17; cp. af-flytja, to disparage: pass., Sks. 185 B. ε. to entertain, support; flytja úmegð, Mar. (Fr.): pass. to support oneself, Bs. i. 705. II. reflex. to flit, migrate; hann fluttisk til fjalls upp, Fms. x. 411; fluttisk þá herrinn, ix. 353; fluttusk þeir upp í árós einn, Landn. 57: láta skjóta báti ok fluttisk út á skipit, Nj. 133, Fms. xi. 143; flytjask þeir Ólafr þangat ok kasta akkerum, Ld. 76: ef þér flytisk eigi ór höfninni, Ísl. ii. 127; flytjask fram, to pass, succeed tolerably, Helgi kvað sér við slíkt hafa fram flutzk nokkura stund, Fms. v. 257: þó at nú flytisk fram búið er þú ert við, Band. 2. III. part. flytjandi, in the phrase, f. eyrir, movables, money, Grett. 90, Ám. 3, Pm. 22, Dipl. iii. 6. β. a conveyer, Grág. ii. 358: metaph. a promoter, Ó. H. 126, Glúm. 349.

flytjan, f. a helping, promoting, Stj. 111.

flyxa, v. flyka.

FLÝJA, pres. flý; pret. flýði; sup. flýð; part. flýiðr: mod. flúa, pret. flúði, part. flúinn, pres. flý; an older form with œflœja, pres. flœ, pret. flœði—occurs in poetry and old prose; skœðr and flœði rhyme even in Pd. 47 (of the 12th century): this older form is rightly formed from the part. fló; sup. flýit, Fms. i. 26; flœr (pres.), 623. 26; flœðu (pret.), Bret. 74; but flýðu, 40; flyiðr (part.), Edda 154 (pref.): flœja (inf.), Sdm. 21, 677. 10, 655 xiv. A. 1, 623. 16; fleoði—flœði, Hom. (St.) 3; pret. indin. flœðu (fugisse), Ód. 9; pret. subj. flœðim (fugeremus) Fms. ii. 181 (in a verse): [cp. Ulf. þljûhan; A. S. fleon; O. H. G. fliûhan, mod. fliehen; Engl. flee; no strong verb corresponding to this occurs in the Scandin., except fljúga, which in very old times served for both fugere and volare, vide s. v.]:—to flee, Lat. fugere; þeir flýðu til Upplanda, Fms. i. 19; víst vil ek eigi flýja, x. 348; Kjötvi hinn auðgi flyði, Eg. 33, Sks. 716 B; þá er Eirekr hafði brott flýit, Fms. i. 26: landsmenn féllu ok flýðu, Bret. 40; Tyrkir vóru flyðir í borgina, 88; flýja undan, to flee from one pursuing, Eg. 269; or, flyja undan e-m, 623. 16; flýja undan banvænligu höggi, Edda 154. 2. adding acc., flýja land, to flee the land, Fms. i. 1, Ld. 4; flýðu margir göfgir menn óðul sín, Eb. 3, Fs. 123: to flee from, shun, úhægt mun forlögin at flýja, to shun fate, 20; flýja hvárki eld né járn, Edda 82; ek flýða banann, I shunned death, Bret. 90; þá er sá bani, er þing flýr, one who shuns the meeting, i. e. appears not, N. G. L. i. 62.

FLÝTA, tt, [hence fljótr], to hasten, make haste, with dat.; flýta ferðinni, to hasten on one’s journey, Grett. 99, Bs. i. 130; flýta sér, to hasten, speed oneself, Stj. 221, Þórð. 69.

flýtir, m. fleetness, speed, Stj. 172, Lv. 41, Fas. iii. 219. flýtis-verk, n. hurried work. II. of a person, an instigator, Lex. Poët.

flæða, dd, [flóð], to flood over, Stj. 56, 284, Ann. 1345: to flow, of the tide, Fms. vi. 163, ix. 44, x. 98: impers., fé ok skip (acc.) flæðir, the flood-tide overtakes sheep and boats, i. e. they are lost by the tide, (mod.)

flæði-, in COMPDS: flæði-bakki, a, m. ‘flood-tide-banks,’ banks covered at high water, Gísl. 138, cp. 52. flæði-sker, n. a skerry which is flooded at high water, Fms. ii. 142: the phrase, hann er ekki á flæði-skeri staddr, he is not on a fl., i. e. is in safety.

FLÆÐR, f., gen. flæðar, acc. and dat. flæði, pl. flæðar, flood-tide, high water, a word used in western Icel. instead of flóð, which is used in the south, north, and east; þá var flæðrin síð dags, Eg. 600; flæðr sævar, Sturl. ii. 70; í sandi þar er flæðr gékk yfir (í flæðar-máli, Landn. l. c.), Fms. i. 248; biðu þeir flæðar, Eg. 129; af nálægð tunglsins vaxa flæðar, Rb. 478; fyrir flæðarinnar skyld, Stj. 57; at flæðum, Orkn. 428; at flæði sævar, 422; stórstraums-f., hábakka-f., smástraums-f. COMPDS: flæðar-bakki, a, m. = flæðibakki, Gísl. 52. flæðar-mál, n. flood-mark, i. e. the space between low and high water, N. G. L. i. 13, Landn. 117. flæðar-mús, f. ‘flood-mouse,’ a fabulous animal in nursery tales, vide Ísl. Þjóðs. and Maurer’s Volksagen; the word is, however, probably only a corruption from Germ. ‘fleder-maus,’ the bat. flæðar-pyttr, m. a pit on the beach, Fs. 158. flæðar-sker, n. = flæðisker, Edda 48. flæðar-tími, a, m. flood-time, high water, Stj. 57. flæðar-urð, f. rocks reached by high water, Grett. 99. The word flæðr may be used as a test, to shew whether a MS. was written in the west of Icel. or not; but for authorship it is not sufficient, as copyists were apt to alter such things; thus the Gullþ. S. (a western Saga) uses flóð not flæðr; at the present day an Icel. from the west is ridiculed in other counties of Icel. for his flæðr.

flœja, ð, to fly; see flýja.

flækingr, m. vagrancy, also a stroller.

flækja, t, [flóki], to entangle: reflex., flækja fyrir e-m, to cross one’s path, Fas. iii. 380, Grett. 134.

flækja, u, f. entanglement.

FLÆMA, d, to drive away ignominiously, Mart. 119, Fms. v. 304, x. 262, Fær. 133: = slæma, q. v., Nj. 262, a bad reading: reflex. to roam about, rove, (mod.)

flæmi, n. a waste, open place.

flæmingr, m. a stroller, landlouper, (mod.)

Flæmska, n, f. the Flemish language. Flæmskr, adj., and Flæmingi, a, m. Flemish, Fas. iii. 262, Bs. Laur. S., Vm. 62.

FLÆRÐ, f. [flár II], falsehood, deceit, Gþl. 492, Stj. 169, 631, Hom. 86, 158, Fms. i. 74. β. with the notion of blandness, (mod.) COMPDS: flærðar-fullr, adj. full of deceit, Stj. 78, Fms. x. 221. flærðar-lauss, adj. sincere, Sks. 20, 632, Bret. 82. flærðar-orð, n. false (but fair) language, Fas. i. 193. flærðar-samligr and flærðar-samr, adj. false, 625. 65, Sks. 308. Flærðar-senna, u, f. Siren-song, name of a poem, cp. Loka-senna.

flærðari, a, m. an impostor, Fms. viii. 235.

flærð-lauss, adj. = flærðarlauss, Stj. 554, Fms. viii. 239, Hom. 150.

flærðr, part. blended with falsehood, Fas. i. 142.

flærð-samligr, adj. (-liga, adv.), false, Stj. 554, Fms. i. 59, x. 260.

flærð-samr, adj. = flærðarsamr, Sks. 308 B.

flögra, að, to flutter, flap, Grett. 111.

flökr, n. a roving, roaming about, = mod. flakk, Bs. i. 97.

flökra, að, = flökta; fljúga ok f., Barl. 137.

flökrt, n. adj. a ‘fluttering’ feeling, nausea; mér er flökurt, I am like to be sick; flökr-leiki, a, m. a feeling rather sick, Fél.

flökt, n. a fluttering.

flökta, t, to flutter and fly about, Fas. i. 393, Greg. 79, Fms. vi. 62, x. 139.

flösur, f. pl. flaws in iron, Eg. 184 (in a verse).

FLÖT, f., pl. flatir, a plain, freq. in mod. use. Flötr, f. pl. a local name, Eb. 15 new Ed., Bs. i. 629.

FNASA, að, [mid. H. G. phnasen], to sneeze, snort, Lat. fremere, metaph. to snort in rage, Þkv. 13, Korm. 220 (in a verse).

fnasan and fnösun, f. a sneezing, snorting, Fas. i. 519 (in a verse).

fnauði, a, m. a craven, Edda (Gl.), Fms. xi. 141, Mork. 148, used only in poetry.

FNJÓSKR, mod. hnjóskr, m. [Swed. fnöske, cp. Swed. fnas = husk]:—touchwood, Fms. vii. 225: metaph., synda-f., Mar. 23; fnjóskr eðr kveyking, id.; hence local names in Icel., as Fnjóska-dalr, Fnjósk-á, Landn., Eggert Itin.

fnjósk-þurr, adj. dry as touchwood.

FNYKR, m., also spelt nykr, [cp. Dan. fnug = = an atom, a light substance; Swed. fnugg]:—a stench, Bs. ii. 5 (spelt snykr); þá slöri illum fnyk (MS. fnycc) af líkamanum, Fms. x. 379 (Ágrip); fnykr ok fýla, 213; nykr ok fýla, Bs. i. 199; þar til er út ferr fnykr (MS. frykr) um nasar yðrar, Stj. 323, Numb. xi. 20, Barl. 86, v. l.

fnýsa (and older form fnœsa, Fm. 18, Gkv. 1. 27; fnœstu, Þd. 5), t, [Swed. fnysa; Dan. fnyse]:—to sneeze, Lat. fremere: with dat., fnýsa eitri, to blow out poison, Fms. i. 160, Fm., Gkv., Þd. l. c.; fnýsa blóði, Hkr. i. 86 (in a verse).

fogl, m. a fowl, vide fugl.

FOK, n. [fjúka], spray, any light thing tossed about by the wind; hey-fok, fjaðra-fok, hay, feathers tossed about:—a snow-drift = fjúk, Bjarn. 51. COMPDS: fok-reiðr, adj. wroth, frantic. fok-sandr, m. drift-sand.

folaðr, part. foaled; in ný-folaðr, O. H. L.

folald, n. a young foal, Lv. 93, Sturl. i. 144.

FOLD, f. [A. S. folde; cp. Engl. field, Germ. feld], a field of soft grass; flata-foldir, fields, Bs. ii. 79; hence fyldinn, adj., q. v. Foldir, f. pl. local name of a grassy oasis in western Icel.; rare in prose, but freq. in poetry:—generally the earth, Alm. 11, Vsp. 57, Hým. 24, Haustl. 5, Edda 97 (in a verse); á foldu, on earth, Hyndl. 40. II. the name of a fjord and county in Norway, the modern Christjania-fjord; Vest-fold, West-fold, a county; perhaps ‘fold’ is to be taken in this sense, viz. = fjörðr in Hm. 138.

fold-vegr, m. = fold, Vtkv. 3.

FOLI, a, m. [A. S. fola; Germ. füllen; Dan. fole; Swed. fåle]:—a foal, freq.: in a phrase, Gísl. 27: of a camel, Stj. 183; asna-foli, Sams. 15. fola-fótr, m. a nickname, Fms. vii. 51.

FONTR, m. [for. word; Lat. fons], a font, Vm. 6, 52, K. Á. 20, H. E. i. 480, Stj. 289, Pm. 126. COMPDS: font-klæði, n. a font-cover, Vm. 4, B. K. 83. font-kross, m. the cross on a font, Vm. 103, 117.

FOR, f., pl. forar, a drain, sewer; í forum þeim er hann grefr, Grág. Kb. ch. 187; stíflur (dikes) eða forar (drains, ditches) er hann hefir görvar með vatns-veitingum, Grág. ii. 289: in mod. usage, a cess-pit, bæjar-for, hland-for; for og bleyta, mud and dirt.

FORAÐ, n., in pl. foruð or foröð, mod. foræði, a dangerous place, precipice, abyss, pit; allt er feigs forað, Sl.; elta e-n á forað, Grág. ii. 117, 120, 157, Bs. i. 200, Gg. 15, Gþl. 393, 411, N. G. L. i. 342, Vápn. 8, Blas. 46, Thom. 256, Fsm. 9, 40; fallanda f. (stumbling-block) þresköldr hennar, Edda (Gl.): freq. in mod. usage, a bog, quagmire, morass, esp. in the allit. phrase, fen og foræði, fens and bogs. β. metaph. a dangerous situation; vera í foraði, Fms. ix. 517; kom hann sér í mikit forað, 623. 15; in Post. Luke xvi. 26 is rendered by forað (N. T. djúp). γ. a bugbear, ogre, monster; hann er et mesta forað, Edda 42; Mystus heitir forað, Pr. 472; þú ert et mesta forað, Nj. 176: cp. the saying, foruðin sjásk bezt við, cp. also the Germ. ‘ein fuchs riecht den andern,’ Orkn. 308: in COMPDS, horribly, awfully; foraðs-hár, adj. terribly tall, Fms. iii. 124. foraðs-íllr, adj. abominable, Ísl. ii. 162. foraðs-ligr, adj. awful, Thom. 256. foraðs-veðr, n. abominable weather. Sturl. ii. 50, Bjarn. 54, 56, Post. 656 B. 12.

forað-skapr, m. abominable nature, Stj. 483. 1 Sam. xxv. 25.

for-akt, n. (for. word), intention; með vilja eðr f., H. E. i. 561. β. in mod. usage = Germ. veracht, contempt.

for-akta, að, [Germ. verachten], to despise, scorn, (mod. word.)

forátta, u, f., an older form forurtir, contr. foróttir, f. pl. occurs,—forutta-laust, Grág. i. 329, 377 (Kb. ii. 42 forótta-laust), 468; forátta-laust, Kb. i. 133, 136; but forátta, Nj. 15, Eb. 40: [Ulf. fra-waurhts = ἁμαρτιά; the etymology of the word seems to be ‘for’ in a privative sense, and ‘verk,’ cp. A. S. forwyrht = peccatum; in the Icel. it is used as a law term]:—a cause of forfeiture, an act whereby the other party has ‘forfeited’ his right, but it is not used in a criminal sense = Germ. verbrechen; ef honum þykkja forurtir til þess, Grág. l. c.: the phrase, forótta-laust or forurta-laust (foryfta-laust, N. G. L. i. 29, is a false reading), sine causa legali, Grág. l. c.: chiefly in divorce cases, the phrase, finna til foráttu, to plead as an excuse, Nj., Eb. l. c. II. in mod. usage = forað; foráttu-brim, foráttu-veðr, n. a heavy surf, strong gale, etc.

for-beini, a, m. furtherance, Eg. 162, 163, 568, Hkr. i. 189, Bs. ii. 80.

for-bending, f. a foreboding, Stj. 81.

for-berg, n. a projecting rock, Grett. 141, Fas. iii. 257.

for-bergis, adv. down-hill, Hkv. 1. 41.

for-blindaðr, part. blinded, Pass. 34. 3.

for-boð, n. a foreboding, Fms. vii. 157. II. eccl. an interdict, the Germ. verbot, K. Á. 46, 62, 226, H. E. ii. 75.

for-boða, að, to forbid, Germ. verbieten, esp. eccl. to put under an interdict, K. Á. 44, 108, Bs. i. 141, Sturl. i. 123, ii. 4, H. E. i. 466.

for-boðan, f. an interdict, H. E. i. 419.

for-brekkis, adv. down-hill, Grett. 134.

for-brekkt, n. adj. down-hill, Fms. ii. 98, Lv. 112.

for-brjóta, brant, to transgress, Vidal.

for-bænir, f. pl. imprecations, Ísl. ii. 220, Fas. iii. 205.

FORÐA, að, prop. to ‘forth’ oneself, help oneself forth or forward, esp. to save one’s life, escape danger, with dat.; forða sér, Fms. i. 72, v. 87, Eg. 70, Finnb. 320, Magn. 458; haltú undan ok f. þér, Fb. iii. 407; forða fjörvi, lífi, to save one’s life, Hbl. 12, Fms. vi. 46, Grág. ii. 13: with a double dat., to be ware of a thing, sál mín þér fári f., Pass. 11. 9, 16. 10; but usually, forða sér fyrir e-u, or við e-u. β. hví forðar þú enni hægri hendinni, why withholdest than thy right hand? 623. 17. II. reflex. to shun, escape, avoid, the thing avoided in acc., Fs. 180; forðask fund e-s, to shun one, Eb. 92, Fms. ii. 136; forðask forlögin, Fs. 24; ekki má f. þá (nothing can escape them) hvárki menn né dýr, Fms. i. 9: in pass. sense, Sks. 331 B: absol. to escape, Edda 21, Nj. 43, Fms. x. 290.

forði, a, m. respite; skammr f., a short respite, Fms. viii. 154, v. l.: in mod. usage, stores, viands; lífs f., what supports life, a livelihood,—this sense seems not to occur in old writers; hence forða-búr, n. a store-house.

for-djarfa, að, [Germ. verderben], to disgrace, Art. 73, Fas. iii. 289: reflex. to disgrace oneself, Stj. 144, H. E. i. 514: mod. to spoil, destroy.

for-djörfun, f. destruction.

for-dráttr, m. what is drawn before, a veil, Thom. 455.

for-drífa, dreif, [Germ. vertreiben], to drive away, Clar. 19, Fb. i. 402.

forðum, adv. [akin to fjörð, q. v.], aforetime, formerly, once, erst, Stj. 121, Fms. x. 413, Sks. 108; forðum daga, in former days, Fms. i. 141, ii. 183, vi. 38; ungr var ek forðum, young was I once, Hm. 46: freq. in mod. usage, but esp. in the sense of yore, in days of old; the saying, þrysvar varð allt forðum, Sturl. iii. 253; cp. ‘all good things come in threes.’

for-dúkr, m. a curtain, Vm. 10, 22, 29.

for-dyktr, adj. equipt, Fms. x. 139, (for. word.)

for-dyld, f. [dul], conceit, vanity, show, Pass. 32. 3.

for-dyri, n. a ‘fore-door,’ vestibule, Fms. viii. 14, Orkn. 368 old Ed.

for-dæða, u, f. [for- negative and dáð = an ‘evil-doer,’ cp. Germ. ‘missethat;’ the etym. given in Js. (Gl.) is inadmissible; only used as a law term]:—a witch, sorceress, in the worst sense, N. G. L. i. 70, 342, 351, Ls. 32, Korm. (in a verse), Grett. 108 new Ed.; bölvuð f., accursed witch! Fms. xi. 435. COMPDS: fordæðu-maðr, m. an execrable man, Fms. xi. 432. fordæðu-skapr, m. witchcraft, sorcery, Hom. 86, Bs. ii. 97, N. G. L. i. 182, defined K. Þ. K. 76:—objects used for sorcery, N. G. L. i. 351. fordæðu-verk, n. an execrable crime (slaying a man asleep), Vígl. 86 new Ed.

for-dæma, d, to condemn, Germ. verdammen, Rb. 338, K. Á. 224, Bs. ii. 159: eccl., Stj. 151, N. T. passim.

for-dæming, f., esp. eccl. damnation, Germ. verdammung, Stj. 151, Anecd. 28.

for-ellri or foreldri, n., later forellrar, mod. foreldrar, m. pl. (inserting d); masc. foreldrar occurs Nj. 224; forellar (eliding the r), Fms. x. (Ágrip), 410, 413, 418; [Germ. vorältern]:—forefathers, elders, ancestors, in old writers always in this sense; feðr ok forellri. Stj. 240, Fms. i. 34; úlikir sínu forellri, 195; um þat bregðr mér til forellris míns, vii. 64; enir fyrri forellrar várir, Ó. H. 69; frændr ok forellrar, id.; frænda ok forellra, Fms. i. 33; sumir hans forellrar, viii. 101; faðir ok forellar, x. 418:—eccl. predecessors, H. E. i. 512. forellris-menn, m. pl. forefathers, Fms. ix. 334, Fas. i. 351, Stj. 63, 139, Barl. passim. II. in mod. usage, parents, and only in masc. pl. foreldrar; this sense occurs as early as the N. T. (vide feðgin), but is unknown to older writers.

for-eyðsla, u, f. desolation, N. T.

for-faðir, m. a forefather, Stj. 124; chiefly in pl., Edda (pref.), Stj. 128, freq. in mod. use:—eccl. a predecessor, H. E. i. 514, 655 xxxii. 2.

for-fall, n. a let, hindrance, esp. in pl. as a law phrase, Gþl. 102, H. E. ii. 82: a drawback, Fas. ii. 466. forfalla-laust, n. adj. and adv. = in case that there be no let or hindrance, Jb. 222, Gþl. 13, K. Á. 22, H. E. i. 516: in N. G. L. i. 351 it is used = without legal cause = foráttu-laust. II. sing. a bed-curtain, Edda (Gl.), Ed. Arna-Magn. ii. 494; hann brá upp forfalli, ok sá at þar lá madr, Mag. 1: used as masc. (for-fallinn), El. 24.

for-fágaðr, part. painted, whitewashed, Gr. κεκονιαμένος, Matth. xxiii. 27.

for-feðgin, n. pl. ‘fore-parents,’ Stj. 134.

for-fjöl, f. a side-board, Str.

for-flótti, adj. exiled, fugitive, Fms. i. 212, Eg. 284: a landlouper, Stj. 43: flight, Bs. ii. 66; far-flótti, q. v., is not so good a reading.

for-ganga, gékk, [Germ. vergeben], to perish, Ann. 1368, 1412, N. T.

for-ganga, u, f. [A. S. fore-gengd], a ‘going before,’ help, Hkr. ii. 122. forgöngu-kona, u, f., Mar., Stj. forgöngu-maðr, m. a guide (either man or woman), leader, Hkr. iii. 103, Th. 15.

for-gangr, m. = forganga, Háv. 57. forgangs-maðr, m. a leader, Hkr. i. 274, Fms. i. 299, vii. 138.

for-garðr, m. a ‘fore-yard,’ the fore-court of a house, Fsm. 2, 3: the metaph. phrase, vera á forgörðum (mod. fara að forgörðum), of stores, to go out of doors, i. e. to be wasted and squandered, Fas. iii. 51.

for-gefins, adv. [Germ. vergebens], in vain, (mod.)

for-gildi, n. an απ. λεγ. = Lat. praefatio, a preamble, 625. 90.

for-gildra, u, f. laying a trap for, Thom. 159.

for-gipt, f. payment for alimentation, = mod. meðgjöf, Sd. 149, Fms. vi. 298, vii. 112, Fas. ii. 438, Fs. 29, 64. forgiptar-laust, adj. without costs, 655 xx. 4. II. [Germ. vergift], poison, Bb. 3. 68, but in this sense it can scarcely be called an Icel. word.

for-gísl, m. a hostage, Karl. 79.

for-gísla, að, to give as hostage, Karl. 57, O. H. L. 65.

for-góðr, adj. exceeding good, Safn i. 92.

for-grípa, greip, [A. S. forgrípan; Germ. vergreifen], to do amiss.

for-gyltr, part. (Germ. word), gilded, Vm. 21, 39, Pm. 120, Dipl. iii. 4.

for-hagr, adj. skilful in handicraft, Stj. 22.

for-harðnaðr and for-hertr, part. hardened.

for-hellir, m. the fore part of a cave, Sams. 19.

for-herða, t, to harden, the Bible passim, [cp. A. S. for-heard, very hard.] for-herðing, f. hardness of heart, Bible.

for-hleypi, n. a ‘fore-leaping,’ in the phrase, hafa e-n at forhleypi, or at forhleypis-manni, to use one as a ‘fore-leaper,’ i. e. as a cat’s paw, Nj. 224, Sturl. i. 181.

for-hraustr, adj. exceeding valiant, Lex. Poët.

for-hrumr, adj. quite tottering, Thom. 478.

for-hugsan, f. forethought, Bs. ii. 40, 76. for-hugsaðr, part. musing.

for-hús, n. a porch, Eb. 220, Fms. viii. 360, v. l., H. E. i. 510.

fori, a, m. a bell-wether, Bb. 3. 55; eins og forinn feitr, a ditty.

foringi, a, m., gen. ja, pl. jar, a leader, captain, Fær. 106, Hom. 111, Fs. 57, Vápn. 25, Bs. i. 48, Fms. iv. 147, v. 295; hers-f., liðs-f., a captain of troops; skips-f., a ship’s captain.

forka, að, to ‘fork’ or punt a ship, push it on with a pole, Nj. 273, Fas. ii. 360.

for-kast, n. throwing (hay) before cattle, Ísl. ii. 141.

for-kirkja, u, f. a church-porch, Stj. 562, Sturl. ii. 59.

for-kláraðr, part. (Germ. word), glorified, Rb. 312.

for-kláran, f. transfiguration.

for-klárast, að, dep., in the Icel. N. T. to be transfigured, Mark ix. 1.

for-kostuliga, adv. (-ligr, adj.), very finely, Grett. 154 new Ed.

for-kólfr, m. a ‘fore-bolt,’ metaph. a head, chief, Al. 127; the reading gjörkólfr in Eb. 86 is prob. false.

FORKR, m. [for. word; Lat. furca], a fork, pole, Landn. 154: a punting pole, Eg. 220, Fms. vii. 195, viii. 337, ix. 24, 257, passim, Ld. 56, it occurs even in a verse of the 10th century in Landn. 3. 14 (if the verse be genuine): a fork to eat with is in Icel. called gaffall, a mod. word borrowed from Germ. gabel, Dan. gaffel.

for-kuðr, f. [kunna], eagerness to learn, curiosity; var mönnum nú f. á skemtan, Ísl. ii. 326; þá hluti er þeim er f. á at vita, Orkn. 100 old Ed., 138 new Ed. reads forvitni: gen. forkunnar- in compds means remarkably, exceedingly; f. margir, Ísl. ii. 226; f. mjök, Orkn. 332; f. vel, Eg. 253, Nj. 230, v. l.; f. væn, Fms. i. 70; f. fagr, Edda 46: with a subst., forkunnar orð, eloquent words, Hom. (St.)

for-kundliga, adv. = forkunnliga, Clem. 127.

for-kunna, adj. eager to learn; vóru allir f. at heyra orð hans, Clem. 52.

for-kunnliga, adv., prop. remarkably, exceedingly; f. væn, Rb. 404, Joh. 623. 15; f. fríðr, Fms. i. 212; f. fljótr, viii. 382; f. vel, Grett. 154 new Ed.; sverð búit f., Eb. 226; biðja f., to beg ardently, Sks. 616.

for-kunnligr, adj. remarkable, beautiful, Hkr. ii. 73, Fms. x. 319.

for-lag, n. what is ‘laid’ up: I. esp. in sing. provision for living, a livelihood, Bs. i. 137, Fms. vi. 304; urðu þaðan í frá góð forlög manna, Bs. i: metaph. of marriage, Ísl. ii. 416, 453: fate in store for one = forlög, Lv. 33, Glúm. 333. forlags-eyrir, m. livelihood, Gþl. 259, 442, N. G. L. i. 52: means, Jb. 166. II. in pl. for-lög, n., properly ‘fore-law;’ hence law or fate, destiny, cp. ör-lög and lög; the word is not very freq. in old writers, and chiefly occurs in Sagas such as Vd., Flóam. S., in old poetry only in Km. 23, but rare in genuine heathen Sagas; the very word conveys some Christian notion; örlög and sköp are solely heathen, e. g. Hm. 55; this distinction is rightly marked in a ditty of Pal Vídalín—forlög koma ofan að | örlög kringum sveima | álögin úr ymsum stað | en ólög fæðast heima; in mod. usage forlög is current, but orlög, sköp, obsolete; þetta mun vera forlög hennar, Glúm. 333; Hákon kvaðsk þá heyra vilja forlög sin, … ef þú vilt vita forlög þín, Orkn. 140, Fs. 19; úhægt mun forlögin at flýja, 20; eigi mundi tjóa at brjótask við forlögunum, id.; ok mætti þit njóta lengri forlaga, that ye might enjoy a longer life, 84; honum var annarra forlaga auðit, 6; verðr hverr eptir sínum forlögum at leita, 11; torsótt er at forðask forlögin, 24; forlög ekki forðumst ill | fram kemr það hamingjan vill, Úlf. 3. 69; má vera at hér sé hennar forlög (destiny), Fs.

for-lagðr, part. done with, forlorn, Þorst. St. 51.

for-lát, n. forgiveness, Karl. 552, Pass. 31. 16.

for-láta, lét, to forgive, with dat. II. to forsake, [A. S. forlætan], with acc., N. T., Pass.

for-leiga, u, f. rent paid in advance, N. G. L. i. 241.

for-leiki, a, m. insolence, Mar. 275.

for-leistr, m. the fore part of a sock, N. G. L. iii.

for-lendi, n. ‘fore-land,’ the land between sea and hills, Finnb. 242, Bs. ii. 25, Orkn. 324; now undir-lendi.

for-liði, a, m. a leader, Nj. 192, v. l., = fyrir-liði.

for-liga, adv. vehemently; f. reiðr, Thom. 204; vide forr.

for-ligr, adj. vehement, insolent, Thom.

for-litning, f. = fyrirlitning, Thom. 408.

for-líkan, f. reconciliation (the Gr. καταλλαγή), Rom. v. 11.

for-líkast, að, dep. [cp. Germ. vergleichen], to come to terms, Sturl. iii. 232: in mod. Icel. law, in all but criminal cases, the litigants have to appear (in person or by delegates) before two or more ‘peace-makers’ or umpires called forlíkunar-menn,—usually the parson and one or more of the chief men of the parish; the office of the peace-makers is to try to bring about a friendly settlement called forlíkan, and this meeting is often repeated; only after a forlíkan has been tried in vain, can the case be taken before a law-court; by this judicious proceeding more than half the quarrels are nipped in the bud; there seems to be nothing like this in the old law, and the custom was probably borrowed from Denmark. There is a saying, ‘a lean forlíkan is better than a fat lawsuit.’

for-lítill, adj. exceeding small, Mar. 195.

for-ljótr, adj. exceeding ugly, Bs. i. 802.

for-lýta, tt, to blame, Fms. viii. 4.

for-lög, n. pl. fate, vide forlag II.

FORM, n. [Lat. forma], form, shape, 655 xxxii. 17, 18, xxv. 1, Rb. 360, Fms. xi. 436, (rare.)

for-maðr, m. a ‘fore-man,’ captain, Fms. vii. 246. ix. 348, xi. 243, 402, Nj. 43, Magn. 486:—a master, ruler, Edda (pref.); formaðr konunga, the foremost among kings, Fms. ii. 292; f. annars fólks, the foremost man of other folk, vi. 38. COMPDS: formanns-lauss, adj. without a leader, H. E. i. 562. formanns-skapr, m. leadership, Stj. 50. II. mod. the foreman or captain in a fishing vessel or boat; in many compds, e. g. formanns-hlutr, m. the captains share (of the fish caught).

formann-ligr, adj. leader-like, Fms. vii. 63, Valla L. 203.

for-mál, n. a preface, preamble, 625. 90.

for-máli, a, m. a preamble, Eg. 389, 390, 552; konungr skipaðisk eigi við slíkan formála; Fms. vii. 65; á hverjum gistingar-stað hafði hann (the bishop) formála sjálfr, i. e. saying grace, prayers, or the like, Bs. i. 140: a stipulation, condition, með þvílíkum formála sem …, Fms. i. 90, Str. 55: a preface, rendering of the mid. Lat. praefatio; in mod. usage, the preface to a book = Germ. vorwort, vorrede.

for-megan, f. [Germ. vermögen], means, wealth, (mod.)

for-meistari, a, m. a head-master, Edda (pref.)

for-menntr, part. well-trained, highly skilled, Finnb. 290; f. á járnsmíð, Fms. xi. 427, Bs. i. 681, 850, ii. 32.

formera, að, mod. forma, vide áforma, (Lat. word), to form, Stj. 14, 20, Bs. ii. and Mar. passim, Magn. 478, Dipl. iii. 5.

formeran, f. form, shape, Stj. 5, 12.

for-merking, f. a symbol, Stj. 281.

for-merkja, t, [Germ. vermerken], to perceive, N. T., Pass. 12.

for-messa, u, f. ‘fore-mass,’ matins, Fms. vii. 145, viii. 174, ix. 48, Dipl. iii. 4, v. 18.

formi a, m. (Lat. word), the case in which the chalice is kept, Vm. 29, Pm. 71. forma-dúkr, m. id., Pm. 40.

for-mikill, adj. exceeding great, Bs. ii. 8.

for-móðir, f. a ‘fore-mother,’ ancestress, Stj. 141.

for-myndari, a, m. [Germ. vormund], a ward, of a minor.

for-myrkvast, að, dep. to be eclipsed, for-myrkvan, f. an eclipse.

for-mæla, t, to appoint, El. 21. II. to curse, with dat., N. T.

for-mælandi, part. a spokesman, Hm. 24, 62, Stj. 157, Fms. ii. 45.

for-mælari, a, m. id., Fms. v. 241.

for-mæli, n. pleading, Stj. 603, Fms. vii. 39, Sd. 155, Bs. i. 168: a prescribed form, formula, Grág. ii. 249, Stj. 342:—eccl. saying pravers, tíðir ok f., Bs. i. 167; in Vm. 6 it seems to mean the mass or liturgy, = formæla-bók, f. a book of f., Vm. 21.

for-mæling, f. an imprecation; f. íllan finnr stað, Pass. 28. 9.

FORN, adj. [Ulf. fairnis = παλαιός; A. S. fyrn; Hel. furn; Swed. forn; lost in Engl.]:—old; forn vinátta, Eg. 729; forn fjándskapr, old enmity, Nj. 49; forn rök, Ls. 25; fornt vín, old wine, Pr. 472; en forna fold, the old earth, Hým. 24; forn timbr, the old timbers, Akv. 42: inn forni fjándi, the old fiend, Satan, 686 C. 2; forn jötunn, the old giant, Hým. 13; fornar tóptir, old abodes. Gm. 11: stores preserved from the past year are called forn, forn mjöðr, old mead, Skm. 37; fornari hey, K. Þ. K. 163. 2. with the notion of old, worn, rotten, or the like; byrðings-segl várt hið forna, Fms. iv. 259; forn mörr, Bjarn. 29 (in a verse). 3. old, in temp. sense; in the Icel. Commonwealth the old priesthoods were called forn goðorð and forn goðorðsmaðr, an old priest, opp. to the priesthoods instituted along with the Fifth Court, which were termed ‘new.’ 4. time-honoured, old; forn lög, forn lands-siðr, Bs. i. 682. 5. at fornu, formerly, in times past, Eg. 767, K. Á. 152, D. I. i. 635; til forna, id., cp. Dan. til forn. 6. in old writers forn is often used of the heathen times with the old mythical lore; forn siðr, the old (heathen) rite, Fb. i. 215; fornir menn, the men of old, Eb. 132; á fornum skjöldum, on shields of old, Edda 87; fornar frásagnir, old tales, Hkr. pref.; forn-menn, forn-tíðindi, forn-sögur, the men, lore, or saws of the olden age, (forn-fræði, id.; forn-spjöll); forn átrúnaðr, forn trúa, the old creed, heathenism; forn-kveðit mál or hið forn-kveðna is a standing phrase for an ‘old saw,’ proverb, the Sagas passim, and vide below. β. metaph. old, i. e. versed in old lore or witchcraft; hann var forn mjök (he was a great wizard) ok hafði jafnan úti setið, Orkn. 234; fróð ok forn í skapi, Ísl. ii. 332, Fb. i. 250 (forneskja).

fornaðr, m., in the phrase, at fornaði, furthermore, Fms. ix. 27, Grág. (Kb.) ii. 85, 145, where Sb. umfram.

fornaðr, part. worn; f. búnaðr, Hkr. i. 90.

for-nafn, n., gramm. a pronoun, Skálda 178, 180, Edda 108, 121.

for-nám, n. an obstacle, Bs. ii. 106, 179:—the haft on the hilt (nema fyrir), Stj. 383. Judges iii. 16, 22.

forn-bréf, n. an old deed.

for-nema, nam, to perceive, (the Germ. vernehmen), scarcely in use.

for-nes, n. a promontory, (cp. Furness in Lancashire), Orkn. 442.

forneskja, u, f. the old heathen time, ‘heathenesse;’ ágætis-mönnum þeim er verit hafa í forneskju, Fms. viii. 6; f. klæða-búnaðr, old-fashioned gear, vii. 321. forneskju-legr, adj. antique looking. II. old lore, witchcraft, Grett. 144, Ísl. ii. 391, Nj. 273; f. ok fjölkyngi, Fms. ii. 134; fremja forneskju, Grett. 150; fara með f., Orkn. 136. forneskju-maðr, m. a sorcerer, Orkn. 136.

forn-fáguligr, mod. forn-fáligr, adj. old and worn out, Fms. iii. 166.

forn-fróðr, adj. skilled in old lore, in a bad sense, of sorcery, Fbr. 163: mod. learned in old things.

forn-fræði, f. old lore (of witchcraft), Fms. iii. 90. β. archæology, (mod.)

forn-fræðingr, m. an antiquarian, a scholar in old lore, (mod.)

forn-gildr, adj. of old standard value, Dipl. v. 20, Ann. 1392.

forn-gripr, m. pl. antiquities. forngripa-safn, n. a collection of antiquities, (mod.)

forn-haldinn, part. time-honoured, Hallfred.

for-njósn, f. looking ahead, Sdm. 27.

forn-konungr, m. an ancient king, Fms. ii. 138, ix. 455, Fs. 21, Skálda 194.

forn-kveðit, n. part. said of old, epithet of old saws, Eg. 520; satt er hit fornkveðna, svá ergisk hverr sem eldisk, Fær. 218, passim; það finnst á mér sem fornkveðit er, að fátt segir af einum, a ditty.

forn-kvæði, n. an old poem, Edda 135. β. a ballad, vide danz.

forn-leifar, f. pl. old relics, antiquities, (mod.)

forn-ligr, adj. old, with the notion of worn out, decayed, Fær. 186, Pm., Fms. ii. 142, Fas. ii. 300; fræði f., old lore, Fms. iii. 90.

forn-maðr, m. a man of the olden time: forn-menn, m. pl. the ancients, in many compds: the old biographies of the kings of Norway edited 1825 sqq. are by the editors (less correctly) called Fornmanna-sögur, instead of the true old name Konunga-sögur or Konunga-æfi.

forn-menjar, f. pl. old relics, antiquities, (mod.)

forn-menni, n. a man of the olden time, Fms. ii. 59.

forn-mæli, n. an old saw, Fas. iii. 365.

forn-mæltr, part. = fornkveðit, Fms. vi. 4.

forn-orðr, adj. using old phrases, (mod.) II. swearing, Bs. i. 712.

forn-ortr, part. composed in olden time, Þiðr. 2.

forn-rit, n. pl. old writings, (mod.)

forn-saga, u, f. an old tale, esp. of the mythical age, Fas. i. 417 (v. l.), Eg. 698: mod. forn-sögur, old legends.

forn-skáld, n. an ancient scald or poet. Edda 124, 135, Al. 48.

forn-skrá, f. an old scroll, Vm. 122.

forn-skræða, u, f. = fornskrá, Fas. iii. 237, v. l.

forn-spekingr, m. an old wise-man, Stj. 377.

forn-spjöll, n. pl. old spells, old lore, Vsp. 1.

forn-spurðr, part., in the phrase, göra e-n fornspurðan at e-u, or göra e-t at e-m fornspurðum, to do a thing without asking one’s leave, Fas. i. 48.

forn-söngr, m. an old song, Þiðr. 181.

forn-tíðindi, n. pl. old tales, Hkr. i. 269, Fms. vii. 97, Ht. R. 2.

forn-troðinn, part.; stígr f., an old trodden path, Fas. iii. 279.

forn-vinr, m. an old friend, Fas. ii. 422.

forn-yrði, n. old words or saws; an archaism; hulin foryrðin, Lil. 98. fornyrðis-lag or fornyrða-lag, n. a kind of old metre: this word is an απ. λεγ. in Edda lit., whence it has spread into mod. use, but it is better called kviðu-háttr: mod. an archaism.

forn-yrtr, part. archaizing.

for-næmi, n. a law phrase, plundering another’s properly; the law distinguishes between rán (by personal violence) and fornæmi, plunder before the owner’s eyes, but without the use of force, Jb. 426, cp. also Gþl. 402, 416, N. G. L. i. 227.

forn-öld, f. the olden time, mythical age: Fornaldar-sögur, f. pl. mythical stories, (mod.)

for-prís, m. (for. word), great praise, honour, Mar. (Fr.), Pass. 35. 3.

for-prísa, að, to praise, H. E. i. 404, Stj. 9.

for-prísan, f. glory, Stj. 7, 109, 161.

FORR, adj. forward; of sljór eðr of forr, too slow or too forward, Thom. 279:—haughty, forr ok framhvass, 180; harðla forr, ef nökkut reis við, id.:—as adv. quickly, vinna fort, to work eagerly, Bs. ii. 93; snúast fort, to whirl (as a wheel or a spindle), 443 (in a verse): the mod. phrase, fara fort (of fort) í e-t, to go too far (too keenly) into a thing.

for-ráð, n. management, superintendance; með forráði ok umsýslu e-s, Rb. 400: the phrase, kunna ekki fótum sínum forráð, Stj. 558:—administration, stewardship, hann hafði f. með Auði, Landn. 109; hann tók þar við forráðum öllum, Eg. 36, 84; staðar-forráð, the management of church domain-land, Bs. i. 479; til eignar ok forráða, Ld. 14; forráð sakar, the leading of a suit, Grág. i. 489:—as a law term, the holding a goðorð (q. v.) of the heathen time, manna-forráð, Hrafn. 14, Nj. 149, v. l.; hence rule, sway, Fms. vii. 209, xi. 201, Eg. 50, 401. COMPD: forráða-maðr and forráðs-maðr, m. a manager, warden, Grág. ii. 405, Vm. 108; f. kristninnar, the leaders of the church, 656 C. 17, Hom. 95; f. ok höfðingi, Ver. 18, Hkr. i. 83; f. á skipi, the captain of a ship, Landn. 56.

for-ráða, réð, [Germ. verrathen], to betray, Bev. 10 (Fr.), N. T., Pass. 5. 1.

for-ráðandi, part. an overseer, manager, Fms. x. 330; f. skips, Bjarn. 15, Fms. ii. 63:—a law term, a guardian, réttr f. fjár hennar, Grág. i. 377; frænda eðr f., 343.

forráðs-kona, u, f. a female manager, Hom. (St.)

for-rennari, a, m. a forerunner, Stj. 204: a predecessor, 118.

for-ríkr, adj. exceeding rich, Bs. i. 852, Fb. ii. 187.

for-ræða, u, f. [Germ. vorrede], a preface, Str. 1, (rare.)

for-ræði, n. I. = forráð, management; f. fjár, Gþl. 217: rule, sway, Fms. i. 4, vii. 105, x. 231, xi. 326: esp. as a law term, keeping a goðorð (priesthood); manna-f., Hrafn. 19, Grág., and the Sagas passim, forræðis-maðr, m. = forráðamaðr, N. G. L. i. 151, 152, Barl. passim. II. [Germ. verrath], treason, mod. and rare. Pass. 16. 6; Mar. 468.

FORS, n. wrath, rage, ire; snúa fors í frið, grimd í grið, 655 xxxii. 24, Bs. ii. 97; með forsi, haughtily, Sturl. iii. 144, Pass. 13. 2; ferr erkibiskup í fors mikit, he fell into great wrath, Fms. xi. 441; fors ok atköst, Fas. iii. 91; fors ok ílska, Stat. 398. COMPDS: fors-fullr, adj. wrathful, insolent, Grett. 106 A. fors-ligr, adj. (-liga, adv.), insolent, Bs. ii. 66. fors-maðr, m. an angry man, Korm. 80.

FORS, mod. foss, m., prob. akin to the preceding word and forr, [Swed.-Dan. foss, North. E. force; a test word of Scandin. language and origin; cp. the curious passage in Constant. Porph. De Admin. Imperii, ch. 9, where the Byzantine author gives some names of waterfalls in Russia in two languages, ρωσιστί and σκλαβινιστί (Russian and Slavonic), with a Greek translation; ρωσιστί, a waterfall, being called βορσί or φόρος (e. g. οὐλ-βορσί = Icel. Hólm-fors, βαρου-φόρος = Icel. Báru-fors), whereas σκλαβινιστί it is called πραχ, i. e. porog or prag: Constantine in another passage states that the Russians were Teutonic or ‘Franks:’ the Garðar (Russia Minor) of that time was in fact a Scandin. country; even the name Russia is by some (P. A. Munch) explained as Scandin., afterwards adopted for the whole empire; it was still regarded so by the Byzantine authors of the 10th century, as opposed to Slavonic]:—a ‘force,’ waterfall, Landn. 291, 292; fors mikill er Sarpr heitir, Ó. H. 49, Landn. 277, v. l.: in many local names, Skóga-f. in southern Icel.; Gýgjar-f. in the north (Goða-f. is a corrupt form, cp. Þorláks-kver, p. 288, and Grett. ch. 68, 69, whence the name); Gull-f., Gold-force, a freq. name in western Icel. 2. a brook, stream; this sense is curious, and peculiar to the Stj. (by bishop Brand, a native of south-eastern Icel.); it is well suited to the district of Skaptafells-sýsla, where all brooks are torrents rushing from glaciers into the ocean; til forsins Bison, Stj. 387. Judges iv. 13; hann grípr einn stein upp ór forsinum, 227; Davíð tók fimm steina ór einum forsi, 464. 1 Sam. xvii. 40; við forsinn Besor, 490. 1 Sam. xxx. 9; yfir fors Cedron, 527. 2 Sam. xv. 23; af forsi drakk hann á götu, 656 C. 2: in the old poem Vsp. fors is evidently used in the same sense; á sér hón ansask aurgum forsi, 31; falla forsar, 58. This idiom perhaps gives a hint as to the native place of this poem; falla forsum, to fall in torrents, Fas. ii. (in a verse). fors-fall, n. a ‘forcefall,’ torrent, Stj. 32, Ó. H. 17, Fms. iv. 361.

forsa, að, to stream in torrents: to be enraged, Mar.

for-sala, u, f. a law term, a mortgage, Gþl. 304. COMPDS: forsölu-jörð, f. a mortgaged estate, N. G. L. i. 214. forsölu-máli, a, m. a mortgage contract, Gþl. 304.

for-samliga, adv. unduly, cp. forsóma, Bs. i. 733.

for-sát, f. an ambush, Bs. i. 289, ii. 70, 97.

for-senda, u, f. a part of an angler’s line, Od. xii. 253.

for-sending, f. a sending one to certain death, a dangerous mission, Eg. 540, Fms. iii. 68, Hkr. ii. 76, iii. 104 (where forsenda).

for-seti, a, m. the myth. name of a heathen god, Edda, where it however seems to mean an umpire or peace-maker, cp. Gm. 15. II. in mod. usage a ‘fore-sitter,’ president, chairman; but in 1793 (Fél. vol. xiii), the chairman is called for-maðr or forstöðu-maðr, as forseti was not then an established word.

for-sjá and for-sjó, f., gen. as nom. foresight, prevision, Nj. 210, Sks. 224 B, Fær. 79, Fms. v. 284, vii. 134, x. 9. COMPDS: forsjá-lauss, adj. helpless, Njarð. 380. forsjá-leysi, n. want of foresight, Bret. 38, Grett. 95, Fms. viii. 364. forsjá-maðr, m. a warden, overseer, Stj. 243, Fms. i. 290, x. 421, Sturl. i. 198. II. Providence, Sks. 559 B.

for-sjáll, adj. foresighted, prudent, Nj. 222, Fms. v. 150, Sks. 436, Al. 8, Eg. 73.

for-sjálliga, adv. prudently, Bs. i. 742, Fms. vi. 325, Fas. ii. 245.

for-sjálligr, adj. prudent, Greg. 32, Fas. ii. 469, Sturl. i. 113.

for-sjálni, f. prudence.

for-sjón, f. = forsjá; eccl. since the Reformation, Providence, in hymns, sermons, etc. forsjónar-maðr, m. = forsjámaðr, Karl. 500.

for-skáli, a, m. an ante-chamber, lobby, Dropl. 28, Bs. i. 451, Sturl. ii. 173, iii. 193.

for-skepti, n. the ‘fore-haft’ of a hammer, Edda 70, Fb. iii. 427.

for-skot, n. a vestibule, porch, Stj. 562. 1 Kings vi. 3.

for-skot, n. a notice or allowance of time, Thom. 494.

for-sköp, n. pl. bad times, ill fate, Hkv. 2. 32.

fors-lægja, ð, to lower one’s pride, Stj. 621.

for-smá, ð, [Germ. verschmähen], to despise, Stj. 142, 621 (v. l.), Sturl. ii. 15, Fms. iii. 89, (now freq.)

for-smán, f. disgrace, H. E. i. 497, Ann. 1394, (now freq.)

for-smiðr, m. a ‘fore-smith,’ chief builder, Edda (pref.), Bret.

for-snjallr, adj. exceeding wise, Vellekla.

for-sorga, að, [Dan. forsörge; Germ. versorgen], to provide for; for-sorgan, f. provision.

for-sóma, að, [Germ. versäumen], to neglect, (mod. word.)

for-sóman, f. neglect, (mod. word.)

for-spá, f. a ‘fore-spaeing’ (Scot.), prophecy, Fms. i. 88, 96, 263, ii. 79, x. 275, Bret. 62, Stj, 202, Bs. ii. 7.

for-spá, ð, to prophesy, Thom. 488.

for-spár, adj., often used in the description of the wise men of antiquity, such as Njál, Snorri:—‘fore-spaeing’ (Scot.), prophecying, Eb. 42, Nj. 30, Fms. iv. 24, 87, Eg. 20, Fs. 54; of Odin, Yngl. S. ch. 5.

for-spell, n. a heavy loss, Gkv. 1. 3, Fagrsk. 173 (in a verse).

for-spjall, n. a ‘fore-spell,’ preamble. Forspjalls-ljóð, n. name of a poem.

for-sprakari, a, m. [for. word; Germ. sprechen], a ‘for-speaker’ spokesman, Sti. 266; hence the mod. for-sprakki, a, m. a ringleader.

for-sprakki, a, m. [A. S. fore-spreca], a ringleader, spokesman.

for-staða, u, f. standing up for one, shielding one, Gþl. 265, Ld. 180, Lv. 4, Orkn. 40; mæla e-m forstöðu, to say a good word for one, Hkr. ii. 147. COMPD: forstöðu-maðr, m. a manager, Ver. 36, Rb. 404.

for-stand, n. [the Germ. verstand], understanding in household matters, forstanda-kona, u, f. (-maðr, m.), a good house-keeper.

for-standa, stóð, (for-stá is freq. in poetry of the 16th century), [for. word: Germ. verstehen]:—to understand, Bs. i. 802.

for-stjóri, a, m. a ‘fore-steerer’ foreman, overseer, leader, Eg. 52, 201, 646, K. Á. 34, 224, Fms. i. 2, v. 72, vii. 238, 265, x. 311, Skálda 202.

for-stjórn, f. rule, management, Fms. viii. 5. forstjórnar-maðr, m. a manager, Glúm. 360.

for-stoð, f. = forstaða, N. G. L. i. 60, 68, Fms. iv. 216.

for-stofa, u, f. = forskáli, Eb. 136, Fms. vi. 34, Ó. H. 116, Eg. 216, v. l.

for-stórr, adj. exceeding tall, Vígl. 20.

for-streymis, adj. down stream, opp. to andstreymis, Edda 60, Sturl. iii. 163, Fms. vii. 253, Ó. H. 20, Bs. ii. 175.

for-stöndugr, adj. [Germ. verständig], clever in household matters.

forsugr, adj. coarse and abusive.

for-svar, n. [Dan. forsvar], defence, (mod. word.)

for-svara, að, [from Dan. forsvare, cp. Germ. verantworten], to answer for one, defend.

for-svaranligr, adj. justifiable, Bs. i. 733, but prob. wrongly; forsamliga (in the MS.), q. v.

for-syma, ð, = forsóma, Boldt and D. N.

for-sýn, f. foresight, foreboding, Bs. ii. 38.

for-sýnn, adj. gifted with foresight, Fms. xi. 423, cp. Bs. ii. 81.

for-sæla, u, f. [sól], a shade from the sun, Bb. 3. 85, Fas. i. 467 (freq.) COMPD: Forsælu-dalr, m. name of a valley, Landn.

for-sæti, n. ‘fore-seats,’ front benches, Nj. 220, Fms. v. 332, v. l.

for-sögn, f. order, superintendance, Fms. i. 290, x. 433, Orkn. 286, Sturl. i. 46 C. β. prophecy, Stj. 114. γ. a law term, previous declaration, N. G. L. i. 88, 89. forsagnar-vitni, n. a witness to a declaration, N. G. L. i. 32, Gþl. 475.

for-söngvari, a, m. a precentor in a church.

for-tak, n. denial, protest, Dipl. i. 7. COMPDS: fortaks-laust, n. adj., in the phrase, segja, lofa f., to state, promise without reserve, positively, fortaks-orð, f. words of contradiction, Bs. ii. 23.

for-taka, tók, to deny positively, Bs. ii. 31.

for-tapaðr, part. forlorn, Matth. x. 6: for-tapan, f. damnation, N. T.

for-tíða, dd, to forsake; hann fortíddi Guð, Bret. (Verel.)

for-tjald, n. a curtain, Ld. 29: a bed-curtain, Fms. iii. 196, Fas. iii. 391, Háv. 54, Sams. 11: the veil of the Temple, Stj. 321, Pass., N. T.

for-tölur, f. pl. persuasions, Nj. 200, Eg. 9, Hom. 108, Fb. ii. 56, 85.

for-urtir, f. pl., vide forátta.

forusta, vide forysta.

for-vað, n. shoal water between the cliffs and the flowing tide: hence the phrase, í síðustu forvöð, to pass the last shoal water before the tide cuts the passage off, also metaph. to delay till the last moment; göra flekann allan, ok halda upp forvöðunum þar í hjá, D. N. vi. 167, where it seems to mean a ford.

for-vaði, a, m. a cliff projecting into the forvað, where the rider has to wade through water, Fbr. 45, Vm. 107.

for-vara, að, [Germ. verwahren], to keep, Matth. xvi. 25.

FORVE, n. an απ. λεγ. in the eccl. law of the county Víkin or Borgarþing, a coast district in the south of Norway, N. G. L. i. 339, 363, where the law orders that a monster child (i. e. an abortion, a birth without human shape) shall be brought to a place ‘forve,’ and buried where neither man nor beast comes by; þat skal á forve (forre, v. l.) fœra ok röyra (put in a cairn) þar er hvárki gengr yfir menn né fénaðr, þat er forve (forfue, v. l.) hins ílla. In N. G. L. i. 13 it is ordered that felons (e. g. traitors, murderers, self-murderers, etc.) were not to be buried in consecrated soil, but in the ‘flood-mark where sea and green turf meet;’ cp. the curious story in Landn. 2. 19, where the Christian lady Auda ordered herself to be buried between high and low water mark (í flæðarmáli), as she would not rest in heathen earth; so, on the other hand, a monster child must not rest in Christian earth. Thus forve is probably derived from fyrva, q. v., to ebb, and denotes the flood-mark or beach in which the grave was to be dug; the concluding words, þat er forve hins ílla, probably mean this place is the forve of the evil one, i. e. an unhallowed place. The etymology given in H. E. i. 75 cannot be right.

for-veðja or for-veði, adj. a law term, forfeitable or forfeited, Vm. 16, Grág. ii. 234, N. G. L. i. 27 (Js. 124), 391.

for-veðjaðr, part. forfeited, Bs. i. 227.

for-vegr, m. a trace, foot-print, N. G. L. i. 83, Str. 78, Barl. 10, 142.

for-verari, a, m. a predecessor, Dipl. i. 4, ii. 11, (mod.)

for-verð, n. price, worth, Dipl. iii. 10.

for-verendr, m. pl. predecessors, Thom. 424.

for-verk (for-virki, Hrafn. 5), n., prop. humble work, farm work; ef maðr kaupir mann til forverks sér, Grág. i. 272; várt f., our task, Hom. (St.); of gamall til þræls, ok þótti ekki forverk í honum, too old for a thrall, and unfit for work, Hkr. i. 199, Fms. i. 77; þetta sumar var lítið forverk í Krossavík, Vápn. 29; ok var lítið forverk orðit, en hann átti ómegð, Sturl. i. 137; þarf eigí meira forvirki en þetta lið orkar, Hrafn. 5; forverk heys, carting hay, K. Þ. K. 100; skal hverr búandi fara er forverk á sér, N. G. L. i. 128: þú munt fá föður mínum forverk ef ek ferr frá, Þorst. St. 53: forverks-lítill, adj. one who is able to do but little f., Fas. iii. 158: forverks-maðr, m. a labourer, workman, Gþl. 6, Eb. 150: forverks-tíð, f. work-time, Hom. (St.): þér skal fá þræla til forverks, Þorst. St. 55. II. metaph. [cp. A. S. for-wyrht = peccatum], in the phrase, göra ekki forverkum við e-n, to treat one well, not meanly, not like a drudge; er þat líkast at aldri sé forverkum við þik gört, Band. 10; skal aldri forverkum við þik göra meðan við lifum báðir, 54; ekki skal forverkum við þik göra þat sem vel er, Fas. ii. 238; vér munum þetta eigi forverkum göra, we shall do no hireling’s work, i. 100; at þeir görði lítt forverkum (that they did it thoroughly) at hefna þeim Dönum spottsins, Mork. 51, 153.

for-viða, adj. ind. [qs. forveðja, q. v.], upset in a fight, Nj. 228. 246; Gestr varð allr f. fyrir, Bárð. 43 new Ed., Róm. 150:—in mod. usage, amazed, greatly surprised.

for-viðris, adv. before the wind, Rd. 276, Sturl. iii. 198, Róm. 369, Bs. ii. 5.

for-vindis, adv. before the wind, Fms. iii. 235.

for-vista, n, f. = forysta (forvist, Fms. vii. 25). Eb. 142, Fms. x. 273.

for-vitinn, adj. curious, chiefly in a bad sense. Greg. 27, Sturl. i. 216.

for-vitligr, adj. curious, Mag. 8.

for-vitna, að, to pry into, enquire; f. e-t, Sks. 183 B; f. um e-t, to enquire about, 6, 182 B. 2. reflex., forvitnask e-t, to enquire, Bret. 94, Fms. i. 147, 252, vii. 258, Eg. 764, Ld. 268: absol., Lv. 15; f. til e-s, id., Fær. 53; f. um e-t, id., Landn. 51, Grett. 96, 160. 3. impers., e-n forvitnar e-t, or with infin., it makes one curious to know, Fær. 54, Sks. 182 B, Fas. i. 22.

for-vitni, f. curiosity (often in a bad sense), Fas. i. 71, Sks. 183, 553, Fms. i. 145, 260, Glúm. 327, Johann. 625. 89; fáa leiðir gott af forvitninni (a saying), Vídal. i. 58.

for-vitri, adj. (-vitra, Fms. vi. 56, 428), very wise, deep, Fms. iv. 24, 239, vi. 56, xi. 79, Band. 3, Eg. 3, Bs. i. 66 (forvitr).

for-vitringr, m. a wise man, Matth. xi. 25.

for-vígi, n. an outwork. forvígis-maðr, m. a head champion, defender.

for-yflask, d, dep. (foriflask, Al. 110 and 655 xxix; for-œfask, Hom. 151), in the phrase, f. e-s, only used with neg., to shrink from nothing; Lucinia foryfldisk eigi íllra ráða, Bær. 14; Halli foryfldisk eigi at mæla þat er honum sýndisk, Fms. vi. 360 (foryfildiz, Mork. 93); at þeir muni foriflaz at etja við afla-muninn, Al. l. c.; þú foræfisk (foryflisk?) eigi eiða, thou shrinkest not from perjury, Hom. l. c.

for-ynja, u, f. an appearance or foreboding: hygg ek at þetta sé f. þín, Fb. i. 67; nú hygg ek at þetta beri þína forynju, ok sér þú svikinn, Ó. T. 3; f. eðr fyrirfari hinnar fremri tignar, Bs. i. 682. β. a spectre, Germ. scheusal; þegi þú yfir þeim, f. (thou monster!), Ld. 326, v. l.; and so in mod. usage.

for-ysta, u, f. (forosta, Fms. ii. 88, Fs. 8, Grág. i. 503, Ísl. ii. 87, 330), mod. forusta [qs. forvista, vi = y]:—headship, leadership, and even used personally a captain, 623. 56, Fms. ii. 88, v. 273, vii. 326, Hkr. ii. 202, v. l., Sturl. i. 759, Mork. 137, 140 (cp. Fms. vii. 25, Hkr. iii. 206), Glúm. 340. COMPDS: forustu-geldingr, m. a bell-wether, Grág. i. 503, Ísl. ii. 330. forystu-lauss, adj. without a leader or protector, Fs. 8, Ld. 260, Bær. 17, Dropl. 32. forustu-sauðr, m. = forustugeldingr, Ísl. ii. 87, Bs. i. 138.

for-þénusta, u, f. [Germ. verdienst], merit, mod. eccl., N. T., Vídal.

for-þokki, a, m. dislike, Þórð. 22 new Ed.

for-þóttr, m. = forþokki, Bs. ii. 37.

for-þykkja, þótti, to dislike, Sturl. iii. 231, Thom. 300, (rare.)

for-þykkja, u, f. a dislike, Thom. 420.

FOX, n. [A. S. and Engl. fox; Dutch vos; Germ. fuchs; this word occurs in the old northern tongues only in a metaph. sense, and even then rare and obsolete]:—a fraud in selling, adulteration; fox er íllt í exi, Eg. 184 (in a verse); otherwise only in the phrase, selja e-m fox né flærð, Gþl. 492; kaup-fox, veð-fox (q. v.), fraud in sale or bailing, Gþl.

FÓA, u, f. a fox; this curious word, which answers to Goth. fauhô, O. H. G. foha, only occurs in Edda (Gl.), unless the present Icel. tóa (the common name for a fox) be a corruption of fóa; if not, the etym. of tóa is quite uncertain. It is a common superstition not to call the fox by his right name, whence the variety of names in different languages, and number of synonymes in the same language.

fóarn, n. the crop or maw of a bird, Fbr. 12.

FÓÐR, n. [Engl. fodder; Germ. futter; Dan. and Swed. foder], fodder for cattle, (but fæði or fæða of human food), Ísl. ii. 138, Gþl. 503, Fbr. 156: a certain quantity of fodder or hay, a stack thus contains so many kýr-fóðr or lambs-fóðr:—a foddering of lambs for the parson in the winter, hence a parish has so and so many lambs-fóðr; skila úr fóðrum, to return lambs in the spring. fóðr-birgðir, f. pl. (-birgr, adj.), stores of hay.

fóðr, n. [Germ. futter; Engl. fur], lining.

fóðra, að, to fodder, Fms. i. 272, Ísl. ii. 132: reflex., Sks. 185.

fóðra, að, to fur or line a garment, Fms. vi. 422, Bs. i. 636; hence in mid. Lat. cappa forata.

fóðr-lauss, adj. unlined, Vm. 29, Pm. 37.

fó-erla, u, f. a duck.

fógeti, a, m. [low Lat. vocatus; Germ. vogt], a kind of bailiff, D. N. from the 14th century:—the bailiff of Reykjavík in Icel. is called fógeti.

FÓL, n. a fool: allit., fífl ok fól, 656 B. 7; fól, however, has often the notion of rage and foul language; fífl that of pranks or silliness; fól (madman) væri Sverrir þá, Fms. iii. 122, viii. 242; bað taka fól þetta, Ísl. ii. 220 (one who had used bad language); hann þótti þar fól eitt (idiot), Glúm. 336. COMPDS: fóls-liga, adv. foolishly, like a madman, Sturl. i. 4, Fms. xi. 280. fóls-ligr, adj. foolish, mad, Fms. viii. 242 (of foul language).

fóli, a, m. = fól, Gísl. 50, Sd. 178; fóli þinn, thou fool! Ld. 220.

FÓLI, a, m. [cp. Fr. voler, early Fr. foler, cp. also low Lat. felo, Engl. felony; but is prob. a Teut. word from fela, fólginn]:—stolen goods, esp. hidden, a law term; skal binda fóla á bak honum, N. G. L. i. 83, Js. 129; finna þeir fóla (hidden theft) meðal skjaldbálka, N. G. L. i. 84, passim; finna fóla, Grág. i. 195: bera inn fóla á hendr mönnum, id. fóla-gjald, n. damages, compensation, in a case of theft, Grág. i. 84.

FÓLK, n., prop. folk with a short vowel, cp. fylki; [A. S. folc; Engl. folk; Germ. volk: Dan. and Swed. folk]:—folk, people: skjótt fjölgaðisk fólkit, Grett. 88:—people indefinitely, til at hræða fólk, to frighten folk, Bs. i. 764: curiously Icel. say, kvenn-fólk (as in Engl.). woman-folk; but karl-fólk never, only karl-menn. 2. in Icel. chiefly the people of a household, community, or the like; kirkju-fólk, the church-folk, i. e. people assembled in church; boðs-fólk, the guests at a banquet; sóknar-fólk, the parish folk; heimilis-fólk, house-folk, the people of a household; allt fólkið á bænum, all the folk; vinnu-fólk, servant-folk; grasa-fólk, people gathering fell-moss; meðal annars fólksins, Nj. 66, v. l.; Njáll gékk inn ok mælti víð fólkit, 200; mik ok fólk mitt skortir aldri mat, Band. 13; hott, hott og hæt hér sé Guð í bæ, sælt fólkið allt, Stef. Ól.; fæddi varla búféit fólkit, Ísl. ii. 68; var eigi fólk upp staðit, Hrafn. 20; this sense is to the present day very common in Icel.; while the Germ. sense of people, nation (Dan. folket) is strange to Icel.; even lands-fólk is rare, better lands-menn. 3. kinsfolk; hans fólk ok foreldismenn, his ‘folk’ and forefathers, Stj. 139; allt yðart f., Karl. 328: so Icel. say, vera af góðu fólki kominn, to come of good folk, be well born. II. a host = fylking, and hence battle, but only in old poets, cp. Edda 108; fjórtán fólk, fourteen divisions, troops, Hkv. 1. 49; ok í fólk um skaut, Vsp. 28; ef ek sék flein í fólki vaða, Hm. 151; þótt í fólk komi, 159; í fólk, in battle, Ýt. 10; fara með fólkum, to wage war, Gm. 48; öndvert fólk, the van of the host, Fas. i. 46 (in a verse); and in many compds: adj. a valiant man ii called fólk-bráðr, -djarfr, -eflandi, -glaðr, -harðr, -prúðr, -rakkr, -reifr, -skár, -snarr, -sterkr, -þorinn, etc.: weapons, folk-hamla, -naðra, -skíð, -svell, -vápn, -vöndr: armour, fólk-tjald, -veggr: a warrior, fólk-baldr, -mýgir, -nárungar, -rögnir, -stjóri, -stuðill, -stýrir, -valdr, -vörðr: the battle, fólk-roð, -víg, Vsp. 28: in prose rarely, and only in poët. phrases, fólk-bardagi, a, m. a great battle, battle of hosts; and fólk-orrusta, f. id., Flov. 40, Orkn. 94; fólk-land, n. = fylki, Hkr. i. 209, paraphrase from the Vellekla; fólk-vápn, n. pl. (vide above), weapons, N. G. L. i. 101: metaph., Fms. iii. 167.

fólk-vitr or -vittr, f. the wight or fairy of battle, of a Valkyria, Hkv.

fólska, u, f. foolishness, often with the notion of madness, impudence, Fms. iii. 167, ix. 405, Sks. 623, Ísl. ii. 84. COMPDS: fólsku-för (fólsku-ferð), f. a mad expedition, Sturl. ii. 97. fólsku-orð, n. foolish (foul) words, Fms. vii. 118. fólsku-verk, n. a foolish (mad) act, Edda 57: a foul act, Pass. 36. 7.

fólskr, adj. foolish, impudent, Hkr. ii. 138.

FÓRA, u, f. (a for. word), armour, harness; her-fóra, armour, Stj. 287, Mag., Karl. passim; hence the mod. phrase, hafa e-ð í fórum sínum, to keep a thing hidden under one’s harness.

FÓRN (fórur, f. pl., Ver. 6), f. offering, [prob. a word of Lat. and eccl. origin, derived from Lat. offerre; after the introduction of Christianity the old heathen word blót (q. v.) became odious, as denoting heathen sacrifice, and is consequently never used in connection with Christian worship; its place being taken by the word fórn]:—a sacrifice in the Jewish sense, and in the Christian sense an offering to God; but it is scarcely ever used in a heathen sense—the passage Fær. 103 is quite peculiar: the phrase, færa fórn, to bring an offering, Stj. passim; Gúð mun sér sjá fórn til handa, 131, passim; brenni-fórn, a burnt offering; dreypi-fórn, a drink offering; synda-fórn, a sin offering, Bible, Vídal. passim: fórnar-blöð, n, the sacrificial blood, Stj. 305, 318; fórnar-brauð, n. and fórnar-hleifr, m. the shew-bread, Stj. 474, 565 (panis propositionis, Vulg.); fórnar-kvikindi, n. a victim, Stj. 430; fórnar-skrín, n. a shrine in which the wafer is kept, Vm. 55; fórnar-söngr, m. the offertory in the Roman Catholic service, 625. 190. 2. metaph. chiefly in pl. offerings, presents; in this sense it occurs in Am. 5 (a poem not too old for such a word), Fms. ix. 416; ríkar ok fagrar fórnir, Str. 34; fórnar-lauss, adj. not bringing an offering, Al. 172: sing., aldri ætla ek óþarfari fórn færða Sveini konungi, en þetta it vánda höfuð, Mork. 87.

fórna, að, to offer, with acc. of the offering, dat. of the person; fórna mér reykelsi, Stj. 431; mörr er fórnaðr, 430. 1 Sam. ii. 16; þá hluti er hann vildi fórna, 410; fórna þik Guði, offer thee to God, 407: to offer as a present, Fms. ix. 450, Al. 96: in mod. usage, with dat. of the offering and the Deity, e. g. fórna Guði bænum sínum. 2. the phrase, fórna höndum, to lift the hands to heaven as in prayer, or to wring the hands as in agony; that this phrase was also known to the ancients may be inferred from the compd, fórnar-hendr, f. pl. offering hands, uplifted hands, Magn. 514.

fórn-færa, ð, = fórna, to bring an offering, sacrifice, with acc. of the offering, Fms. ii. 41, Stj. passim: mod. with dat. of the offering.

fórn-færing, f. an offering, sacrifice, Stj. 17, 248, 276.

fóst-bróðir, m. a foster-brother: 1. prop. of men brought up together, brothers in arms, and the like; Arinbjörn hersir var f. Eireks konungs, Eg. 401, Fs. 121, 139, Fms. x. 226, Ísl. ii. 219; frændr ok fóstbræðr, Fs. 120, 122; þeir vóru vænligir menn ok görðusk fóstbræðr (brothers in arms) Ingimundar, 13, 15, 16, 19, 24, passim. 2. a sworn brother, = eiðbróðir, pledged by the rite of blending blood together (vide bróðir), Gísl., Fbr., passim: hence Fóstbræðra-saga, u, f. the name of the history (but the name is mod.); fóstbræðra-lag, n. a foster-brotherhood, Eg. 116. 165, Fms. vii. 25, passim:—sworn brotherhood, sverjask í f., Fms. iii. 213, cp. esp. Gísl., Fbr.

FÓSTR, n. [a Scandin. word; Swed.-Dan. and North. E. foster; but neither in Goth., A. S., nor Germ.]:—the fostering of a child, Fms. i. 1, Eg. 119, Nj. 40, Grág. i. 276, 277, Gþl. 531, Fs. 12, Ld. passim; for this see barn-fóstr, but cp. also Grág. Ó. Þ. ch. 21: the savings, fjórðungi bregðr til fóstrs, Nj. (vide bregda), and fé er fóstri líkt; ást-fóstr, q. v.

fóstra, u, f. a foster-mother; fóstra sú er hann hefir fæddan lögfóstri, Grág. ii. 60, Fms. iii. 71, vii. 275:—a wet-nurse, Fs. 148. 2. a foster-daughter; fóstra sú er maðr hefir fædda, Grág. l. c., Eg. 169, Str. 63.

fóstra, að, to foster, also to nurse, Ld. 108, Fms. i. 16, Nj. 59.

fóstr-dóttir, f. a foster-daughter.

fóstr-faðir, m. a foster-father, Eg. 117, Ísl. ii. 139 (v. l.), Fms. ix. 361.

fóstr-foreldrar, m. pl. foster-parents, (mod.)

fóstri, a, m. a foster-father, Íb. 14, Eg. 117, Fs. 13, 19, Lv. 50, Bs. i. 154. 425, Fms. v. 126, Grág. i. 226; freq. in Icel. in addressing, fóstri minn, fóstra min! 2. a foster-son, Nj. 149. 3. a pet, of a favourite horse, Sturl. i. 40, Hrafn. 8. 4. a foster-brother, Fms. vii. 316, xi. 155, (rare.) 5. in pl., collect. the foster-father and his son (or sons), Fms. xi. 59.

fóstr-jörð, f. a native country, Nj. 45, Fms. i. 76, Hom. 140.

fóstr-land, n. id., Barl. 99, 156, Stj. 50, Fms. x. 340, 343, Bret. 100.

fóstr-laun, n. pl. reward for fostering one, Ld. 232, Grág. i. 280.

fóstr-man, n. a nurse (bondwoman), Skv. 3. 67 (poët.)

fóstr-meistari, a, m. a tutor, Karl. 32.

fóstr-móðir, f. a foster-mother, Stj. 83, 548.

fóstr-mær, f. a foster-daughter, Fas. ii. 293.

fóstr-neyti, n., collect. foster-parents, Fms. vii. 237.

fóstr-son, m. a foster-son, Fms. i. 85, Eg. 524, Ísl. ii. 145.

fóstr-systir, f. (sometimes in MSS. spelt fósystir, Mar. 14, 15, Stj. 407, Bs. i. 460), a foster-sister, Fs. 139, Fb. ii. 4.

fóstr-systkin, n. pl., collect. foster-brothers and sisters, Fas. ii. 64.

fót-borð, n. a foot-board, Gísl. 31, Vígl. 17, O. H. L. 36.

fót-brot, n. a fracture of the leg, Bs. i. 431.

fót-brotinn, part. broken-legged, Bs. i. 423, Stj. 279, Eb. 316.

fót-fara, fór, to pace, measure, Ann. Oldk. 1845, p. 164.

fót-festi, f. a foot-hold, in climbing.

fót-fimr, adj. nimble-footed, Róm. 310.

fót-fljótr, adj. swift-fooled, Barl. 103, (rare.)

fót-fúinn, part. ‘foot-rotten’ i. e. reeling on one’s legs, a wrestling term.

fót-ganga, u, f., in fótgöngu-lið, n. host of footmen, Stj. 450, Fms. x. 139; fótgöngu-herr, m. id., Hkr. i. 216, Stj. 456; fótgöngu-menn, m. pl. id., Fms. vi. 413, Stj. 285.

fót-gangandi, part. walking on foot, Bs. i. 535; f. menn, footmen, Fms. x. 139, Stj. 512.

fót-hár, adj. long-legged, high-stepping. Eg. 710.

fót-heill, adj. ‘hale-legged,’ sound-legged, Gþl. 87.

fót-hrumr, adj. weak-legged (from age), Fms. vii. 9, Bs. ii. 24.

fót-hvatr, adj. swift-footed, Nj. 38, Edda 31, Ó. H. 71.

fót-högg, n. hewing off one’s feet, Eb. 246, Sturl. ii. 90.

fót-höggva, hjó, to hew one’s feet off, Fms. viii. 167, ix. 19, Sturl. ii, 66.

fót-kaldr, adj. having cold feet.

fót-lami, adj. lame of foot, Nj. 219, Stj. 501.

fót-langr, adj. long-legged, Fms. x. 151, v. l.

fót-laug, n. a foot-bath, Hkv. 2. 37.

fót-lauss, adj. foot-less, without feet, Al. 134.

fót-lágr, adj. low-legged, short-legged, Þjal. 29.

fót-leggr, m. the leg, Fb. ii. 387, Bárð. 14 new Ed., Fms. viii. 162, 447, ix. 528, Magn. 524, Fas. i. 27, Stj. 96.

fót-mál, n. a step, Stj. 129.

fót-mikill, adj. big-footed, Mag. 1.

fót-mjúkr, adj. nimble-footed, a wrestling term, Sturl. i. 14.

fót-pallr, m. a foot-board, Fms. x. 186, Hkr. i. 81.

FÓTR, m., gen. fótar, dat. fæti; pl. fætr, gen. fóta, dat. fótum; in mod. conversation and even in writing the acc. pl. is used as fem., thus ‘allar fætr,’ not ‘alla fætr,’ and with the article ‘fætrnar,’ which form was already used by poets of the 17th century, Pass. 33. 4, Snót 156: [Goth. fôtus; A. S. fôt; Engl. foot; Germ. fuss; Swed. fot; Dan. fod; Gr. πόδ-, Lat. pĕd-, with a short vowel; but with a long vowel in all Teutonic languages; fit, q. v., also seems to be a kindred word]:—a foot; and as in some other languages either the foot only or the foot and leg. Icel. distinguish between various animals, and use fótr (foot) of men, horses, cattle, sheep, etc.; hrammr (paw) of beasts of prey, as bears, lions; löpp (also paw) of cats, dogs, mice; klær (claws) of birds of prey, as the raven, eagle; hreifi (fins) of a seal: Edda 110, Fms. i. 182, xi. 145, Anecd. 6, Nj. 219, 264, Landn. 180: the allit. phrase, fótr ok lit (q. v.); þá var uppi f. og fit, i. e. all (men and beast) were about or all was bustle; standa báðum fótum, einum fæti, öllum fótum, to stand (rest) on both … feet, Fms. viii. 41, Gísl. 46; spretta (stökkva) á fætr, to start to one’s feet, Eg. 495; vera á fótum, to be a-foot, to be out of bed, Fms. vi. 201, x. 147, Glúm. 368, Eg. 586; vera snemma á fótum, to be early a-foot, Valla L. 223: metaph. to be alive, Ld. 230; fara á fætr, to rise; skjóta (kasta) fótum undir sik, to take to his heels, Fms. viii. 358, Þórð. 43 new Ed.; hlaupa sem fætr toga, to run as fast as feet can go, Gísl. 61. Fas. i. 434; taka til fóta, to take to one’s heels, Grett. 101, Bs. i. 804; eiga fótum fjör at launa, to owe one’s life to the feet, i. e. to run for one’s life, O. H. L. 8; leggja land undir fót, to take a long stride, Bs. ii. 124, Fkv. ii. 2: phrases denoting the delight of getting on shore, hafa land undir fæti, to feel the ground wider one’s feet, ‘O quam securum, quamque jucundum in solo,’ fastr er á foldu fótr, Profectio in Terr. Sanct. 159; falla til fóta e-m, to fall at another’s feet, 623. 27. 2. phrases, kominn af fotum fram, off one’s feet, bedridden, Fms. xi. 155, Fb. i. 201; þótt ek bera þaðan hvárigan fót heilan þá skal ek þó fara, Fs. 9; hverr á fætr öðrum, one on the heels of another, Eg. 132; Hákon drepr yðr á fætr oss, H. slays you on your feet, Fms. x. 386; miklu er fyrir fætr þér kastað, many things are cast before thy feet, many obstacles, Korm. 176. β. metaph. phrases, standa á mörgum fótum, to rest on many feet, have many resources; stóð á mörgum fótum fjárarli Skallagríms, Eg. 137, Fms. xi. 423; standa á tré-fótum, to stand on wooden legs, be in a tottering state: það er enginn fótr fyrir því, ‘it has not a foot to stand on,’ i. e. is not true: tún-fótr, the outskirt of a home-field, metaphor from a skin stretched out. II. a measure, Al. 163, Karl. 438, 481, 509, 525. Ísl. ii. 402, Landn. 335, Fs. 26; fet is more usual. COMPDS: fóta-afl, n. the strength of the feet, Fms. viii. 410. fóta-brík, f. the foot-board of a bed, Sturl. iii. 177. fóta-burðr, m. the bearing of the feet, gait, Bs. i. 670. fóta-búnaðr, m. foot-gear, Stj. 366. fóta-ferð, f. a rising from bed; fótaferðar-tími, a, m. the time of rising. fóta-festi, f. = fótfesti, Barl. 56. fóta-fjöl, f. = fótabrík, Fms. v. 340: a foot-board, iv. 277. fóta-gangr, m. trampling, din, Finnb. 246. fóta-grýta, u, f. a pan with feet, Fr. fóta-hlutr, m. the nether part of the body, opp. to höfða-hlutr, Eb. 326, Eg. 398, Fms. xi. 277. fóta-kefli, n. a stumbling-block. fóta-klæði, n., eccl., Lat. pedale, Ám. 90, Jm. 10, 36. fóta-læti, n. pl. ‘foot-pranks’ (of one hanged), Fms. vii. 13. fótar-bragð, n. ‘foot-braid,’ a wrestling term, vide bragð. Fas. ii. 370. fótar-mein, n. a sore leg, Nj. 219, Bs. i. 815, Sturl. i. 64. fótar-sár, n. a foot-wound, Fms. viii. 141. fótar-verkr, m. = fótverkr, Hkr. i. 63, Fas. ii. 106. fóta-saurr, m. the foot-dirt, Post. to Matth. x. 14. fóta-skinn, n. a ‘foot-skin,’ carpet, Rd. 272, Ám. 6. fóta-skortr, m. missing the feet; e-m verðr f., to slip, stumble. fóta-spyrning, f. a spurning with the feet, Fas. iii. 355. fóta-stapp, n. a stamping with the feet, Skálda 174. fóta-stokkr, m. a shackle; berja fótastokk, to dangle the legs in riding. fóta-þil, n. the foot-board of a bed, Fms. ii. 84. fóta-þváttr, m. foot-washing, Bs. i. 105.

fót-sárr, adj. foot-sore, Lv. 59 (of a horse).

fót-síðr, adj. reaching down to the leg, of a garment, Finnb. 310, Stj. 520.

fót-skemill, m. (-skefill, Bs. i. 155), a foot-board, Fms. v. 301, Sturl. iii. 131, Sks. 292, O. H. L. 26.

fót-skriða, u, f., in the phrase, renna fótskriðu, to run and slide on ice, Nj. 145, Valla L. 220, Rd. 278.

fót-skör, f. a foot-board, Bs. i. 220, Fms. ii. 132, Sturl. iii. 131, v. l.

fót-spor, n. pl. foot-prints, 623. 36, Fms. i. 280; stíga í e-s fótspor, to step in one’s foot-prints, Fs. 4, Sks. 13, Vígl. 20.

fót-stallr, m. a pedestal, Fms. ii. 108, Fær. 103 (v. l.), 655 xxxii. 10.

fót-stirðr, adj. stiff-legged, Eg. 754.

fót-troð, n. treading under foot, Bs. ii. 57, Thom. 104.

fót-troða, trað, to tread upon, Stj. 42, Fms. ii. 172, iii. 165, H. E. i. 506.

fót-veill, adj. with a bad leg, Bs. i. 344, Thom.

fót-verkr, m. ‘foot-warke,’ gout, Ýt. 26.

fót-viss, adj. sure-footed, a wrestling term.

FRAKKA, u, f. [A. S. franca], a kind of spear; Grimm thinks that the framea of Tacitus is merely a corruption of franca, a suggestion which seems to be almost certain; in northern poems and writers this word only occurs in Rm. 32, whence it was probably taken into Edda (Gl.); on the other hand, we have an Icel. frakki, a, m. a kind of weapon, in the compd hræ-f., a ‘carrion-fluke,’ i. e. the blade of a sword, Gísl. 7 (in a verse); and akkeris-frakki, a, m. an ‘anchor-fluke (?),’ in a verse of 996, Fs. 92: again, the frakka of the Rm. was probably borrowed from A. S. 2. Frakki, a, m. a proper name, cp. Gullþ.; Frakka-nes, n. a farm.

Frakkar, m. pl. the Franks, mod. the French; perhaps derived from the national weapon franca, as that of Saxons from seax, sax = gladius; Frakkland, n. the land of the Franks, as fixed by the peace of Verdun in 843, Íb. ch. 9 and Fms. i. ii, and in old poets (Hallfred):—in mod. language used for France.

frakki, a, m. [Fr. fraque], a frock, coat, mod. word, borrowed from Dan. frak.

frakki, a, m. bad, rotten hay; íllt er saman að akka örgum sínu frakka, Hallgr.

frakkr, adj. [Engl. and Germ. frank], this word never occurs in old writers, and in mod. usage only in the sense impertinent, intrusive.

FRAM, adv.—the Icel. has a triple adverbial form, fram, denoting the going to a place (ad locum); frammi, the being in a place (in loco); framan, the going from a place (a loco)—compar. framarr (mod. framar) or fremr, = Goth. framis; superl. framast (framarst) or fremst: proncd. with a double m = framm; and that such was the case in olden times may be seen from Fms. vi. 385 and Skálda 168, 171. This adv. with its compds and derivatives may be said to have been lost in Germ. as well as Engl., and at a very early time. Even Ulf. uses fram as a prep. in the sense of ἀπό, like the A. S. and Engl. from, Swed. från: only in two passages Ulf. uses fram as adv., viz. Rom. xiii. 12, where he renders ‘the night is far spent’ (nóttin er um liðin of the Icel. N. T.) by framis galeiþan, which recalls to mind the Icel. fram-liðinn = deceased, past; and Mark i. 19, where προβαίνειν is rendered by gaggan framis = Icel. ganga framarr or ganga fram; cp. also the Goth. compds fram-gahts = progress, Philipp. i. 25; fram-aldrs = stricken in years; fram-vigis = Icel. fram-vegis; fram-vairþis = further: in O. H. G. vram = ultra still occurs, but is now lost in Germ. as well as in Engl.: the Icel., on the other hand, makes a clear distinction between the prep. frá (from) and fram, on, forward, = Gr. πρόσω, Lat. porro, pro-; in some compds the sense from appears, e. g. framandi, a stranger,—Ulf. framaþeis, prop. one who is far off or from far off; so also fram-liðinn, gone, past; ganga fram, to die.

A. fram, forward, (opp. to aptr, backward); aðra leið aptr en fram, 655 xxxii. 18; hann féll fram á fætr konungi, he fell forward on his face at the king’s feet, Eg. 92; stefna fram (to go on) hina neðri leið, 582; brautin liggr þar fram í milli, id.; cf þeir vilja fram, or, fram á leið, forward, Sks. 483; fram rétt, straight on, Fms. ii. 273, v. l.; fram, fram! on, on! a war cry, Ó. H. 215: koma fram, to reappear, arrive, after being long unheard of; hann kom fram í Danmörku, Fms. i. 62; hann kom fram í kaupstað þeim er …, Ísl. ii. 332; ok kómu þar fram, er Kirjálar vóru á fjalli, Eg. 58: the phrase, fram í ættir, in a far or distant degree (of relationship), 343: people in Icel. in the 14th century used to say, fram til Noregs, up to Norway (cp. up to London), Dipl. ii. 15, 16. II. fram is generally applied to any motion outwards or towards the open, opp. to inn, innar; thus fram denotes the outer point of a ness, fram á nes; Icel. also say, fram á sjó, towards the high sea, (but upp or inn at landi, landwards); also, towards the verge of a cliff or the like, fram á hamarinn (bergit), Eg. 583: when used of a house fram means towards the door, thus, fara fram í dyr (eldhús), but inn or innar í baðstofu (hence fram-bær), var hón ávalt borin fram ok innar, she was borne in a litter out and in, Bs. i. 343: of a bed or chair fram denotes the outside, the side farthest from the wall, horfir hón til þils, en bóndi fram, she turned her face to the wall, but her husband away from it, Vígl. 31. β. again, Icel. say, fram á dal, up dale, opp. to ofan dalinn, down dale. III. without motion, the fore part, opp. to aptr, hinder part (cp. fram-fætr); aptr krókr en fram sem sporðr, Fms. ii. 179; maðr fram en dýr aptr (of a centaur), 673. 2, Sks. 179; aptr ok fram, fore and aft, of a ship, Fms. ix. 310. IV. joined with prepp. or particles, Lat. usque; bíða fram á dag, fram á nótt, fram í myrkr, to wait far into the day, night, darkness, Bs. ii. 145; bíða fram yfir, er fram um Jól, etc., to bide till after Yule; um fram, past over; sitja um þat fram er markaðrinn stóð, to stay till the fair is past, Fb. i. 124; fram um hamarinn (bergit), to pass the cliff, Eg. 582; ríða um fram, to ride past or to miss, Nj. 264, mod. fram hjá, cp. Germ. vorbei:—metaph., vera um fram e-n, above, surpassingly; um fram aðra menn, Fb. i. 91, Fms. vi. 58, passim; um alla hluti fram, above all things: yfir alla hluti fram, id., Stj. 7: besides, Sks. 41 new Ed.: fyrir lög fram, in spite of the law, Fms. iii. 157; fyrir rétt fram, 655 xx. 4; fyrir lof fram, without leave, Grág. i. 326; fyrir þat fram, but for that, ii. 99: the phrase, fyrir alla hluti fram, above all things, 623. 19. β. temp., fyrir fram means beforehand, Germ. voraus; vita, segja fyrir fram, to know, tell beforehand, Germ. voraus-sagen. γ. fram undan, projecting, stretching forward; fram undan eyjunni, Fms. ii. 305. δ. the phrase, fram, or more usually fram-orðit, of time, hvað er fram-orðit, how late is it? i. e. what is the time? Ld. 224; þá var fram-orðit, it was late in the day, Clem. 51; þá er fram var orðit, 623. 30: dropping ‘orðit,’ þeir vissu eigi hvat fram var (qs. fram orðit), they did not know the time of day, K. Þ. K. 90: with gen., fram-orðit dags, late in the day, Fms. xi. 10, Ld. 174; áfram, on forward, q. v. V. with verbs, α. denoting motion, like pro- in Latin, thus, ganga, koma, sækja, falla, fljóta, renna, líða, fara … fram, to go, come, flow, fare … forward, Eg. 136, Fms. ii. 56, Jb. 75, passim: of time, líða fram, Bs. ii. 152 (fram-liðinn). β. rétta, halda fram, to stretch, hold forth, Nj. 3; flytja, bera, draga, leiða, færa, selja, setja fram, to bring … forward, Sks. 567; leggja fram, to ‘lay forth,’ discharge, Fms. v. 293, Nj. 3, 11; bjóða fram, to offer; eggja, hvetja fram, to egg on; segja fram, to pronounce; standa, lúta fram, etc. γ. sjá, horfa, stökkva … fram fyrir sik, to look, jump forward, opp. to aptr fyrir sik, Nj. 29:—impers., e-m fer fram, to grow, make progress; skara fram úr, to stand out.

B. frammi, (for the pronunciation with a double m vide Skálda 169,) denotes in or on a place, without motion, and is formed in the same way as uppi from upp, niðri from niðr; Icel. thus say, ganga fram, niðr, upp, to go on, go down, go up; but vera frammi, niðri, uppi, to be in, etc.; if followed by a vowel, the final i may be dropt, thus, vera frammi á dal, or framm’ á dal, Hrafn. 6; sitja framm’ fyrir hásæti (= frammi fyrir), Ó. H. 5; just as one may say, vera niðr’ á (qs. niðri á) engjum, upp’ á (= uppi á) fjalli: as to direction, all that is said of fram also applies to frammi, only that frammi can but denote the being in a place; Icel. thus say, frammi á dal in a dale, frammi í dyrum in-doors, frammi á fjalli on a fell, frammi á gólfi on the floor, frammi á sjó, etc.; þeir Leitr sitja frammi í húsum, Fær. 181, cp. also Hrafn. 1; sitja (standa) frammi fyrir e-m, to sit (stand) before one’s face, Hkr. ii. 81. II. metaph. the phrase, hafa e-t frammi, to perform a thing, Nj. 232, Sks. 161: to use, shew, in a bad sense, of an insult, threatening, or the like; hafa þeir f. mikil-mæli ok heita afarkostum, Hkr. i. 191: the particle í is freq. prefixed, hafa í frammi, (not á frammi as áfram, q. v.); svá fremi skaltú rógit í frammi hafa, Nj. 166; þarftú þá fleira í frammi at hafa en stóryrði ein ok dramblæti, Fas. i. 37; hafðú í frammi kúgan við þá uppi við fjöllin, Ísl. ii. 215: to exercise, Bs. i. 852; hafa f. ípróttir, Fms. ix. 8 (rare); láta, leggja f., to contribute, produce, Fas. iii. 118, Fms. vi. 211.

C. framan, from the front side; framan at borðinu, to the front of the table, Fb. ii. 302; framan at e-u, in the face or front of (opp. to aptan að, from behind); skaltú róa at framan borðum skútunnar, thou shall row towards the boards of the boat, of one boat trying to reach another, Háv. 46; taka framan af e-u, to take (cut) from the fore part, Od. xiv. 474; framan á skipinu, the fore part of the ship, Fms. ii. 179; framan um stafninn, vi. 78. β. temp., framan af sumri, vetri, hausti, váti, the beginning, first part of summer …; also simply framan af, in the beginning. γ. of the fore part of the body; nokkut hafit upp framan nefit, Ld. 272; réttnefjaðr ok hafit upp í framan-vert, a straight nose and prominent at the tip, Nj. 29; framan á brjóstið, on the breast; framan í andlitið, in the face; framan á knén, í stálhúfuna framan, Fms. viii. 337; framan á þjóhnappana, Sturl. i. 14 (better aptan á). δ. with the prep. í preceding; í framan, adv. in the face; rjóðr í framan, red in the face; fölr í framan, pale-faced, etc., freq. in mod. use. 2. fyrir framan, before, in front of, with acc. (opp. to fyrir aptan, behind); fyrir framan slána, Nj. 45; fyrir framan hendr honum, 60; fyrir framan hamarinn, Eg. 583; fyrir framan merki, Fms. i. 27, ii. 84: as adv., menn stóðu með vápnum fyrir framan þar sem Flosi sat, before F. ‘s seat, Nj. 220; þá var skotið aptr lokhvílunni ok sett á hespa fyrir framan, Fms. ii. 84: að framan, above. 3. as framan is prop. an adv. from the place, Icel. also say, koma framan af dal, framan af nesi, framan ór dyrum, etc., to come down the dale, etc., vide fram above. 4. ‘framan til’ in a temp. sense, up to, until; nú líðr til þings framan, it drew near to the time of parliament, Nj. 12; líðr nú til þings framan, Ld. 88; leið nú framan til Jóla, Ísl. ii. 42; framan til Páska, Stj. 148; framan til vetrnátta, D. N.; framan til þess er hann átti við Glám, Grett. 155; framan til Leiðar, Anal. 172; frá upphafi heims framan, from the beginning of the world, Ver. 1; in mod. usage simply fram in all such instances.

D. Compar. framarr, farther on; superl. framast, fremst, farthest on: 1. loc., feti framarr, a step farther on, Lv. 59; þar er þeir koma framast, the farthest point they can reach, Grág. i. 111; þar sem hann kömr framast, 497; hvar hann kom framarst, Fms. xi. 416; svá kómu þeir fremst at þeir unnu þá borg, i. 114; þeir eru mest til þess nefndir at framast (foremost) hafi verit, Ísl. ii. 368; þeir er fremst vóru, Fms. v. 78. 2. temp. farthest back; er ek fremst um man, Vsp. 1; hvat þú fyrst um mant eða fremst um veizt, Vþm. 34; frá því ek má fremst muna, Dipl. v. 25. II. metaph. farther, more, superl. farthest, most; erat hann framarr skyldr sakráða við menn, Grág. i. 11; nema vér reynim oss framarr, Fær. 75; meta, hvárra þörf oss litisk framarr ganga, whose claim appeared to us the strongest, Dipl. ii. 5. β. with dat., venju framarr, more than usual; því framarr sem, all the more, Fms. i. 184. γ. with ‘en’ following; framar en, farther than, more than; mun hér því (therefore) framarr leitað en hvarvetna annars-staðar, Fms. i. 213; at ganga framarr á hendr Þorleiki en mitt leyfi er til, Ld. 154; hversu Þorólfr var framarr en ek, Eg. 112; framarr er hann en ek, he is better than I, Nj. 3; sókn framarr (rather) en vörn, 236; framarr en (farther than) nú er skilt, Js. 48; því at hann væri framarr en aðrir menn at sér, better than other men, Mar. 25. 2. superl., svá sem sá er framast (foremost) elskaði, Fs. 80; svá sem framast má, 655 xi. 2; sem Guð lér honum framast vit til, Js. 5: with gen., konungr virði hann framast allra sona sinna, Fms. i. 6; at Haraldr væri framast þeirra bræðra, 59; framast þeirra at allri sæmd, viii. 272.

frama, að, [A. S. fremman; Dan. fremme], to further; frama sik, to distinguish oneself, Fms. v. 282: with dat. to further, promote a thing, hvárir-tveggju hafa svá mjök framat kvöð sinni, at …, proceeded so far with their suit, that …, Grág. ii. 50: of a pregnant woman, ek veit at þú ert með barni, ok mjök framat, and far advanced, Finnb. 212, Ld. 142.

fram-altari, a, m. a side-altar, opp. to the high altar, Vm. 77.

framan, vide fram C.

framan-af, adv. at the outset; vetrinn var kaldr framan af, = öndverðr.

framandi, part. a man of distinction, Bs. i. 797, 805, Orkn. 358. II. [Ulf. framaþeis; Germ. fremder], a stranger, Pass. 30. 6, (mod.)

framan-verðr, adj. [cp. Ulf. fram-vairþjis], ‘fore-ward,’ in the front; á framanverðri brekkunni, Fms. vii. 298; nesinu, Eg. 399; framanverðar fylkingar, Fms. vi. 69; um hökuna framanverða, Orkn. 288; í framanvert nefit, Nj. 29.

framar-liga, contracted framarla, adv. ‘forwardly,’ in front; þá má hverr vera svá framarla sem hann vill (of ranks in battle), Fms. viii. 403, v. l.; lagði konungr framarla skip sitt, Eg. 33; þeir kómu svá f. í landit, went so far, Fms. xi. 360: Icel. say, framarliga í dalnum, nesinu, far off in the dale, etc., where old writers would prefer í framanverðum dalnum, nesi: f. á sjötta hundraði, high up in the sixth hundred, Sturl. iii. 84. 2. metaph. fully, highly, much; treysta f., to trust fully, Fms. v. 236, vi. 151; svá framarla, so far, to that point, x. 7, Hom. 40; svá f. sem, so far as, 87; sjá f. við e-u, to be fully ware of, Sks. 358; hann man f. á horfa um kvánfangit, he will look high, i. e. make great pretensions, Ld. 88.

fram-boðligr, adj. that can be offered, Fms. iii. 180.

fram-bógr, m. the shoulder of an animal, Hkr. iii. 283.

fram-bryggja, u, f. the gangway leading to the bow of a ship, Eg. 121.

fram-burðr, m. delivery, esp. of a speech: með snjöllum framburði, Fms. ii. 199, Stj. 151, 260, 261: specially a law term, pleading, delivery, Grág. i. 42; f. um kviðinn, delivery of the verdict, Nj. 87: in mod. usage a gramm. term, pronunciation.

fram-búð, f. lasting for the time to come: in the phrase, vera til lítillar frambuðar, to be of little lasting use, Barl. 63.

fram-byggjar, -byggvar, m. pl. ‘bow-sitters’ the men placed on the bow of a ship of war, Fms. ii. 312, Eg. 32, Hkr. i. 86, Orkn. 230.

fram-bær, m. the front or fore part of a house.

fram-dráttr, m. carrying, launching a ship, Grág. ii. 399: metaph. support, maintenance, Fms. v. 23. framdráttar-samr, adj. putting oneself forward, Sturl. ii. 227.

fram-eggjan, f. an egging on, Nj. 61, Fms. viii. 118, xi. 261.

fram-fall, n. a falling on one’s face, Karl. 552.

fram-farinn, part. departed, Fær. 264; fram-farandi, part. act. departing, K. Á. 20.

fram-ferð, f. procedure, course of procedure, Bs. i. 840, Fms. i. 126, vii. 296: conduct, Stj. 141.

fram-ferði, n. = framferð, Fms. ii. 37: conduct, 655 xxxii. 2, Stj. 8, 142, Bs. i. 840, Fms. vi. 133: freq. in mod. use, N. T., Vídal.

fram-ferðugr, adj.; f. maðr, a ready man, Ann. 1348, (rare.)

fram-flutning, f. maintenance, Eg. 77, Fms. i. 222, xi. 234: gramm. pronunciation, Skálda 175, 181.

fram-flutningr, m. pleading, Bs. i. 769.

fram-fótr, m. the fore leg (of a quadruped), Fas. iii. 295.

fram-fúss, adj. eager, forward, willing, Bs. i. 238.

fram-færa, ð, to maintain, Grág. passim, (better as two words.)

fram-færi, n. furtherance, Sturl. i. 72; koma e-u á f., to further it.

fram-færing, f. pronunciation, Skálda 179; Lat. translatio, 194.

fram-færinn, adj. (fram-færni, f.), a putting oneself forward; úframfærinn, shy; óframfærni, shyness.

fram-færsla, u, f. a ‘bringing forward,’ bringing up, maintenance, Dipl. iv. 8, Grág. i. 62, 454, Jb. passim. COMPDS: Framfærslu-bálkr, m. the section in the Jb. treating of alimentation. framfærslu-kerling, f. an old pauper woman, Fbr. 95. framfærslu-lauss, adj. without means of support, Grág. i. 454, Jb. 179. framfærslu-maðr, m. a pauper. Jb. 181, Þorst. St. 55; = mod. sveitar-ómagi.

fram-för, f. advancing, Fms. iv. 270, Hom. 181: departing from life, Fms. ii. 164, Bs. i. 742, Post. 686 C. 2. 2. metaph. progress, freq. in mod. usage.

fram-ganga, u, f. a ‘going forth,’ proceeding, Sks. 520, 563: a going towards the door from the inner rooms (vide fram), Fs. 140:—advancing, in battle, and metaph. valour, exploits, Ó. H. 216 sqq., Eg. 33, Nj. 127, Fms. xi. 131, Lv. 89, Ísl. ii. 368, Grett. 159. framgöngu-maðr, m. a forward, valiant man, Glúm. 331.

fram-gangr, m. a ‘going forward,’ advancing, in battle, Fms. viii. 117: metaph. success, vi. 133, vii. 280, ix. 508, Eg. 20 (advancement): aggression, ofsi ok f., Fms. xi. 93, K. Á. 232.

fram-genginn, part. performed, Sks. 32, 560. 2. of persons, departed, deceased, Sks. 12.

fram-gengt, part. n. (fem., Fms. x. 401), brought about, successful; in the phrase, verða f., to succeed, come to pass. Ld. 238, Fms. i. 277, vii. 5, 183, Sks. 32, 560, Ýt. 1.

fram-girnd, f. = framgirni, Barl. 62.

fram-girni, f. forwardness, Fms. v. 246, Fbr. 121.

fram-gjarn, adj. striving forward, H. E. i. 250, Thom. 28.

fram-hald, n. continuation, (mod.)

fram-heit, n. pl. fair promises for the future, Sturl. iii. 232, 255.

fram-hleypi (fram-hleypni), f. forwardness, Thom. 175.

fram-hleypiligr, adj. forward, Stj. (pref.)

fram-hleypinn, adj. leaping forward, intruding.

fram-hlutr, m. the fore part, Fms. vi. 351.

fram-hrapan, f. a rushing on, H. E. i. 501.

fram-hús, n. a ‘fore-house,’ porch, entry, Njarð. 376, Fs. 149.

fram-hvass, adj. forward, sharp, Fms. ii. 45, Thom. 46, 180.

fram-hvöt, f. encouragement, Ld. 260, Sturl. iii. 6, Bs. ii. 72.

frami, a, m. advancement, but esp. distinction, renown, fame, Sl. 70, Vþm. 11, Hm. 104, Eg. 19, 106, Nj. 38, Fms. i. 287, vi. 133, vii. 149, viii. 336: forwardness, vi. 303; lang-frami, lasting fame, Orkn. 466. COMPDS: frama-ferð, f. a feat, famous exploit, Fs. 4. frama-leysi, n. obscurity, Al. 118. frama-maðr, m. a man of distinction, Bs. i. Laur. S. frama-raun, f. a trial of fame, dangerous exploit, Fas. iii. 43. frama-skortr, m. listlessness, Fms. v. 338. frama-verk, n. a ‘forward-work,’ exploit, feat, Fms. iii. 97, Fs. 4, Orkn. 80.

fram-játan, f. a promise, 655 xxxii. 21, Th. 24.

fram-kast, n. a forecast, empty words, Eb. 46, Mar. (Fr.)

fram-kirkja, u, f. the ‘fore-church,’ nave, opp. to the choir or chancel, Vm. 26, Jm. 13, Bs. i. 829.

fram-kváma, u, f. ‘coming forward,’ fulfilment, Greg. 32, Hom. 51.

fram-kvæma, d, to fulfil, bring about, Ó. H. 62, Bs. i. 133, ii. 147.

fram-kvæmd, f. fulfilment, success, prowess; vit ok f., Fms. i. 195, ii. 119, vii. 280, 300, ix. 7, 625. 175, Sks. 609. COMPDS: framkvæmdar-lauss, adj. listless. framkvæmdar-leysi, n. listlessness, Fær. 246. framkvæmdar-maðr, m. a man of prowess, Nj. 181, Fms. i. 15, xi. 232. framkvæmdar-mikill, adj., full of prowess, Fms. vii. 431.

fram-lag, n. a ‘laying forth,’ an outlay, Fms. iv. 33, Sks. 27, Grág. i. 478: contribution, Fær. 69, Fms. vi. 307, xi. 320, 428. 2. display, Fms. ix. 495, v. l.

fram-laga, u, f. an advancing, in battle, Hkr. iii. 122.

fram-langt, adj. n. along, forwards. Hem. (MS.)

fram-leiðis, adv. [Dan. fremdeles], further, in future, K. Á. 20, Jb. 406, Sturl. iii. 269.

fram-leiðsla, u, f. a ‘leading on,’ conduct; f. lífdaga, Fms. iii. 89.

fram-leistr, m. the fore part of a sock, N. G. L. iii. 13.

fram-ligr, adj.; f. maðr, a fine man, Sturl. ii. 134 C, Fms. xi. 56.

fram-lundaðr and fram-lyndr, adj. courageous, Lex. Poët.

fram-lútr, adj. ‘louting forward,’ prone, 655 xxxii. 3, Bs. ii. 20.

fram-löpp, f. a fore-paw.

frammi, vide fram B.

frammi-staða, u, f. a ‘standing forth,’ behaviour, feat, Karl. 149, but only used in peculiar phrases; in Dipl. v. 18 the missal is called frammistöðu-bók, f., from being read by the priest while standing, frammistöðu-maðr, m. a steward at a wedding or feast.

fram-mynntr, adj. with a projecting mouth, Sturl. ii. 133 B.

framning, f. performance, Magn. 480, Hom. 26, 655 xxxii. 3.

framr, adj., compar. fremri or framari, Stj. 127; superl. fremstr or framastr, Fas. i. 320; [A. S. freme, fram = bonus; cp. Germ. fromm]:—forward; in the positive, used almost always in a bad sense, impertinently forward, intrusive (but ó-framr, shy); this distinction is old. e. g. mjök eru þeir menn framer, er eigi skammask at taka mína konu frá mér, says the old Thorodd, Skálda 163:—in a good sense, prominent, Bs. ii. 70, 155; framr ok góðr klerkr, i. 824; framr spámaðr, Stj. 33. β. neut. framt as adv. so far, to such an extent, Stj. 254; ganga framt at, to deal harshly, Dipl. ii. 19; treysta framt á, to put full trust in, Fms. iii. 184: svá framt sem …, in case that …, Dipl. ii. 13,—better svá framarlega, as soon as, Stj. 287; svá framt sem hann hefir lukt, as soon as he has paid, Dipl. iii. 9. II. compar. the foremost (of two); til hins fremra austrrúms, to the fore-pumping room, Fms. viii. 139; enum fremrum fótum, with the fore-feet (mod. fram-fótum), 1812. 16. β. neut., hit fremra, the place nearest the door, Eg. 43: of a road, the ‘fore-road,’ the road along the coast, (opp. to ‘the in-road,’ across the inland), Nj. 207, Orkn. 6. 2. metaph. superior, with dat.; öllum fremri, Fas. i. 205; fremri í öllum hlutum, Fær. 47; göfgari maðr né fremri, Þórð. 9 new Ed. III. superl. fremstr, foremost, Fms. i. 176, ii. 317, Al. 90, Ó. H. 121: metaph. the best, foremost, Stj. 93; fremstr at allri sæmd, Fms. viii. 272; jafn himum fremstum í öllum mannraunum, Eg. 21; allra þeirra bræðra framastr, Fas. i. 320. 2. temp. farthest back; sem ek fremst um man; better to be taken as adverb, cp. p. 169, col. 2, l. 5 from bottom.

fram-rás, f. a ‘running forward,’ the course of time or tide, Th. 78.

fram-reið, f. a riding on, Fms. xi. 256, Ísl. ii. 169, Karl. 350, Al. 76.

fram-reitr, m. the ‘fore-beds’ in a garden: metaph., hafa e-t á framreitum, to display, make a show of, Ld. 318.

fram-saga, u, f. a ‘saying forth,’ as a law phrase, pleading, delivery, Nj. 36, 110, Grág. i. 37.

fram-sala, u, f. a giving up, extradition, Grág. ii. 13.

fram-setning, f. the launching a ship, Grág. ii. 403.

fram-skapan, f. rendering of Lat. transformatio, Skálda 188.

fram-snoðinn, adj. bald on the forehead, Fms. x. 35, Fas. ii. 149.

fram-sókn, f. prosecution of a case, Fs. 74.

fram-staða, u, f. = frammistaða, exertion, 655 xxxii. 3.

fram-stafn, m. the stem, bow, Jb. 383, Eg. 123, Fms. vii. 260, Fb. i. 431.

fram-sýni, f. foresight, Fms. x. 392, Stj. 444.

fram-sýniligr, adj. foreseeing, Fms. i. 263.

fram-sýnn, adj. foreseeing, prophetic, Landn. 27, Nj. 194, Háv. 41, Fs. 54, 74, Fms. i. 76, Stj. 126.

fram-sögn, f. assertion, esp. of a witness, Dipl. i. 3.

fram-tönn, f. a front tooth, Gþl. 167.

fram-úrskarandi, part. standing out, prominent, excellent.

fram-vegis, adv. ‘fore-ways,’ further, for the future, Magn. 474, H. E. i. 394, Bs. i. 302.

fram-vísi, f. ‘fore-wit,’ a prophetic gift, Fas. i. 122.

fram-víss, adj. ‘fore-wise,’ prophetic, Fms. xi. 411, Vápn. 20, Gs. 13.

Frankis-menn, m. pl. the French, Bær., Flóv., El. passim; Frankis-mál, n. the Frankish (French) tongue, Flóv. 22; Frankis-riddari, a, m. a French knight, Str. 39; Franz, f. France; Franziska, u, f. the French tongue, Bs. i. 799; Franzeis, m. [Fr. Français], a Frenchman, Bs. i. 239, in the romances passim.

frata, að, = freta, Ls. 32.

FRAUÐ, n. the froth as of roasted meat or of a roasted apple; frauðit ór hjartanu, Edda 74: in mod. usage frauð (or frauðr, m.) is the dry, withered marrow of lean and half-starved animals; þeir reikna það gras sem auki frauð, Bb. 3. 47.

FRAUKR, m. [Germ. frosch, etc.], a frog; kom hagl svá mikit sem frauka rigndi, Al. 169; the reading frauða-fætr in N. G. L. i. 351 ought to be frauka-fætr (frauþa = frauka), m. pl. frogs’ legs, aricles used in witchcraft; if nails (ungues), frogs’ legs, and the like were found in ‘bed or bolster,’ it made a person liable to outlawry, as being tokens of sorcery; cp. Shakespeare’s Macbeth, ‘toe of frog, wool of bat, and tongue of dog.’

FRÁ, prep. with dat., sometimes with í or á prefixed, ífrá, áfrá, cp. Swed. ifrån; áfra, Fms. vi. 326, 439, viii. 25, ix. 508, x. 408; í frá, xi. 16, 137, 508, Grág. ii. 30, Nj. 83, 108, passim: [Goth. fram; A. S. fram, from; Engl. from; O. H. G. fram; again in the Scandin., Swed. från; Dan. fra; Ormul. fra; so also Engl. fro (in to and fro and froward) is a Dan. form, but from a Saxon]:—from, vide af, p. 3, col. 2; ganga frá lögbergi, Nj. 87; frá landi, Ld. 118; ofan frá fjöllum, Ísl. ii. 195; frá læknum, 339: with adv. denoting direction, skamt frá ánni, Nj. 94; skamt frá landi, Ld.; upp frá bæ Una, Fs. 33, Ld. 206; niðr frá Mælifells-gili, Landn. 71; ofan frá Merki-á, Eg. 100; ut frá Unadal, Fs. 31; norðr frá garði, Nj. 153; norðr frá dyrum, Fms. viii. 25; austr frá, ix. 402; suðr frá Noregi, x. 271; skamt frá vatninu, Ld. 268; allt frá (all the way from) Gnúpu-skörðum, 124: ellipt., inn frá, útar frá, Nj. 50: with the indecl. particle er, vetfang þeim er frá (from which) var kvatt, Grág. (Kb.) β. with names of hills, rivers, or the like, from, but ‘at’ is more freq., vide p. 26; frá Ósi, Eirekr frá Ósi, Þórð. 8 new Ed.; Þórðr frá Höfða, Ld. 188, 200; frá Mosfelli, frá Hlíðarenda, Landn., Nj. passim. 2. denoting aloof; brott frá öðrum húsum, aloof from other houses, Eg. 203; nökkut frá (aloof from) öðrum mönnum, Fas. i. 241; út í frá öðrum mönnum, aloof from other men, Hkr. i. 223. 3. with adverbs denoting direction; Varbelgir eru hér upp frá yðr, Fms. ix. 512; stóðu spjót þeirra ofan frá þeim, Nj. 253; þangat frá garði, er …, in such a direction from the farm, that …, Grág. i. 82. 4. with verbs, as vita, horfa, snúa frá, to look away from, Skálda 242; stafnar horfa frá landi, Fms. xi. 101; þat er frá vissi berginu, viii. 428. 5. with gen. ellipt. cp. ‘at’ A. II. 7; frá riks manns, from a rich man’s [house], Hom. 117; frá Arnórs, Bjarn. 35; frá frú Kristínar, Fms. ix. 407; frá bóanda þess, Grág. i. 300; frá Heljar, Edda (Ub.) 292; frá Bjarnar, Hkr. i. 190. 6. temp., fjórtán nætr frá alþingi, Grág. i. 122; frá þessu, from that time, since; upp frá þessu, id., Ld. 50, Fms. xi. 334; frá hinni fyrstu stund, Sks. 559; allt frá eldingu, all along from daybreak, Hrafn. 7; frá öndverðu, from the beginning, Sks. 564; frá fornu ok nýju, of old and new, Dipl. iv. 14: adding upp, upp frá því, ever since, Bs. ii. 37. 7. denoting succession; stund frá stund, from time to time, 656 A. i. 36; ár frá ári, year after year, Stj. 17; dag frá degi, Fms. ii. 230; hvern dag frá öðrum, one day after another, viii. 182; hvárt sumar frá öðru, one summer after another, Grág. i. 92; annan dag frá öðrum, Eg. 277: in other relations, maðr frá manni, man after man, Finnb. 228. II. metaph., 1. from among, above, beyond, surpassingly; göra sik auðkenndan frá öðrum mönnum, to distinguish oneself from (above) other men, Fms. vii. 73, Fb. ii. 73: adding sem, frá því sem …, beyond that what …; frá því harðfengir ok íllir viðreignar sem aðrir, Fms. i. 171; herðibreiðr, svá at þat bar frá því sem aðrir menn vóru, Eg. 305; nú er þat annathvárt at þú ert frá því þróttigr ok þolinn sem aðrir menn, Fms. ii. 69: cp. frá-görðamaðr, frá-bær. 2. with verbs denoting deprivation, taking away, forsaking, or the like; taka e-t frá e-m, to take a thing from one, Nj. 253; renna frá e-m, 264; deyja frá úmögum, to ‘die from orphans,’ i. e. leave orphans behind one, Grág. i. 249; segja sik ór þingi frá e-m, to secede from one, Nj. 166; liggja frá verkum, to be bedridden ‘from work,’ i. e. so as to be unable to work, Grág. i. 474; seljask arfsali frá úmögum, i. e. to shift one’s property from the minors, i. e. to cut them off from inheritance, 278. 3. against; þvert frá mínu skapi, Fms. vii. 258, Hom. 158; frá líkindum, against likelihood, Eg. 769. 4. denoting derivation from a person; í mikilli sæmd frá konungi, Ísl. ii. 394; njóta skaltu hans frá oss, Fbr. 58 new Ed.;—so also, kominn frá e-m, come of, descended from one, Eb. sub fin., Landn. passim. 5. of, about, concerning; segja frá e-u, to tell of a thing, Fms. xi. 16, 137, Nj. 100, (frá-saga, frá-sögn, a story); verða víss frá e-m, to be informed about one, Fms. iv. 184; er mér svá frá sagt konungi, I am told so of the king, Eg. 20; lýgi hann mestan hlut frá, he lies for the most part, Ísl. ii. 145, cp. Nj. 32. III. adverb. or ellipt. away, off; hverfa frá, to turn away, Landn. 84; snúa í frá, Nj. 108; stukku menn frá, Eg. 289; hnekkjask Írar nú frá, Ld. 78; ok frá höndina, and the hand off, Nj. 160; falla frá, to fall off, to die (fráfall), Fms. x. 408; til ok frá, to and fro, Eg. 293, Fms. ix. 422, Pass. 3. 2; héðan í frá, hence ‘fro,’ Nj. 83; þaðan í frá, thence, Grág. ii. 30: þar ut í frá, secondly, next, Fms. vi. 326; outermost, 439:—temp., þaðan, héðan frá, thence, Grág. i. 204, ii. 30, Fms. ii. 231, Nj. 83, Vápn. 30: cp. the phrases, af og frá, by no means! vera frá, to be gone, done with, dead.

frá-beranligr, adj. excellent, Th. 10.

frá-brugðinn, part. different, apart. Sks. 245, v. l.

frá-bæriligr, adj. (-liga, adv.), and frá-bærligr, adj. surpassing, Fas. iii. 364, Th. 10, Magn. 512.

frá-bærr, adj. surpassing, Fms. xi. 428, Fas. i. 88, iii. 627, Th. 22.

frá-dragning, f. subtraction, (mod.)

frá-dráttr, m. diminution, Sks. 491, 800, Anecd. 60.

frá-fall, n. decease, death, Ísl. ii. 276, B. K. 126 (spelt franfall).

frá-ferð, f. = fráfall, Eluc. 48.

frá-fælast, d, dep. to shirk, shun.

frá-færsla, u, f. removal, B. K. 108: the weaning of lambs, Dipl. v. 10.

frá-færur, f. pl. the weaning of lambs (in June). COMPDS: fráfæru-lamb, n. a weaned lamb. fráfæru-tími, a, m., and fráfæru-leiti, n. the season for weaning lambs, (freq.)

frá-ganga, u, f. a going away, departure, Grág. ii. 13.

frá-gangr, m. a leaving one’s work well or ill done; íllr f., work badly done, frágangs-sök, f. a thing which makes an agreement impossible.

frá-görðir, f. pl. surpassing feats; var þat at frágerðum, it was extraordinary, Ísl. ii. 83. COMPDS, with gen. pl. surpassing, choice: frágörða-lið, n. choice troops, Lv. 93. frágörða-maðr, m. a remarkable man, Fs. 3, Fær. 52, Fms. iii. 114, x. 192. frágörða-mikill, adj. exceeding great, Fms. x. 172.

frá-hverfr, adj. ‘froward,’ averse.

frá-laga, u, f. retreat (in a sea-fight, leggja frá), Sturl. iii. 68.

frá-lauss, adj. free, detached, Grág. i. 494, ii. 190.

frá-leikr, m. (-leiki), swiftness, Fms. vi. 211, Glúm. 342, Rd. 212.

frá-leitr, fráleit-ligr, adj. (fráleit-liga, adv.), ‘froward,’ averse: fráleitt sinni, a reprobate mind, Rom. i. 28.

frá-liga, adv. swiftly, Th. 79.

frá-ligr, adj. quick, swift, Lv. 73, Fbr. 27, 136, 155, Ld. 38, Háv. 39.

FRÁNN, adj. gleaming, flashing, acc. fránan, Fm. 32: the word seems akin to frár; only used in poetry as an epithet of serpents, and metaph. of swords and sharp weapons; fránn naðr, Vsp. 65; f. ormr, Vkv. 16; fránn dreki, frán egg, Lex. Poët. passim: of the eyes, flashing, id. Eggert uses it of a cloud gilded by the sun, sólin brauzt fram ór fránu skýi, Bb. 2. 33. POËT. COMPDS: frán-eygr, adj. with flashing eyes, Fm. 5. frán-leitr, frán-lyndr, adj. id.:—hence as a subst. fránn, m., Edda (Gl.), Merl. 2. 17, or fræningr, m., Edda (Gl.), a serpent, (cp. Gr. δράκων from δέρκομαι.)

FRÁR, adj., neut. frátt, compar. superl. frári, frástr, but older form frávari, frávastr, hence fráfæri, Eluc. 48; fráostr, Krók. 37; frávastu (acc.), Stj 480: [a word not found in Germ. or Engl., unless O. H. G. frô, frawer, Germ. froh = joyful, be a kindred word; but in Icel., old as well as mod., frár only conveys the notion of swiftness]:—swift, light-footed, Fms. iii. 178, Nj 258, Finnb. 236, Bs. ii. 87, Fb. i. 394.

frá-saga, u, f. a story, narrative, Sturl. i. 21, Fms. iv. 348, Eg. fine, Ld. 58. frásögu-ligr, adj. interesting, Hkr. ii. 135.

frá-skili (frá-skila, frá-skilinn), adj. separated, isolated, astray, with dat., fráskili e-m, Fas. iii. 130, Stj. 26, 655 xi. 1, Fb. i. 540: rejected, Fs. 128.

frá-skilligr, adj. = fráskila, 655 xxxii. 27. frá-skilliga, adv. privately, Thom. 153.

frá-skilnaðr, m. separation, Stj. 195.

frá-snúinn, part. froward, averse.

frá-sögn, f. = frásaga, 625. 83, Sturl. i. 1, Hkr. i. 1, Skálda 159; vera til frásagnar um e-t, to regret a thing, Ísl. ii. 267, Nj. 97, Orkn. 202. COMPDS: frásagna-maðr, m. an historian, 732. 15 (better sagna-maðr). frásagnar-verðr, adj. worth relating, Eg. 425.

frá-vera, u, f. absence, Fms. iii. 164, Fb. i. 512, Bs. ii. 45.

frá-verandi, part. absent, Skálda.

frá-vist, f. = frávera, D. N.

frá-vita, adj. insane.

freðinn, part. frozen; freð-jaki, a, m., and freð-fiskr, m., vide frjósa.

freð-stertr or fret-stertr, m., and freðsterts-mát or fretstertu-mát, n., Mag. 23: [Chaucer calls the queen in chess fers, which is derived from her Persian name ferz or ferzan = a king’s captain; the Icel. word is no doubt of the same origin]:—check-mate with the queen’s pawn: other check-mates used in Icel. are heima-stertr, peð-rífr, gleiðar-mát, níumanna-mát, and many more.

fregn, f. news, intelligence, Fas. ii. 368, Fms. ix. 483; flugu-fregn, gossip, a ‘canard.’

FREGNA, pret. frá, 2nd pers. frátt, fráttu, pl. frágum; pres. fregn; pret. subj. frægi, frægim, Am. 99; part. freginn; sup. fregit; with the neg. suf. fráat, Ýt. 10: in mod. usage weak fregna, að, pres. fregna, sup. fregnað: in old writers a form fregna, d, occurs early, thus, pres. fregnir, Fms. xi. 42, Jómsv. S. 2; pret. fregndi, 14; pres. subj. fregnisk (= fregnsk), Sighvat, Fms. vi. 41; pres. fregnar, Glúm. 374; sup. fregnt (= fregit), Ld. 4, is scarcely a correct form; pret. pl. fregnuðum, Dipl. v. 16, in a deed of the 14th century;—by that time the word had got its present form: [Goth. fraihnan = ἐρωταν; A. S. frignan; old Sax. gifrægnan; cp. Germ. fragen]:—to hear, be informed; er þú fregn andlát mitt, Blas. 43; er hann slíkt um fregn, Vsp. 30; Þrándr frá andlát föður síns, Landn. 214; ok frágu þau tíðendi at …, Ó. H. 106; enda fregn sakar-aðili vígit á þingi, Grág. (Kb.) ch. 107, (fregni, subj., Sb. i. 105); er hann fregn dauða hins, Kb. i. 154; eða fregn hann eigi hvar féráns-dómr átli at vera, Grág. i. 95, ok er hann fregnar (sic Ed.), safnar hann liði, Glúm. l. c.; þá frá hann til öndvegis-súlna sinna, Landn. 250; síðan frá engi maðr til hans, Str. 74; frá hann, at Haraldr …, Fms. vi. 256; eptir því vér fregnuðum af oss ellrum mönnum, Dipl. l. c.; síðan fregnir hann safnaðinn, Fms. xi. 42; nú sem þessi tíðendi vóru fregin um allt landit, Str. 54; þeir þóttusk þaðan mart fýsiligt fregit (Ed. frengt) hafa, Ld. 4; sann-fregit = sann-spurt, Hallfred. II. to ask, only in very old poetry; fregna e-n e-s; hvers fregnit mik, Vsp. 22; ok ek þess opt fróða menn fregit hafði, Ýt. 6; fregna ok segja, to ask and say, ask and answer, Hm. 27; ef hann freginn er-at, 29; fregna ok segja skal fróðra hverr, 61, Skv. 1. 19, Fsm. 8; fregna e-n ráðs, to ask one’s advice, Hm. 109: fregna at e-u (as spyrja), 32.

fregn-víss, adj. curious, in the saying, fróðr er hverr f., Art. 90.

fregn-víss, read fregvíss, see Art. 4. (Ed.)

FREISTA, að, [Ulf. frajsan = πειράζειν, A. S. frasjan, Hel. and O. H. G. fresan, old Frank. frasan,—all of them without t; Dan. friste; Swed. fresta]:—to try, with gen.; freista má ek þess, Eg. 606; freista sín, to try one’s prowess, Edda 31; freista sunds, Ld. 166; hafa ymiss við freistað, Ó. H. 34; freista þessar íþróttar, Edda 31; freista þessa, id.:—with um or inf., freista um fleiri leiki, 32; at hann mun f. at renna skeið, 31:—absol., bað þá f. ef …, Eg. 174, 279; freista hvé þat hlýddi, to try how, Íb. 7; freista at vér fáim drepit þá, Fms. i. 9. β. to tempt, make trial of, with gen., which sense occurs in Vsp. 22; freistum þeirra, Fms. vii. 193; ef hans f. fírar, Hm. 25:—esp. in the religious sense, to tempt, Rb. 82, Symb. 31, Stj. 145 passim, N. T., Pass., Vídal.

freistan, f. temptation, Hom. 37, 97, Greg. 18; freistnan, f. id., Stj. 145, 147, 295.

freistari, a, m. a tempter, Hom. 45, Stj. 144, 146.

freisti and freistni, f. temptation, Hom. 17, 82; freistni, 17, 26, Sks. 185 B, 450 B, 623. 26, Stj. passim, Magn. 488, N. T., Pass., Vídal., and all mod. writers insert the n.

freisting, f. = freistni, (mod. freq.)

freistinn, adj. daring, tempting, Sks. 98 B.

freka (mod. frekja), u, f. hardship, Fms. x. 402, v. l., xi. 99: in the phrase, með freku, harshly, with great hardship, Eb. 128, Ó. H. 92; með svá mikilli freku at, Fms. i. 34, iv. 85, viii. 64, 135, x. 401, xi. 268; með meiri freku en fyrr var vandi til, Bs. i. 706; ánauð ok íllar frekur, Fms. vii. 75, v. l.

frek-efldr, part. forcible, Fms. x. 418.

freki, a, m., poët. a wolf, Vsp. 51, Gm. 19.

frek-leikr, m. greediness; frekleikr eðr ætni, 655 xxxi. A. 3.

frek-liga, adv. harshly, Ísl. ii. 385, Fms. ii. 66.

frek-ligr, adj. harsh, exorbitant, Fms. vii. 293, Lv. 54.

freknóttr, adj. freckly, Ld. 274, Sturl. ii. 133, Grett. 90.

FREKNUR, f. pl. [Dan. fregner; Swed. fräknar], freckles, Fél. ix.

FREKR, adj. [Ulf. -friks, in faihu-friks = φιλάργυρος; A. S. fræc; Germ. frech (bold, impudent), whence Dan. fræk; cp. Engl. freak]:—greedy; frekr til fjár, Sd. 140; frekr er hverr til fjörsins, a saying, Njarð. 374; frekir konungar, Fms. x. 416: voracious, hungry, fangs er ván at frekum úlfi, Eb. 250; svá f. at torsótt sé at fylla þik, Fs. 72: metaph. exorbitant, frek fégjöld, Gþl. 169; frek lög, harsh, unfair law, Hkr. ii. 384; frekr harðsteinn, a rough whetstone, Fms. xi. 223; frekr get ek at þeim þykki lokarr minn til frégjalda, I guess they will find my plane rough (cutting thick chips) as to the bargain, ii. 65; bora frekan atsúg at e-u, Orkn. 144; frekust orð ok umkvæði, Ísl. ii. 149: neut. frekt, as adv., frekt eru þá tekin orð mín, Fms. ii. 260; ganga frekt at e-u, Fs. 32; leita frekara eptir, Fms. x. 227.

FRELSA, t, mod. að, to free; frelstr, Fms. i. 79; pret. frelsti, 225. 70, Sks. 660, Gullþ. 4; frelstisk, Fms. vii. 59, x. 404, 413; frelstusk, Sks. 587 (frjalsti B); pres. frelsir, 655 xxxii. 4; imperat. frels, Hom. 159; part. frelst, Sturl. iii. 139: in mod. usage always frelsa, að, e. g. heldr frelsa (imperat.) oss frá íllu, in the Lord’s Prayer; this form occurs even in MSS. of the 14th century, e. g. frelsaði, Bs. i. 269 (MS. Arna-Magn. 482); but frelsi, l. c., in the older recension, Bs. i. 95: an older form frjálsa, að (frealsa), freq. occurs in old MSS.; pres. frjálsar, Gþl. 91; frjálsaði, Dipl. i. 11; infin. frjálsa, Sks. 349, 594 B; subj. frjálsisk, 349 B; frealsaðisk, Stj. 26: [Dan. frelse; Swed. frälsa]:—to free, deliver, rescue, passim: the law phrase, frelsa e-m e-t, to rescue a thing for one; til at f. honum sína föðurleifð, Fms. ix. 329; Egill kvaðsk frelst hafa Þórði manna-forráð, Sturl. iii. 139; frelsa þeim jörð er á, Gþl. l. c.; ok frjálsaði jörðina honum til æfinlegrar eignar, Dipl. l. c.; hann frelsaði sér þann hlut frá, er eptir var, til forráða, Bs. i. 269; ok frelsti hón sveininum (veiðina), Gullþ. 4; frelsa þræl, to set a bondsman free, N. G. L. passim. II. reflex. to save oneself, escape, Fms. vii. 59 passim: as a law term, to get freedom, from bondage, N. G. L. i. 33: in a pass. sense, Sks. 587 passim.

frelsari, a, m. (older obsolete form frjalsari), a saviour, Stj. passim, 655 xiii. 4: the Saviour, N. T., Pass., Vídal. passim.

frels-borinn, part. (and frjáls-borinn, Eg. 284, Grág. passim), free-born, Hom. 152.

frelsi, n. (older form frjálsi, Sks. 622 B), freedom, esp. of a bondsman set free, or generally, N. G. L. i. 32, Grág. i. 357, Fms. i. 33, 222, ix. 352, Fs. 70, 126, in the laws and Sagas passim:—metaph. freedom, leisure, Fms. x. 147, v. l., Bs. i. 518, Sks. 504; náðir ok f., rest and leisure, Háv. 57: freedom, privilege, immunity, e. g. of the church, Fms. x. 14; frelsi kirkjunnar, Bs. i. 720 and passim. COMPDS: frelsis-bréf, n. a charter of privilege, H. E. i. 386, v. l. frelsis-giöf, f. a gift of freedom to a bondsman, Fs. 126, N. G. L. i. 33. frelsis-öl, n. ‘freedom-ale,’ a carouse on occasion of a bondsman being set free, N. G. L. i. 29, 32, 33.

frelsingi, a, m. (frelsingr, 677. i), a freedman, Eg. 42, 67, Landn. 123.

fremd, f. [frami], furtherance, honour, Hkr. iii. 99, Rd. 310, Eg. 279, Fms. viii. 321, v. l. COMPDS: fremdar-lauss, adj. inglorious, Fas. i. 33. fremdar-verk, n. a feat, Fms. x. 230, Fas. i. 162, Stj. 509.

fremi adv. (often, esp. in the Grág., spelt fremmi), only in the phrase, svá fremi, only so far, only in that case: temp., seg þú svá fremi frá því er þessi dagr er allr, i. e. wait just till this day is past, Nj. 96, Al. 118; jarl hafði svá fremi frétt til Erlings, er hann var nær kominn, he only heard of Erling when he was close up to him, Fms. vii. 296; skildisk Hákon konungr svá fremi við er hverr maðr var drepinn, king H. left [pursuing] only when every man was slain, Hkr. i. 151; svá f. munt þú þetta hafa upp kveðit, er ekki mun tjóa letja þik, Ó. H. 32; en svá f. vil ek at vér berim þetta fyrir alþýðu, er ek sé, 33; svá f. er unnin væri borgin, Róm. 358; svá f. at …, id., Pr. 406; svá fremi ef, in case that, Nj. 260; þá skulu þeir at dómi kveðja, ok svá f. er til varnar er boðit áðr, but only when they have called on them for the defence, i. e. not before they have, Grág. i. 256; þat er jamrétt at stefna svá fremmi hánum er hann missir hans þá er kviðarins þarf, it is equally lawful to summon a neighbour-juror in case he does not appear to deliver a verdict, 48: so far, svá fremi er upp komit, at …, Finnb. 226.

FREMJA, pret. framði, pres. frem, part. framiðr, framdr, mod. also framinn; [A. S. fremman; Dan. fremme]:—to further, promote; fremja Kristni, to further Christianity, Fms. x. 416; fremja sik, to distinguish oneself, Nj. 254; fremja sik á e-u, Sks. 25 B; þóttú þykisk hafa framit þik utan-lendis, Glúm. 342; sá er framiðr er framarr er settr, Edda 127. 2. to perform, exercise, Fms. i. 260, vii. 164, 625. 60, 656 A. 2. 18, Hom. 52, 655 xi. 4, Og. 146, Nj. 10; fremja seið, heiðni, N. G. L. i. 19, Hkr. i. 19; fremja munaðlífi, 625. 41; fremja sund, to swim, Rm. 32. β. in mod. usage often in a bad sense, to commit, e. g. fremja glæp, löst, etc. II. reflex. to advance oneself; hann hafði mikit framisk í utan-ferð sinni, Fms. iii. 122, v. 345. 2. in a pass. sense (rarely), Hom. 72. III. part. fremjandi, a performer, Edda 68.

fremr and fremst, vide fram.

FRENJA, u, f., poët. a cow, Edda (Gl.), Bb. 3. 41. COMPDS: frenju-ligr, adj. hoydenish; and frenju-skapr, m.

FRER, n. pl., also spelt freyr or better frör, (in mod. usage freðar, m. pl.), [Ulf. frius, 2 Cor. xi. 27; Old Engl. frore as an adj. or adv.]:—frost, frosty soil; fara at freyrum, to travel when it begins to freeze; bíða fröra, to wait for frost, Ó. H. 17; at frerum, 198; en er konungi þótti ván fröra, 122; frer ok snjóva, Bs. i. 872: in sing., frer var hart úti, a hard frost, ii. 22. COMPDS: frer-jaki, a, m. a piece of ice, Bárð. 9 new Ed. frer-mánuðr, m. the frost month, answering to December, Edda.

frerinn and frörinn, part. of frjósa, = frozen, mod. freðinn.

FRESS, m. a tom-cat, Edda 63, Grág. i. 501; also called fress-köttr, m., and steggr, q. v.:—a bear, Edda (Gl.), Korm. (in a verse).

FREST, usually n. pl., but also f. sing. (in mod. usage frestr, m.), delay; löng frest, Fms. ii. 216: ok væri þar lögð frest á, Hkr. i. 292; þessi frest, Stj. 446; þó at frestin væri löng, Fms. v. 72; biðja sér fresta, ii. 114, Rb. 364; ljá e-m fresta um e-t, Fms. iv. 225, Hom. 33; Uni kvað sér ílla líka öll frestin, Fs. 32: the saying, frest eru ílls bezt, Fms. v. 294,—mod., frestr er á illu bestr: the phrase, selja á frest, to sell on credit, Vápn. 7, Sturl. 91, Gísl. 12; hence frest-skuld, f. credit, Snót 62.

fresta, að, to defer, put up, with dat., Ld. 322, Ó. H. 95. Orkn. 48, Fms. viii. 327, Fb. iii. 408: absol. to delay, tarry, Lv. 52, Fms. ix. 355: reflex. to be delayed, upset, Fær. 93, Fs. 74, Korm. 134, Fbr. 185, Fms. v. 318.

frestan, f. delay, Fb. ii. 42, better frestin.

FRETA, pret. frat, mod. að, to fart, Lat. pedere, Dropl. 31, Lv. 54.

fret-karl, m. a ‘fart-churl,’ vagabond, Lv. 59, Fs. 160, Ísl. ii. 483.

fretr, m. a fart, Fms. vi. 280.

FRÉTT, f. [akin to fregn, but contracted], news, intelligence, Fms. xi. 101, Nj. 175, Bs. i. 735, Grett. 122, Fs. 15, 27; very freq. in mod. usage, esp. in pl. fréttir, news; hvat er í fréttum, what news? in compds, frétta-blað, a newspaper; fregn and tíðindi (q. v.) are only used in a peculiar sense. 2. enquiry, Grág. i. 35, obsolete. β. in a religious sense, enquiring of gods or men about the future, Nj. 273: the phrase, ganga til fréttar við e-n; Sigurðr gékk til fréttar við móður sína, hón var margkunnig, Orkn. 28; þangat géngu menn til frétta, Fs. 19; gékk hann þá til sónarblóts til fréttar, Hkr. i. 24; biskup gékk til fréttar við Guð, 686 B. 13.

frétta, tt, to hear, get intelligence, Korm. 160, Am. 1, Nj. 5, Eg. 123, Ísl. ii. 164; very freq., whereas fregna is obsolete. 2. to ask, enquire, Korm. 216, Pass. 11. 4, 21. 8; frétta tíðenda, to ask for news, Fms. i. 101; frétta e-n upp, to find one out, Edda (pref.); frétta at mönnum, Nj. 34. II. reflex. to get about, be reported, of news; þetta fréttisk um héraðit, Korm. 198; fréttisk alls ekki til hans, nothing was heard of him, Ísl. ii. 168; frettisk mér svá til, I am told, Boll. 338, Fms. iv. 231. β. recipr. to ask one another for news; fréttusk þeir tíðenda, Boll. 336; fréttask fyrir, to enquire, Fs. 78.

fréttinn, adj. curious, eager for news, Fms. i. 184, v. 299, Bs. i. 776.

FREYÐA, dd, [frauð], to froth; með freyðanda munni, Al. 168: of roasting, Fas. i. 163: of matter, freyddi ór upp blóð ok vágr, Ísl. ii. 218.

freyja, u, f. a lady, in hús-freyja, q. v.; prop. the goddess Freyja, Edda.

freyja, u, f. a lady; freyja mín es vanheil, Clem. 135.

FREYR, m. [Goth. frauja = Gr. κύριος; A. S. freâ; Hel. frô = a lord], is in the Scandin. only used as the pr. name of the god Freyr, Edda, Vsp., etc.; for the worship of Frey cp., besides the Edda, Gísl. ch. 15, Hrafn. ch. 2, Glúm. ch. 9, the talc of Gunnar Helming in Fms. ii. ch. 173, 174, Vd. ch. 10, also Landn. 174, Fms. v. 239. COMPDS: Freys-goði, a, m. the priest of Frey, a nickname, Hrafn. Freys-gyðlingar, m. pl. priests or worshippers of Frey, the name of a family in the south-east of Icel., Landn. Freys-tafl, n. the game of Frey, probably what is now called goða-tafl, Flóv.

friða, að, [cp. A. S. freodian], to pacify, restore to peace; friða ok frelsa, Fms. i. 110; friða ok frelsa land, Ó. H. 189; friða fyrir e-m, to make peace for one, to reconcile; friða fyrir kaupmönnum, Fms. vii. 16; friða fyrir þeim bræðrum við Kolbein, to intercede for them with K., Sturl. iii. 4; friða fyrir önduðum, to make peace for the dead, intercede for them, by singing masses, Bs. i. 65; hann friðaði vel fyrir landi sínu, he pacified the land, Fms. vii. 16:—in mod. usage esp. to protect by law (birds or other animals), friða fugl, varp, to protect eider-ducks. II. reflex., friðask við e-n, to seek for reconciliation or to reconcile oneself to another, Fms. iii. 155, v. 202, Al. 85: in a pass. sense, Fms. viii. 152.

friðan, f. pacifying, Fb. ii. 339: mod. protection.

frið-benda, d, to furnish with friðbönd, Krók. 40.

frið-bót, f. peace-making, O. H. L. 10.

frið-brot, n. a breach of the peace, Eg. 24, Gþl. 21, Ó. H. 190, Eb. 24. friðbrots-maðr, m. a peace-breaker, Sturl. iii. 161.

frið-bönd, n. pl. ‘peace-bonds,’ straps wound round the sheath and fastened to a ring in the hilt when the weapon was not in use; hence the phrase, spretta friðböndunum, to untie the ‘peace-straps,’ before drawing the sword, Sturl. iii. 186, Gísl. 55; the use of the word in Krók. 40 is undoubtedly wrong: cp. the drawings in old MSS.

friðgin, n. pl.; this curious word is analogous to systkin, feðgin, mæðgin, and seems to mean lovers; it only occurs twice, viz. in Clem., þá varð hvárt þeirra friðgina öðru fegit, 37; and in the poem Pd. 53, but here the verse is in a fragmentary state.

frið-gjafi, a, m. a peace-giver, Fb. iii. 386.

frið-gælur, f. pl. enticements of peace, in the phrase, bera friðgælur á e-n, to make overtures for peace to one, Bjarn. 55.

frið-görð, f. ‘peace-making,’ truce, treaty, Fms. vi. 63, x. 155, Stj. 566, 650; a part of the Ó. H. is called Friðgörðar-saga, u, f., referring to the negotiation for peace between Sweden and Norway, A. D. 1018.

frið-heilagr, adj. inviolate, Gþl. 129, N. G. L. i. 4, K. Á. 30, Fs. 150.

frið-helga, að, to proclaim inviolate, Nj. 101, Lv. 7.

frið-helgi, f. inviolability, protection by law, Landn. 97, Fms. i. 80.

friðill, m. a lover, gallant, poët., Vkv. 27; cp. friðgin.

frið-kastali, a, m. a ‘castle of peace,’ asylum, Fas. iii. 248.

frið-kaup, n. purchase of peace, Gþl. 142, Fbr. 18 new Ed., Fms. v. 327.

frið-kaupa, keypti, to purchase peace, Ísl. ii. 442.

frið-kolla, u, f. the nickname of a lady, Fms. vii. 63.

FRIÐLA, u, f., usually contr. frilla, [Dan. frille], prop. = Lat. amica, a fem. answering to friðill, q. v.; en fríða frilla, the fair mistress, Hým. 30; but in prose in a bad sense a harlot, concubine, Fms. i. 2, viii. 63, Sturl. ii. 73, Sks. 693. COMPDS: frillu-barn, m. a bastard child, Landn. 174, Fms. xi. 212. frillu-borinn, part. bastard-born, Fas. i. 354. frillu-dóttir, f. an illegitimate daughter, Gþl. 238, 239. frillu-lifnaðr, m. fornication, whoredom, Jb. 137. frillu-lífi, n. id., K. Á. 218, H. E. i. 477; in the N. T. = the Gr. μοιχεία. frillu-maðr, m. an adulterer, = Gr. μοιχός, N. T.; in pl., Bs. i. 684. frillu-sonr, m. an illegitimate son, Gþl. 237, 238, Hkr. i. 100, 198, Landn. 260. frillu-tak, n., in the phrase, taka frillutaki, to take as concubine, Eg. 343, Fms. ii. 291, vii. 110, Sturl. iii. 270.

frið-land, n. a ‘peace-land’ or friendly country, Fms. ii. 132, Hkr. i. 295: used in the laws of old freebooters (víkingar), who made a compact not to plunder a country, on condition of having there a free asylum and free market;—such a country was called friðland, Eg. 245, Fms. xi. 62, Ísl. ii. 334.

frið-lauss, adj. outlawed, Fms. vii. 204, N. G. L. i. 15, K. Á. 142.

frið-leggja, lagði, to make peace, Fms. iii. 73.

frið-liga, adv. peaceably, Fms. ii. 124.

frið-ligr, adj. peaceable, Hom. 143, Fms. v. 248, Nj. 88, Eb. 266.

frið-mark, n. a token of peace, Fms. x. 347.

frið-mál, n. pl. words of peace, Fms. vii. 23.

frið-menn, m. pl. men of peace, friends, Ld. 76, Lv. 102, Stj. 213, Fms. vi. 28, x. 244, H. E. i. 243; friðmenn konungs, the king’s friends or allies, id.

frið-mælask, t, to sue for peace, Krók. 62; f. við e-n, id., Stj. 398.

FRIÐR, m., gen. friðar, dat. friði, [Ulf. renders εἰρήνη by gavairþi, but uses the verb gafriþon = καταλλάττειν, and gafriþons = καταλλαγή; A. S. frið and freoðo; mod. Germ. friede; Dan. and Swed. fred; lost in Engl., and replaced from the Lat.]:—peace, but also personal security, inviolability: in the phrases, fyrirgöra fé ok friði, to forfeit property and peace, i. e. be outlawed, Gþl. 160; setja grið ok frið, to ‘set,’ i. e. make, truce and peace, Grág. ii. 167: til árs ok friðar, Hkr. i. 16; friðr ok farsæla, Bs. i. 724; vera í friði, to be in safe keeping, Al. 17; biðja e-n friðar, to sue for peace, Hbl. 28; about the peace of Fróði cp. Edda 78–81, it is also mentioned in Hkv. 1. 13, and Vellekla. 2. peace, sacredness of a season or term, cp. Jóla-f., Páska-f., the peace (truce) of Yule, Easter; ann-friðr, q. v. 3. peace, rest, tranquillity; gefa e-m frið, to give peace, rest; gefat þínum fjándum frið, Hm. 128. 4. with the notion of love, peace, friendship; friðr kvenna, Hm. 89; frið at kaupa, to purchase love, Skm. 19; eldi heitari brennr með íllum vinum friðr fimm daga, Hm. 50; friðs vætla ok mér, I hoped for a friendly reception, Sighvat, Ó. H. 81; allr friðr (all joy) glepsk, Hallfred; connected with this sense are friðiil, friðla, friðgin,—this seems to he the original notion of the word, and that of peace metaph.: from the N. T. the word obtained a more sacred sense, εἰρήνη being always rendered by friðr, John xvi. 33,—friðr sé með yðr, peace be with you. COMPDS: friðar-andi, a, m. spirit of peace, Pass. 21. 13. friðar-band, n. a bond of peace, H. E. i. 470. friðar-boð, n. an offer of peace. friðar-boðorð, n. a proclamation of peace, 656 C. 30. friðar-bréf, n. a letter of peace, Fms. x. 133. friðar-fundr, m. a peaceful meeting, Fms. x. 38. friðar-görð, f. = friðgörð, Sks. 45, 655 xxxii. 24. friðar-koss, m. a kiss of peace, osculum pacis, Magn. 478, Bs. i. 175. friðar-mark, n. = friðmark, Þorf. Karl. 422, 625. 9. friðar-menn, m. = friðmenn, Lv. 96. friðar-skjöldr, m. = friðskjöldr, Fas. i. 462. friðar-stefna, u, f. a peace meeting, Fms. vi. 27. friðar-stilli, n. a peace settlement, Pass. 21. 8, cp. Luke xxiii. 12. friðar-tákn, n. a token of peace, Al. 59. friðar-tími, a, m. a time of peace, Bret. 50. II. as a prefix in prop. names, Frið-björn, -geirr, -gerðr, -leifr, -mundr; but it is rarely used in olden times; Friðrik, Germ. Friedrich, is of quite mod. date in Icel.

frið-sama, að, to pacify; friðsama heilaga kirkju, Hom. (St.)

frið-samliga, adv. peaceably, Fms. vii. 312, Hkr. ii. 282, Stj. 183.

frið-samligr, adj. peaceable, Fms. i. 25, Stj. 301, 505, 558.

frið-samr, adj. peaceful, Stj. 187: a name of the mythical king Fróði, Fb. i. 27: also Frið-Fróði, id.

frið-semd, f. peacefulness, Fms. vi. 441.

frið-semi, f. = friðsemd, Grág. pref. p. 168.

frið-semja, samdi, to make peace, Fr.

frið-skjöldr, m. a ‘peace-shield,’ a shield being used as a sign of truce, answering to the mod. flag of truce; in the phrase, bregða upp friðskildi, Fas. ii. 534, Orkn. 432, Hkr. iii. 205: the truce-shield was white and opp. to the red ‘war-shield,’ Hkv. 1. 33.

frið-spilli, n. a breach of the peace, Fb. ii. 56.

frið-staðr, m. an asylum, sacred place in a temple, Eb. 6 new Ed.

frið-stefna, u, f. = friðarstefna, Edda 47.

frið-stilla, t, to settle, atone, Pass. 3. 14.

frið-stóll, m. a chair of peace, Sturl. i. 155 C.

frið-sæla, u, f. the bliss of peace, Bs. i. 723.

frið-sæll, adj. blessed with peace, Hkr. i. 17.

frið-vænligr, adj. promising peace, Fms. i. 26, 132.

frið-vænn, adj. promising peace, safe, Fms. ix. 5.

frið-þæging, f. propitiation, Vídal.

frið-þægja, ð, to propitiate, of Christ, Vídal.

FRIGG, f. a pr. name, gen. friggjar, [cp. A. S. frigu = love], the heathen goddess Frigg, Edda, Vsp. COMPDS: Friggjar-elda, u, f. a bird, prob. = mod. Máriatla, the wagtail, motacilla alba Linn., Edda (Gl.) Friggjar-gras, n. ‘Frigg’s herb,’ the mandrake, Hjalt. Friggjar-stjarna, u, f., astron. ‘Frigg’s star,’ Venus, Clem. 26.

frilla, v. friðla.

fritt, n. adj. peaceful, Eg. 572, Stj. 471, 475; in the phrase, e-m er fritt (or eiga fritt), one’s person being safe; hversu vel mun honum fritt at koma á yðvarn fund, how safe will it be for him to come to you? Fms. vii. 167; Högni spurði, hvárt þeim skyldi fritt vera, Sturl. ii. 144 C; eiga í flestum stöðum ílla fritt, Fbr. 48 new Ed.; ef eigi væri allt fritt (safe) af Steingríms hendi, Rd. 277; þá var ílla fritt, things were ill at ease, uneasy, Bs. i. 363; hvárt skal mér fritt at ganga á fund yðvarn, Fb. iii. 453.

FRÍ, adj. = fráls, free, released, vacant, used in a less noble sense than frjáls, q. v.; frí is foreign, but freq. in mod. writers:—used as adv. freely, truly, in mod. poets, Pass. 7. 12, 18. 9, 19. 8, 38. 5.

FRÍ, m. [Dan. frier = a wooer, cp. frjá], a lover, = friðill, an απ. λεγ., Hým. 9, cp. friðla; Höfuðl. 15 is dubious.

frí, n. a mod. college term, vacation, probably from Lat. feria.

fría, að, to deliver, Lv. 94 better firrum: reflex. to free oneself, Fms. xi. 424.

frían, f. (in Ó. H. 206 frion), remission, an απ. λεγ., Fms. v. 55, Pass. 13. 13.

fríða, d (?), to adorn, Fms. vii. 276, Fas. ii. 196, Ld. 198.

fríðendi, n. pl. good things; heita e-m fríðendum, to make fair promises, Gísl. 70, Fms. v. 157, Niðrst. 6; allir kostir ok öll f., Clem. 29; er nökkut þat er til fríðenda sé um mik, is there anything good in me? Fms. vi. 207; revenue, reki með öllum fríðendum, Ám. 12, 15; heimaland með öllum fríðendum, 52.

fríðka and fríkka, að, to grow fine and handsome.

fríð-leikr (-leiki), m. personal beauty, Eg. 29, Fms. x. 234; fríðleikr, afl, ok fræknleikr, Hkr. i. 302; fríðleikinum samir hinn bezti búnaðr, iii. 264. 2. fríðendi; svá mikla penninga at vexti ok fríðleik, Dipl. i. 11; fimmtán kúgildi með þvílíkum fríðleik sem …, ii. 12, Vm. 74; með þeim fríðleika sem fyrr segir, Jm. 31.

FRÍÐR, adj., neut. frítt, compar. fríðari, superl. fríðastr, [a Scandin. word, not found either in A. S. or Germ.]:—fair, beautiful, handsome, chiefly of the face; fríðr sýnum, Eg. 22. 23, Nj. 2, Fas. i. 387, Fms. i. 2, 17: fine, lið mikit ok frítt, 32, vii. 231; mikit skip ok frítt, Fagrsk.; fríð veizla, Fb. ii. 120; með friðu föruneyti, Ld. 22: metaph. specious, unfair, Fms. x. 252. II. paid in kind; tólf hundruð fríð, twelve hundred head of cattle in payment, Finnb. 226; tólf álnum fríðum, Dipl. ii. 20; hve margir aurar skulu í gripum (in valuables), eða hve margir fríðir (in cattle), Grág. i. 136; arfi ens fríða en eigi ens ófríða, he inherits the cattle but not the other property, 221; fjóra tigi marka silfrs fríðs, forty marks of silver paid in cattle, Eg. 526, v. l. Icel. at present call all payment in kind ‘í fríðu,’ opp. to cash; í fríðu ok úfríðu, H. E. i. 561. III. as noun in fem. pr. names, Hólm-fríðr, Hall-fríðr, etc., Landn.; and Fríða, u, f. as a term of endearment for these pr. names.

FRÍSIR, m. pl. the Frisians, Fms., Eg. passim. Frís-land, n. Frisia. Frískr, adj. Frisian, Fms. vi. 362.

FRÍSKR, adj. [O. H. G. frisc; mod. Germ. frisch], frisky, brisk, vigorous, (mod. word); frísk-leiki, a, m. friskiness, briskness, vigour; frísk-legr, adj. (-lega, adv.), friskily, briskly.

frjá, f. a sweetheart, Skv. 3. 8, and perh. in Fsm. 5 for fán of the MS.

FRJÁ, ð, [Ulf. renders ἀγαπαν and φιλειν by frijon, and ἀγάπη by frjaþva; akin to friðr, friðill; in Icel. this word has almost entirely disappeared, except in the part. frændi, which is found also in Engl. friend, Germ. freund: frjá has thus met with the same fate as its antagonist fjá (to hate); both have been lost as verbs, while the participles of each, fjándi and frændi, fiend and friend, remain:—vrijen, to woo, still remains in Dutch; and the mod. High Germ. freien and Dan. frie are borrowed from Low Germ.]:—to pet, an απ. λεγ. in Mkv. 5,—annars barn er sem úlf at frjá, to pet another man’s bairn is like petting a wolf, i. e. he will never return your love. The passage Ls. 19 is obscure and probably corrupt.

FRJÁ-, in the COMPDS: Frjá-aptan, m. Friday evening, Sturl. ii. 216. Frjá-dagr, m. Friday, Rb. 112, 572, Jb. 200; langi F., Good Friday, K. Á. 68 passim: Frjádags-aptan, m. Friday evening, Sturl. ii. 210 C: Frjádags-kveld, n. id., Sturl. ii. 211 C: Frjádags-nótt, f. Friday night, Fms. viii. 35 (v. l.), Nj. 186: Frjádags-þing, n. a Friday meeting, Rb. 332: Frjádaga-fasta, u, f. a Friday fast, Fms. x. 381. Frjá-kveld, n. = frjáaptan, Hkr. iii. 277, Sturl. ii. 211 C. Frjá-morginn, m. Friday morning, Fms. viii. 35, Orkn. (in a verse, App.) Frjá-nótt, f. = frjádagsnótt, Fms. viii. 35. It is remarked above, s. v. dagr, that this ‘frjá’ is derived from the A. S. form Freâ, answering to the northern Freyr, Goth. Frauja, and is a rendering of the eccl. Lat. dies Veneris, as in eccl. legends the Venus of the Lat. is usually rendered by Freâ (Freyja) of the Teutonic. This word is now obsolete in Icel., as Friday is now called Föstudagr, vide fasta.

FRJÁLS, adj., dat. and gen. sing. fem. and gen. pl. frjálsi, frjálsar, and frjálsa in old writers, but mod. frjálsri, frjálsrar, frjálsra, inserting r, [a contracted form from fri-hals; Ulf. freihals; O. H. G. frihals; the A. S. freols is prob. Scandin., as it is not used in old poetry: frjáls therefore properly means ‘free-necked,’ a ring round the neck being a badge of servitude; but the Icel. uses the word fri only in the compound frjáls, which is lost in Dan., though it remains in Swed. frälse and ufrälse man; the mod. Dan. and Swed. fri is borrowed from the Germ. frei, and so is the Icel. frí:—Ulf. renders ἐλευθερία by freihals, but ἐλεύθερος by freis]:—free, opp. to bondsman; frjáls er hverr er frelsi er gefit, N. G. L. i. 32; ef þræll getr barn við frjálsi konu, Grág. (Kb.) i. 224; skal þik bæta sem frjálsan mann, Nj. 57: metaph. free, unhindered, láta e-n fara frjálsan, Fms. i. 15: of property, frjálst forræði, eign, yfirráð, free, full possession, D. N. passim; skógar frjálsir af ágangi konunnga ok íllræðis-manna, Fs. 20: neut., eiga … at frjálsu, to possess freely, without restraint, Fms. xi. 211, Jb. 187, Ó. H. 92; með frjálsu, unhindered, Hrafn. 24.

frjálsa, að, to free, vide frelsa, Stj., Barl., D. N., Sks., Karl., passim.

frjálsan, f. rescue, Stj. 50.

frjálsari, a, m. = frelsari, Stj. 51.

frjáls-borinn, part. freeborn, vide frelsborinn.

frjáls-gjafa (-gefa), u, f. a freed-woman, N. G. L. i. 327, 358.

frjáls-gjafi, a, m. a ‘free-given’ man, freed-man, in the Norse law distinguished from and lower than a leysingi, q. v., N. G. L. i. 345, 347. II. one that gives freedom, Grág. i. 227.

frjálsi, f. freedom, an unusual form, = frelsi, cp. Ulf. freihals.

frjálsing, f. deliverance, Karl.

frjáls-leikr (-leiki), m. liberty, 655 xxxii. 4: metaph. liberality, frankness, Fms. xi. 422, Stj. 201.

frjáls-lendingr, m. a free tenant, franklin, Karl.

frjáls-liga, adv. freely, frankly, Hkr. i. 138, Fms. v. 194, Sks. 619, Stj. 154.

frjáls-ligr, adj. free, frank, independent, Sks. 171, 523, 546.

frjálsmann-ligr, adj. like a free man. Grett. 109.

FRJÓ, n. (and freo), dat. freovi, = fræ, seed, Th. 23, Stj. 97, 196, H. E. i. 513. COMPDS: frjó-korn, n. = frækorn, Gþl. 351 A. frjó-laun, n. pl. reward for the seed sown, N. G. L. i. 240. frjó-lauss, adj. seedless, barren, Magn. 494. frjó-leikr (-leiki), m. fertility, Stj. 56, 202, 398. frjó-ligr, adj. fruitful, Stj. 76, Fb. ii. 24.

frjór,, adj. fertile, Stj. 75, passim.

FRJÓSA, pret. fraus, pl. frusu; pres. frýss, mod. frýs; pret. subj. frysi, but freri, Gísl. 32; part. frosinn, sup. frosit; an older declension analogous to gróa, gröri, is, pret. fröri or freri, part. frörinn or frerinn, mod. freðinn, altering the r into ð, whereto frer (q. v.) belongs: [O. H. G. friosan; mod. Germ. frieren; A. S. freosan; Engl. freeze; Dan. fryse; Swed. frysa]:—to freeze; often used impers. it freezes them (of earth, water, etc.), i. e. they are frozen, ice-bound, stiff with ice; þar fraus þá (acc.) um naetr, A. A. 272; fraus um hann klæðin (acc.), the clothes froze about his body, Fs. 52; aldrei skal hér frjósa korn (acc.), Fms. v. 23; hann (acc., viz. the well) frýss svá, at …, Stj. 96; þeir ætluðu at bíða þess at skip (acc.) Ólafs konungs freri þar í höfninni, until king Olave’s ship should be ice-bound, Fms. v. 167:—of the weather, absol., veðr var kalt ok frjósanda, cold and frosty, Grett. 134; vindr var á norðan ok frjósandi, Sturl. i. 83; aldrei festi snjó útan ok sunnan á hangi Þorgríms ok ekki fraus, … at hann mundi ekki vilja at freri á milli þeirra, Gísl. 32; but frysi, l. c., 116; áðr en frjósa tók, Fms. v. 167; þótt bæði frjósi fyrir ofan ok neðan, 23: the metaph. phrase, e-m frýs hugr við, one feels horror at a thing, iii. 187; perh. better hrjósa, q. v. II. part., frerin jörð, Grett. 111; frerin þekja, 85 new Ed.; tá frerin, Edda 59; vátir ok frernir, wet and frozen, Bjarn. 53; skipit sollit ok frörit, Bs. i. 355; but frosit, l. c., 330; frörnar grasrætr, Sks. 48 new Ed.; skór frosnir ok snæugir, Gísl. 31; flestir menn vóru nokkut frosnir, Fms. ix. 353, where = kalnir.

frjóva, að, and frjóa, mod. frjófga or frjóvga, to fertilise, Stj. 69, 73; frjóvandi, part. blossoming, Sks. 630, 632:—reflex. to multiply, be fertile, Fms. i. 159, Fas. i. 177, Stj. 61.

frjóvan, f. fertilising, Stj. 13: mod. frjófgan, Pass. 32. 2.

frjóv-samr, adj. fertile (ófrjósamr, barren), Sturl. 101.

frjóv-semi, mod. frjóf-semi, f. fertility.

FROÐA, u, f. (cp. frauð), froth, e. g. on milk, Fas. i. 425, freq. in mod. usage. COMPDS: froðu-fall, n. a frothing or foaming at the mouth. froðu-fella, d, to foam.

frosk-hleypa, t, to let (a horse) leap like a frog, Gþl. 412.

FROSKR, m., in olden times prob. proncd. fröskr, cp. the rhyme, öðlingr skyli einkar röskr | æpa kann í mörum fröskr, Mkv.; [A. S. frox, cp. Engl. frog; O. H. G. frosc; mod. Germ. frosch; Dan. frö]:—a frog, Hkr. i. 102, Stj. 23, 269, Fms. x. 380. 656 A. 2. 11.

FROST, n. [frjósa; A. S. fyrst; Engl., Germ., Dan., and Swed. frost]:—frost: allit., frost ok funi, Sl. 18, Fas. iii. 613; frost veðrs, Fms. ix. 241: often used in pl., frost mikil ok kuldar, ii. 29; frosta vetr, a frosty winter, Ann. 1348; frost ok snjóar, frost and snow; hörku-f., a sharp frost. frosta-tól, n. ‘frosty tools’ i. e. frail tools or implements that crack as if frost-bitten.

frosta = frysta, to freeze, Fær. 56.

FROSTA, n. the name of a county in Norway where a parliament, Frosta-þing, was held; hence Frostaþings-lög, n. pl. the laws of the county Frosta, N. G. L. Frostaþings-bók, f. the code of this law, N. G. L. i. 126, Fms. passim.

frost-bólga, u, f. ‘frost-swelling,’ of hands swoln by frost.

frost-brestir, m. pl. ‘frost-cracks’ in ice, such as are heard during a strong frost.

frosti, a, m. the name of a horse, freq. in Icel.

frost-mikill, adj. very frosty, Sks. 227 B.

frost-rósir, f. pl. ‘frost-roses,’ frost work.

frost-vetr, m. a frosty winter, Ann. 1047.

frost-viðri, n. frosty weather, Fms. ii. 195, Sturl. iii. 198 C.

FROTTA, tt, [akin to frata], to sputter; með frottandi vörum, with sputtering lips, Sks. 228 B.

FRÓ, f. relief, esp. from pain, Hkr. i. 6, Mar., 656 A. 25, Sks. 107 B, Bs. i. 181. 299; hug-fró, geð-fró, mind’s comfort: allit. phrase, friðr og fró, peace and relief, Bb. 3. 3.

fróa, að, to relieve, with acc., þá er þér vilit fróa manninn, Þorst. St. 55: mod. with dat., chiefly used impers., e-m fróar, one feels relief.

fróan, f., and frói, a, m. relief, = fró, Bs. i. 312, Fas. iii. 388.

fróð-leikr, m. knowledge, 625. 50, Landn. 89, Grág. i. 3, Skálda 160, Sks. 626; til fróðleiks ok skemtunar, for information and pleasure, Edda (pref.): with a notion of sorcery, Þorf. Karl. 374, Fs. 131. COMPDS: fróðleiks-ást, f. love of knowledge, Skálda. fróðleiks-bækr, f. pl. books of information, Rb. 342. fróðleiks-epli, f. the apple of knowledge, Sks. 503. fróðleiks-tré, n. the tree of knowledge, 625. 3.

fróð-liga, adv. cleverly, Fms. iii. 163; eigi er nú f. spurt, Edda 8.

fróð-ligr, adj. clever, Sks. 553: mod. curious.

FRÓÐR, adj. [Ulf. frôþs = φρόνιμος, σοφός, σώφρων, συνετός; Hel. frôd; A. S. frôd]:—knowing, learned, well-instructed; fróðr, er margkunnigr er, Fms. xi. 413; hón var fróð at mörgu, Nj. 194; þat er sögn fróðra manna, Ísl. ii. 206; verða fróðari um e-t, Sks. 37; at Finnum tveim er hér eru fróðastir (greatest wizards), Fms. i. 8; fás er fróðum vant, little is lacking to the knowing, cp. the Engl. ‘knowledge is power,’ Hm. 107: of books, containing much information, instructive, bækr beztar ok fróðastar, Bs. i. 429. β. in some passages in Hm. fróðr seems to mean clever, Hm. 7, 27, 30, 6l, 107; þá nam ek at frævask ok fróðr vera, 142; fróðir menn, knowing men, Ýt. 6; fróð regin, the wise powers, Vþm. 26; enn fróði jötunn, 30, 33, 35:—in some few poët. compds (in which it seems to be used almost = prúðr, brave, valiant, as böð-f., eljun-f.) the true meaning is skilled in war (cp. the Gr. δαιφρων); sann-f., truly informed; óljúgfróð, Íb. 4; ú-fróðr, ignorant, = Goth. unfróþs, which Ulf. uses to translate ἄφρων, ἀνόητος; sögu-fróðr, skilled in old lore. As fróðr chiefly refers to historical knowledge, ‘hinn Fróði’ was an appellation given to the old Icel. chroniclers—Ari Fróði, Brandr Fróði, Sæmundr Fróði, Kolskeggr Fróði, who lived between 1050 and 1150 A. D. But the historians of the next age were seldom called by this name: Odd Munk (of the end of the 12th century) is only once called so, (Ing. S. fine); Snorri (of the 13th) twice, viz. Ann. 1241 in a single MS., and Sturl. iii. 98, but in a part of the Saga probably not written by Sturla himself; Sturla (who died in 1284) is never called by that name; and the only real exception is Styrmir ‘Fróði’ (who died in 1245), though he least deserved the name. Of foreign writers the Icel. gave the name Fróði to Bede (Landn. pref.), whom they held in great honour.

FRÓMR, adj., akin to framr, prob. borrowed from Germ. fromm, Low Germ. from; it seems to have come to Icel. with the Hanseatic trade at the end of the 15th century, and is found in the Rímur of that time, e. g. Skáld-Helga R. 3. 22; from Luther’s Bible and the Reformation it became more freq. in the sense of righteous, pious, with the notion of guileless, frómr og meinlaus, and often occurs in the N. T. and hymns, e. g. Pass. 22. 2, 24. 9: it has however not been truly naturalized, except in the sense of honest, i. e. not thievish, and ófrómr, dishonest, thievish, (a euphemism); umtals-f., not slandering, speaking fair of other people. COMPDS: fróm-leiki, a, m. guilelessness, Pass. 16. 8. fróm-lyndi, f. id.

FRÓN, n. a poët. word = land, country, Lex. Poët. passim; scarcely akin to the Germ. frohn = demesne; in mod. poets and in patriotic songs frón is the pet name for Icel. itself, Núm. 1. 10, 8. 9, 12. 4. Snót 16; Icel. students in Copenhagen about 1763 were the first who used the word in this sense.

FRUM- [cp. Lat. primus; Goth. frums = ἀρχή, fruma = πρωτος; A. S. frum-]:—the first, but only in COMPDS: frum-bréf, n. an original deed. frum-burðr, m. the first-born, Ver. 5, Stj. 42, 161, 304, 306, Exod. passim. frum-býlingr, m. one who has newly set up in life. frum-ferill, m. the first traveller (visitor) to a place, Nj. 89. frum-fórn, f. first-fruit, Stj. passim, H. E. i. 468. frum-getinn, part. first-begotten, Stj. 65, 160, passim. frum-getnaðr, m. = frumburðr, 656 A. i. 24, Stj. 161. frum-getningr, m. id., Stj. 304. frum-gjöf, f. the first gift, 677. 4. frum-gögn, n. pl. the primal, principal proofs, a law term, Nj. 234, Grág. i. 56. frum-hending, f. the foremost rhyming syllable in a verse, a metrical term, Edda (Ht.) 121. frum-hlaup, n. a personal assault, a law term, Grág., Nj. passim. frumhlaups-maðr, m. an assailant, Grág. ii. 13. frum-höfundr, m. the original author or writer. frum-kveði, a, m., frum-kveðill, mod. frum-kvöðull, m. an originator, Edda 18, Ed. Arna-Magn. i. 104. frum-kviðr, m. the first verdict, Grág. i. 34. frum-kvæði, n. the original poem. frum-lína, u, f., mathem. a base-line, Björn Gunnl. frum-mál, n. in the original tongue, opp. to translation, bók rituð á frummáli. frum-rit, n. the original writing, of MSS., (mod.) frum-ritaðr (and of poems frum-kveðinn, frum-ortr), part. originally written (composed) in this or that language. frum-smiðr, m. the first workman, Edda (in a verse). frum-smíð, f. the first attempt of a beginner in any art, in the saying, flest frumsmíð stendr til bóta, Edda 126. frum-sök, f. the original cause, a law term, Nj. 235, Grág. i. 48 passim. frum-tign, f. the first, highest dignity, Bs. i. 37, Magn. 512. frum-tón, m. a musical term, the tonic, Icel. Choral-book (pref.) frum-tunga, u, f. original tongue. frum-varp, n. a parliamentary term, a bill under debate, (mod.) frum-vaxti and frum-vaxta (frum-vaxinn, Nj. 147, v. l.), adj. ‘first-grown,’ in one’s prime, Nj. 112, Fs. 31, Fms. i. 157, xi. 3, Ísl. ii. 203; dóttir f., Eg. 247, Grett. 97. frum-váttr, m. the first, original witness, Grág. i. 46, Gþl. 477: eccl. the proto-martyr, Hom. 42, 109, Stj. 51. frum-verr, m. the first husband, Hallfred, who calls Odin the fr. of Frigg, Fs. 94, Skv. 3. 59. frum-vöxtr, m. the first growth, first-fruits, Stj. 305: cp. brum.

frums- (= frum-) exists in a few COMPDS: frumsar-brauð, n. bread of the first-fruits, Stj. 615. 2 Kings iv. 42: frums- or frumsa- is in Icel. and in Norse popular tales esp. used of animals that are first-born through two or more generations; such animals are thought to have a wonder-power, cp. Ivar Aasen; hence frumsa-kálfr, m. a ‘frumsa’ calf; the word still represents the Gothic form frums, vide above. frumsa-frum (or frumsa-brum), n., botan. pollen, Björn. In Ísl. Þjóðs. i. 530. v. l., frumsa, n., is said to mean a lump on the forehead of new-born foals, Gr. ἱππομανές, which was used as a love-spell, cp. Virg. Aeneid. iv. 515, 516.

frunti, a, m. [prob. from the Fr. effronté, cp. Scot. frunty], a rude, obtrusive boor; frunta-ligr, adj.; frunta-skapr, m.

FRÚ, f., an older nom. sing. frauva, u, f., occurs Fms. x. 421, (Ágrip); frouva, Stj. 47; frou, id.; frú is prop. a later contracted form from freyja; therefore the gen. in old writers is always frú (qs. frúvu); and the word is in the sing. indecl., thus, frú-innar, Fms. ix. 292; hann fékk frú Ceciliu, x. 3; móðir frú Ingigerðar, Landn. 240; frú Kristínar, Fms. ix. 8; slíkrar frou (sic) sem ek em, Str. 40, 47: in mod. usage gen. frúar, if used by itself or put after one’s name, but indecl. if put before it in addressing any one, thus, Frú Kristínar, but Kristínar frúar; the gen. frúar occurs Fas. iii. 586, in a MS. of the 15th century; pl. frúr, but older form fruvur or frovur, e. g. frovor, Edda (Arna-Magn.) i. 96 (Kb.); but Ob. frúr, Hkr. i. 16: [freyja was origin. fem. of freyr, and prop. meant Lat. domina; Germ. frau; Dan. frue; no Goth. fraujô is found]:—a lady; in Icel. at present only used of the wives of men of rank or title, e. g. biskups-frú, amtmanns-frú; wives of priests are not called so: again, húsfreyja is more homely, Germ. hausfrau, Engl. housewife, always of a married woman, vide e. g. the Þjóðólfr (Icel. newspaper): in the 14th century in Icel. frú was used of abbesses and wives of knights, but was little used before the 13th century: af hennar (the goddess Freyja) nafni skyldi kalla allar konur tignar (noble woman), svá sem nú heita fruvor, Hkr. l. c.; af hennar nafni er þat tignar-nafn er ríkis-konur (women of rank) eru kallaðar fruvor, Edda l. c.; Kolr hafði talat margt við frú eina ríka (of a foreign lady in Wales), Nj. 280: again, good housewives, such as Bergthora in Njála, are called hús-freyjur, but never frúr; thus, kemsk þó at seinna fari, húsfreyja, Nj. 69; gakk þú út, húsfreyja, þvíat ek vil þik fyrir öngan mun inni brenna, 200; búandi ok húsfreyja, Grág. i. 157; góð húsfreyja, Nj. 51; gild húsfreyja, Glúm. 349, Bs. i. 535:—the Virgin Mary is in legends called vár frú, our Lady; cp. jungfrú (pronounced jómfrú).

FRYGÐ, f., and fryktr, m., Stj. 26, 56, 77, [an unclass. word formed from Lat. fructus], blossoming; fegrð ok f., Stj. 14, 142; frygð ok feiti, 154; frygð ok ávöxtr, 15. frygðar-fullr and -samligr, adj. fruitful, Stj. 27. II. in the Rímur of the 15th century frygð is used of love, Lat. amores, Skáld-H. 5. 38, passim; and frygðugr, adj. amorous, Skáld-H. It is a bad word and quite out of use, and seems to have no connection with Germ. freude, which is a good Teut. word; the mod. frukt, n. humble compliments, and frukta, að, to make such compliments, in a bad sense, are perhaps akin, but they are slang words.

frysta, t, [frost], to freeze, Sturl. iii. 20, Fms. viii. 431, v. l.

frý-girni, f. [frýja], a provoking, taunting temper, Hom. 86.

frý-gjarn, adj. provoking, censorious, Ísl. Heiðarv. S. in the extracts of Jon Olafsson, (not frígjarn.)

FRÝJA, pres. frýr, pret. frýði, pres. with the neg. suf. frýr-at, Lex. Poët., to defy, challenge, question, taunt, with dat. of the person; hón fryði honum með mörgum orðum, Fas. i. 142: with gen. of the thing, to challenge, question; frýja e-m hugar, to question one’s courage, Nj. 60, Ísl. ii. 102; meir frýr þú mér grimmleiks en aðrir menn, Eg. 255; þessi klæði frýja ykkr föður-hefnda, those clothes challenge you to revenge your father, Ld. 260; er hvárigum sóknar at f., neither needed to be spurred on, Fms. xi. 131; konungr kvað öngan þess mundu f. honum, the king said that no one would challenge, question him as to that, v. 337; hvárki frý ek mér skygnleiks eðr áræðis (the words of a bravo), Nj. 258; engan heyri ek efndanna f., Fms. vii. 121; enginn frýr þér vits, en meir ertu grunaðr um gæzku, no one questions thy wit (head), but thy godliness (heart) is more questioned, Sturl. i. 135; frýr nú skutrinn (better skutnum) skriðar, a pun, now the stern hangs, the stern-rowers pull feebly, Grett. 113 new Ed. II. frýja á e-t, a law phrase, to complain of, protest; cp. áfrýja, ef annarr hvárr frýr á hlut sinn, Gþl. 23; frýja á mál, N. G. L. i. 26; buðu þeir biskupi þann kost fyrir þat sem á var frýð, Bs. i. 754: to egg on, ekki skaltú hér enn þurfa mjök á at f., Nj. 58; þyrfti þat þeim at bæta sem brotið var á, en eigi hinum, er á frýðu (who provoked), Sturl. iii. 162.

frýja, u, f. a defiance, challenge, question, taunt, Fs. 8, Bs. i. 734, Ld. 236; verja sik frýju, to clear oneself of all question, i. e. do a thing blamelessly, Sturl. iii. 68; ek varða mik kvenna frýju, I cleared myself from the taunts of woman, Eb. (in a verse): frýju-laust, n. adj. blamelessly; berjask f., to fight hard, Glúm. 381; þeir sækja bardagann f., Fms. xi. 136; hann kvað Einar mundu elt hafa f., Sturl. i. 68: frýju-orð, n. taunting words, Fms. vii. 272, xi. 374, Nj. 108.

frýjan, f. = frýja, Fms. v. 55.

FRÝNN or frýniligr, adj.; this word is never used but as compounded with the prefix ú- (except Fas. ii. 351 in a bad and late Saga), viz. ú-frýnn or ú-frýniligr = frowning. The sense as well as the etymology of frýnn is somewhat dubious; there is the Germ. fron or frohn or fran; but that word seems purely German and is by Grimm supposed to be qs. fro min = my lord (vide Hel.); neither does Icel. frýnn or Germ. frohn correspond properly as to the root vowel (cp. e. g. Germ. lohn = Icel. laun): on the other hand there is the Engl. frown, which in form answers to the simple frýnn, but in sense to the compd ú-frýnn; as no similar word is found in A. S. (nor in Germ. nor in Hel.), frown is most likely a Scandin. word; and we suppose that the Icel. prefix syllable ú- is not in this instance = un-, that is to say, negative, but = of-, that is to say, intensive (= too, very, greatly); the original forms of-frýnn, of-frýniligr were contr. and assimilated into ófrýnn, ófrýniligr, meaning very frowning, and these compds then superseded the primitive simple word: this is confirmed by the freq. spelling in MSS. with ‘of-’ e. g. ofrynn, Ó. H. 144; all-ofrynn, Eg. Cod. Wolph.; heldr ofrynn, Ó. H. 167; but yet more freq. with ‘ú-’ e. g. Orkn. 440, Boll. 358, Fær. 50, Fms. i. 40, Fb. i. 73; the ekki frýnn, Fas. l. c., is again a variation of úfrýnn: the statement by Björn that frýnn is = bland, affable, is a mere guess by inference from the compd.

frýs, n. the snorting of a horse.

FRÝSA, t, (hon frýsti ferliga, Sams. 9), mod. að, to snort, whinny, of a horse, Greg. 49, Karl. 3, 4, Fas. i. 60 (where better fnýsa, q. v.); akin are fryssa, að, and frussa, to sport.

frýsing, f. = frýs, Fas. iii. 441.

FRÆ, n. (not frœ, as even Eyvind Skaldaspillir rhymes frævi and ævi), sometimes in old MSS. spelt freo or frjó (q. v.), but less rightly; old dat. frævi, mod. fræi; [Ulf. fraiv = σπέρμα; Swed. and Dan. frö; not found in Germ., Saxon, or Engl.; it is therefore a Gothic-Scandinavian word]:—seed, 677. 11, Rb. 78, 655 xxx. 2; chiefly used of vegetables, sæði of animal seed; varpa síðan fræi í fold fyrirmyndan um sjálfs míns hold, Bb. 3. 54; very freq. in mod. usage. COMPDS: fræ-korn, n. a grain of seed, 673 A. 2, Gþl. 351, Fms. i. 92. fræ-mælir, m. a measure of seed, N. G. L. i. 39, Gþl. 343. fræ-vænligr, adj. promising fruit, Sks. 630, v. l.

fræða, dd, [Ulf. fraþvjan = σοφίζειν], to instruct, teach, Str. 1, 68: reflex. to learn, be instructed, H. E. i. 473.

FRÆÐI, f. and n. [fróðr; qs. Ulf. fraþi, n. = νους, νόημα, σύνεσις, φρήν, and froþei, f. = φρόνησις, σύνεσις, σοφία]: I. fem. knowledge, learning, lore; sannindi fræðinnar, Fms. iv. 4, Magn. 430; margháttuð f., Rb. (pref.); mann-fræði, personal history, genealogy, Bs. i. 91, Bárð. 24 new Ed., Fms. viii. 102; landnáma-sögur ok forn fræði, old lore, Ísl. ii. 189; forna fræði, Fb. i. 397; hann lærði Ara prest, og marga fræði sagði hann honum, þá er Ari ritaði síðan; Ari nam ok marga fræði at Þuríði. Ó. H. (pref.): in mod. usage as compd in many words, as, guð-fræði, theology; mál-f., philology; eðlis-f., or náttúru-f., physiology, etc.;—hence are formed, guð-fræðingr, a theologian; mál-fræðingr, a philologer; náttúru-fræðingr, a naturalist, etc.;—these words are now common, but are of late growth, even in the Nucl. Latin, of 1738 they are unknown, vide the Latin headings antiquarius, theologicus, etc. II. neut., esp. in pl. records; hin spaklegu fræði er Ari Þorgilsson hefir á bækr sett, Skálda 161 (Thorodd); hvatki er missagt es í fræðum þessum, Íb. 3; í sumum fræðum, in some old records, Edda 7: Fræði (pl.) with the earliest Christians was the lore to be learnt by neophytes, as the Lat. Credo and Pater Noster, cp. the curious story in Hallfr. S. Fs. 93; since the Reformation the same name was given to Luther’s short Catechism (to be learnt by heart next after the Lord’s Prayer), læra Fræðin; það stendr í Fræðunum; Fræða-kver, n. Luther’s Catechism, (kver, = quire, means in Icel. a little book.) 2. with the notion of witchcraft; þau kváðu þar fræði sín, en þat vóru galdrar, Ld. 142: of a poem, hafa kátir menn sett f. þat er, Grett. 119 new Ed. COMPDS: fræði-bækr, f. pl. books of knowledge, learned work, Skálda 159. fræði-maðr (fræða-maðr, Edda pref.), m. a learned man, scholar, Skálda 159; f. á kvæði, Fms. vi. 391: an historian, eptir sögn Ara prests ok annarra fræðimanna, iv. 5 (v. l.), xi. 64, Ó. H. pref. 3, Sturl. i. 9, Ísl. ii. 189. fræði-nám, n. learning, studying, Bs. i. 240. fræði-næmi, n. id., Bs. i. 241.

FRÆGÐ, f. [fragu, vide fregna], good report, fame, renown; til frægðar skal konung hafa, a saying, Fms. vii. 73,—cp. fylki skal til frægðar hafa, Mkv. 6, Fms. i. 99, v. 300; með frægð ok fagnaði, 655 xiii. B. 4. COMPDS: frægðar-ferð (-för), f. an exploit, Sturl. i. 4, Eg. 279. frægðar-fullr, adj. famous, Magn. 432. frægðar-lauss, adj. (-leysi, n.), inglorious, H. E. i. 516. frægðar-maðr, m. a famous man, Fms. ii. 271, Grett. 196 new Ed. frægðar-mark, n. a badge of glory, Fas. i. 257. frægðar-samliga, adv. (-ligr, adj.), Stj. frægðar-skot, n. a famous shot, Fas. ii. 338, Fms. ii. 271. frægðar-verk, n. a feat, Fms. i. 146, Hkr. iii. 96.

frægi-ligr, adj. (-liga, adv.), famous, Fas. iii. 424, Stj. 69, 78, 141.

frægja, ð, to make famous, Fms. xi. 436, Stj. 66, Skálda 208; við-f., to extol far and wide; ú-frægja, to deprecate.

frægr, adj., frægri, frægstr, or mod. frægari, frægastr, famous; frægr konungr, Fms. i. 114; frægri en aðrir menn, Fas. iii. 278; frægstr allra landnáms-manna, Landn. 316, v. l.; var sú för hin frægjasta, Fms. vii. 66; varð þetta frægt víða um lönd, i. 164; þat mun vera frægt, v. 344; víð-frægr, widely famous; ú-frægr, inglorious.

fræjandi, part. bearing seed, Sks. 630 B, 632 B.

FRÆKN (i. e. frœkn) and frækinn, adj., compar. fræknari, superl. fræknastr, valiant, stout, esp. of bodily exercise, Fms. i. 161, 258, vi. 150 (v. l.), 315, Háv. 55, Bær. 15, Nj. 15, Hkr. i. 301, Gm. 17.

frækn-leikr (less correct fræk-leikr), m. feat, valour, Fms. ii. 48, vii. 165, Bær. 19, Fær. 132, Valla L. 214, Grett. 171 new Ed.

frækn-liga (less correct fræk-liga, fræki-liga), adv. valiantly, Fms. viii. 289 (v. l.), ix. 509, Ísl. ii. 267, Hkv. Hjörv. 12, Nj. 116.

frækn-ligr (less correct fræk-ligr, fræki-ligr), adj. valiant, bold looking, 655 xxix. 2, Rd. 244, Sturl. iii. 245, Fas. i. 72, iii. 153, Fms. i. 25, ii. 106, passim.

frænd-afli, a, m. strength in kinsmen, Orkn. 230, v. l.

frænd-bálkr, m. a ‘balk or fence of friends,’ a body of kinsmen, great family, Orkn. 470, Eb. 20, Fms. i. 288.

frænd-bætr, f. pl. fines, weregild for a kinsman, N. G. L. i. 75.

frænd-erfð, f. family inheritance, N. G. L. i. 49.

frænd-garðr, m. = frændbálkr, poët. a stronghold of kinsmen.

frænd-göfugr, adi. having distinguished kinsmen, Sturl. i. 30.

frænd-hagi, a, m. a native place, = átthagi, q. v., Fms. vii. 136, 270.

frænd-hollr, adj. faithful to one’s kinsmen, pious. Fms. vi. 35.

FRÆNDI, an irreg. part. of the obsolete frjá, pl. frændr. gen. frænda, dat. frændum, [Ulf. renders φίλος by frijonds; A. S. freond; Engl. friend; Hel. friund; O. H. G. friunt; Germ. freund; all of them meaning friend = Lat. amicus; whereas in the Scandin. languages, Icel. as well as mod. Swed. and Dan., it is only used in a metaph. sense; Dan. frænde; Swed. frände]:—a kinsman; not a single instance is on record of the word having ever been used in another sense, unless an exception be allowed in the allit. phrase, sem frændr en eigi sem fjándr, in the old Griðamál, Grág. (Kb.) i. 170:—the same usage prevails in the oldest poems, e. g. Hm.,—deyr fé, deyja frændr, 75; sumr er af senum sæll sumr af frændum, 68; and Dags frændr, the kinsmen (great grandsons) of Dag, Ýt. 10. This change in the sense of the word is very curious and characteristic of the Scandinavians, with whom the bonds of kinship and brotherhood were strong, and each family formed a kind of confederacy or fellowship equally bound in rights and in duties; cp. such phrases as, frænd-bálkr, frænd-garðr: frændr often denotes kinsmen in a narrower sense = brethren; yet sons and frændr are distinguished in Hm. 68; but generally frændr is a collective word, Nj. 4; of a brother, Fs. 57; frændi, my son, Nj. 143, cp. Fms. vii. 22, 315, the laws and Sagas passim; ná-frændi, a near kinsman. COMPDS: frænda-afli, a, m. = frændafli, Valla L. 213. frænda-bálkr, m. = frændbálkr, Ld. 102, Fms. xi. 338, Orkn. 272. frænda-gengi, n. = frændlið, Fms. x. 406. frænda-gipta, n, f. the luck or good genius of a family, Fs. 15. frænda-lát, n. the loss, death of f., Nj. 222, Sks. 726. frænda-lið, n. = frændlið, Rb. 370. frænda-ráð, n. consent of one’s kinsmen, Gþl. 271, cp. Nj. 38. frænda-róg, n. strife among kinsmen, deadly strife, Fms. v. 347; cp. the saying, fé veldr frænda rógi, Mkv. frænda-skömm, f. a shame to (or within) one’s family; kallaði slíka menn helzt mega heita f., Sturl. i. 13; því at Kristnin var þá kölluð f., Bs. i. 11,—in the last interesting passage it seems to mean such a disgrace that one was thereby expelled out of the family, cp. Fms. i. 285. frænda-styrkr, m. strength (backing) of kinsmen, Hkr. ii. 397, Eg. 474. frænda-tjón, n. loss in f., N. G. L. i. 121.

frænd-kona, u. f. (contr. frænka), a kinswoman, 655. 88, Eg. 200, Nj. 31, N. G. L. i. 350; cp. frændleif.

frænd-lauss, adi. (frænd-leysi, n.), kin-less, without kinsmen, 623. 14, 51, Rd. 265, Grág. i. 188.

frænd-leif, f. one’s kinsman’s widow, N. G. L. i. 304, 350, a Norse law term; the eccl. law forbade a man to marry a ‘frændkona’ within the fifth degree, or a ‘frændleif’ whose late husband was within the same degree.

frænd-leifð, f. patrimony, inheritance, Fms. iv. 79, Stj. 600.

frænd-lið, n. a host of kinsmen, a family, Ld. 6, Eg. 137, Hkr. ii. 343.

frændlingr, m. = frændi, Fms. iv. 320.

frænd-margr, m. having many kinsmen, Fms. i. 53, iii. 16, Hkr. i. 170.

frænd-mær, f. a maiden kinswoman, Bs. i. 203.

frænd-ríkr, adj. rich in kinsmen, Sturl. ii. 189.

frænd-rækinn, adj. attached to one’s kinsmen, Bs. i. 72, Fas. i. 130.

frænd-rækni, f. piety, (mod.)

frænd-samliga, adv. kinsmanlike, kindly, Sturl. ii. 79, Fms. xi. 93.

frænd-semd, f. = frændsemi, Bs. ii. 106.

frænd-semi (-symi, Stj. passim, Nj. 42, 213), f. kinship, brotherhood, Fms. xi. 7, Ld. 158, Grág. ii. 72, N. G. L. i. 187, the laws and Sagas passim; ganga við f. e-s, to acknowledge one as kinsman (e. g. as a son), Fms. ix. 418:—metaph. the kindness of a kinsman, var góð f. með þeim, there was good fellowship between them, Sturl. iii. 176, Fs. 45. COMPDS: frændsemis-lögmál, n. the law, rules of kinship, Stj. 425. frændsemis-spell, n. breach of kinship, incest, Grág. i. 341, Gþl. 242. frændsemis-tala, u, f. the tracing of kinship, lineage, Grág;, i. 28; vera í frændsemis-tölu við e-n, to be of kin to one, Eg. 72, Fms. i. 14.

frænd-skarð, n. the ‘scar,’ i. e. loss, of a kinsman, Sturl. iii. 240.

frænd-stórr, adj. having great kinsmen, Fms. iii. 16, vii. 233.

frænd-stúlka, u, f. a ‘kin-girl,’ a niece or the like.

frænd-sveinn, m. a ‘kin-boy,’ a nephew or the like, Ld. 232.

frænd-sveit, f. a body of kinsmen, Fms. vi. 347.

frænd-víg, n. slaughter of a kinsman, parricide, etc., Ó. H. 184.

frænu-skammr, adj. short-edged, = bitskammr, f. er inn deigi lé, a saying, Mkv.

frær (frœr), adj. yielding fruit. Rb. 354: ú-frær, barren, Glúm. 340.

fræs (frœs), f., Lat. fremitus, Fm. 19; vide frýsa.

frævan, fruitfulness, Rb. 102, 104.

frör-ligr, adj. frosty, chilly, Sks. 228 B.

fuð, f. [Germ. fud or fotze], cunnus. COMPDS: fuð-flogi, a, m. a law term, a runaway from his betrothed bride, N. G. L. i. 28. fuð-hundr, m. a nickname. Fms., cp. Germ. hunds-vott.

fuðra, að, to flame, blaze, akin to funi.

fuð-ryskill, m. a kind of cod-fish, cottus alepidotus, Edda (Gl.)

FUGL, m., an older form fogl is usual in early MSS.: fugls, Hm. 13; both forms foglar and fuglar in Mork. 7, but in old poets fogl is required by the rhyme,—smoglir ástar foglar, Sighvat: [Ulf. fugls = πετεινόν; A. S. fugol; Engl. fowl; Germ. vogel; Swed. fogel; Dan. fugl]:—a fowl, bird; hart sem fugl flygi, Nj. 144, passim; cp. the saying, skjóta verðr til fugls áðr fái, Orkn. 346, Mirm. 31: a nautical term, hafa fugl af landi, to ‘have fowl off land’ to stand in within range of water-fowl, i. e. be from fifty to seventy miles off land; þeir höfðn fogl af Írlandi, Bs. i. 656: collect. fowl, síðan samnaðisk fogl í evna, 350; geir-fugl, the awk, alca impennis; æðar-f., the eider-duck: hræ-f., a bird of prey: fit-f., q. v.; smá-fuglar, small fowl, little birds, Mork. 7: söng-f., singing birds; snæ-f., snow-fowl; bjarg-f., cliff-fowl, sea gulls, etc. COMPDS: fugla-dráp, n. bird-catching, Grág. ii. 348. fugla-kippa, u, f. a bundle of fowls, Fas. ii. 425. fugla-kliðr, m., fugla-kvak, n., fugla-net, n. a fowling net, Safn i. 61. fugla-söngr, m. the song (screeching) of birds, Fas. ii. 175, Karl. 203. fugla-tekja, u, f. bird-taking. fugla-veiðr, f. bird-catching, O. H. L. 45. fugls-rödd, f., mod. fugla-mál, n. a bird’s voice, in tales, Edda, Fms. vi. 445: metaph., karl-fuglinn, poor churl! II. a pr. name, Orkn.

fuglari, a, m. a fowler, Bs. ii. 111, Fagrsk. 109.

fugl-berg, n. a fowling cliff; for this sort of fowling vide Guðm. S. ch. 54, Bs. ii. 111, Grett. 144, Bs. i. 360, Eggert Itin.

fugl-heillir, f. pl. augury, Post. (Unger). fuglheilla-maðr, m. = Lat. augur, id.

fugl-stapi, a, m. = fuglberg, D. I. i. 576.

fugl-veiðr, f. fowling, Grág. ii. 337, Js. 94, Pm. 7.

fugl-ver, n. a place for fowling. Fms. iv. 330.

fugl-verð, n. the price of fowl, Jb. 309.

fugl-þúfa, u, f. a ‘fowl-bank,’ bank on which birds sit, Bs. i. 388.

fulki, a, m. a bird, fulica, = Fr. le foulque, Engl. the coot, Edda (Gl.)

FULL, n. [A. S. ful; Hel. full]. a goblet full of drink, esp. a toast at a heathen feast, cp. esp. Hák. S. Góða ch. 16—skyldi full of eld bera, and signa full; Óðins-f., Njarðar-f., Freys-f., the toast of Odin, Njord, and Frey; Bragar-full (q. v.), Sdm. 8, Eg. 552, Orkn. 198: poët., Yggs-full, Viðris-full, the toast of Odin, poetry, Al. 6, 14; Dvalins-full, Billings-full, the toast of the dwarfs, poetry, Lex. Poët.

FULL-, in COMPDS, fully, quite, enough; it may be used with almost any adjective or adverb, e. g. full-afla, adj. fully able to, Gþl. 265, 371. full-afli, a, m. a full mighty man, Lex. Poët. full-bakaðr, part. full-baked, Orkn. 112, Fas. i. 85. full-boðit, part. n. good enough for, fully a match for, Bjarn. 8. full-borða, adj. a ‘full-boarded’ ship, with bulwarks of full height, Fms. ii. 218. full-býli, n. full provisions for a house, Bs. ii. 145. full-djarfliga, adv. (-ligr, adj.), with full courage, Fms. viii. 138. full-drengiligr, adj. (-liga, adv.), full bold, Eg. 29, Lex. Poët. full-drukkinn, part. quite drunk, Edda, Fms. i. 291, Ó. H. 72. full-dýrr, adj. full dear, N. G. L. i. 37. full-elda, adj. full hot, Fas. ii. 361. full-eltr, part. pursued enough, Ísl. ii. 361. full-féa, adj. = fullfjáðr. full-fengi, n. a sufficient haul, Gullþ. 9, Bs. ii. 42. full-fengiligr, adj. quite good, Stj. 201. full-ferma, d, to load full, Ísl. ii. 77. full-fimr, adj. quite alert, Fas. iii. 485. full-fjáðr, part. full monied, Gþl. 514. full-frægt, n. adj. famous enough, Fs. 17. full-fúss, adj. quite ready, Fms. x. 402, Grett. 159. full-færa, ð, to prove fully, Stat. 296. full-gamall, adj. full old, Fas. i. 376, Orkn. 112. full-gildi, n. a full prize, Thom. 18. full-glaðr, adj. full glad, Fms. iii. 52. full-goldit, part. fully paid, Þorst. St. 54. full-góðr, adj. good enough, Fms. i. 289, vii. 272, Ó. H. 115, Sks. 219. full-göra, ð, to fulfil, complete, perform, Stj. 391, Hkr. ii. 396, Fms. i. 189, Fs. 42, Bjarn. 25: reflex., K. Á. 108, Str. 2. full-görð, performance, D. N. full-görla (full-görva, Ls. 30), adv. full clearly, Stj. 608, Hom. 159, Fms. i. 215. full-görliga, adv. fully, Str. 19. full-görr, part. fully done, Bárð. 165, Stj. 166 (ripe): metaph. full, perfect, f. at afli, Fms. vi. 30. full-hefnt, part. fully avenged, Fas. ii. 410, Al. 34. full-heilagr, adj. full holy, Hom. 156. full-hugðr, part. full-bold, dauntless, El. 6; cp. Gh. 15, where full-hugða seems to be a verb pret. and to mean to love. full-hugi, a, m. a full gallant man, a hero without fear or blame, Eg. 505, Fms. ii. 120, vii. 150, viii. 158, Rd. 223, Ísl. ii. 360. full-indi, n. abundance, Fas. ii. 502. full-ílla, adv. (full-íllr, adj.), full ill, badly enough, Fas. i. 222, Am. 83. full-kaupa, adj. bought full dearly, Ó. H. 114. full-kátr, adj. gleeful, Fms. viii. 101. full-keyptr, part. bought full dearly, Nj. 75, Þórð. 65. full-koma, mod. full-komna, að, to fulfil, complete, Stj. 51, Bs. i. 694, K. Á. 22. full-kominn, part. perfect; f. at aldri, afli, etc., full-grown, Fms. vii. 199, xi. 182, Nj. 38, Eg. 146, 256; f. vin, 28, 64; f. (ready) at göra e-t, Hkr. i. 330: freq. in mod. usage, perfect, N. T. full-komleikr (-leiki), m. perfectibility, Barl. fullkom-liga, adv. (-ligr, adj.), perfectly, Barl. full-kosta, adj. full-matched (of a wedding), Nj. 16, Fms. iii. 108, Fs. 31. full-kvæni, adj. well married, Skv. 1. 34. full-langt, n. adj. full long. full-launaðr, part. fully rewarded, Grett. 123. full-leiksa, adj. having a hard game (hard job), Bjarn. 66. full-lengi, adv. full long, Fms. vi. 18, Sturl. i. 149. full-liða, adj. having men (troops) enough, Ísl. ii. 347: quite able, Gþl. 265, v. l. full-liga, adv. fully, Fms. v. 226, ix. 257, Greg. 58. full-malit, part. having ground enough, Gs. 16. full-mikill, adj. full great, Fs. 16. full-mæli, n. a final, full agreement, Gþl. 211, v. l. full-mælt, part. spoken enough (too much), Hkr. i. 232. full-mætr, adj. ‘full-meet,’ valid, Dipl. ii. 2. full-numi, full-numa (full-nomsi, Barl. 73), adj.; f. í e-u, or f. e-s, having learnt a thing fully, an adept in a thing, Bárð. 181, Fas. ii. 241, Sturl. iii. 173, Karl. 385. full-nægja, ð, to suffice, Fb. ii. 324; mod. Germ. genug-thun = to alone for. full-nægja, u, f. [Germ. genug-thuung], atonement. full-ofinn, part. full-woven, finished, El. 27. full-orðinn, part. full-grown, of age, Grett. 87 A. full-ráða, adj. fully resolved, Fms. viii. 422. full-reyndr, part. fully tried, Rd. 194, Fms. vii. 170. full-rétti, n. a law term, a gross insult for which full atonement is due, chiefly in the law of personal offence: phrases, mæla fullrétti við mann, of an affront in words, Grág. i. 156, ii. 144; göra fullrétti við e-n, to commit f. against one, i. 157; opp. to hálfrétti, a half, slight offence: fullrétti was liable to the lesser outlawry, Grág. l. c. fullréttis-orð, n. a verbal affront, defined as a gross insult in N. G. L. i. 70, but in a lighter sense in Grág. ii. 144, cp. Gþl. 195. fullréttis-skaði, a, m. scathe resulting from f., Gþl. 520, Jb. 411. fullréttis-verk, n. a deed of f., Gþl. 178. full-ríkr, adj. full rich, Fms. v. 273, viii. 361, Fas. iii. 552. full-roskinn, adj. full-grown, Magn. 448, Grett. 87. full-rýninn, adj. fully wise, Am. 11. full-ræði, n. full efficiency, Valla L. 202: full match = fullkosta, Fms. i. 3; fullræði fjár, efficient means, Ó. H. 134, cp. Fb. ii. 278: fullræða-samr, adj. efficient, active, Bs. i. 76. full-rætt, part. enough spoken of, Gh. 45. full-röskr, adj. in full strength, Vígl. 26, Grett. 107 A, 126. full-sekta, að, to make one a full outlaw, Ísl. ii. 166. full-skipat, part. n. fully engaged, taken up, Fas. iii. 542. full-skipta, t, to share out fully, Fms. xi. 442. full-skjótt, n. adj. full swiftly, Fms. viii. 210. full-snúit, part. n. fully, quite turned, Fms. viii. 222. full-sofit, sup. having slept enough, Dropl. 30. full-spakr, adj. full wise, Gs. 8; a pr. name, Landn. full-staðit, part. n. having stood full long, Gs. 23. full-steiktr, part. fully roasted, Fs. 24. full-strangr, adj. full strong, Mkv. full-svefta (full-sæfti, v. l.), adj. having slept enough, Sks. 496, Finnb. 346. full-sæfðr, part. quite dead, put to rest, Al. 41. full-sæla, u, f. wealth, bliss; f. fjár, great wealth, Fms. vii. 74, xi. 422, Fas. iii. 100, Band. 25; eilíf f., eternal bliss, 655 xiii. A. 2. full-sæll, adj. blissful, Fms. viii. 251, Band. 7. full-sæmdr, part. fully honoured, Fas. iii. 289. full-sæmiliga, adv. (-ligr, adj.), with full honour, Fas. iii. 124. full-sætti, n. full agreement, full settlement, Grág. ii. 183. full-tekinn, part.; f. karl, a full champion (ironic.), Grett. 208 A. new Ed. (slang). full-tíða (full-tíði), adj. full-grown, of full age, Eg. 185, Js. 63, 73, Grág. ii. 112, Landn. 44 (v. l.), Gþl. 307, 434, K. Á. 58, Vígl. 18, Ísl. ii. 336: gen. pl. fulltíðra, Grág. ii. 113. full-trúi, a, m. a trustee, one in whom one puts full confidence, also a patron, Fms. iii. 100, xi. 134, Rd. 248, in all these passages used of a heathen god; frændi ok f., Bs. i. 117: vinr ok f., Fms. v. 20:—in mod. usage, a representative, e. g. in parliament, a trustee, commissary, or the like. full-tryggvi, f. full trust, Grett. 97 new Ed. full-týja, ð, to help, = fulltingja, Fm. 6. full-vandliga, adv. (-ligr, adj.), with full care, Fas. iii. 237. full-váxinn, part. full-grown, 655 xxx. 5, Al. 18, Stj. 255, Sks. 35. full-vaxta, adj. = fullvaxinn, Nj. 259 (v. l.), Sks. 35 (increased). full-veðja, adj. one who is a full bail or security, H. E. i. 529, N. G. L. i. 215; in mod. usage, one who is fully able to act for oneself. full-vegit, part. n. having slain enough, Am. 50. full-vel, adv. full well, Skálda 161, Fms. viii. 162, Fas. i. 104. full-velgdr, part. quite warm, fully cooked, Fas. iii. 389. full-virði, n. a full prize, Grág. ii. 216. full-víss, adj. full wise, quite certain, Hom. 160. full-þroskaðr, part. full-grown, full strong, Fær. 97, Valla L. 196. full-þurr, adj. full dry, Eb. 260, Grett. 109. full-öruggr, adj. fully trusting.

fullna, að, to fulfil, Fms. xi. 219, 686 C. 2; fullna orðtak, to finish a sentence, Edda 130: reflex. in the law phrase, e-m fullnask vitni, one can produce full (lawful) witnesses, N. G. L. i. 21, Js. 119, Gþl. 264, 298, 301, passim in the Norse law.

fullnaðr, m., gen. ar, fulfilment, Stj. 523, Fms. ii. 150: the law phrase, halda til fullnaðar, to stand on one’s full right, Grág. i. 109; hafa fullnað ór máli, to carry out one’s full claim, in a suit, Finnb. 284; með fullnaði, completely, H. E. ii. 75. COMPDS: fullnaðar-borgan, f. full atonement, Pass. fullnaðar-vitni, n. a full (decisive) witness, Vm. 131.

FULLR, adj., compar. and superl. sometimes in old writers fullari, fullastr, in mod. fyllri, fyllztr, fullast, Fms. i. 162; fullara, Sighvat: [Ulf. fulls: A. S. and Engl. full; Germ. voll; Swed. full; Dan. fuld; cp. Lat. plēnus, Gr. πλήρης]: I. of bags or vessels, full, either with gen., fullr e-s, or with a prep., af e-u; fullr af silfri, full of silver, Eg. 310; fullr af fiskum, full of fishes, Landn. 51 (with v. l. fullr með fiskum less correct); fullr mjaðar, Ls. 53. 2. metaph., eitri f., fraught with poison, Bær. 15; full of poison, Fms. ii. 139; fullr lausungar, fullr öfundar, full of looseness, full of envy, Hom. 151: fullr upp úlbúðar, full of savageness, Eg. 114; hafa fullara hlut, to have the better of, Ísl. ii. 386; fullr fjandskapr, Fms. ii. 256; full skynsemd, i. 138; fullasta gipt, Greg. 37. II. full, complete, entire; fullt tungl, full moon, Rb. passim. 2. fullt goðorð, a full priesthood, that is to say, complete, lawful, Grág. Þ. Þ. passim; fullir baugar, fullr höfuðbaugr, full payment, Grág. ii. 181, 182; aura fulla, full (good) money, i. 84; með fé fullu, ii. 69. 3. the phrase, halda til fulls við e-n, to stand on one’s full right against one (as a rival), Ó. H. 111; halda fullara, to engage in a sharper contest, Sighvat, metaphor from a lawsuit. III. law phrases, fullr dómr, a full court, Grág. Þ. Þ., Nj. passim; til fullra laga, to the full extent of law, Hrafn. 18; fulln ok föstu lýritti, with full protest, Nj. 87; í fullu umboði e-s, Dipl. v. 28: lawful, þar er maðr tekr sókn eða vörn fyrir annan, ok verðr þó fullt (lawful), þótt …, Grág. i. 141 (cp. Engl. lawful); sverja mun ek þat, ef yðr þykkir þá fullara, more lawful (valid), Ísl. ii. 98; ef yðr þykir hitt fullara, þá vil ek bera járn, Fb. ii. 244; þat er jafnfullt, equally lawful, N. G. L. i. 34. IV. adv., at fullu, fully, Edda 20, Fms. i. 53; til fulls, fully, thoroughly: in law, eiga setur … til fulls, to sit duly (in parliament), Grág. i. 7; cp. fylla lög, to make laws.

fullting, n. (mod. fulltingi, and so in paper MSS.: it occurs also as masc., gen. fulltingjar, Ísl. ii. 74; þinn fullting (acc.), Fb. ii. 327); [A. S. fultum]:—help, assistance, Eg. 7, 331, 485, Greg. 40, K. Á. 122; falla í f. með e-m, to side with one, Grág. i. 1, ii. 343, Gísl. 43, (Ed. nokkurn fullting, masc.), passim. COMPDS: fulltings-maðr, m. a helper, Bret. 78, Sks. 611, Sd. 170, Rd. 254, Bs. i. 683, passim. fulltings-steinn, m. ‘help-stone,’ translation of ‘Ebenezer,’ Stj. 1 Sam. iv. 1.

fulltingja, d, [A. S. fultum], to lend help, assist, with dat.; Guð mun f. þér, Fms. v. 193, viii. 26; fulltingja enum sára manni, Grág. ii. 27; fulltingja rétt biskups-stólsins, Fb. iii: to back a thing, Ó. H. 43, 75.

fulltingjandi, part.; fulltingjari, a, m. a supporter, Greg. 24, Stj. 33.

fullu-liga, adv. fully, Barl. 3, 198; fullu-ligr, adj. full, Stj. 84.

FUM, n. [from Lat. fumare, through Engl. fume = hurry]:—confused hurry, (mod.)

fuma, að, to hurry confusedly.

fundera, að, (Lat. word), to found, 655 xxxii. 21, (rare.)

funding, f. (fundning, Bs. i. 255, Karl. 548), finding, Fms. vi. 271.

FUNDR, m. (fyndr, N. G. L. i. 46, 58), gen. fundar, pl. fundir. [cp. Engl. find; Germ., Swed., and Dan. fund, from finna, q. v.]:—finding, discovery; fundr fjárins, Fms. vi. 271, v. l.; fundr Íslands, the discovery of Iceland, Landn. 2. a thing found, N. G. L. i. 63, l. c.: fundar-laun, n. pl. reward for finding a thing. II. a meeting, Edda 108; koma, fara á fund e-s, or til fundar við e-n, to go to visit one, Eg. 39, Nj. 4, Grág. i. 374, Fms. vii. 244, passim; mann-f., a congregation; héraðs-f., a county meeting; biskupa-f., a council, 625. 54; félags-f., the meeting of a society, and of any meeting. 2. a conflict, fight, battle, Nj. 86, Eg. 572, Fms. iii. 9, Fs. 17: in names of battles, Brúar-f., the fight at the Bridge, Ann. 1242; Flóa-f., Þverár-f., the fight in F. and Th., Sturl. iii. 76.

fund-víss, adj. quick to find, Mar.

fun-heitr, adj. warm, of blood heat, e. g. mér er funheitt á höndum, but never of a feverish heat.

FUNI, a, m. [Ulf. renders πυρ by fon; Germ. funke is perhaps of the same root; otherwise this word is lost in all Teut. languages]:—a flame; kyuda funa, Hkv. 2. 37, Gm. 1, 42; funi kveykisk af funa, a saying, Hm. 56: metaph. lust, Fms. ii. 369. II. metaph. a hot-tempered man; hann er mesti funi = einsog funi, (mod.)

fun-ristir, m. flame-shaker, a name of Thor, Þd.

fun-rögnir, m., poët., fens f., a lord of the fire of fens, a prince, (gold is the fire of water), Kormak.

FURA, u, f. [Engl. fir; Germ. föhre; mod. Norse furu; Dan. för]:—fir, Lat. pinus, Edda (Gl.); fura vex, wide as the fir grows, Grág. ii. 170, Vkv. 9; ships were built of fir-timber, hence the allit. phrase, á fljótandi furu, on a floating fir, on hoard ship, Grág. i. 46: in poetry freq. = a ship, like Lat. abies, Lex. Poët. COMPDS: furu-kvistr, m. a fir bough, Fas. iii. 34. furu-stöng, f. a fir staff, Str. 10.

furask, að, [cp. A. S. fur or furh; Engl. furrow; Dan. fure], to be furrowed, Edda Ht. 4.

FURÐA, u, f. a spectre, ominous appearance; víst man þetta f. þín vera, Ísl. ii. 351, Eb. 262; góðs furða (góð f.), a good omen, Fs. 172, Fms. viii. 91; ílls f., a bad omen, Sturl. iii. 59, Ísl. ii. 10. 2. metaph. a strange, wonderful thing; nú er furða mikil um Egil, Eg. 345; ekki er þetta f. nein, … at þat væri nein f., ‘tis nothing strange, Ísl. ii. 337; þótti öllum mönnum er sá, mikil furða, Fms. vi. 183; orrosta svá hörð at f. var at, x. 359; mesta f., Sks. 207, Fas. i. 260, Ó. H. 115, Gísl. 71: in COMPDS furðu-, wonderfully, very; furðu-djarfr, adj. very insolent, Fms. i. 3; furðu-góðr, adj. very good, Ó. H. 115; furðu-hár, adj. exceeding high; furðu-heimskr, adj. very foolish, Eg. 218; furðu-sterkr, adj. very stark or strong, Edda; furðu-vel, adv. wonderfully well, Nj. 230: freq. in mod. usage in this sense, but obsolete in the former sense. A local name, Furðu-strandir, f. pl. Wonder-shore, the ancient name of Labrador. A. A. furðu-verk, n. pl. wonderful works, miracles.

furða, að, to forebode, with dat.; íllu mun f., ef …, it will bode ill if …, Fms. ii. 194: mod. impers., e-n furðar á e-u, one wonders at a thing, Safn i. 55; furðar mig á fréttum þeim, a ditty.

furðan-ligr, adj. (-liga, adv.), wonderful, remarkable, Rb. 360.

furðu-ligr, adj. (-liga, adv.), id.

furtr, m. a gruff boor, furtsligr, adj. gruffly, furta-skapr, m.

fussa, að, to say fie to a thing, with dat.

FUSSUM, interj. fie, Fas. ii. 425: with dat., Grett. 176 new Ed.

fustan, n. (for. word), fustian, Vm., B. K. passim, Fms. viii. 95, Eg. 602.

fúa, u, f. = fóa, a fox; brögðótt reyndist gemlu fúa, Mkv. 18.

FÚI, a, m. rottenness, freq.: medic. putrefaction; hold-f., mortification.

fúinn, part. adj. of a lost strong verb analogous to búinn, hence feyja (q. v.), rotten, esp. of a tree, also of clothes, but without the notion of stinking, Jón. 19; graut-fúinn, mauk-f., fót-f., ú-fúinn, al-fúinn.

fúinn, adj. rotten. Mar. 378.

fúki, a, m. [from Lat. fucus], rotten sea-weed or the like, cp. fúka-te, n. stale or bad tea, Eggert.

fúk-yrði, n. pl. foul language, (mod.)

FÚLGA, u, f. [formed from the part. of fela, q. v.], the fee paid for alimentation, esp. of a minor, or one given into another’s charge, = mod. meðgjöf, Jb. 168, Grág. passim: so in the phrases, inna, meta … fúlgu: of hay, fodder, Fb. i. 521; hence in mod. usage, hey-f., a little hay-rick. COMPDS: fúlgu-fall, n. failing to pay the f., Sd. 144. fúlgu-fé, n. sheep or cattle put out to fodder, Jb. 222, Grág. ch. 224. fúlgu-fénaðr, m. id., Grág. i. 431. fúlgu-kona, u, f. a woman-boarder, D. I. i. 303. fúlgu-maðr, m. a boarder, Grág. ii. 43. fúlgu-máli, a, m. terms or contract for a f., Gþl. 501, Grág. ii. 161. fúlgu-naut, n. a bullock put out to keep, Gþl. 503.

FÚLL, adj. [Ulf. fûls, John xi. 39; A. S., Dan., and Swed. ful; Germ. faul; Engl. foul]:—foul, stinking; fúlt ok kalt, Grett. 158, Fms. vi. 164, Gísl. 39, Fs. 141; and-fúll, of foul breath. II. metaph. foul, mean, Stj. 77, 78:—as a law term in an ordeal, foul, verða fúll af járni, to befoul (opp. to skírr, pure), N. G. L. i. 342, 351.

fúl-leitr, adj. of foul appearance, Fas. ii. 149.

fúl-lifnaðr, m. and fúl-lífi, n. lewdness, lechery, Stj. 58, 116, passim.

fúl-liga, adv. meanly, Fas. iii. 664.

fúl-mannligr, adj. (-liga, adv.), mean, paltry, Fas. iii. 502.

fúl-már, m. the ‘foul-mew’ or fulmar, a sea-bird, Hallfred; cp. Bewick.

fúl-mennska, u, f. paltriness, baseness, Nj. 185.

fúlna, að, to become stinking, 655 iv. 2.

fúls-liga, adv. (-ligr, adj.), basely, Stj. 186, Barl. 134.

fúl-yrði, n. foul language, Barl. 118, N. G. L. ii. 418.

fúna, að, to rot, decay, 623. 61, K. Á. 28, Fms. xi. 12, 280, Edda (pref.): in a pun, Nj. 263.

fúnan, f. decomposition, Post. 23.

FÚRR, m. (not furr, but with the vowel long, cp. fúrs, skúrum, Vellekla), [A. S. fŷre; Engl. fire; O. H. G. fiûr; Germ. feuer; Gr. πυρ]:—fire, only in poetry and poët. compds, never in prose, Lex. Poët.; vide eldr, p. 125.

fús-liga, adv. willingly, Eg. 96.

FÚSS, adj. [O. H. G. funs; A. S. contr. fûs; lost in most Teut. languages except Icel. and in provincial Norse; in Icel. it is a very common word]:—willing, wishing for; in the sayings, fús er hönd á venju and þangað er klárinn fúsastr sem hann er kvaldastr: with gen. of the thing, fúss e-s, or fúss á e-t, or til e-s; or with infin., þess fús sem Guð er fúss, Skálda 169, Eg. 521; jarl var þess fúsari, the earl was minded for that, was not unwilling, Orkn. 396; þess var ek fúsastr at drepa þá alla, Fms. vi. 213; svá sem hann hafði áðr verit fúsastr til, iii. 49; görði hann fúsan at fara til Finnlands, Hkr. i. 19; Þorgils kveðsk fúsari at ríða fyrir innan, Korm. 68: absol., fúss (willingly) vil ek mína hamingju til leggja, Fms. v. 236; kveðsk hann munu eigi svá miklu fúsari undan at ríða en þeir, Ísl. ii. 361: sagði eigi þá menn er hann væri fúsari við at kaupa en þá, Nj. 40; fúst ok falt, N. G. L. i. 237; ú-fúss, unwilling: in poët. compds, víg-fúss, böð-f., her-f., warlike, martial; sig-fúss, victorious; böl-f., baleful, malignant; hel-f., murderous.

fyð-riskill, m. a kind of fish, Edda (Gl.)

FYGLA, d, [fugl], to catch fowl, Grág. ch. 240, Js. 107.

fygling, f. fowling, Thom. 20, Vm. 148. fyglingar-maðr, m. a fowler, Am. 33.

FYL, n. a foal or filly (cp. fylja), Grág. ii. 89, 326, Edda 27: in a pun, Fms. x. 220, Gísl.; fyljum, dat. pl. the foal of an ass, Stj. 183.

fyldingr, m. a kind of fish, Edda (Gl.); also spelt fylvingr.

fyldinn, adj. [fold], soft, of greensward, fleece, or the like.

fylgð, f. a following, backing up, help, guidance; Gamli bauð honum menn til fylgðar, Grett. 109; fékk hann þeim mann til fylgðar, þann er vel kunni vegu alla, Fms. i. 72; í samsæti eðr fylgð, Sks. 370 B: fylgðar-lauss, adj. without help, alone, Fms. ii. 280; fylgðar-maðr, m. a follower, attendant, guide, Nj. 142, Ld. 48, Sturl. ii. 249 C. 2. party, followers; þeir feðgar völdu menn mjök at afli til fylgðar við sik, Eg. 84; vera í fylgð með e-m, Nj. 62: veita e-m styrk ok fylgð, Fms. i. 20; eigi verri til fylgðar en röskr maðr, Nj. 106; fór þat lið heim er honum þótti minni fylgð (less support, use) í, Fms. iv. 350; fylgð ok þjónusta, Eg. 474: of the body-guard of kings or princes, like the comitatus of Tacitus, vide esp. N. G. L. ii. Hirðskrá ch. 32; fylgð forn ok ný, the old and new body-guard, id.; halda f., to wait upon the king, Fms. viii. 166: fylgðar-hald, n. attendance upon the king, N. G. L. l. c.; fylgðar-horn, n. a horn to call the king’s men together, N. G. L. ii; fylgðar-menn, m. pl. men attending upon the king, id. passim.

fylgi, n. = fylgð, help, support; vinátta ok fylgi, Ísl. ii. 125; varð Þorsteinn frægr af þessu f., Grett. 109 A; auka sér f., to win followers, Bs. i. 721; beiðslur eða f. partizanship, 869; heldr vilda ek hans f. hafa en tíu annarra, Nj. 183: mod. with the notion of energy, zeal, in backing a case. COMPDS: fylgi-kona, u, f. (fylgi-mær, Str. 6), a concubine, e. g. the mistresses of the clergy before the Reformation were called so, Sturl. i. 56, ii. 169, iii. 139. fylgi-lag, n. concubinage, Bárð. 167. fylgi-samr and fylgju-samr, adj. a faithful follower, Fms. i. 104, v. 316, vi. 211, Ld. 190, Eg. 167, 199, Lv. 26.

fylginn, adj. adherent, attached to, Fms. vi. 240, Sturl.

fylgja, n, f. = fylgð, Grág. i. 343; bjóða e-m fylgju sína, ii. 56, v. l., Ísl. ii. 340; í förum ok fylgju með e-m, Stj. 135, 222; koma í fylgju með e-m, Rb. 356. II. metaph. a fetch, a female guardian spirit of the heathen age, whose appearance foreboded one’s death, cp. Hkv. Hjörv. (the prose); þú munt vera feigr maðr ok muntú séð hafa fylgju þína, Nj. 62, Hallfr. S. ch. 11: also whole families had a fylgja (kyn-f., ættar-f.), get ek at þetta hafi engar konur verit aðrar en fylgjur yðrar frænda, Fms. ii. 195; eigi fara litlar fylgjur fyrir þér, x. 262, Vd. ch. 36; nú sækja at fylgjur Úsvífs, Nj. 20; manna-fylgjur, Bjarn. 48, Lv. 69; fuglar þeir munu vera manna-fylgjur, Ísl. ii. 196; marr (a horse) er manns fylgja, Fs. 68; liggja fylgjur þínar til Íslands, thy guardian angels, good angels, point to Iceland, i. e. thou wilt go thither, Orkn. 14; þínar fylgjur mega eigi standask hans fylgjur, Gullþ. 11, Lv. 104; hafa þeir bræðr rammar fylgjur, Fs. 50:—in mod. lore (as also sometimes in the Sagas, e. g. Nj. l. c.) fylgja means a ‘fetch,’ an appearance in the shape of an animal, a crescent, or the like going before a person, only a ‘fey’ man’s fylgja follows after him. 2. = Lat. secundinae, a baby’s caul, cp. Germ. glückshaube; barns-f., Bs. ii. 168, freq. in mod. usage, cp. Ísl. Þjóðs. i. 354. III. in pl. a law phrase, kvenna-fylgjur, abduction or elopement, Grág. i. 342 (cp. fylgja l. 4. below). COMPDS: fylgju-engill, m. a guardian angel, Nj. 157. fylgju-kona, u, f. (= fylgja II. above), a female guardian, Fs. 114.

FYLGJA, ð or d, [A. S. folgjan; Engl. follow; Germ. folgen; Swed. följa; Dan. fölge]:—to follow, and metaph. to back, help, side with, with dat., Dropl. 26; landvættir allar fylgðu Hafr-Birni til þings, Landn. 271, Grág. i. 46; ek man fylgja Búa bróður mínum, Fms. xi. 111; ok er úfallit at f. Þjórólfi um þetta mál, Boll. 342; fylgja málum e-s, Fms. i. 86; fylgja e-m at, to side with, take one’s part. xi. 111; man Björn þeim at f., Bjarn. 7:—also of things, láta sverðit hendi f., let it follow the hand, remain in it, Eg. 505. 2. to lead, guide one; yðr var fylgt í kornhlöðu eina, Eg. 49; fylgja e-m á brott, Ld. 44; vilda ek at þú fylgdir mér til frænda minna, Nj. 45. 3. to pursue a flying host, Fms. i. 45, ix. 409. 4. a law term, fylgja konu, to elope with a woman, Grág. i. 342, 343; an offence liable to the lesser outlawry, even in the case of accomplices. 5. to be about one; konungr lét sveininn f. móður sinni, meðan hann var allungr, Fms. i. 14: tungl fylgir sólmerkjum, Rb. 108; meðan svörðr ok hold fylgði, Eg. 770:—to follow one as one’s mistress, Fms. xi. 160, Sturl. i. 97; cp. Fms. x. 322, Sturl. i. 94, Orkn. II. metaph. to follow, observe, Róm. 87; fylgja e-s ráðum, Bs. i. 720; fylgja hirðsiðum, Fms. vi. 240. 2. to follow as an encumbrance; Margrét fylgi Loptstaða-eign, D. N. i. 82; so in the saying, vandi fylgir vegsemd hverri:—to follow as a quality or the like; þat segi þér at mér fylgi engi hugr, … you say that there is no courage in me, Fms. vii. 297; svá mikill kraptr fylgði þessum mönnum, Edda (pref.); þar fylgði sætr ilmr, Bs. i. 454; upphaf allra frásagna þeirra er (dat.) sannindi f., true records, Fms. xi. 412; hvat fylgir engli þeim, what is the quality of this angel? Nj. 157. 3. to belong to; himin ok jörð ok alla hluti sem þeim f., Edda (pref.); nú fylgir skógr landi, a forest belongs to the land, Grág. i. 200; segl ok reiða er fylgðu skipinu, Hkr. i. 277; aðrar eignir þær er þar f., Ld. 96; sök þá er tylptar-kviðr á at fylgja, a case that falls under the verdict of twelve, Grág. i. 41. 4. causal, to let a thing follow, to add; þat lét hann f., at …, he added, that …, Fms. vii. 227; þar lét hann ok f. grávöru mikla, Eg. 69; hann lét þat f. boði, Fb. ii. 187; þat fylgði ok þeirri sögn, 184. 5. fylgja (sér) at e-u, to work hard, push on with one’s work (cp. fylgi, at-fylgi), Bs. i. 793; fylgja e-u at, to pursue, press on with a thing, Ó. H. 41. 6. with acc., but only as a Latinism in translation, H. E. i. 514. III. reflex. to follow one another, metaph. to side with one another, hang together; hann bað sína menn fylgjask vel, he bade them hold well together, Eg. 288; þeir fylgðusk at hverju máli, Nj. 72: in a pass. sense rare and unclass., Sks. 347. IV. part. fylgendr, pl. followers, Bs. i. 705, Barl. 53.

fylgjari, a, m. a follower, Sks. 524, Þórð. 72, Barl. 171.

FYLGSNI, n. pl., often spelt fylksni, fylskni, or fylsni, Gísl. 60, 67; [Goth. fulhsni = κρυπτόν; from fólginn or fulginn the part. of fela]:—a hiding-place, lurking-place, cavern, Grág. i. 436, Nj. 133, 267, Fms. i. 210, iv. 170, Blas. 42, Niðrst. 6; ór fylgsnum ok ór hellum, id.; helvítis-fylgsni, Sks. 605 B; var hann í fylgsnum allt haustið, Hkr. iii. 323; liggja í fylgsnum, Fms. vii. 275; leiðir allar ok f. á skóginum, i. 71, Stor. 1. fylgsnis-lauss, adj. without a hiding-place, Ísl. ii. 411.

fyl-hross, n. a mare with a foal, Jb. 348.

fylja, u, f. a filly (cp. fyl), in the pun, ek vil fá þér þar fylju er þú fær mér fola, I will give thee a filly for a foal, from a box on the ear being called ‘cheek-horse’ (kinn-hestr), Gísl. 27, 111.

FYLKI, n. [from folk], a county or shire; in Norway the land was divided into fylki, each of them ruled by a fylkir; átta fylkja þing, Fms. v. 4, Hkr. i. 62, passim; esp. with regard to the levy, as from each fylki twelve ships of war were to be levied; þat er fylki kallat er göra má at tólf skip, Fms. x. 306; þat kalla Norðmenn fylki sem eru tólf skip skipað með vápnum ok mönnum, ok á einu skipi nær sextigi manna eðr sjautigi, Ó. T. 35. COMPDS: fylkis-kirkja, u, f. the principal church in a county, the ‘shire-kirk.’ fylkis-konungr, m. the king or chief of a shire, Fms. iv. 140, x. 272, passim. fylkis-maðr, m. an inhabitant of a shire, N. G. L. i. 343, Boldt 169. fylkis-prestr, m. a priest of a shire-kirk, B. K. 119, N. G. L. i. 135. fylkis-þing, n. a county meeting, shire-mote, D. N. II. poët. a host in battle, Edda 108.

fylking, f. battle array, the ranks, Hkr. ii. 371, Eg. 268, 286, Nj. 274, Fms. i. 45, vi. passim; the Lat. legio is rendered by fylking, Róm. 260, 298. COMPDS: fylkingar-armr, m. the wing of an army, Nj. 274, Hkr. i. 236, Fms. vii. 277, Orkn. 474. fylkingar-broddr, m. the vanguard of a host, Fb. ii. 351. fylkinga-skipan, f. battle array.

fylkir, m., poët. a king, Lex. Poët.

fylkja, t, to draw up (a milit. term), absol. or with dat., Eg. 284, Fms. i. 19, viii. 407, passim.

FYLLA, t, [fullr], to fill, pour full, Sks. 416, Stj. 319. β. impers., esp. as a naut. term, skip (acc.) fyllir, the ship makes water, i. e. fills with water, Eg. 386; fylldi þegar flotað var, Fms. ix. 447; þá fylldi gröfina vatns, the hole was filled with water, Greg. 62; mik fyllir harms, I am filled with grief, Karl. 321. II. metaph., Hom. 108:—to fill, complete, make up, Hkr. iii. 98, Anecd. 92, Sturl. iii. 244, Fms. vi. 90, Fbr. 217, Grág. ii. 301. 2. to fulfil, 625. 92, Anecd. 50, Blas. 50, Hom. 51, Fms. x. 230, Rb. 80. 3. a parliamentary phrase, fylla lög ok lof, to make laws, Grág. i. 7; cp. the Engl. lawful. 4. the phrase, fylla flokk e-s, to fill one’s host, side with one, Þórð., Hkr. i. (in a verse). III. reflex. to be filled, to grow full, with gen.; fyllask áhyggju ok hræðslu (reiði), to be filled with cares and fears (anger), Blas. 46, Fms. i. 216; fylldisk hann upp fjándskapar, viii. 391. 2. to be fulfilled, Hom. 51, 105, Blas. 42. IV. part. fyllendr, pl. fulfillers, Hom. 133.

fylli, f., older and better form fyllr, fulness, 655 xxvii. 18, Edda 52. 2. of food, one’s fill; vilit þér gefa mér fylli mína (my fill) af oxanum, Edda 45, 48, Karl. 321; fyllr matar eðr drykkjar, 54. 3. medic. hydatides.

fylli-liga, adv. fully, Fms. xi. 231, Stj. 29.

fylling, f. filling, fulness, 655 xxvii. 19, Stj. 292: of the moon, 686 C. 2. II. metaph. fulness: fylling tímans, fulness of time, N. T. passim: fulfilment, fylling Guðs boðorða, Stj. passim; fylling laga, Hom. 135; fylling várra bæna, 625. 175.

fyl-merr, f. = fylhross, Grág. i. 504.

fylvingar, f. pl. nuts, Edda (Gl.), Gísl. 109 (in a verse), Þd. 14.

fyndinn, adj. [finna], funny, facetious: fyndni, f. facetiousness, wit.

fyrðar, m. pl. [A. S. fyrð = troops], poët. men, warriors, Lex. Poët.

FYRIR, prep., in the Editions spelt differently; in MSS. this word is usually abbreviated either  (i. e. firir), or Ꝼ̆, fur͛, fvr͛ (i. e. fyrir); in some MSS. it is idiomatically spelt with i, fir͛, e. g. Arna-Magn. 382 (Bs. i. 263 sqq.); and even in the old Miracle-book Arna-Magn. 645 (Bs. i. 333 sqq.), just as ifir is written for yfir (over); in a few MSS. it is written as a monosyllable fyr, e. g. D. I. i. 475, Mork. passim; in Kb. (Sæm.-Edda) occurs fyr telia, Vsp. I; fyr norðan, 36; fyr dyrum, Gm. 22; fyr vestan ver, Hkv. 2. 8; in other places as a dissyll. fyrir, e. g. Hm. 56, Gm. 54, Skm. 34, Ls. 15, Am. 64, Hkv. 2. 2, 19 (quoted from Bugge’s edition, see his preface, p. xvi); fyr and fyrir stand to one another in the same relation as ept to eptir, und to undir, of (super) to yfir: this monosyllabic form is obsolete, save in the compds, where ‘for-’ is more common than ‘fyrir-;’ in some cases both forms are used, e. g. for-dæming and fyrir-dæming; in others only one, but without any fixed rule: again, the forms fyri, fyre, or fire, which are often used in Edd., are just as wrong, as if one were to say epti, undi, yfi; yet this spelling is found now and then in MSS., as, fyre, Ó. H. (facsimile); fire, Grág. Sb. ii. 288 (also facsimile): the particles í and á are sometimes added, í fur, Fms. iv. 137; í fyrir, passim; á fur, Haustl. 1. [Ulf. faur and faura; A. S. fore and for; Engl. for and fore-; Germ. für and vor; Dan. for; Swed. för; Gr. προ-; Lat. pro, prae.]

WITH DAT., chiefly without the notion of movement.

A. LOCAL: I. before, in front of; fyrir dyrum, before the doors, at the doors, Nj. 14, Vsp. 53, Hm. 69, Edda 130; niðr f. smiðju-dyrum, Eg. 142:—ahead, úti fyrir búðinni, Nj. 181; kómusk sauðirnir upp á fjallit f. þeim, ahead of them, 27; vóru fyrir honum borin merkin, the banner was borne before him, 274; göra orð fyrir sér, to send word before one, Fms. vii. 207, Hkr. iii. 335 (Ó. H. 201, l. c., frá sér):—also denoting direction, niðri í eldinum f. sér, beneath in the fire before them, Nj. 204; þeir sá f. sér bæ mikinn, they saw before them a great building, i. e. they came to a great house, Eg. 546; öðrum f. sér (in front) en öðrum á bak sér, Grág. i. 5. 2. before one, before one’s face, in one’s presence; úhelgaða ek Otkel f. búum, before the neighbours, Nj. 87; lýsi ek f. búum fimm, 218; lýsa e-u (to proclaim) f. e-m, Ld. 8; hann hermdi boð öll f. Gizuri, Nj. 78; hón nefndisk f. þeim Gunnhildr, told them that her name was G., Fms. i. 8; kæra e-t f. e-m, Ó. H. 60; slíkar fortölur hafði hann f. þeim, Nj. 200; the saying, því læra börnin málið að það er f. þeim haft, bairns learn to speak because it is done before them, i. e. because they hear it; hafa gott (íllt) f. e-m, to give a good (bad) example, e. g. in the presence of children; lifa vel f. Guði, to live well before God, 623. 29; stór ábyrgðar-hluti f. Guði, Nj. 199; sem þeir sjá réttast f. Guði, Grág. i. (pref.); fyrir öllum þeim, Hom. 89; á laun f. öðrum mönnum, hidden from other men, unknown to them, Grág. i. 337, Jb. 378; nú skaltú vera vin minn mikill f. húsfreyju minni, i. e. when you talk to my wife, Nj. 265; fyrir Drottni, before the Lord, Merl. 2. 78. 3. denoting reception of guests, visitors; hann lét ryðja f. þeim búðina, he had the room cleared for them, for their reception, Nj. 228; Valhöll ryðja fyr vegnu fólki, i. e. to clear Valhalla for slain folk, Em. I; ryðja vígvöll f. vegundum, Nj. 212; ljúka upp f. e-m, to open the door for one, Fms. xi. 323, Stj. 5; rýma pallinn f. þeim, Eg. 304; hann lét göra eld f. þeim, he had a fire made for them, 204; þeir görðu eld. f. sér, Fms. xi. 63; … veizlur þar sem fyrir honum var búit, banquets that were ready for him, Eg. 45. II. before one, in one’s way; þar er díki varð f. þeim, Eg. 530; á (fjörðr) varð f. þeim, a river, fjord, was before them, i. e. they came to it, 133, 161; at verða eigi f. liði yðru, 51; maðr sá varð f. Vindum, that man was overtaken by the V., Hkr. iii. 363; þeirra manna er f. honum urðu, Eg. 92. 2. sitja f. e-m, to lie in wait for one, Ld. 218, Nj. 107; lá f. henni í skóginum, Edda (pref.); sitja f. rekum, to sit watching for wrecks, Eg. 136 (fyrir-sát). 3. ellipt., menn urðu at gæta sín er f. urðu, Nj. 100; Egill var þar f. í runninum, E. was before (them), lay in ambush, Eg. 378; hafði sá bana er f. varð, who was before (the arrow), i. e. he was hit, Nj. 8. 4. verða f. e-u, to be hit, taken, suffer from a thing; ef hann verðr f. drepi, if he be struck, Grág. ii. 19; verða f. áverka, to be wounded, suffer injury, Ld. 140; verða f. reiði konungs, to fall into disgrace with the king, Eg. 226; verða f. ósköpum, to become the victim of a spell, spell-bound, Fas. i. 130; sitja f. hvers manns ámæli, to be the object of all men’s blame, Nj. 71; vera eigi f. sönnu hafðr, to be unjustly charged with a thing, to be innocent. III. a naut. term, before, off; liggja f. bryggjum, to lie off the pier, Ld. 166; skip fljóta f. strengjum, Sks. 116; þeir lágu f. bænum, they lay off the town, Bs. i. 18; liggja úti f. Jótlands-síðu, off Jutland, Eg. 261; hann druknaði f. Jaðri, off the J., Fms. i. II; þeir kómu at honum f. Sjólandi, off Zealand, x. 394; hafa úti leiðangr f. landi, Hkr. i. 301; f. Humru-minni, off the Humber, Orkn. 338, cp. Km. 3, 8, 9, 13, 19, 21; fyrir Nesjum, off the Ness, Vellekla; fyrir Tungum, Sighvat; fyrir Spáni, off Spain, Orkn. 356. IV. before, at the head of, denoting leadership; smalamaðr f. búi föður síns, Ver. 26 (of king David); vera f. liði, to be over the troops, Eg. 292, Nj. 7; vera f. máli, to lead the case, Band. 8; vera forstjóri f. búi, to be steward over the household, Eg. 52; ráða f. landi, ríki, etc., to rule, govern, Ó H. 33, Nj. 5; hverr f. eldinum réði, who was the ringleader of the fire, Eg. 239; ráða f. e-u, to rule, manage a thing, passim: the phrase, sitja f. svörum, to respond on one’s behalf, Ölk. 36, Band. 12; hafa svör f. e-m, to be the chief spokesman, Fms. x. 101, Dipl. v. 26. V. special usages; friða f. e-m, to make peace for one, Fms. vii. 16, Bs. i. 65; bæta f. e-m, to make things good for one, Hom. 109; túlka, vera túlkr, flytja (etc.) f. e-m, to plead for one, Fms. iii. 33, Nj. 128,—also spilla f. e-m, to disparage one, Eg. 255; haga, ætla f. e-u, to manage, arrange for one, Ld. 208, Sturl. i. 14, Boll. 356; rífka ráð f. e-m, to better one’s condition, Nj. 21; ráða heiman-fylgju ok tilgjöf f. frændkonu sinni, Js. 58; standa f. manni, to stand before, shield a man, stand between him and his enemy, Eg. 357, Grág. ii. 13; vera skjöldr f. e-m, 655 xxxii. 4; hafa kostnað f. e-u, to have the expences for a thing, Ld. 14; vinna f. e-m, to support one by one’s work, Sks. 251; starfa f. fé sínu, to manage one’s money, Ld. 166; hyggja f. e-u, to take heed for a thing, Nj. 109; hyggja f. sér, Fs. 5; hafa forsjá f. e-m, to provide for one, Ld. 186; sjá f. e-u, to see after, Eg. 118, Landn, 152; sjá þú nokkut ráð f. mér, Nj. 20: ironic. to put at rest, Háv. 40: ellipt., sjá vel f., to provide well for, Nj. 102.

B. TEMP. ago; fyrir þrem nóttum, three nights ago; fyrir stundu, a while ago, Nj. 80; fyrir litlu, a little while ago, Fms. i. 76, Ld. 134; fyrir skömmu, a sbort while ago; fyrir löngu, a long while ago, Nj. 260, Fms. i. 50; fyrir öndverðu, from the beginning, Grág. i. 80, ii. 323, 394, Finnb. 342; fyrir þeim, before they were born, Fms. i. 57. 2. the phrase, vera f. e-u, to forebode; vera f. stórfundum, Nj. 107, 277; þat hygg ek vera munu f. siða-skipti, Fms. xi. 12; þessi draumr mun vera f. kvámu nökkurs manns, vii. 163; dreyma draum f. e-u, 8; fyrir tiðendum, ii. 65:—spá f. e-m, to ‘spae’ before, prophecy to one, Nj. 171.

C. METAPH.: I. before, above; þóttu þeir þar f. öllum ungum mönnum, Dropl. 7; þykkisk hann mjök f. öðrum mönnum, Ld. 38; ver f. hirðmönnum, be first among my herdsmen, Eg. 65; Hálfdan svarti var f. þeim bræðrum, H. was the foremost of the brothers, Fms. i. 4; þorgrímr var f. sonum Önundar, Grett. 87; var Haraldr mest f. þeim at virðingu, Fms. i. 47. II. denoting help, assistance; haun skal rétta vættið f. þeim, Grág. i. 45 (vide above A. IV and V). 2. the following seem to be Latinisms, láta lífit f. heilagri Kristni, to give up one’s life for holy Christianity, = Lat. pro, Fms. vii. 172; ganga undir píslir fyrir Guðs nafni, Blas. 38; gjalda önd mína f. önd þinni, Johann. 17; gefa gjöf f. sál sinni (pro animâ suâ), H. E. i. 466; fyrir mér ok minni sál, Dipl. iv. 8; færa Guði fórnir f. e-m, 656 A; heita f. e-m, biðja f. e-m, to make a vow, pray for one (orare pro), Fms. iii. 48, Bs. i. 70; biðja f. mönnum, to intercede for, 19, Fms. xi. 287: even with a double construction, biðja f. stað sinn (acc., which is vernacular) ok heilagri kirkju (dat., which is a Latinism), x. 127. III. denoting disadvantage, harm, suffering; þú lætr Egil vefja öll mál fyrir þér, thou lettest Egil thwart all thy affairs, Eg. 249; únýtir hann þá málit fyrir sér, then he ruins his own case, Grág. i. 36, Dropl. 14, 16; Manverjar rufu safnaðinn f. Þorkatli, the Manxmen broke up the assembly, i. e. forsook Thorkel, Fms. ix. 422; kom upp grátr f. henni, she burst into tears, 477; taka fé f. öðrum, to take another’s money, N. G. L. i. 20; knörr þann er konungr lét taka fyrir Þórólfi, Landn. 56; ef hross verðr tekit f. honum, if a horse of his be taken, Grág. i. 436; hann tók upp fé fyrir öllum, he seized property for them all, Ó. H. 60; e-t ferr ílla f. e-m, a thing turns out ill for one; svá fór f. Ólófu, so it came to pass for O., Vígl. 18; loka dyrr f. e-m, to lock the door in one’s face, Edda 21: þeir hafa eigi þessa menn f. yðr drepit, heldr f. yðrar sakir þessi víg vegit, i. e. they have not harmed you, but rather done you a service in slaying those men, Fbr. 33; tók at eyðask f. henni lausa-fé, her money began to fail, Nj. 29; rak á f. þeim storma ok stríðviðri, they were overtaken by gales and bad weather, Vígl. 27; Víglundr rak út knöttinn f. Jökli, V. drove the ball for J., i. e. so that he had to run after it, 24; sá er skar tygil f. Þóri, he who cut Thor’s line, Bragi; sverð brast f. mér, my sword broke, Korm. 98 (in a verse); brjóta e-t f. e-m, to break a thing for one, Bs. i. 15 (in a verse); Valgarðr braut krossa fyrir Merði ok öll heilög tákn, Nj. 167; árin brotnaði f. honum, his oar broke; allar kýrnar drápust fyrir honum, all his cows died. 2. denoting difficulty, hindrance; sitja f. sæmd e-s, to sit between oneself and one’s honour, i. e. to hinder one’s doing well, Sturl. 87; mikit göri þér mér f. þessu máli, you make this case sore for me, Eb. 124; þér er mikit f. máli, thy case stands ill, Fms. v. 325; ekki er Guði f. því, it is easy for God to do, 656 B. 9; varð honum lítið f. því, it was a small matter for him, he did it easily, Grett. III; mér er minna f. því, it is easier for me, Am. 60; þykkja mikit f. e-u, to be much grieved for a thing, do it unwillingly, Nj. 77; Icel. also say, þykja fyrir (ellipt.), to feel hurt, be displeased:—ellipt., er þeim lítið fyrir at villa járnburð þenna, it is a small matter for them to spoil this ordeal, Ó. H. 140; sem sér muni lítið f. at veiða Gunnar, Nj. 113; fast mun f. vera, it will be fast-fixed before (one), hard to move, Ld. 154; Ásgrími þótti þungt f., A. thought that things looked sad (heavy), Nj. 185; hann var lengi f., he was long about it, Fms. x. 205; hann var lengi f. ok kvað eigi nei við, he was cross and said not downright no, Þorf. Karl. 388. IV. in a causal sense, for, because of, Lat. per, pro; sofa ek né mákat fugls jarmi fyrir, I cannot sleep for the shrill cry of birds, Edda 16 (in a verse); hon undi sér hvergi f. verkjum, she had no rest for pains, Bjarn. 69; fyrir gráti, tárum, = Lat. prae lacrymis; fyrir harmi, for sorrow; f. hlátri, for laughter, as in Engl.; þeir æddust f. einni konu, they went mad for the sake of one woman, Sól. 11; ílla fært f. ísum, scarce passable for ice, Fms. xi. 360; hætt var at sitja útar f. Miðgarðs-ormi, Edda 35; hann var lítt gengr f. sárinu, he could hardly walk for the wound, Fbr. 178; fyrir hræðslu, for fear, Hbl. 26; heptisk vegrinn f. þeim meinvættum sem …, Fs. 4; gáðu þeir eigi f. veiðum at fá heyjanna, because of fishing they took no care to make hay, Landn. 30; fyrir riki konungs, for the king’s power, Eg. 67, 117; fyrir ofríki manna, Grág. i. 68; fyrir hví, for why? Eluc. 4; fyrir hví þeir væri þar, Eg. 375; fyrir því, at …, for that, because, Edda 35, Fms. i. 22, vii. 330, Ld. 104; en fyrir því nú at, now since, Skálda 171; nú fyrir því at, id., 169: the phrase, fyrir sökum, for the sake of, because of, passim; vide sök. V. by, by the force of; öxlin gékk ór liði fyrir högginu, the shoulder was disjointed by the force of the stroke, Háv. 52. 2. denoting contest; falla f. e-m, to fall before one, i. e. fighting against one, Fms. i. 7, iv. 9, x. 196; verða halloki f. e-m, to be overcome in fighting one, Ld. 146; látask f. e-m, to perish by one, Eb. 34; hafa bana f. e-m, to be slain by one, Nj. 43; þeir kváðu fá fúnað hafa f. honum, 263; mæddisk hann f. þeim, he lost his breath in fighting them, Eg. 192; láta ríki f. e-m, to lose the kingdom before another, i. e. so that the latter gains it, 264; láta lausar eignir mínar f. þér, 505; láta hlut sinn f. e-m, Fs. 47; standask f. e-m, to stand one’s ground before one, Edda (pref.); hugðisk hann falla mundu f. sjóninni einni saman, that he would sink before his glance, 28, Hým. 12; halda hlut f. e-m, Ld. 54; halda frið ok frelsi f. várum óvinum, Fms. viii. 219; fara mun ek sem ek hefi áðr ætlað f. þínum draum (thy dream notwithstanding), Ld. 216; þér farit hvárt er þér vilit f. mér, you go wherever you like for me, so far as I am concerted, Fær. 37; halda vöku f. sér, to keep oneself awake, Fms. i. 216. β. with verbs, flýja, hlaupa, renna, stökkva f. e-m, to fly, leap, run before one, i. e. to be pursued, Bs. i. 774, Grág. ii. 359; at hann rynni f. þrælum hans, Ld. 64; fyrir þessum úfriði stökk Þangbrandr til Noregs, 180; skyldi hann ganga ór á f. Hofsmönnum, Landn. 178; ganga f. e-u, to give way before, yield to a thing, Fms. i. 305, x. 292; vægja f. e-m, to yield to one, give way, Eg. 21, 187, Nj. 57, Ld. 234. VI. against; verja land f. e-m, Eg. 32; verja landit f. Dönum ok öðrum víkingum, Fms. i. 23; til landvarnar f. víkingum, Eg. 260; landvarnar-maðr f. Norðmönnum, Fms. vi. 295; gæta brúarinnar f. bergrisum, Edda 17; gæt þín vel f. konungi ok hans mönnum, guard thee well against the king and his men, Eg. 113; góð aðstoð f. tröllum ok dvergum, Bárð. 163; beiða Baldri griða f. allskonar háska, Edda 36; auðskæðr f. höggum, Eg. 770. VII. in the sense of being driven before; fyrir straumi, veðri, vindi, before the stream, wind, weather (forstreymis, forvindis), Grág. ii. 384, Fms. vii. 262; halda f. veðri, to stand before the wind, Róm. 211. 2. rýrt mun verða f. honum smá-mennit, he will have an easy game with the small people, Nj. 94: ellipt., hafði sá bana er f. varð, 8; sprakk f., 16, 91. VIII. fyrir sér, of oneself, esp. of physical power; mikill f. sér, strong, powerful; lítill f. sér, weak, feeble, Nj. 20, Ísl. ii. 368, Eg. 192; þér munuð kalla mik lítinn mann f. mér, Edda 33; minnstr f. sér, smallest, weakest, Eg. 123; gildr maðr f. sér, Ísl. ii. 322, Fms. ii. 145; herðimaðr mikiil f. sér, a hardy man, Nj. 270; hvat ert þú f. þér, what kind of fellow art thou? Clem. 33; vera einn f. sér, to be a strange fellow, Grett. 79 new Ed.; Icel. also say, göra mikið (lítið) f. sér, to make oneself big (little). β. sjóða e-t f. sér, to hesitate, saunter, Nj. 154; mæla f. munni, to talk between one’s teeth, to mutter, Orkn. 248, Nj. 249. IX. denoting manner or quality; hvítr f. hærum, white with hoary hairs, Fms. vi. 95, Fas. ii. 540; gráir fyrir járnum, grey with steel, of a host in armour, Mag. 5; hjölt hvít f. silfri, a hilt white with silver = richly silvered, Eb. 226. X. as adverb or ellipt., 1. ahead, in front, = á undan, Lat. prae, opp. to eptir; þá var eigi hins verra eptir ván, er slíkt fór fyrir, as this came first, preceded, Nj. 34; at einhverr mundi fara heim fyrir, that some one would go home first (to spy), Eg. 580; Egill fór f., E. went in before, id.; at vér ríðim þegar f. í nótt, 283. β. first; hann stefndi f. málinu, en hann mælti eptir, one pronounced the words first, but the other repeated after him, Nj. 35; mun ek þar eptir göra sem þér gerit f., I shall do to you according as you do first, 90:—temp., sjau nóttum f., seven nights before, Grág. ii. 217. 2. to the fore, at hand, present; þar var fyrir fjöldi boðsmanna, a host of guests was already to the fore, i. e. before the bride and bridegroom came, Nj. 11; úvíst er at vita hvar úvinir sitja á fleti fyrir, Hm. 1; skal þá lögmaðr þar f. vera, he shall be there present, Js. 3; heima í túni fyrir, Fær. 50; þar vóru fyrir Hildiríðar-synir, Eg. 98; var honum allt kunnigt fyrir, he knew all about the localities, 583; þeim ómögum, sem f. eru, who are there already, i. e. in his charge, Grág. i. 286: of things, föng þau er f. vóru, stores that were to the fore, at hand, Eg. 134. 3. fore, opp. to ‘back,’ of clothes; slæður settar f. allt gullknöppum, Eg. 516; bak ok fyrir, back and front, = bak ok brjóst, Mar. XI. in the phrase, e-m verðr e-t fyrir, a thing is before one, i. e. one takes that and that step, acts so and so in an emergency; nú verðr öðrum þeirra þat f., at hann kveðr, now if the other part alleges, that …, Grág. i. 362; Kolbeini varð ekki f., K. had no resource, i. e. lost his head, Sturl. iii. 285:—the phrase, e-t mælisk vel (ílla) fyrir, a thing is well (ill) reported of; víg Gunnars spurðisk ok mæltisk ílla fyrir um allar sveitir, Nj. 117, Sturl. ii. 151; mun þat vel f. mælask, people will like it well, Nj. 29, Þórð. 55 new Ed.; ílla mun þat f. mælask at ganga á sættir við frændr sína, Ld. 238; ok er lokit var, mæltisk kvæðit vel f., the people praised the poem, Fms. vii. 113. XII. in special senses, either as prep. or adv. (vide A. V. above); segja leið f. skipi, to pilot a ship, Eg. 359; segja f. skipi, to say a prayer for a new ship or for any ship going to sea, Bs. i. 774, Fms. x. 480; mæla f. e-u, to dictate, Grág. ii. 266; mæla f. minni, to bring out a toast, vide minni; mæla f. sætt, i. 90; skipa, koma e-u f., to arrange, put right; ætla f. e-u, to make allowance for; trúa e-m f. e-u, to entrust one with; það fer mikið f. e-u (impers.), it is of great compass, bulky; hafa f. e-u, to have trouble with a thing; leita f. sér, to enquire; biðjask f., to say one’s prayers, vide biðja; mæla fyrir, segja f., etc., to order, Nj. 103, Js. 3: of a spell or solemn speaking, hann mælti svá f., at …, Landn. 34; spyrjask f., to enquire, Hkr. ii. 333; búask f., to prepare, make arrangement, Landn. 35, Sks. 551; skipask f., to draw up, Nj. 197; leggjask f., to lie down in despair, Bs. i. 194; spá fyrir, to ‘spae’ before, foretell; þeir menn er spá f. úorðna hluti, Fms. i. 96; segja f., to foretell, 76, Bb. 332; Njáll hefir ok sagt f. um æfi hans, Nj. 102; vita e-t f., to ‘wit’ beforehand, know the future, 98; sjá e-t f., to foresee, 162; ef þat er ætlat f., fore-ordained, id.

WITH ACC., mostly with the notion of movement.

A. LOCAL: I. before, in front of; fyrir dyrrin, Nj. 198; láta síga brýnn f. brár, Hkv. Hjörv. 19; halda f. augu sér, to hold (one’s hands) before one’s eyes, Nj. 132; leggja sverði fyrir brjóst e-m, to thrust a sword into his breast, 162, Fs. 39. 2. before one, before a court; stefna e-m f. dómstól, Fms. xi. 444; ganga, koma f. e-n, to go, come before one, Fms. i. 15, Eg. 426, Nj. 6, 129, passim; fyrir augu e-s, before one’s eyes, Stj. 611. 3. before, so as to shield; hann kom skildinum f. sik, he put the shield before him, Nj. 97, 115; halda skildi f. e-n, a duelling term, since the seconder had to hold one’s shield, Ísl. ii. 257. 4. joined to adverbs such as fram, aptr, út, inn, ofan, niðr, austr, vestr, suðr, norðr, all denoting direction; fram f., forward; aptr f., backward, etc.; hann reiddi öxina fram f. sik, a stroke forward with the axe, Fms. vii. 91; hann hljóp eigi skemra aptr en fram fyrir sik, Nj. 29; þótti honum hann skjóta brandinum austr til fjallanna f. sik, 195; komask út f. dyrr, to go outside the door, Eg. 206:—draga ofan f. brekku, to drag over the hill, Ld. 220; hrinda f. mel ofan, to thrust one over the gravel bank, Eg. 748; hlaupa f. björg, to leap over a precipice, Eb. 62, Landn. 36; elta e-n f. björg, Grág. ii. 34; hlaupa (kasta) f. borð, to leap (throw) overboard, Fms. i. 178, Hkr. iii. 391, Ld. 226; síga (to be hauled) niðr f. borgar-vegg, 656 C. 13, Fms. ix. 3; hlaupa niðr f. stafn, Eg. 142; niðr f. skaflinn, Dropl. 25; fyrir brekku, Orkn. 450, Glúm. 395 (in a verse). II. in one’s way, crossing one’s way; þeir stefndu f. þá, Fms. ix. 475; ríða á leið f. þá, to ride in their way, so as to meet them, Boll. 348; hlaupa ofan f. þá, Nj. 153; vóru allt komin f. hann bréf, letters were come before him, in his way, Fms. vii. 207; þeir felldu brota f. hann, viz. they felled trees before him, so as to stop him, viii. 60, ix. 357; leggja bann f. skip, to lay an embargo on a ship, Ld. 166. III. round, off a point; fyrir nesit, Nj. 44; út f. Holm, out past the Holm, Fms. vii. 356: esp. as a naut. term, off a point on the shore, sigla f. England, Norðyrnbraland, Þrasnes, Spán, to sail by the coast of, stand off England, Northumberland, … Spain, Orkn. 338, 340, 342, 354; fyrir Yrjar, Fms. vii. (in a verse); fyrir Siggju, Aumar, Lista, Edda 91 (in a verse); er hann kom f. Elfina, when be came off the Gotha, Eg. 80; leggja land f. skut, to lay the land clear of the stern, i. e. to pass it, Edda l. c.; göra frið f. land sitt, to pacify the land from one end to another, Ld. 28; fyrir uppsprettu árinnar, to come to (round) the sources of the river, Fms. iii. 183; fyrir garðs-enda, Grág. ii. 263; girða f. nes, to make a wall across the ness, block it up, cp. Lat. praesepire, praemunire, etc., Grág. ii. 263; so also binda f. op, poka, Lat. praeligare, praestringere; hlaða f. gat, holu, to stop a hole, opening; greri f. stúfinn, the stump (of the arm or leg) was healed, closed, Nj. 275; skjóta slagbrandi f. dyrr, to shoot a bolt before the door, to bar it, Dropl. 29; láta loku (lás) f. hurð, to lock a door, Gísl. 28; setja innsigli f. bréf, to set a seal to a letter, Dipl. i. 3: ellipt., setr hón þar lás fyrir, Ld. 42, Bs. i. 512. 2. along, all along; f. endilanga Danmörk, f. endilangan Noreg, all along Denmark, Norway, from one end to the other, Fms. iv. 319, xi. 91, Grett. 97:—öx álnar f. munn, an axe with an ell-long edge, Ld. 276; draga ör f. ödd, to draw the arrow past the point, an archer’s term, Fms. ii. 321. IV. with verbs, fyrir ván komit, one is come past hope, all hope is gone, Sturl. i. 44, Hrafn. 13, Fms. ii. 131; taka f. munn e-m, to stop one’s mouth; taka f. háls, kverkar, e-m, to seize one by the throat, etc.; taka mál f. munn e-m, ‘verba alicujus praeripere,’ to take the word out of one’s mouth, xi. 12; taka f. hendr e-m, to seize one’s hands, stop one in doing a thing, Eb. 124; mod., taka fram f. hendrnar á e-m.

B. TEMP.: fyrir dag, before day, Eg. 80; f. miðjan dag, Ld. 14; f. sól, before sunrise, 268; f. sólar-lag, before sunset; f. miðjan aptan, Nj. 192; f. náttmál, 197; f. óttu, Sighvat; f. þinglausnir, Ölk. 37; f. Jól, Nj. 269; f. fardaga, Grág. ii. 341; viku f. sumar, 244; f. mitt sumar, Nj. 138; litlu f. vetr, Eg. 159; f. vetrnætr, Grág. ii. 217; f. e-s minni, before one’s memory, Íb. 16.

C. METAPH.: I. above, before; hann hafdi mest fyrir aðra konunga hraustleikinn, Fms. x. 372. II. for, on behalf of; vil ek bjóða at fara f. þik, I will go for thee, in thy stead, Nj. 77; ganga í skuld f. e-n, Grág. i. 283; Egill drakk … ok svá f. Ölvi, Eg. 210; kaupa e-t f. e-n, Nj. 157; gjalda gjöld f. e-n, Grág. i. 173; verja, sækja, sakir f. e-n, Eg. 504; hvárr f. sik, each for oneself, Dipl. v. 26; sættisk á öll mál f. Björn, Nj. 266; tók sættir f. Björn, Eg. 168; svara f. e-t, Fms. xi. 444; hafa til varnir f. sik, láta lýrit, lög-vörn koma f.; færa vörn f. sik, etc.; verja, sækja sakir f. sik, and many similar law phrases, Grág. passim; biðja konu f. e-n, to woo a lady for another, Fms. x. 44; fyrir mik, on my behalf, for my part, Gs. 16; lögvörn f. mál, a lawful defence for a case, Nj. 111; hafa til varnar f. sök, to defend a case, Grág. i. 61; halda skiladómi f. e-t, Dipl. iv. 8; festa lög f. e-t, vide festa. III. in a distributive sense; penning f. mann, a penny per man, K. Þ. K. 88; fyrir nef hvert, per nose = per head, Lv. 89, Fms. i. 153, Ó. H. 141; hve f. marga menn, for how many men, Grág. i. 296; fyrir hverja stiku, for each yard, 497. IV. for, for the benefit of; brjóta brauð f. hungraða, Hom. 75; þeir skáru f. þá melinn, they cut the straw for them (the horses), Nj. 265; leggja kostnað f. e-n, to defray one’s costs, Grág. i. 341. V. for, instead of; hann setti sik f. Guð, Edda (pref.); hafa e-n f. Guð (Lat. pro Deo), Stj. 73, Barl. 131; geta, fá, kveðja mann f. sik, to get a man as one’s delegate or substitute, Grág. i. 48 passim; þeir höfðu vargstakka f. brynjur, Fs. 17; manna-höfuð vóru f. kljána, Nj. 275; gagl f. gás ok grís f. gamalt svín, Ó. H. 86; rif stór f. hlunna, Háv. 48; buðkr er f. húslker er hafðr, Vm. 171; auga f. auga, tönn f. tönn, Exod. xxi. 24; skell f. skillinga, Þkv. 32. VI. because of, for; vilja Gunnar dauðan fyrir höggit, Nj. 92, Fms. v. 162; eigi f. sakleysi, not without ground, i. 302; fyrir hvat (why, for what) stefndi Gunnarr þeim til úhelgi? Nj. 101; ok urðu f. þat sekir, Landn. 323; hafa ámæli f. e-t, Nj. 65, passim. 2. in a good sense, for one’s sake, for one; fyrir þín orð, for thy words, intercession, Ísl. ii. 217; vil ek göra f. þín orð, Ld. 158, Nj. 88; fyrir sína vinsæld, by his popularity, Fms. i. 259: the phrase, fyrir e-s sök, for one’s sake, vide sök: in swearing, a Latinism, fyrir trú mína, by my faith! (so in Old Engl. ‘fore God), Karl. 241; fyrir þitt líf, Stj. 514; ek særi þik f. alla krapta Krists ok manndóm þinn, Nj. 176. VII. for, at, denoting value, price; fyrir þrjár merkr, for three marks, Eg. 714; er sik leysti út f. þrjú hundruð marka, Fms. ix. 421; ganga f. hundrað, to pass or go for a hundred, D. I. i. 316:—also of the thing bought, þú skalt reiða f. hana þrjár merkr, thou shall pay for her three marks, Ld. 30; fyrir þik skulu koma mannhefndir, Nj. 57; bætr f. víg, Ísl. ii. 274; bætr f. mann, Eg. 259, passim; fyrir áverka Þorgeirs kom legorðs-sökin, Nj. 101:—so in the phrase, fyrir hvern mun, by all means, at any cost; fyrir öngan mun, by no means, Fms. i. 9, 157, Gþl. 531:—hafði hverr þeirra mann f. sik, eða tvá …, each slew a man or more for himself, i. e. they sold their lives dearly, Ó. H. 217. 2. ellipt., í staðinn f., instead of, Grág. i. 61; hér vil ek bjóða f. góð boð, Nj. 77; taka umbun f., Fms. vii. 161; svara slíku f. sem …, Boll. 350; þér skulut öngu f. týna nema lífinu, you shall lose nothing less than your head, Nj. 7. VIII. by means of, by, through; fyrir þat sama orð, Stj.; fyrir sína náttúru, Fms. v. 162; fyrir messu-serkinn, iii. 168; fyrir þinn krapt ok frelsis-hönd, Pass. 19. 12; svikin f. orminn, by the serpent, Al. 63,—this use of fyrir seems to be a Latinism, but is very freq. in eccl. writings, esp. after the Reformation, N. T., Pass., Vídal.; fyrir munn Davíðs, through the mouth of David, etc.:—in good old historical writings such instances are few; þeir hlutuðu f. kast (by dice), Sturl. ii. 159. IX. in spite of, against; fyrir vilja sinn, N. G. L. i. 151; fyrir vitorð eðr vilja e-s, against one’s will or knowledge, Grág. ii. 348; kvángask (giptask) f. ráð e-s, i. 177, 178, Þiðr. 190; nú fara menn f. bann (in spite of an embargo) landa á milli, Gþl. 517; hann gaf henni líf f. framkvæmd farar, i. e. although she had not fulfilled her journey (her vow), Fms. v. 223; fyrir várt lof, vi. 220; fyrir allt þat, in spite of all that, Grett. 80 new Ed.; fyrir ráð fram, heedlessly; fyrir lög fram, vide fram. X. denoting capacity, in the same sense as ‘at,’ C. II, p. 27, col. 1; scarcely found in old writers (who use ‘at’), but freq. in mod. usage, thus, eigi e-n f. vin, to have one for a friend, in old writers ‘at vin;’ hafa e-n f. fífl, fól, to make sport of one. 2. in old writers some phrases come near to this, e. g. vita f. vist, to know for certain, Dipl. i. 3; vita f. full sannindi, id., ii. 16; hafa f. satt, to take for sooth, believe, Nj. 135; koma f. eitt, to come (turn) all to one, Lv. 11, Nj. 91, Fms. i. 208; koma f. ekki, to come to naught, be of no avail, Ísl. ii. 215; fyrir hitt mun ganga, it will turn the other way, Nj. 93; fyrir hann er einskis örvænt orðs né verks, from him everything may be expected, Ísl. ii. 326; hafa e-s víti f. varnað, to have another’s faults for warning, Sól. 19. XI. joined with adverbs ending in -an, fyrir austan, vestan, sunnan, norðan, útan, innan, framan, handan, ofan, neðan, either with a following acc. denoting. direction, thus, fyrir austan, sunnan … fjall, east, south of the fell, i. e. on the eastern, southern side; fyrir neðan brú, below the bridge; fyrir útan fjall = Lat. ultra; fyrir innan fjall = Lat. infra; fyrir handan á, beyond the river; fyrir innan garð, inside the yard; fyrir ofan garð, above, beyond the yard, etc.; vide these adverbs:—used adverb., fyrir sunnan, in the south; fyrir vestan, in the west; fyrir norðan, in the north; fyrir austan, in the east,—current phrases in Icel. to mark the quarters of the country, cp. the ditty in Esp. Árb. year 1530; but not freq. in old writers, who simply say, norðr, suðr …, cp. Kristni S. ch. 1: absol. and adverb., fyrir ofan, uppermost; fyrir handan, on the other side:—fyrir útan e-t, except, save, Anal. 98, Vkv. 8; fyrir fram, vide fram.

☞ For- and fyrir- as prefixes, vide pp. 163–167 and below: I. fore-, for-, meaning before, above, in the widest sense, local, temp., and metaph. furthering or the like, for-dyri, for-nes, for-ellri, for-beini, etc. β. before, down, for-brekkis, -bergis, -streymis, -vindis, -viðris, etc. 2. in an intens. sense = before others, very, but not freq.; for-dyld, -góðr, -hagr, -hraustr, -kostuligr, -kuðr, -lítill, -ljótr, -prís, -ríkr, -snjallr. II. (cp. fyrir, acc., C. IX), in a neg. or priv. sense; a few words occur even in the earliest poems, laws, and writers, e. g. for-að, -átta, -dæða, -nám, -næmi, -sending, -sköp, -verk, -veðja, -viða, -vitni, -ynja, -yrtir; those words at least seem to be original and vernacular: at a later time more words of the same kind crept in: 1. as early as writers of the 13th and 14th centuries, e. g. for-boð, -bænir, -djarfa, -dæma (fyrir-dæma), -taka (fyrir-taka), -þóttr; fyrir-bjóða, -fara, -göra, -koma, -kunna, -líta, -muna, -mæla, -vega, -verða. 2. introduced in some words at the time of the Reformation through Luther’s Bible and German hymns, and still later in many more through Danish, e. g. for-brjóta, -drífa, -láta, -líkast, -merkja, -nema, -sorga, -sóma, -standa, -svara, -þénusta, and several others; many of these, however, are not truly naturalised, being chiefly used in eccl. writings:—it is curious that if the pronoun be placed after the verb (which is the vernacular use in Icel.) the sense is in many cases reversed; thus, fyrir-koma, to destroy, but koma e-u fyrir can only mean to arrange; so also fyrir-mæla, to curse, and mæla fyrir, to speak for; for-bænir, but biðja fyrir e-m, etc.; in the latter case the sense is good and positive, in the former bad and negative; this seems to prove clearly that these compds are due to foreign influence.

fyrir-banna, að, to forbid, Skm. 34.

fyrir-benda, d, to forebode, Stj. 87.

fyrir-bending, f. foreboding, Bs. i. 45.

fyrir-birting, f. revelation, Barl. passim.

fyrir-bjóða, bauð, to forbid, Bs. i. 682, 683, N. G. L. i. 351, Gþl. 276, K. Á. 54, 110.

fyrir-boða, að, to forebode; part., Greg. 16.

fyrir-boðan, f. foreboding, Magn. 488, Fms. viii. 3, Eb. 28.

fyrir-boðning, f. forbidding, Edda 120.

fyrir-boðsmaðr, m. a bidder to a feast, Fms. v. 332.

fyrir-bón, f., in pl. curses = forbænir, Sturl. iii. 45: in a good sense, begging, pleading, (mod.)

fyrir-burðr, m. an appearance, vision, spectre, Nj. 118, Fms. vi. 63, 229, 404, xi. 289, Bs. i. 184, Eb. 28, 218, 272, Sd. 174, passim.

fyrir-búa, bjó, to prepare, Greg. 18, Fms. i. 138, N. T. passim.

fyrir-búnaðr, m. preparation, Stj. 127, Fms. vii. 87, x. 236.

fyrir-búningr, m. id., Hkr. iii. 240.

fyrir-drífa, dreif, to drive away, Th. 16 (fordrífa).

fyrir-dæma, d, to condemn, K. Á. 220, Hom. 126, Rb. 338, Fms. i. 219.

fyrir-dæmiligr, adj. damnable, H. E. i. 514.

fyrir-dæming, f. damnation, Greg. 17, H. E. i. 514, Stj. 21.

fyrir-fara, fór, to destroy, N. G. L. i. 340: to forfeit, K. Á. 128: reflex. to perish, Post. 59, N. T. passim.

fyrir-farandi, part. preceding, Vm. 12, Bs. i. 682, 720.

fyrir-fari, a, m. a foreboding, Bs. i. 682.

fyrir-feðr, m. pl. forefathers, Barl. 206.

fyrir-ferð, f. a going before, Stj. 353:—bulk, fyrirferðar-mikill, adj. bulky.

fyrir-fólk, n. great folk, persons of distinction, Hkr. ii. 381.

fyrir-furða, u, f. a foreboding, sign, mark, Fs. 125.

fyrir-ganga, u, f. a walking ahead, leading, Fms. ii. 75, v. 72.

fyrir-gefa, gaf, to forgive, Nj. 170, Hom. 44, Sks. 579, N. T. passim.

fyrir-gefning, f. forgiveness, Rb. 336, Th. 78, Fms. viii. 442, Stj. 110, N. T. passim.

fyrir-gengiligr, adj. pinched, worn out.

fyrir-gleyma, d, to forget, Barl. (rare.)

fyrir-gleyming, f. forgetfulness, Sks. 607, (rare.)

fyrir-göra, ð, to forfeit, N. G. L. i. 341, Eg. 495, K. Á. 70, Nj. 191.

fyrir-heit, n. a promise, Fms. i. 217: esp. in a sacred sense, Stj., Rb. 336, N. T. passim: a presage, Fms. vi. 63, v. l.

fyrir-huga, ð, to premeditate.

fyrir-hugsan, f. forethought, Stj. 10, Barl. 127.

fyrir-hyggja, u, f. (-hygsla, N. G. L. i. 215), forethought, prevision, Fms. ii. 121, Ld. 186, Hkr. ii. 102, H. E. i. 387, v. l. (freq.)

fyrir-höfn, f. trouble, toil.

fyrir-koma, kom, to destroy, put to death, with dat., Al. 132, Vígl. 22, Fms. i. 9: to prevent, avert, Korm. 208, Sks. 706; þá var svá fyrirkomít magni þeirra (cp. Germ. vorkommen), Fms. viii. 53.

fyrirkomu-lag, n. arrangement.

fyrir-kona, u, f. a woman of distinction, a lady, Fms. ii. 22.

fyrir-konungr, m. a distinguished king, Fas. iii. 188.

fyrir-kunna, kunni; f. e-n e-s, to blame one for a thing, to take a thing amiss, Eg. 254; eigi vil ek fyrirkunna þik þessa orða, Ó. H. 57, Stj. passim: with dat. of the thing, to be displeased at, Str. 9.

fyrir-kveða, kvað, to refuse, Fms. x. 382. Sturl. i. 37, Thom. 21, 23: reflex., en fyrirkveðask eigi at taka sættir, Fb. iii. 451.

fyrir-láta, lét, with acc., to let go, give up, Fms. i. 1, 156, viii. 251, x. 379: to forsake, i. 129, Mar. passim, Rb. 412. 2. with dat. of the person, acc. of the thing, to forgive, Fms. ix. 383, 410, Dipl. iv. 8:—in eccl. sense, H. E. i. 499, Gþl. 41, K. Á. 206; cp. forláta, which is more freq. in mod. usage.

fyrir-látning, f. forgiveness.

fyrir-látr, adj. forgiving, mild, Fms. xi. 429.

fyrirlát-samr, adj. (-semi, f.); ekki f., stubborn, Bs. i. 683.

fyrir-leggja, lagði, to lay aside, forsake, Stj. 148: reflex., fyrirleggjask um e-t, to leave a thing alone, Bs. i. 194: part. fyrir-lagðr, forsaken, 823.

fyrir-leitinn, adj. circumspect, Ó. H. 145; eigi f. (and in mod. usage ófyrirleitinn), not circumspect, i. e. violent, Grett. 24 new Ed.

fyrir-leitni, f. circumspection, Fas. iii. 175; úfyrirleitni, rashness.

fyrir-liggja, lá; f. sér, to fall (of a woman), N. G. L. i. 213, 233.

fyrir-litligr, adj. (-liga, adv.), contemptible, Stj. 244.

fyrir-litning, f. contempt, Sturl. i. 64, 655 xxvii. 2.

fyrir-líta, leit, to look down on, despise, Lat. despicere (cp. the preceding words), Greg. 39, Blas. 44, Lv. 95, Sks. 270, Magn. 442, Fms. vi. 286, viii. 24, x. 256, Hkr. i. 104, N. T., freq. in mod. usage:—to forsake, Fms. vii. 174 (rare), vide forláta.

fyrir-ljúga, laug, to forswear by lies, Fms. viii. 293: f. trú sinni, to forswear one’s faith, Karl. 38: with acc. to slander, Fas. iii. 307.

fyrir-maðr, m. a foreman, chief, Fms. ix. 341, 483, Ld. 106, Nj. 106: one’s better, one who excels others, Fms. xi. 326: a predecessor, Bs. i. 733: in mod. usage in pl. fyrir-menn, people of distinction.

fyrir-mannligr, adj. (-liga, adv.), like a distinguished man, Fms. xi. 231, Ld. 90.

fyrir-menni, n. a person of rank, Bs. ii. 524.

fyrir-muna, pres. -man, pret. -mundi, in mod. usage -að, (-munar, -munaði, -munað):—to grudge one a thing; f. e-m e-s, eigi er þat satt, at ek fyrirmuna þér viðarins, Ld. 318; ek fyrirman ekki Þorgilsi þessarar ferðar, 258, Fms. vi. 59, x. 110, Grett. 159 new Ed., Fas. i. 205, Orkn. 24, Fs. 68, Ó. H. 61: with infin., Sks. 554.

fyrir-mynd, fyrir-myndan, f. [Germ. vorbild], a prototype, example.

fyrir-mæla, t, to swear, Grett. 94 new Ed., Bs. ii. 60, Gþl. 218.

fyrir-nema, nam, with acc., f. e-t, to withhold, N. G. L. i. 4, cp. mod. fortaka; f. e-m mál, to deprive one of speech, make one silent, Ls. 57:—chiefly reflex., fyrirnemask e-t, to forbear, N. G. L. i. 579, Gþl. 58, Sturl. i. 2.

fyrir-rásari, a, m. a forerunner, Sks. 43.

fyrir-rennari, a, m. id., Hom. 105, Stj. 441.

fyrir-rúm, n. the first room or chief cabin in old ships of war, in the after part of the ship next the lypting, as is clear from passages such as, þá hljóp Ólafr konungr ór lyptingunni ok í fyrirrúmit, Fms. x. 360; hann sat aptr i fyrirrúminu, vii. 185, viii. 223, x. 360, 362, Hkr. i. 302, Orkn. 148:—but Grett. 113 (new Ed.), speaking of a boat pulled by three men, distinguishes between háls, fyrirrúm, skutr, bow, midship (mod. Icel. miðskipa), and stern, fyrirrúms-menn, m. pl. one placed in the f., cp. Engl. midshipman, Fms. vii. 223, viii. 224:—metaph. phrase, hafa e-ð í fyrirrúmi, to keep a thing in the fore-hold, i. e. to give preference to it.

fyrir-rægja, ð, to ‘foredo’ one by lies and slander, N. G. L. i. 57.

fyrir-sát, f. (less correct fyrir-sátr, n., Fms. x. 341), an ambush, Nj. 93, 160, Ld. 220, Fms. ii. 296, Fs. 33, Valla L. 225.

fyrir-segja, sagði, to foretell, Fms. i. 141.

fyrir-setning, f., gramm. a preposition, Skálda 180.

fyrir-sjón, f. a laughing-stock, Bs. i. 155.

fyrir-skipa, að, to order, prescribe, Barl. 69, 72.

fyrir-skipan, f. an ordinance, Stj. 621.

fyrir-skjóta, skaut, to make void, N. G. L. i. 52, 53, Gþl. 268.

fyrir-skyrta, u, f. a ‘fore-shirt,’ apron, Hdl. 46, Þorst. Síðu H. 178.

fyrir-smá, ð, to despise, Thom. 23.

fyrir-spá, f. ‘fore-spaeing,’ prophecy, Sturl. i. 115 C.

fyrir-staða, u, f. a standing before one, Grág. ii. 14: mod. obstacle.

fyrir-standa, stóð, to understand, Fas. ii. 298, Fms. viii. 54, v. l.

fyrir-stela, stal, to forfeit by stealing, Jb. 417, Js. 129.

fyrir-stjórnari, a, m. an overseer, Sturl. i. 1.

fyrir-svara, að, to answer for, Band. 22 new Ed.

fyrir-sverja, sór, to forswear, renounce by oath, Fms. x. 396, 419: reflex. to forswear oneself, Hom. 151.

fyrir-sæti, n. a fore-seat, Sturl. i. 21.

fyrir-sögn, f. ‘fore-saying’ i. e. dictation, instruction, Fms. vii. 226, Grág. i. 7, Bs. i. 133, Fs. 21, Stj. 190, 355: style, Rb. 2: prophecy, 655 xxxi.

fyrir-söngr, m. the ‘fore-song’ or prelude in a service, Fms. vii. 198.

fyrir-tak, n. prominence; fyrirtaks-gáfur, f. pl. prominent gifts, and in many other compds.

fyrir-taka, tók, to deny, refuse, Bs. i. 758, Fms. ii. 65, Jómsv. 50, Ld. 186: to forbid, H. E. i. 456.

fyrir-tekt, f. waywardness, caprice.

fyrir-tæki, n. what is taken in hand, a task.

fyrir-tölur, f. pl. persuasion, Fms. ix. 52, x. 301, xi. 11, Hom. 52.

fyrir-vaf, n. the warp.

fyrir-vari, a, m. precaution, Fs. 65.

fyrir-varp, n. a ‘fore-warp,’ dam, Bs. i. 315.

fyrir-vega, vá, to forfeit by manslaughter, N. G. L. i. 64, Fms. v. 101.

fyrir-verða, varð, to vanish, collapse; þá féll ok fyrirvarð allt sem mold, 656 A. 2. 5, Sl. 27; svá sem augu firverða sem eigi taka læknis lyf, 656 B. 12:—so also, fyrirverða sik, to be destroyed, Stj. 25; also to be ashamed, Clem. 34, freq. in mod. usage in this last sense, otherwise obsolete:—and reflex. to perish, collapse, Stj. 91, 118, 149, Str. 66.

fyrir-vinna, u, f. = forverk.

fyrir-vinnask, vannsk, dep. to forbear doing a thing, Bs. i. 341, Þiðr. 140, Grett. 78 new Ed.

fyrir-vinnendr, part. = fyriryrkjendr, Hm.

fyrir-vissa, u, f. a foreboding, Stj. 81.

fyrir-vist, f. = forysta, q. v., Sturl. iii. 270, Eb. 126.

fyrir-yrkjendr, part. pl. (forverk), workmen, labourers, N. G. L. i. 98.

fyrir-ætlan, f. a design, Nj. 9, Eg. 467, Bs. i. 404, Ísl. ii. 355, Skálda 170.

FYRNASK, d, [forn], to get old, to decay, N. G. L. i. 37: as a law term, of a claim, to be lost by lapse of time, þá fyrnisk sú skuld, 24; legorðs-sök engi fyrnisk, Grág. i. 349; sú sök fyrnisk aldregi, 361:—to be forgotten, hans nafn mun aldri fyrnask, Fas. i. 43:—with dat. of the person, with the notion of past evils, henni fyrndisk aldri fall Ólafs konungs, she never forgot king Olave’s death, Fms. v. 126; þótti honum sér þá skjótara fyrnask líflát Droplaugar, Dropl. 9; allítt fyrnisk mér þat enn, Korm. 172; henni mátti eigi fyrnask við Svía konung, at …, Ó. H. 51: the saying, fyrnisk vinskapr sem fundir (mod. svo fyrnask ástir sem fundir), Fms. ii. 62: part. decayed, fallinn ok fyrndr, Stj.; kirkja fyrnd ok fölnuð, Bs. i. 198; fölnar fold, fyrnist allt og mæðist (a ballad). II. mod. in act. to lay up stores; fyrna hey, etc.

fyrnd, f. age, antiquity, Dipl. ii. 5, Sks. 517; esp. in the phrase, í fyrndinni, in times of yore, 625. 170, Fas. i. 513, Sks. 67:—decay, dilapidation, Pm. 122, Bs. i. 293:—a law term, loss of a claim by lapse of time. Thom. 76.

fyrning, f. decay, Grág. ii. 267: pl. fyrningar, old stores left from last year, hey-f., matar-f., etc., (mod.)

fyrnska, u, f., prop. age; slitin, fúinn af f., worn, rotten from age, Stj. 366: decay, Grág. ii. 268: at fyrnsku. from olden times, N. G. L. i. 45; í fyrnskunni, in days of yore, Str. 1:—a law term = fyrnd, skal þar eigi f. fyrir ganga, N. G. L. i. 249:—old lore, witchcraft, Fb. i. 231, Fs. 131. fyrnsku-háttr, m. old fashion, Fms. xi. 430.

FYRR, compar. adv. sooner; FYRST, superl. first, soonest: [cp. Goth. faurþis = πρωτον, πρότερον, and faurþizei = πρίν; Engl. for-mer; Swed.-Dan. för, först; Lat. prius.] I. compar. sooner, before; því betr þykki mér er vér skiljum fyrr, the sooner we part the better, Fas. ii. 535; at vér bræðr myndim þetta fyrr gört hafa, Nj. 61; veitti Eirekr fyrr, Landn. 216: fyrr enn, before that, Lat. priusquam, enginn veit sína æfina fyrr en öll er (a saying); fyrr enn ek hefir eignask allan Noreg, Fms. i. 3, Nj. 5, Stj. 135, Ld. 176. 2. before; ekki hefi ek þar fyrr verit, er …, Eb. 224; sem engi veit fyrr gört hafa verit, K. Á. 28; svá sem fyrr sögðum vér, Fms. x. 366. II. superl. first; fyrst sinna kynsmanna, Ld. 162; þá sök fyrst er fyrst er fram sögð, Grág. i. 79; sá fyrst (first) er hánum var first (last) boðit, N. G. L. i. 14: first, in the beginning, foremost, opp. to síðarr or síðast, Eirekr veitti fyrst vel ok ríkmannliga en Hallsteinn síðarr, Landn. 216, v. l.; gékk Hrútr fyrst, foremost, Nj. 6; hreppsóknar-menn eru fyrst aðiljar at þessum sökum, Grág. i. 295; at eigi sé fyrst (for a while) samlendir, Ísl. ii. 386. β. sem fyrst, as soon as possible, Nj. 4, Eg. 602. 2. for that, because, as, very freq. in mod. usage, but hardly ever found in old writers; and the following passages—fyrst þín bón kemr þar til, Bárð. 171; fyrst hestunum mátti eigi við koma, Sturl. i. 19; fyrst hón er karls dóttir, Fas. i. 22—are all taken from paper MSS.; Bárð. new Ed. 20 has ‘síðan þú leggr þat til,’ and Sturl. MS. Brit. Mus. the proper word ‘er.’ III. as imitations of Latin supradictus or praedictns are the following—á fyrr-greindum árum (jörðum), aforesaid, Vm. 44, Dipl. ii. 4; fyrr nefndr, afore-named, Stj., Bs. passim, but never in old vernacular writings. fyrr-meir, adv. ‘fore-more,’ i. e. formerly, in former times, Ísl. ii. 365, Finnb. 212, Lv. 64, H. E. i. 434.

fyrra, u, f., the phrase, í fyrrunni, formerly, Stj. 10.

FYRRI, compar. adj. former; FYRSTR, superl. the first, foremost: I. compar., yðra fyrri frændr, Fms. i. 282; fyrra sumar, the former summer, before the last, Grág. i. 38; enn fyrra hlut vetrar, in the former part of winter, Eg. 713; spurðisk eigi til þeirra heldr en til enna fyrri, Ó. H. 129; Drottins dag (annan dag viku) inn fyrra í þingi. Grág. i. 49 (the parliament lasted about a fortnight); enn fyrra sunnudag, N. G. L. i. 348; í fyrra dag, the day before yesterday, Háv. 50; í fyrra sumar, the summer before last, id.; með hinum fyrrum fótum, with the fore feet (mod. með fram-fótunum), Bær. 9; ætla ek á engan mann at leita fyrri, Fms. vi. 109; vera e-m fyrri at e-u, to get the start of one, Hm. 122; usually verða f. til e-s, verða fyrri til höggs, Úlf. 7. 56. II. superl. the first; þær sakar skal allar fyrstar segja fram, Grág. i. 38; ef sá verðr eigi búinn til er fyrstr hefir hlotið, id.; enn fyrsta aptan er þeir koma til þings, 100; eigi fellr tré við hit fyrsta högg (a saying), Nj. 224.

fyrrum, adv. formerly, before, Fms. i. 268, ix. 422, Hkr. i. 80.

FYRSA, t, [fors], to gush, stream in torrents, Stj. 414.

fyrsi, n. gushing in torrents; hvít-fyrsi, Thom. 21.

fyrsta, u, f., in the phrase, í fyrstunni or í fyrstu, in the beginning, at first, Stj. 293, Fms. x. 265; í fyrstu, first, i. 2.

FYRVA, ð, [forve], to ebb; þaðan ór fjöru er fyrvir útast, Grág. i. 356, 380: metaph. to fall short, to lack, ok skal telja þann dag með er á fyrvir, the lacking day shall be counted with the rest, Rb. 1812. 72; gjalda þat er á furði (afurði MS.), Grág. ii. 187.

FYS, n., better fis, [Germ. fese; O. H. G. fesa; Gr. πίσος], prop. of the husks of beans, any small light substance; sem fys, Ps. i. 4.

fysa, að, in the phrase, e-m er ekki fysað saman, a thing not put slightly together, well knit, Fms. iii. 590.

FÝ, interj. fye! skalf á hnakka | hverr maðr kvað fý, Sturl. i. 22.

fýla, u, f. [fúll], foulness, stink, Fas. iii. 171, Fms. x. 213: of a person, a dirty, paltry fellow, Sturl. ii. 135; fýlur enn ekki dugandi menn, Fbr. 211; helvítis-fýlur, Niðrst. 107; fiski-fýla, q. v.

fýls-enni, a nickname, prob. Gaelic, Landn.

fýri, n. fir, = fura. fýri-skógr, m. fir-wood, Karl. 326, Fms. vii. 236.

fýri, n. fire, Lex. Poët.; vide fúrr.

FÝSA, t, [fúss], to exhort; fýsa e-n e-s, with acc. of the person, gen. of the thing, Fms. xi. 22; auðheyrt er þat hvers þú fýsir, Ld. 266: with infin., Nj. 47, Fb. ii. 13: absol., Eg. 242. 2. impers., mik fýsir, I wish, Fms. vi. 238, viii. 412; hverr hafi þat er hann mest fýsir til, Nj. 197; svá skjótt sem hann fýsir til, Fms. xi. 437; fýsir konung til á sund at fara, Al. 22; þik fýsi at kanna annarra manna siðu, Ld. 164: in the reflex. form the impers. usage disappears, ek fýsumk aptr at hverfa, Sks. 3, Fms. vi. 398; fýstisk Ástríðr þá at fara þangat, i. 77: fýsask himneskra hluta, to wish for heavenly things, Greg. 31; hann kvaðsk eigi fýsask til Íslands at svá búnu, Nj. 123. 3. part. fýsendr, exhorters; margir vóru þess fýsendr, Sturl. ii. 175.

fýsari, a, m. a persuader, 655 ii. 8.

fýsi, f. a wish, desire, Fms. i. 184, vi. 57, vii. 281, ix. 277, Landn. 201, Fs. 23, Stj. 42, 145, Bs. i. 167, Hom. 47.

fýsi-liga, adv. willingly, Fms. ii. 239: desirably, viii. 47.

fýsi-ligr, adj. agreeable, 656 B. 5, Sks. 29: winning, winsome, attractive, Eg. 30, 116, Nj. 131, Eluc. 51, Sks. 2, v. l.

fýsing, f. exhortation, Fas. i. 225.

fýst, mod. fýsn, f. = fýsi, Fms. i. 117, xi. 244, Fs. 22. Magn. 468, Str. 66; frá þessa heims fýstum ok girndum. Stj. 148; rangar fýstir, Fms. v. 217, Stj. 149: in eccl. sense the Gr. ἐπιθυμία is sometimes rendered by fýsn (e. g. fýsn holdsins, f. augnanna, 1 John ii. 16; heimrinn og hans f., 17), though more freq. by girnd (lust): fýsn is used much like Germ. neigung = impulse, inclination: it occurs in a great many compds, as fróðleiks-fýsn, lestrar-f., lærdóms-f., náms-f., desire for knowledge, learning; andleg f., holdleg f., spiritual, carnal desire; kærleiks f.; mannlegar fýsnir, human affections.

FÆÐ, f. [fár, adj.], fewness, scantiness, Fms. i. 291. II. coldness, cold intercourse, cp. fár, Þórð. 65; fað hefir verit á með þeim, Glúm. 373; hann görði fæð á við Kálf, Fms. v. 126, vi. 30, 110, 243, xi. 327, passim: melancholy, en er dró at Jólum tók Eirekr fæð mikla ok var úglaðari en hann átti vana til, Þorf. Karl. 404.

FÆÐA, dd, [i. e. fœða; cp. Goth. fôdian; A. S. fêdan; Engl. feed; Germ. füttern; Swed. föda; Dan. föde]:—to feed, give food to, Symb. 28, Rb. 82, Fms. ix. 490, Nj. 236, Grág. i. 43, K. Þ. K. 50; fæða barn á brjósti, to feed a bairn at the breast, Bs. i. 666:—to feed, of sheep, Dropl. 14. 2. to rear, bring up, N. G. L. i. 239, 351; ef maðr fæðir barn öðrum manni, Grág. i. 276; hann fæddi Helga (dat.) barn, Dropl. 14; fóstra sú er maðr hefir fædda, Grág. ii. 60; Teit faddi Hallr í Haukadali, Íb. 14; mik fæddi Gamaliel, 655 xvi. B. 3. II. to give birth to; faddi Bergljót sveinbarn, Fms. i. 31, Ó. H. 122; til barn er fætt, N. G. L. i. 340; litlu síðar fæddi hon barn, Ó. H. 144. III. reflex. to feed, live on a thing; við hvat fæddisk kýrin, Edda 4, Stj. 16: metaph., Bs. i. 166:—to be brought up, þat vóru náfrændr Bjarnar ok höfðu með honum fæðzk, Eg. 253: esp. adding upp, fæddusk þar upp synir Hildiríðar, 25, Fms. i. 4, 187, Edda 18:—to be born, freq. in mod. usage; fæddr, part. born, 625. 93; þar var Kristr fæddr, Symb. 29.

fæða, u, f. food, Stj. 19, 29, 149, Fms. ii. 139.

fæði, n. food, Fms. vi. 164, Stj. 22.

fæðing, f. birth, delivery, Stj. 198, 248, passim.

fæðingi, a, m. a native, Fms. i. 130, x. 225, Ld. 24, Þiðr. 123, Karl. 434, Róm. 184.

fæðir, m., poët. a feeder, breeder, Lex. Poët.

fæðsla and fæzla, u, f. food, 625. 91, Fms. iii. 136, viii. 31, x. 367, Greg. 64, Sks, 20, 784, Sturl. i. 20 (Ed. fetlima, qs. fetzluna), Stj. 29, 52, 61. COMPDS: fæðslu-lauss, adj. without food, Hom. 101. fæðslu-leysi, n. want of food, Fas. iii. 8.

fægi-ligr, adj. [fága], neat, polished, Stj. 22, 42, Bret. 24.

FÆGJA, ð, [Germ. fegen], to cleanse, polish, Sks. 43, 234, Fms. viii. 416: medic., fægja sár, to cleanse a wound, Rd. 283, Glúm. 383, Fbr. 209; eldr var á gólfi ok velgdi hón vatn til at fægja sár, Ó. H. 222, Hom. 70.

fækja, ð, = feykja, Hom.

fækka, v. fætta.

FÆLA, d, [fála], to frighten, drive away by fright. Grág. ii. 110; ok f. þá í braut, Nj. 104: reflex. to be frightened, of horses or the like; svá at landvættir fældisk við, Landn. 258; ef menn skaka eðr skella at hrossum svá at þau fælisk við, Grág. ii. 234, Fms. vi. 335; fældusk hestar Grikkja, Al. 142, Bs. i. 8; þetta fælask Skrælingjar, Þorf. Karl. 424.

FÆLA, ð, [i. e. fœla from fúl], to fool, mock, Clem. 44; þeir mundu skjótt hafa fælt þik ok svá verit, El. 14, 18; lesi hann, fyrr en fæli, librum Machabaeorum, Al. 22.

fæling, f. a frightening, Fms. xi. 160.

fælinn, adj. shy, of a horse, Grett. 25 new Ed.; myrk-f., afraid of the dark.

fælni, f. shyness, fright, of a horse: myrk-f. fear of darkness, of children.

FÆR, f. a sheep; in Swed.-Dan. faar and fär are the usual words for sheep; but in Icel. it is almost unknown; it occurs in Skálda 162; also now and then in the compd fær-sauðr, m., spelt fjar-sauðr, Tistr. 4 (prop. a ‘sheep-sheep,’ sauðr being the common Icel. word for sheep), Stj. 45, 177, 235, N. G. L. i. 75, K. Þ. K. 130; from fær is also derived the name Fær-eyjar, f. pl. the Faroe Islands (Sheep-islands); Fær-eyskr, adj., and Fær-eyingar, m. pl. the Faroe Islanders; described by Dicuil as plenae innumerabilibus ovibus, p. 30 (Ed. 1807): fær is a South-Scandin. word, and seems to be formed from the gen. of fé (fjár).

FÆRA, ð, [from fár, n., different from the following word, having á as root vowel], to slight, taunt one, with dat.; ok færa þeim eigi í orðum né verkum, offend them not in words nor acts, Hom. 57: mod., færa at e-m, id.

FÆRA, ð, [i. e. fœra, a trans. verb formed from the pret. of fara, fór; not in Ulf.; A. S. fergan or ferjan; Engl. to ferry; Germ. führen; Dan. före; Swed. föra]:—to bring; a very freq. word, as the Germ. and Saxon ‘bring’ was unknown in the old Scandin., as in mod. Icel.; the Dan. bringe and Swed. bringa are mod. and borrowed from Germ.; færa fé til skips, Nj. 4; færa barn til skírnar, K. Þ. K. 2 passim; ef Þorvaldr væri færandi þangat, if Th. could be carried thither, Sturl. i. 157. 2. to bring, present; hafði Þórólfr heim marga dýrgripi ok færði föður sínum ok móður, Eg. 4; þér munut f. mér höfuð hans, 86; færa e-m höfuð sitt, to surrender to one, Fms. x. 261; færa fórn, to bring offerings, Stj. passim; færa tak, to offer, give bail, Gþl. 122: the phrase, koma færandi hendi, to come with bringing hand, i. e. to bring gifts. 3. phrases, færa ómaga á hendr e-m, of forced alimentation, Grág. Ó. Þ. passim; færa til þýfðar, to bring an action for theft, Grág. i. 429; færa e-t til sanns vegar, to make a thing right, assert the truth of it, 655 xxviii. 2; færa alla hluti til betra vegar, to turn all things to the best account; þat er gjörtæki, ok færir til meira máls, and leads to a more serious case, Grág. i. 429, v. l.; færa til bana, to put to death, Rb. 398; færa í hljóðmæli, to hush up, Nj. 51; færa í útlegð, to bring to outlawry, banish, Rb. 414; færa til Kristni, to bring to Christ, convert, Fms. xi. 408; færa sik í ætt, to vindicate one’s kinship (by a gallant deed), Sturl. ii. 197; er þú færðir þik með skörungskap í þína ætt, shewed thee to be worthy of thy friends, Glúm. 338. 4. special usages; færa frá, to wean lambs in the spring, Vm. 13, hence frá-færur, q. v.; færa e-n af baki, to throw one, of a horse, Grág. ii. 95: færa niðr korn, sæði, to put down corn, seed, i. e. to sow, Nj. 169; tiu sáld niðr færð, Vm. 55; sálds sæði niðr fært, D. I. i. 476, Orkn. 462; færa e-n niðr, to keep one under, in swimming, Ld. 168; færa upp, to lift up, Nj. 19: færa upp, a cooking term, to take out the meat (of the kettle), 247; færa í sundr, to split asunder, Grett. 151 (of logs); færa til, to adduce as a reason; færa við bakið (síðuna, etc.), to present the back (side, etc.) to a blow, Fms. vi. 15, Korm. 6; færa e-n fram, to maintain, feed, Grág. passim; færa fram, to utter, pronounce, Skálda 178; as a law term, to produce (færa fram sókn, vörn), Grág. passim; færa fé á vetr, to bring sheep to winter, i. e. keep them in fold, Grág. ch. 224; færa e-t á hendr e-m, to charge one with a thing, 656 A. 1. 3; færa skömm at e-m, to sneer at one, Eg. 210; færa á e-n, to mock one, Fms. v. 90, but see færa (from fár); færa e-t saman, to bring a thing about, Sturl. i. 139 C; færa kvæði, to deliver a poem, Ld. 114, Landn. 197, 199. 5. to remove, change; færa kirkju, to remove a church, in rebuilding it, K. Þ. K. 38, cp. Eb. fine; færa bein, Bjarn. 19, Lat. translatio; færa mark, to change the mark on cattle, Grág. i. 416; færa landsmerki, to remove the landmarks, ii. 219: metaph., færa til rétts máls, to turn into plain language, viz. into prose, Edda 126; færa heimili sitt, to change one’s abode, Grág. i. 146; færa út búðarveggi, to enlarge the walls, Ísl. ii. 293. II. reflex. to bring, carry oneself; hann gat færsk þar at, he dragged himself thither, Fms. vi. 15; færask við, to strain, exert oneself, Eg. 233; færask í aukana, to strive with might and main, vide auki; færask at, to bestir oneself, Fms. vii. 243; mega ekki at færask, to be unable to do anything, 220, 265; svá hræddir, at þeir máttu ekki at f., so frightened that they could do nothing, 655 xxvii. 22; færask e-t ór fangi, to withhold from, vide fang; færask undan, to withhold; færa undan sökum, to plead not guilty, Fms. xi. 251; bera járn at færask undan, to carry iron (as an ordeal) in order to quit oneself, v. 307; færask á fætr, to grow up, Ld. 54; aldr færisk (passes) e-n, one grows up, Fs. 3, Rb. 346; tvímælit færisk af, is removed, Lv. 52.

færð, f. the condition of a road, passage, from snow, rain, etc.; íll f., Sturl. iii. 22; þung f., Fms. ii. 75, freq.

færi, n. a being within reach; and as a shooting term, a range, Fms. i. 12, viii. 49, Nj. 63, Eg. 115, Ver. 26: a match for one, Ld. 116, Fms. ii. 27; ekki barna f., no match for bairns, Háv. 52: in pl. allit., fé eðr f., money or means, Grág. i. 62, 252: the phrase, vera í færum til e-s (mod. um e-t), to be able to do a thing, Grett. 110 C, Fms. xi. 265; með-fari, e. g. það er ekki mitt með-færi, it is no match for me:—söng-færi, hljóð-f., a musical instrument; veiðar-f., fishing gear; verk-f., tools; mál-f., organs of speech; tæki-f., occasion. COMPDS: færi-leysi, n. want of means, Grág. (Kb.) ii. 12. færi-vandr, adj. cautious, Rd. 294. færi-ván, f. opportunity, Gísl. (in a verse). færi-veðr, n. weather fit for a journey, Eb. 482, 485, Fms. xi. 374.

færi, n. a fishing-line, Vígl. 46, freq. in mod. usage.

færi-kvíar, f. pl. movable pens (of sheep).

færi-ligr and fær-ligr, adj. practicable, easy to do, Fms. vii. 335, viii. 33:—færiligr hestr, a strong, serviceable horse, Ld. 276.

færing, f. a freight, Jb. 393. 2. translation, 415. 14. 3. = færi, Anal. 201: better farning, q. v., Bjarn. 73, Sturl. i. 74, bad readings.

fær-leikr, m. ability, strength, esp. in bodily exercise, Fs. 3, Finnb. 242, Orkn. 114, Grett. 149 C, Fas. i. 331.

fær-leikr, m. a horse, freq. in mod. usage, akin to fær (?).

færr, adj. able, capable; færr til e-s. capable of, or with infin., able to do a thing, Nj. 215, Fms. i. 284, v. 71, xi. 24; vel færr, doing well, strong, Ísl. ii. 357; hress ok vel f., Eg. 84:—able, strong, in travelling, manna bezt færir bæði á fæti ok á skíðum, 73; færr hvert er þú vilt, Ld. 44; Sigmundr görisk færr (able-bodied) maðr mjök, Fær. 77; færr hestr, a strong, serviceable horse, Grág. i. 46, 328; búfé fært at mat sér, Gþl. 502. 2. of things, fit for use, safe; of a ship, sea-worthy, opp. to úfært, Eg. 114: of weather, fært (úfært) veðr, weather fit (unfit) for travelling, Gþl. 31, freq.; þegar fært var landa milli, when the passage was open from one land to another (of the sea), Fms. ii. 232: of roads, rivers, sea, etc., safe, passable, Petlands-fjörðr var eigi f., i. 200; vegir færir at renna ok ríða, Gþl. 411; al-f., ú-fært, íll-f., etc.: the law phrase ‘eiga eigi fært út hingað,’ not to have leave to return hither (i. e. to Icel.), is the third degree of outlawry, Grág. i. 119, Þ. Þ. ch. 60:—neut. with dat. denoting safe, unsafe, er þér at síðr fært með þessi orðsending, at ek hygg …, it is so far from safe for thee to go with this errand, that …, Fms. iv. 131; freq. in mod. usage, þat er ekki fært (ófært); mér er ekki fært (ófært): in many compds, þing-f., able to go to parliament, Grág. i. 46: Icel. also say in neut., þing-fært, messu-fært, when so many people are gathered together that a meeting or service can be held; bænabókar-fær, able to read one’s prayer-book, i. e. not quite ólæs.

FÆTA, tt, a dubious word, in the phrase, eiga um vandræði at f., to have to grapple with hardships, Glúm. 374; er hann svá í öllu sínu athæfi at trautt megu menn um hann fæta, such in all his doings that people could hardly manage him, Fb. i. 167; menn megu trautt heima um þik fæta, 173, (tæla, Fms. xi. 78, 92): Icel. now say, það verðr ekki við hann tætt, there are no ways with him, of an unruly person.

fætlingar, m. pl. [fótr], the ends formed by the feet, in a skin.

FÆTTA, mod. fækka, which form occurs in MSS. of the 14th century, also fætka; but in a poem of 1246 tí-rætt and fætta are made to rhyme: [fár]:—to make few, reduce in number, in old writers with acc., in mod. with dat.; at fætta skyldi húskarla, Ó. H. 113 (Fms. iv. 255).; Hkr. ii. 183 fækka less correct; ok fætta svá lið þeirra, Fbr. 74 new Ed., but fæcka in Fb. ii. 164, l. c.: reflex. to grow fewer, less, en er Hákon jarl sá fættask liðit á skipum sínum, Fms. i. 174; þegar grjótið fættisk, xi. 95; þá er fattask tóku föng, Sturl. i. 135; at eldiviðrinn tæki at fættask, Orkn. 112; fækkuðusk skotvápnin, Eb. 248. 2. to grow cold, unfriendly, (fár II); heldr tók at fækkask með þeim, Vápn. 9, Fs. 149.

fögnuðr, v. fagnaðr.

föl, n. [fölr], a thin covering of snow, Fb. ii. 149, 154, Fbr. 31 new Ed.

föl-leitr, adj. looking pale, Nj. 39, Fb. i. 545, Vápn. 29.

föl-litaðr, part. pale, Nj. 183.

fölna, að, to grow pale, Edda 36, Ld. 224, Fas. i. 189, Sks. 466 B; prop. to wither, of grass, gras fellr allt ok fölnar, Edda (pref.); fölnanda lauf, Sks. 608 B; eidr fölnaðr (of fire), Eb. 100 new Ed., v. l.:—rarely, and less correctly, of other things, kirkja fyrnd ok fölnuð, decayed, Bs. i. 198; dúkr fölnaðr, a faded cloth, Ann. 1344: reflex., Stj. 142, (badly.)

fölnan, f. a withering, fading away, Fms. vii. 91.

FÖLR, adj., old forms fölvan, fölvir, etc.; in mod. usage the v is left out, fölan, fölir, etc.; [A. S. fealo; O. H. G. falo; Old Engl. fallow; Dutch vaal; Germ. fahl and falb; cp. Lat. pallidus, Gr. πολιός]:—pale; fölr sem grass, pale as grass, Nj. 177; hann görði fölvan í andliti, Glúm. 342; fölr sem nár, pale as a corpse, Fb. ii. 136; fölr sem aska, pale as ashes, Þiðr. 171, 177: poët., fölvir oddar, the pale sword’s point, Hkv. 1. 52; fölr hestr, a pale horse (but rare), 2. 47; net-fölr, pale-nebbed, Am.; fölr um nasar, id., Alm. 2; ná-fölr, pale as a corpse.

fölskaðr, part. pale, burnt out, of fire, Fs. 6, Eb. 100 new Ed., Ísl. ii. 135.

fölski, a, m. [O. H. G. falavizga: mid. H. G. valwische; Swed. falaska; the word is composed from fölr and aska]:—the pale, white ash spread over burning embers; so Icel. call the ashes while they still keep their shape before crumbling in pieces; þeir sá á eldinum fölskann er netið hafði brunnit, Edda 39; fölski var fallinn á eldinn, Fas. ii. 388; fölskar, Stj. 58, Mar. (Fr.): metaph. in mod. usage, fölska-lauss, adj. without f., sincere, real, e. g. fölskalaus elska, sincere love.

föngu-ligr, adj. [fang], stout-looking, in good condition, Sturl. i. 159 C.

FÖNN, f., gen. fannar, pl. fannir, [cp. Gæl. feonn = white], snow, esp. a heap of snow, Landn. 154, Fms. iii. 93, Sturl. ii. 118, Sd. 164, Karl. 441, 501, N. G. L. i. 291; fannir, heaps of snow, Grett. 111 C, cp. fenna, fann-. In Norway Folge-fonn is the name of a glacier.

FÖR, f., gen. farar; old pl. farar, later and mod. farir; the acc. with the article is in old writers often contracted, förna = förina; [fara, cp. far, ferð]:—a ‘fare,’ journey, Nj. 11; er þeir váru komnir á för, when they had started, 655 iii. 3; vera heim á för, to be on the road home, Ísl. ii. 362; vera í för með e-m, to be in company with one. Eg. 340; var brúðrin í för með þeim, Nj. 50: a procession, Lex. Poët.; bál-för, lík-f., funerals; brúð-f., a bridal procession. 2. chiefly in pl. journeys; hvat til tíðinda hafði orðit í förum hans, what had happened in his journeys, Eg. 81:—of trading voyages (far-maðr), vera í fo:;rum, to be on one’s travels, Ld. 248, Nj. 22; eiga skip í förum, to own a trading ship, Fb. i. 430, (cp. fara milli landa, to fare between countries, i. e. to trade, Hkr. pref.): fara frjáls manns förum, to fare (live) about free, to live as a free man, N. G. L. i. 32; svefn-farar, sleep, Gísl.; að-farir, treatment. 3. in law, of vagrants (vide fara A. I. 2); dæma för úmögum, Grág. i. 87; dæma e-m för, 86; dæma úmaga (acc.) á för, to declare one a pauper, order him to ‘fare’ forth, 93, passim in the law (förumaðr). 4. a hasty movement, a rush; þá syndusk þar miklir hundar ok görðu för at Petro, 656 C. 29; var för (MS. for) í sortanum, the cloud was drifting swiftly, Fms. vii. 163, cp. far:—the phrases, vér munum fara allir sömu förina, all the same way, in a bad sense, xi. 154; munt þú hafa farar Hákonar jarls, x. 322; vera á föru (mod. förum), to be on the wane; lausafé hans er mér sagt heldr á förum, Þorf. Karl. 366; þá var nokkut á föru (förum, pl.) virkit Bersa, there was something wrong with B.’s castle, it was going into ruin, Korm. 148. 5. an expedition, in compds, Vatns-dals-för, Apavatns-för, Grímseyjar-för, Reykhóla-för, Kleifa-för, the expedition to Vatnsdale, Apavatn, etc., Sturl., Ann. COMPDS: fara-bók, f. an itinerary, a book of travels, Clem. 38. fara-hagr, m. travels, Clem. 142. farar-bann, n. = farbann, Fas. ii. 494. farar-beini, a, m. furthering one’s journey, Eg. 482 (v. l.), Grág. i. 298: metaph., Fms. i. 226. farar-blómi, a, m. travelling with pomp, Orkn. 370, Fms. xi. 438, Fas. iii. 376. farar-broddr, m. the front of a host, Al. 56, Hkv. 2. 17. farar-búinn, part. = farbúinn, Fms. i. 3. farar-dvöl, f. delay, Grág. i. 441, 436. farar-efni, n. pl. outfittings, Eg. 169, 194, Ísl. ii. 204, Lv. 23. farar-eyrir, m. money for travelling, Gþl. 8. farar-fé, n. id. farar-gögn, n. pl. necessaries for a journey, Nj. 259, v. l. farar-greiði, a, m. a conveyance, K. Á. 70, Fms. ii. 234, Fs. 24, Eg. 541, Gþl. 369. farar-hapt, n. a hindrance, stoppage, 625. 184. farar-hestr, m. a nag, (Fr.) farar-hlass, n. a wagon-load, N. G. L. i. 240. farar-kaup, n. on board-wages, N. G. L. i. 98. farar-leyfi, n. leave to go, Eg. 424, Fbr. 91 new Ed., Hom. 141. farar-maðr, m. = farmaðr, N. G. L. i. 199. farar-mungát, n. a bout before going, Eg. 88, Fas. i. 396. farar-nautr, m. = förunautr, O. H. L. 78. farar-orlof, n. = fararleyfi, Bs. (Laur.) farar-skjótr, m. (-skjóti, a, m.), a means of travelling, esp. a horse (or ass), Stj. 610, Fas. i. 126, Fms. iv. 38; hest, hinn bezta fararskjóta, Sturl. ii. 145 C. fararskjóta-laust, n. adj. without a horse, Fms. viii. 31, Bs. i. 349. farar-stafr, m. a walking-stick, 656 B. 1. farar-tálmi, a, m. hindrance, Jb. 283, 400, Orkn. 396.

förla, að, to grow faint, weak; ef hann of förlar, if he fails, (the passage is dubious, and something seems left out), K. Þ. K. 42: reflex. to fall into ruin, ef förlask reiðir, svá at um bæta þarf, Gþl. 77; þá mun brátt f. afl ráða-görðar, Sks. 331:—impers., e-m förlask, one grows weak, esp. from age, Krók. 40; in mod. usage, finn eg að augum förlast sýn, I feel my eyes grow dim, Hallgr.

förnuðr, v. farnaðr.

föru-kona, u, f. a vagrant woman, Þiðr. 226.

förull, adj. rambling, strolling about, Nj. 131; víð-f., wide-travelling.

föru-maðr, m. a vagrant man, a pauper, Gþl. 432. Jb. 183.

föru-mannliga, adv. (-ligr, adj.), beggarly, Vígl. 60 new Ed.

föru-nautr, m. [Germ. fahr-genosse], a companion, fellow-traveller, Ísl. ii. 336, Sturl. i. 116, ii. 21, Fms. ii. 8, Nj. 14, Vápn. 29, passim.

föru-neyti, n. a company of travellers. Clem. 32 (spelt förunauti), Edda 108, Jb. 380, Eg. 23: a retinue, Fms. iv. 82, x. 102, Nj. 37: a company, 280, Sks. 579, Grett. 139 C.

FÖSULL, m., pl. föslar. [Germ. fasel; O. H. G. fasal; A. S. fæsel]:—a brood; gljúfra f., the brood of the chasms, a dragon, poët., Nj. 109 (in a verse), an απ. λεγ.

föxóttr, adj. [fax], a horse with mane differing in colour from the body, Landn. 195, Fas. ii. 168, Rd. 299, Karl. 151, 350; gló-f., Bs. ii. 261.

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