G

G (gé) is the seventh letter. In the old Gothic Runic alphabet (Golden horn) it is represented by ᚷ, which was probably taken from the Greek χ. The later common Runic alphabet had no g, and made the tenuis k (ᚴ, called Kaun) serve for both; still later, g was distinguished simply by a dot or stroke, ᚵ or ᚶ, and this character was called ‘Stunginn Kaun,’ i. e. dotted or cut Kaun, just as the name of Stunginn Týr was given to cut or dotted t.

A. In Scandinavia the letter g begins many fewer words than in German or Saxon, mainly because the prefixed particle ge- is absent. In the fragments of Ulf., although so little is left, ga- is prefixed to about three hundred words, mostly verbs and nouns; in the Anglo-Saxon at least three or four thousand such words are recorded, and in modern German still more: indeed the number is so to say endless, as it can be put to almost any verb. In Icel. the only traces of this prefix are, I. in a few words retaining g before the liquids l and n (gl and gn): α. gl in the word glíkr, similis (and derivatives); glíkr is now obsolete, and even in very old MSS. of the 13th or even the 12th century both forms, glíkr and líkr, glíkendi and líkendi, glíkjast and líkjast, occur indiscriminately; but in older poems gl is the only form. β. gn in gnadd, gnaga, gnauða, gnegg, gneisti, gnípa, gnísta, gnolla, gnógr, gnúa, gnúpr, gnyðr, gnæðingr, gnöllra, gnötra (q. v.), and some poët. words, as gnat, etc. But in mod. usage, in gn and gl, the g is dropped both in spelling and pronunciation, nadd, naga, nauða, hnegg, neisti, nípa … núpr, nyðr or niðr, næðingr, nöllra, nötra; the gn in these words is almost constantly used in very old MSS., but even at the end of the 13th and in the 14th century the MSS., e. g. Hb., begin to drop the g, vide p. 206 sqq.: the exceptions are few, e. g. Icel. never say nýja tor gnýja, but the word itself, although known, is almost obsolete: so also in modern writers gnótt and gnægtir (abundance) often occur: but the sound gn may be said to be almost extinct. The Danes, Swedes, and Norse still keep the g before n, e. g. Dan. gnave, Swed. gnaga; whereas in glíkr the g has been dropped, and the word has become in Swed. lik, etc.; in Dan. lig, lige, ligning, etc. II. in two Icel. words the prefixed g has hardened into a radical consonant, so that its proper sound is no longer perceived, viz. granni (and compds), a neighbour, prop. one of the next house, Goth. garazna = γείτων, qs. g-ranni, from rann, domus; and greiða, explicare, = Goth. garaidian. The Scandinavian tongues have furthermore done away with the Saxon and German prefix to passive participles, and no trace of them remains even in the earliest writers or poems. The modern English has followed the same law as the Scandinavian in gn, for though it still appears in Engl. words (as gnaw, gnash), it is hardly sounded. The participial prefix remained long in southern England (see Morris’s Specimens), but weakened into y or i till at last it dropped altogether.

B. PRONUNCIATION.—It is sounded hard, soft, or aspirate; hard, as in Engl. gate, gold; soft, as in Swed. dag, Germ. tag, or mod. Gr. γ, but lost in Engl.; aspirate also lost in Engl. I. hard, 1. as initial before a hard vowel, garðr, gull, gott, etc.; and before a consonant, glaðr, gráta; but the prefixed g, in the instances A. 1. above, was prob. always sounded soft. 2. as final after consonants, as sorg, belg, ung, höfgi, or if double, as in egg. II. soft, never as initial (unlike mod. Greek, in which γ is sounded soft throughout), but only as final or sometimes as medial: 1. if single after a vowel, as dag, hug, log, veg, stig. 2. between two vowels if the latter is hard, lega, ligum, vega, vegum, dögum; but in case both the vowels, or even only the last, are soft (an i vowel) the g sound is lost, and it is eliminated altogether or assimilated to the preceding vowel, which thus becomes a diphthong; the same is the case if j follows g; thus syllables and words such as bagi and bæi, dagi and dæi, degi and deigi, eygja and eyja or eya, lagi and lægi or læi are all sounded alike; in olden times there must have been a difference of sound, as old MSS. never confound the spelling in words like those above, whereas in modern letters written by uneducated people, nothing is more frequent than to see, um dæinn for um daginn, or á deíinum for á deginum, and the like; the poets also rhyme accordingly, e. g. segi—hneigi, Pass. 38. 13; segja—deyja, 25; segja—beygja, 25. 12; drýgja—nýja, 30. 3; eigið—dregið, 7. 10; deyja—teygja, 16. 13, etc.; even MSS. of the end of the 15th century frequently give seigia for segja (to say), e. g. Arna-Magn. 556 A, see the pref. to Ísl. ii. p. vi: as a medial, before d the g is sounded hard almost all over Icel., and the d soft (sagði); yet in the peninsula of Snæfells Sýsla many people still reverse this rule, and say sagdi, lagdi, bygdi, bygd, sounding the g soft but the d hard; in the east of Icel. people say bregða, sagði, pronouncing both soft; this is no doubt the best pronunciation, and accords well with the modern English said, laid, and the like. III. the aspirate g is sounded, 1. as initial before a soft vowel or j, gefa, gæta, geyma, geir, gjöld. 2. as final, a double g (gg) or g after a consonant is sounded as aspirate in all instances where a single g is lost (vide above), thus laggir, leggja, byggja, byggi, veggir, or margir, helgir, göfgi, engi, mergjar, elgjar, engja. Between two consonants the g is not pronounced, thus fylgdi, morgna, fylgsni, bólgna are sounded as fyldi, morna, fylsni, bólnar.

C. SPELLING.—Here is little to notice: I. in old MSS. the aspirate g as initial is frequently marked by the insertion of i after it, thus giæta, giefa, = gæta, gefa, but this is not now used. II. in old Norse MSS.,—and, by way of imitation, in some Icel.,—the soft g before a vowel is frequently marked by inserting h after it, thus dagh, deghi, vegha, sagha; in the Middle Ages many foreign MSS. expressed soft sounds in this way, and so they wrote dh = ð, gh = soft g, th = þ, whence comes the th in modern English; we also find gh in words such as Helghi, Fb. pref.; probably the g was in olden times sounded soft in rg, lg, which agrees with the change in English into holy, sorrow, etc.; ngh = ng also occurs, e. g. erlinghi, Eb. i. 537, denoting a soft sound of ng as in modern Danish and Swedish. In MSS. we now and then find a spurious g before j and a vowel, e. g. deygja, meygja, for deyja, meyja, because the sound was the same in both cases.

D. CHANGES.—The hard and aspirate g, especially as initial, usually remains in modern foreign languages, gate, ghost, give, get, except in Engl. yard, yarn (Icel. garð, garn), etc., where the Anglo-Saxon had a soft g sound. Again, 1. the soft g after a vowel takes a vowel sound, and is in English marked by w, y, or the like, day, say, saw, law, bow, way, low, = Icel. dag, segja, sög, lög, bogi, veg, lág, etc.: and even a double g, as in lay, buy, = Icel. leggja or liggja, byggja. 2. so also before or after a consonant, thus, Engl. said, rain, gain, sail, tail, bail, fowl, etc., = Icel. sagði, regn, gagn, segl, tagl, hagl, fugl; Engl. sorrow, follow, fellow, worry, borrow, belly, = Icel. sorg, fylgja, félagi, vargr, byrgi, belgr. In Dan. lov, skov, vej answer to Icel. lög, skóg, veg, whereas Sweden and Norway have kept the g, Swed. lag, skog, väg.

E. INTERCHANGE.—Lat. h and Gr. χ answer to Icel. and Teut. g, but the instances of such interchange are few, e. g. Lat. hostis, hortus, homo, hoedus, heri, = Icel. gestr, garðr, gumi, geit, gær; Lat. hio, Gr. χάος, cp. Icel. gjá, gína; Gr. χθές = gær, χήν = gáss, χολή = gall, etc.

GABB, n. mocking, mockery, Fms. vii. 17, 59, ix. 385, Sturl. i. 155, Sks. 247, Karl. 474, Grett. 101.

gabba, að, [Scot. gab], to mock, make game of one, Fms. i. 72, ii. 67, vi. 112, ix. 385, Stj. 609, Mag. 68, Ísl. ii. 165, Fs. 159; gabb ok gaman, Ó. H. 78: reflex., Bs. i. 319.

gadda, að, to goad, spike, Str. 25, Karl. 172: gaddaðr, part., Sams. 13.

gaddan, n. a kind of head-gear, an απ. λεγ., Orkn. 304; perh. Gaelic.

GADDR, m. [Ulf. gads = κέντρον, 1 Cor. xv. 55, 56; A. S. gadu; Engl. gad, goad; Swed. gadd]:—a goad, spike, Str. 77, Gísl. 159 (on a sword’s hilt); gadda-kylfa, u, f. a ‘gad-club,’ club with spikes, Fms. iii. 329; gadd-hjalt, n. a ‘gad-hilt,’ hilt studded with nails, Eb. 36 new Ed., Gísl. 159, Fas. iii. 288, cp. Worsaae 494, 495, as compared with 330: metaph. phrase, var mjök í gadda slegit, ‘twas all but fixed with nails, i. e. settled, Nj. 280. II. a sting, Al. 168; (cp. Engl. gad-fly.) III. perhaps a different root, hard snow, also spelt galdr (Fms. viii. 413, v. l., cp. gald, Ivar Aasen); the phrase, troða gadd, to tread the snow down hard, Fms. vii. 324, viii. 413, ix. 364, 490; en er Birkibeinar vóru komnir upp á galdinn hjá þeim, Fb. ii. 688: even used as neut., gaddit, Fms. viii. l. c. (in a vellum MS.); gaddit. id. (also vellum MS.); hence gadd-frosinn, part. hard-frozen; gadd-hestr, m. a jade turned out in the snow. IV. a ‘gad-tooth,’ a disease in cattle, one or more grinders growing out so as to prevent the animal from feeding, described in Fél. xiv. note 250; gadd-jaxl, m. a ‘gad-grinder.’

gaffall, m. [Germ. gabel], a fork to eat with, (mod.)

GAFI, a, m. [A. S. geaf = funny], a gaff; fregna eigum langt til gafa, Mkv.: a saying, cp. spyrja er bezt til váligra þegna.

GAFL, m. [Ulf. gibla = πτερύγιον, Luke iv. 9; Engl. gable; Germ. giebel; Dan. gavl; Swed. gafvel]:—a gable-end, gable, Sturl. ii. 50, Nj. 209, Ísl. ii. 74.

gafl-hlað (gaflað, Nj. 203, 209, Orkn. 244). n. a gable-end, Gísl. 88: in pl. gaflhlöð, Orkn. 470; eystra g., 244; at húsendanum við gaflhlaðit, 450; gaflhlaðit hvárt-tveggja, Ísl. ii. 352; selit var gört um einn ás ok lá hann á gaflhlöðum, Ld. 280.

gafl-kæna, u, f. a yawl, Safn i. 112, Stef. Ól.

gafl-stokkr, m. a gable-beam, Eg. 90.

gafl-veggr, m. a gable-end, Nj. 197.

gaga, að, to throw the neck back, Flor. 18.

gagarr, m. a dog; gagarr er skaptr því at geyja skal, a dog is so made as to bark, Mkv. 4: used as a nickname, Landn. 145: in a verse in Eg. a shell is called ‘the ever mute surf-dog’ (síþögull brimróta gagarr), prob. from a custom of Icel. children, who in play make shells represent flocks and herds, kú-skeljar (cow-shells), gymbr-skeljar (lamb-shells), and put one shell for a dog. gagara-ljóð, n. pl. ‘dog-song’ (?), a kind of metre in Rímur.

GAGG, n., onomatop. the fox’s cry.

gagga, að, to howl (of a fox), metaph. to mock at one, 689. 66.

gag-háls, adj. [gagr], with neck thrown back, epithet of a stag, Gm. 33.

GAGL, n. [Ivar Aasen gagl = wild goose, cp. the Scot. a gale of geese = a flock of geese]:—a wild goose, Edda (Gl.); gagl fyrir gás, a saying, Ó. H. 87: in poetry, of any bird, hræ-g., blóð-g., etc., a carrion-crow; the word is not used in Icel. except in the saying above; the goshawk is called gagl-fár, n. and gagl-hati, a, m. goose-destroyer.

gagl-bjartr, adj. bright as a goose, an epithet of a lady, Akv. 39; the wild goose is here made to serve for a swan!

gagl-viðr, m. an απ. λεγ., Vsp. 34; explained by the commentators, a forest where there are wild geese, but perhaps better as the name of a plant, the sweet gale or bog-myrtle.

GAGN, n. [a Scandin. word, neither found in Saxon nor Germ.; only Ulf. has the root verb gageigan = κερδαίνειν; Swed. gagn; Dan. gavn; Engl. gain is prob. borrowed from the Scandin.]: 1. sing. gain, advantage, use, avail; hluti þá er ek veit at honum má gagn at verða, things that can be of use to him, Nj. 258; er oss varð at mestu gagni, Ísl. ii. 175; er eigi mun vera gagn í, that will be of no use, Fms. iii. 175; það er að litlu gagni, of little avail, etc., passim. 2. gain, victory; sigr ok gagn, Orkn. 38; hafa gagn, to gain the day, Rb. 398, Hom. 131, Fms. vii. 261; fá gagn, id., Fas. i. 294, freq. in poetry; gagni feginn, triumphant, Fm. 25; gagni lítt feginn, i. e. worsted, Hbl. 29. 3. produce, revenue, chiefly of land; jarðir at byggja ok vinna ok allra gagna af at neyta, Eg. 352; hence the law phrase, to sell an estate ‘með öllum gögnum ok gæðum.’ 4. goods, such as luggage, utensils, or the like; síðan fór hann norðr á Strandir með gagn sitt, Sturl. i. 10; ker ok svá annat gagn sitt, Grág. ii. 339; bæta garð aptr ok öll gögn ok spellvirki, Gþl. 421; þeir héldu öllum farmi ok öllu gagni (luggage), því er á skipinu var, Bs. i. 326. β. in mod. usage almost always in pl. gögn = household implements, esp. tubs, pots, etc.; bú-gögn, heimilis-gögn, household jars; far-g., farar-g., q. v. 5. in pl. a law term, proofs, evidence produced in court; at eigi dveli það gögn fyrir mönnum, Grág. i. 25; nefna vátta at öllum gögnum þeim er fram vóru komin, Nj. 87; eptir gögnum ok vitnum skal hvert mál dæma, a law phrase, upon evidence and witnesses shall every case be tried, Gþl. 475; öll gögn þau er þeir skulu hafa at dómi, Grág. ii. 270; þeir menn allir er í dómi sitja eðr í gögnum eru fastir, i. 105, 488, and passim; gagna-gögn, vide below. COMPDS: gagna-höld, n. pl. a holding back of proofs, evidence, Grág. ii. 273. gagn-auðgan, f. wealth, Fms. ii. 215. gagn-auðigr, adj. wealthy, well stored, Stj. 361, Ld. 38, Bs. i. 643. gagn-ligr, adj. useful. gagn-samligr, adj. (-liga, adv.), profitable, Bs. i. 690, 770. gagn-samr, adj. useful, profitable, Sturl. i. 74, Hrafn. 23, Landn. 83, Ísl. ii. 62, Stj. 92. gagn-semd and -semi, f. usefulness, profitableness, Hrafn. 24. gagns-lauss, adj. useless. gagns-lítill, adj. of little use. gagns-mikill, adj. of great use. gagns-munir, m. pl. useful things, Fbr. 22; veita e-m g., to help one, Hkr. ii. 251: mod. gain, profit, eigin g., Pass. 28. 6.

GAGN-, an adverbial prefix:

A. [Cp. the adv. gegn], gain- (in gainsay), counter, esp. in law terms:—hence gagna-gögn, n. pl. counter-proofs, Grág. i. 106. gagn-augu, n. pl. ‘counter-eyes,’ temples. gagn-dyrt, n. adj. with doors opposite one another, Fas. ii. 181. gagn-gjald, n., prop. a ‘countergild,’ antidote, a Norse law term, which seems identical with mundr or tilgjöf, opp. to heiman-fylgja, dowry, which in case of the husband’s death or divorce was to be the wife’s property; gjöf and gagngjald are distinguished, N. G. L. i. 29; þá skal hon þarnast gagngjalds ok gjafar, 51. gagn-görð, f. transgression, 15. 1 (MS.) gagn-hollr, adj. kind to one another, Hm. 31. gagn-kvöð, f. a counter-summons, Grág. ii. 102. gagn-mælendr, part. pl. gain-sayers, opponents, Mart. 114. gagn-mæli, n. gain-saying, contradiction, Fms. x. 403, Stj. 331. gagn-nefna, u, f. a mutual nomination, of arbitrators, Grág. i. 495. gagn-staða, u, f. ‘gain-staying,’ resistance, Fms. x. 387, Hom. (St.) 43. gagnstöðu-flokkr, m. the opposite party, Fms. viii. 323: gagnstöðu-maðr, m. an opponent, adversary, 623. 12, 655 xvi. B. 3: gagn-staðleikr (-leiki), m. the contradictory, reverse, Stj. 263. gagn-staðligr, adj. (-liga, adv.), contrary, opposed to, Fms. i. 263, viii. 326, x. 233, Stj. 29, 73, Ó. H. 195, Sks. 576. gagn-staðr, adj. id., Stj. 163, Fms. viii. 323. gagn-stæðligr and gagn-stæðiligr, adj. = gagnstaðligr, Fms. ix. 528, Sks. 111, 130, 337, Stj. 335, Fs. 172. gagn-sök, f. a counter-action, counter-charge, a law term,—the defendant brought forth counter-charges, to be set off against those of the prosecutor, vide Nj. passim, Grág. i. 294, K. Þ. K. 160, Fs. 74, 125, Grett. 151, Valla L. 204, Rd. 300. gagn-tak, n. a ‘holder against,’ the strap to which the girth is attached, Fms. vii. 170, Sturl. iii. 114, Glúm. 393, Hkr. iii. 283, Karl. 458, Flor. 78; also called mót-tak. gagn-vert and gagn-vart, n. adj., used as prep. and adv., over against, with dat., Eg. 206, Fms. vi. 32, vii. 253. xi. 34, Nj. 34, Sd. 163; sitja g. e-m, Fs. 148; g. sólunni, 1812. 133; g. dyrum, Gullþ. 26, Fbr. 37, 64, passim:—as adv., Landn. 62, Fms. ii. 27, xi. 125.

B. [Cp. gegnum and the adj. gegn], through, right through, straight; and so thorough, thoroughly, very (in which sense gay or gey is still used in Scot. and North. E., Jamieson Suppl. s. v.):—hence gagn-drepa, adj. wet through. gagn-færiligr and gagn-færr, adj. through-going, used as transl. of the Lat. penetrans, Stj. 89, 656 A. i. 34, 655 xxxii. 19. gagn-gört, n. adj. straight, Fb. iii. 296, Gísl. 38. gagn-hræddr, adj. ‘gay’ (i. e. very) frightened, Fms. iv. 147, 625. 18. gagn-kunnigr, adj. knowing thoroughly. gagn-leiði, n. the ‘ganest’ (i. e. shortest) way, Al. 92. gagn-orðr, adj. ‘gane-worded,’ speaking shortly, to the point, Nj. 38; (opp. to marg-orðr or lang-orðr.) gagn-skeytiligr, adj. to be shot through, Sks. 398 B. gagn-skorinn, part. scored through, i. e. cut through by fjords, rivers, etc., Fas. iii. 511: also thoroughly scored, i. e. carved all over, Vígl. 48 new Ed. gagn-stígr, m. a ‘gane’ way, short cut, Al. 109, Sks. 2, Fms. vii. 82 (in a verse). gagn-sæll, adj. through-seeing, penetrating, Sks. 208, (rare.) gagn-sær, adj. transparent, Rb. 354; gagnsætt gler, Hom. 128. gagn-vátr, adj. wet through. gagn-vegr, m. [Swed. genväg] = gagnstígr, Hm. 33. gagn-þurr, adj. dry all through, quite dry.

gagna, að, to help, be of use to one, Bs. i. 799; ok lætr sér vel gagna, 655 xxxii: reflex. to avail, be of use, Bs. ii. 141, 143, Vígl. 30, Dipl. i. 6, Jm. 20.

gagn-dagr, gagn-fasta, vide gangdagr, gangfasta.

gagn-stæðr, adj. reverse, contrary.

gagn-tak, n. straps on a truss-saddle, (mod.)

GAGR, adj. bowed back; this obsolete word is still used in Norway, e. g. gag ljaa, of a scythe; gagt menneska, a conceited man; cp. gaga, to throw the head back: in compds as gag-háls, q. v. People in Icel. say, hnakka-kertr, one who throws the neck back, but keikr of bending the backbone back; e. g. standa keikr, where the Norse say standa gag. The explanation in Lex. Poët. is guess-work, as the word is not in use in Icel., vide remarks on the word by Bugge in Oldn. Tidsskrift.

gag-vígr, adj. an απ. λεγ.; g. bardagi, wanton strife, Fb. (Sverr. S.) ii. 553.

gal, n. crowing; hana-gal, cock-crowing.

GALA, pres. gelr, Hm. 28, 150, Vsp. 35; pret. gól, pl. gólu; pret. subj. gœli, Haustl. 20; in mod. usage, pres. galar, áðr en haninn galar, Matth. xxvi. 34, 74, 75, Mark xiv. 30, cp. Pass. 12. 7; but fyrr en haninn gelr, Luke xxii. 61; in pret. the old form is preserved, ok jafnsnart gól haninn, Matth. xxvi. 74; þá gól nú haninn fyrst, Pass. 11. 5; gól haninn annað sinn, 11. 8, Luke xxii. 60; og strax gól haninn, John xviii. 27; but elsewhere in mod. usage weak, galaði: [not recorded in Goth., as Ulf. renders φωνειν l. c. by hrukjan; A. S. galan; Old Engl. and Scot. to gale = to cry; Dan. gale; Swed. gala]:—to crow; hún heyrir hana gala, Stj. 208; gól um Ásum Gullinkambi, Vsp. 35; en annarr gelr, sótrauðr hani, id.: of a crow, Hm. 84. II. metaph. to chant, sing, used trans.; gala sér úgott, Hm. 28, Ls. 31; afl gól hann Ásum, Hm. 161; þann kann ek galdr at gala, I can chant that song, with the notion of spell, Hm. 153; svá ek gel, 150; hón (the sibyll) gól galdra sína yfir Þór, Edda 58: ironic., gólu þeir eptir í staðinn, O. H. L. 17; gala at um e-t, to beg blandly, Fms. xi. 113; Herodias gól at um líflát Johannes, 625. 96:—with acc. to gladden, cheer, Sl. 26.

galarr, m. an enchanter, the name of a dwarf, Vsp.

gald, n. hard snow, = gaddr, q. v.

galdr or galðr, m., gen. galdrs, pl. galdrar, [from gala; A. S. gealdor = cantus, sonitus]:—prop. a song, hence in names of old poems, Heimdalar-galdr, Edda 17; but almost always with the notion of a charm or spell, vide gala II above; hón kvað þar yfir galdra, Grett. 151, Hkr. i. 8; kveða helgaldra, Fbr. 24; gala galdra, Edda 58, Hm. 153; með rúnum ok ljóðum þeim er galdrar heita, Hkr. i. 11; galdr ok kvæði, Stj. 492: hence II. witchcraft, sorcery, esp. in pl.; galdrar ok fjölkyngi, Fb. i. 214, K. Þ. K. 76, Grett. 155; galdrar ok gjörningar, Anal. 244; galdrar ok forneskja, Gísl. 41, Grett. 155; með göldrum, 180 (in a verse); sjá við göldrum, Hom. 86, Ísl. ii. 77: a fiend (= Icel. sending), reka þann galdr út til Íslands at Þorleifi ynni at fullu, Fb. i. 213, (rare.) COMPDS: galdra-bók, f. a book of magic, 655 xiii, Ísl. Þjóðs. i. 514. galdra-fluga, u, f. a ‘witch-fly,’ a kind of fly, tipula nigra subhirta, Eggert Itin. 604; cp. flugu-maðr. galdra-fullr, adj. full of sorcery, Fas. i. 108. galdra-hríð, f. a magic storm, hurricane raised by spells, Fas. i. 108. galdra-kind, f. a foul witch, Fas. i. 97: galdra-kinn, f. a ‘spell-cheek,’ a nickname, Eb. galdra-kona, u, f. a witch, sorceress, Ísl. ii. 73, Stj. 491, v. l. galdra-ligr, adj. magical, Stj. 91. galdra-list, f. magic art, Stj. 100, Fas. iii. 237. galdra-læti, n. pl. magical mummeries, Fas. ii. 373. galdra-maðr, m. a wizard, Fms. xi. 435, Fas. i. 5, Barl. 102, 149. galdra-meistari, a, m. a magician, Stj. 437. galdra-raumr, m. a great sorcerer, Fas. ii. 375. galdra-samligr, adj. magical, Stj. 91. galdra-smiðr, m. a ‘spellsmith,’ sorcerer, magician, Hkr. i. 10. galdra-snapr, m. a wizard-impostor, galdra-stafir, m. pl. magical characters. galdra-sögur, f. pl. tales of witches. galdra-vél, f. a magical device, Post. 80.

GALEIÐ, f. [a for. word; galea, galio, galeida, Du Gauge], a galiot, Fms. vi. 134, 168, vii. 78, 179, Ísl. ii. 394.

gal-gopi, a, m. a coxcomb.

galinn, prop. a part. from gala, enchanted, but used in the sense of mad, Fms. i. 44, vii. 187: frantic, Gísl. 138: voluptuous, sensual, Stj. 55; þú er galin í girnd sem svín, Úlf. 3. 57.

GALL, n. [A. S. gealla; Engl. gall; Germ. galle; Dan. galde; Gr. χολή]:—gall, bile, Pr. 472–474, Fbr. 137: metaph. an acid drink, Anecd. 10; edik galli blandað, οξος μετα χολης, Matth. xxvii. 34.

gall-harðr, adj. hard as cinders, qs. gjall-harðr, Bs. ii. 65, freq.

GALLI, a, m. [cp. Swed. gall = barren], a fault, flaw, drawback, Hm. 134, freq. in mod. usage (ár-galli, q. v.); hence galla-lauss, adj. faultless, Hom. (St.) 64, 72: gallaðr, part. vicious, guileful. II. a nickname, Bs. i. Laur. S.

gall-opnir, m., poët. a cock, Lex. Poët.

gall-sótt, f., medic. atra bilis.

gall-súrr, adj. sour or hot as gall.

GALM, f. or galmr, m., only in local names, Galmar-strönd, [cp. A. S. gealm = din], prob. called so from the roaring of the surf.

galpín, mod. galapín, n. [for. word; Scot. galopin = lackey], a merry fellow; þú ert mesta galapín!—a nickname, Sturl. iii. 209 C.

galsi, a, m. wild joy; galsa-ligr, adj. frolicsome.

galti, a, m. (vide göltr), a boar, bog, Fms. iv. 58, Fas. i. 88, Gullþ. 15, Fs. 71, 141; Galt-nes, n. ‘Hog’s-ness,’ a local name; Galt-nesingr, m. a man from G., Sturl.

gal-tómr, adj. quite empty, of a tub.

Gal-verskr, adj. from Galilee, Mar.

gamal-dags, as adv. old-fashioned, (mod.)

gamal-karl, m. an old man, Fms. ii. 182.

GAMALL, contr. forms, gamlan, gamla, gamlir, gamlar, gömlum, etc., fem. sing. and neut. pl. gömul; neut. sing. gamalt; the compar. and superl. from a different root, viz. compar. ellri, superl. ellztr, mod. eldri eldstr or elztr: [not recorded in Ulf., who renders αρχαιος by alþeis; but in A. S. gamol and gomel occur, although rarely even in Beowulf; in mod. Engl. and Germ. it is lost, but is in full use in all Scandin. dialects; Swed. gammal; Dan. gammel; Norse gamal, fem. gomol, Ivar Aasen]: I. old, Lat. senex; in the sayings, þeygi á saman gamalt og ungt, Úlf. 3. 44; opt er gott þat er gamlir kveða, Hm. 134, Fb. i. 212; íllt að kenna gömlum hundi að sitja; gamlir eru elztir, old are the eldest, i. e. the most cunning, clever; tvisvar verðr gamall maðr barn; engi verðr eldri en gamall; en þótt konungr þessi sé góðr maðr … þá mun hann þó eigi verða ellri en gamall, Fms. iv. 282; faðir minn var gamall, Nj. 31; g. spámaðr, an old spae-man, 656 B. 12; hence gamals-aldr, m. old age, Ld. 4, Fms. ii. 71: compds, af-garnall, fjör-g., eld-g., q. v.; cp. also ör-gemlir = Germ. uralt, a giant in Edda. 2. grown up, old, of animals; arðr-uxi gamall, Grág. i. 502; gamlir sauðir, old rams; gjalda grís fyrir gamalt svín, Ó. H. 86; fyrr á gömlum uxanum at bæsa en kálfinum, a pun, Fms. vi. 28. 3. old, of things, freq. in mod. usage, but the ancients use gamall of persons or living things, and distinguish between gamall and forn (q. v.); a man is ‘gamall,’ but he wears ‘forn’ klæði (old clothes), thus in the verse Fms. xi. 43 gamall prob. refers to Gorm and not to land; Merl. 1. 61 is corrupt; vide gjallr (below); gamall siðr, Anal. 187, does not appear in Fb. iii. 401 (the original of the mod. text in Anal.) II. old, aged, of a certain age; nokkurra vetra gamall, some years old, Fms. xi. 78; fjögurra vetra gömul, Þiðr. 221; hve gamall maðr ertu, how old art thou? Ísl. ii. 220; tólf vetra gamall, 204; fimm, sex, vetra gamall, Grág. i. 502; vetr-gamall, a winter old; árs-gamall, a year old; misseris-gamall, half a year old; nætr-g., a night old, etc. III. in pr. names, hinn Gamli is added as a soubriquet, like ‘major’ in Lat., to distinguish an older man from a younger man of the same name; hinn gamli and hinn ungi also often answer to the Engl. ‘father and son;’ thus, Hákon Gamli and Hákon Ungi, old and young H., Fms.; also, Jörundr Gamli, Ketilbjörn Gamli, Örlygr Gamli, Bragi Gamli, Ingimundr hinn Gamli, etc., vide Landn.; Ari hinn Gamli, Bs. i. 26, to distinguish him from his grandson Ari Sterki; cp. the Lat. Cato Major: in some of the instances above it only means the old = Lat. priscus.

B. The compar. is ellri and superl. ellztr; eigi ellra en einnar nætr, 1812. 57; fjórtan vetra gamall eðr ellri, K. Á. 190; enir ellri synir Brjáns, Nj. 269; inn ellzti, 38; ellztr bræðranna, Grág. i. 307; hann var ellztr, Eg. 27, Fms. i. 20, passim.

gamal-ligr, adj. elderly, Fms. ii. 59.

gamal-menni, n. an aged person, Eg. 89, Orkn. 78, Rd. 302.

gamal-órar, f. pl. dotage from age, Eb. 318.

gamal-ærr, adj. in dotage, Nj. 194, Eb. 322, Grett. 116, Fas. ii. 93.

GAMAN, n., dat. gamni, (gafni, Fas. i. 176, Fms. x. 328, Bær. 9); [A. S. gomen, gamen; Engl. game; O. H. G. gaman; mid. H. G. gamen; Dan. gammen]:—game, sport, pleasure, amusement; in the sayings, lítið er ungs manns gaman; maðr er manns gaman, Hm. 46; and in the phrases, göra e-t að gamni sínu, or, sér til gamans, to do a thing for amusement; mart er sér til gamans gert, Tíma R.; jötni at gamni, Þkv. 23; var þá mest g. Egils at ræða við hana, Eg. 764; þykja g. at e-u, to make game of; þá mun Rútr hlæja ok þykja g. at, Rut will then laugh and be amused by it, Nj. 33: gaman þykir kerlingunni at móður várri, 68; henda g. at e-u, to make game of, Bs. i. 790, Þiðr. 226, Grett. 142 new Ed., Fms. xi. 109. β. in proverbial sayings; kalt er kattar gamanið, cold is the cat’s play, i. e. she scratches; þá ferr að grána gamanið, the game begins to be rather rude; or, það fer að fara af gamanið, the game fares to be serious:—love, pleasure, poët., in the allit. phrase, hafa geð ok gaman konu, Hbl. 18, Hm. 98, 162; gamni mær undi, Hbl. 30; unna e-m gamans, Skm. 39, Fsm. 43, 51: coitus, er hann hafði-t gýgjar g., Vþm. 32.

gaman-ferð, f. a pleasure-trip, Fas. ii. 77.

gaman-fundr, m. a merry-making, Nj. 113.

gaman-leikr, m, a game, Grett. 107, Mag. 30.

gaman-mál, n. merry folk, joking, Fms. xi. 151, Ld. 306, Karl. 532.

gaman-rúnar, f. pl. merry talk, Hm. 122, 132.

gaman-ræða, u, f. merry talk, Sks. 165, Fs. 72.

gaman-samligr, adj. amusing, Sks. 118, 621, Fas. i. 332, ii. 459.

gaman-samr, adj. gamesome, merry, Fms. ix. 249, Sks. 634.

gaman-vísa, u, f. a comic ditty, Hkr. iii. 71.

gaman-yrði, n. playful words, fun, Sks. 433.

gaman-þing, n. a meeting of lovers, Lex. Poët.

gamban-, a dubious word, perh. costly; in A. S. poetry gamban occurs twice or thrice in an allit. phrase, gamban gyldan = to pay a fee (Grein): gamban-reiði, f. splendid gear (?), Skm. 33; gamban-sumbl, n. a sumptuous banquet, Ls. 8; gamban-teinn, m. a staff, Skm. 32. These poems seem to be by one hand, and the word occurs nowhere else in the northern languages.

gambr, m. = gammr, Barl. 39, Þiðr. 92, D. N. ii. 255, iv. 457: gambrs-kló, f. a griffin’s claw, used as a pedestal for a drinking-horn, D. N.

gambr, n. wanton talk, boasting.

gambra, að, to brag, bluster, Glúm. 332, Al. 138, 655 xiii. A. B, Grett. 134 A, Fms. xi. 147:—to prate, Stj. 401. Judges ix. 38; við höfum tíðum gambrað Geir, um götu kræktir saman, Sig. Pét. Ný Fél. vii. 194.

gambrari, a, m. a bragger, blusterer.

gambr-mosi, a, m. a kind of moss, Hjalt.

gamlaðr, part. very aged, Hkr. i. 148, Fas. i. 372, Ver. 15, Ld. 250.

gamli, a, m., poët. an eagle, Edda (Gl.): a pr. name, Landn.

gammi, a, m. (a Fin. word), the dwelling of a Finn, Fms. i. 8, x. 379, Fas. ii. 174: of a dwarf’s abode, Þiðr. 21; dwarfs were often confounded with Finns.

gammi, a, m. the gamut in music, Skálda.

GAMMR, m. a vulture, Fms. iii. 207, Nj. 123, Fas. ii. 151, 231, iii. 210, 366, 612, Karl. 527, 544.

gamna, að, with dat. to amuse, divert, Fms. viii. 4.

gams, n. busks (?), in the phrase, snapa gams, to get nothing, Jón Þorl. i. 343, (mod.)

GAN, n. frenzy, frantic gestures; fara með hlátri ok gani, Nj. 220; hon hljóp með ópi miklu ok gani, Fas. iii. 177.

gana, ð, mod. að, to rush, run frantically; hann spurði hví hann gandi svá, Sturl. ii. 177; ganaði hann langt undan hernum, Fas. iii. 422; ganir at honum ok höggr, Jómsv. 49; þótt þú ganir galinn, Skáld H. 2. 57: of wildfire, Skálda 202 (in a verse); in Fbr. 162 (in a verse) it has the notion to glare in one’s face; akin is góna (q. v.), to stare.

GANDR, m.:—the exact sense of this word is somewhat dubious; it is mostly used in poetry and in compds, and denotes anything enchanted or an object used by sorcerers, almost like zauber in Germ., and hence a monster, fiend; thus the Leviathan of northern mythology is called Jörmun-gandr, the great ‘gand;’ or Storðar-gandr, the ‘gand’ of the earth: a snake or serpent is by Kormak called gandr or gandir, Korm. ch. 8: wildfire is hallar g., a worrier of halls, and selju g., a willow-worrier, Lex. Poët.: the wolf Fenrir is called Vonar-gandr, the monster of the river Von, vide Edda. COMPDS: Gand-álfr, m. a pr. name, a wizard, bewitched demon. gand-fluga, u, f. = galdrafluga, a ‘gand’ fly, gad-fly, a kind of tipula, Eggert Itin. 604. gand-rekr, m. a gale brought about by witchcraft, Bs. i. 647 (in a verse), Edda (Gl.) Gand-vík, f. ‘Gand’ bay, i. e. Magic bay, the old name of the White Sea, for the Lapps were famous sorcerers. gand-reið, f. the ‘witches’ ride;’ in nursery tales a witch is said to ride on a broomstick, Germ. besenstiel; in old lore they were said to ride by night on wolves, which are hence in poetry called ‘the steeds of witches;’ fá þú mér út krókstaf minn ok bandvetlinga því at ek vil á gandreið fara, Fms. iii. 176; ekki skorti gandreiðir í eynni um nóttina, Fas. ii. 131; hann kvað hann séð hafa gandreið, ok er þat jafnan fyrir stórtíðindum, Nj. 195; cp. also on this subject Ísl. Þjóðs. i. 440 sqq.; renna göndum, to slide on ‘gands,’ ride a witch-ride; víða hefi ek göndum rennt í nótt, of a witch in Fbr. 124; víta ganda, to bewitch ‘gands,’ i. e. to deal in sorcery, Vsp. 25, cp. the passage in Þiðr. S., fór Ostracia út ok rœrði gand sinn, then O. (a witch) went out (cp. útiseta) and reared her ‘gands,’ i. e. raised ghosts, or gener. exercised her black art,—the MSS. have here even neut. gannd (gönd) sín. The compd spá-gandar in Vsp. seems to mean ‘spae-ghosts’ or spirits of divination.

☞ Some commentators render gandr bv wolf, others by broom; but the sense no doubt lies deeper. Gunnar Pálsson (died 1793) says that gandr is used in Icel. of the helm of a ship; but no such word is known, at least in the west of Icel.

GANGA, pret. gekk or gékk, 2nd pers. gékkt, mod. gékst; pl. gengu, geingu, or géngu, and an old poët. gingu; gengengu in Vsp. 12 is a mere misspelling (vide Sæm. Möb. 258); pres. geng, pl. göngum; pret. subj. gengi (geingi); imperat. gakk and gakktú; with the neg. suffix geng-at, gengr-at, gékk-at, gakk-attu, passim; a middle form göngumk firr, go from me, Gm. 1: a contracted form gá occurs now and then in mod. hymns; it is not vernacular but borrowed from Germ. and Dan.: [cp. Ulf. gaggan; A. S. and Hel. gangan; Scot. and North. E. gang, mod. Engl. go; Dan.-Swed. gange or gå; Germ. gehen; Ivar Aasen ganga: Icel., Scots, and Norsemen have preserved the old ng, which in Germ. and Swed.-Dan. only remains in poetry or in a special sense, e. g. in Germ. compds.]

A. To go: I. to walk; reið jarl en Karkr gékk, Fms. i. 210, Rm. 1, 2, 6, 14, 23, 24, 30, Edda 10, Grág. ii. 95, passim; ganga leiðar sinnar, to go one’s way, Fms. x. 290, Krók. 26: adding acc., g. alla leið, Fms. xi. 202, 299; g. berg, to climb a cliff; g. afréttar, to search the fell-pastures (fjallganga), Háv. 39; also g. (to climb) í fjall, í kletta, Fms. x. 313: Icel. also say, ganga skó og sokka, to wear out shoes and socks; hann gékk tvenna skó; ganga berserks gang, q. v. β. absol. to go a-begging, Grág. i. 226, 232, Ísl. ii. 25; ganga vergang, húsgang, id. (göngumaðr). II. adding adverbs, infinitives, adjectives, or the like, α. an adverb denoting direction; g. út ok inn, Vkv. 4, Lv. 26; g. inn, Fms. i. 16, vi. 33; g. út, to go out, Lat. exire, Nj. 194; g. aptr, to return, Fms. x. 352; g. fram, to step forward, Hm. 1, Eg. 165; g. upp, to go up, ashore; g. ofan, niðr, to go down; g. heiman, 199; g. heim, to go home; gakk hingat, come hither! 488; g. móti, í gegn e-m, to go against, to meet one; g. braut, to go away; g. til e-s, or at e-m, to go to one; g. frá e-m, to leave one; g. með e-m, to go with one; g. hjá, to pass by; g. saman, to go together; g. yfir, to go over; g. gegnum, to go through; g. undir, to go under; g. undan, fyrir, to go before; g. eptir, to go behind; g. um, to rove, stroll about, and so on passim; g. í sæti, to go to one’s seat, take a seat, Eg. 551; g. til hvílu, to go to bed, Nj. 201; g. til matar, to go to dinner, Sturl. iii. 111, Eg. 483; g. til vinnu, verks, to go to one’s work, cp. Hm. 58; g. í kirkju, to go to church, Rb. 82; g. á fjall, to go on the fells, Hrafn. 34; g. á skip, to go on board, Fms. x. 10; g. af skipi, to go ashore. β. with infin., in old poems often dropping ‘at;’ ganga sofa, to go to sleep, Fm. 27; g. at sofa, Hm. 19; g. vega, to go to fight, Vsp. 56, Ls. 15; g. at eiga konu, to go to be married, Grág. i. 318. γ. with an adj.; g. hræddr, to be afraid; g. úviss, to be in ignorance, etc., Fms. vii. 271, Sks. 250, 688. 2. in a more special sense; g. til einvígis, bardaga, to go to a duel, battle, Nj. 64; g. á hólm (hólmganga), Eg. 504, 506; g. á eintal, Nj. 103; g. til máls við e-n, to speak to one, Eg. 199, 764; g. í glímu, to go a-wrestling, Ísl. ii. 246; g. á fang, id., Ld. 206; g. í danz, to go a-dancing; g. til skripta, to go to shrift, Hom. 157; g. at brúðkaupi, to go to be married, Fms. vii. 278; g. í skóla, klaustr, to go to school, go into a cloister (as an inmate), (hence skóla-genginn, a school-man, scholar), Bs. passim; g. í þjónustu, to take service, Nj. 268; g. í lið með e-m, to enter one’s party, side with one, 100; g. í lög, to enter a league with one; g. ór lögum, to go out of a league, passim; g. í félag, ór félagi, id.; g. á mala, to take service as a soldier, 121; g. á hönd, g. til handa, to submit to one as a liegeman, surrender, Eg. 19, 33, Ó. H. 184, Fms. vii. 180; g. á vald e-m, to give oneself up, Nj. 267; g. á hendr e-m, to encroach upon, Ver. 56; g. í skuld, to bail, Grág. i. 232, Dipl. ii. 12; g. í trúnað, to warrant, Fms. xi. 356; g. til trygða, Nj. 166, and g. til griða, to accept truce, surrender, Fas. ii. 556; g. í mál, to enter, undertake a case, Nj. 31; g. í ánauð, to go into bondage, Eg. 8; g. til lands, jarðar, ríkis, arfs, to take possession of …, 118, Stj. 380, Grág., Fms. passim; g. til fréttar, to go to an oracle, take auspices, 625. 89; g. til Heljar, a phrase for to die, Fms. x. 414; g. nær, to go nigh, go close to, press hard on, Ld. 146, 322, Fms. xi. 240 (where reflex.); var sá viðr bæði mikill og góðr því at Þorkell gékk nær, Th. kept a close eye on it, Ld. 316.

B. Joined with prepp. and adverbs in a metaph. sense:—g. af, to depart from, go off; þá gékk af honum móðrinn ok sefaðisk hann, Edda 28; þá er af honum gékk hamremin, Eg. 125, Eb. 136, Stj. 118; g. af sér, to go out of or beyond oneself; mjök g. þeir svari-bræðr nú af sér, Fbr. 32; í móti Búa er hann gengr af sér (rages) sem mest, Fb. i. 193; þá gékk mest af sér ranglæti manna um álnir, Bs. i. 135: so in the mod. phrases, g. fram af sér, to overstrain oneself; and g. af sér, to fall off, decay: to forsake, g. af trú, to apostatize, Fms. ii. 213; g. af vitinu, to go out of one’s wits, go mad, Post. 656 C. 31; g. af Guðs boðorðum, Stj. passim: to pass. Páskar g. af, Ld. 200: to be left as surplus (afgangr), Rb. 122, Grág. i. 411, K. Þ. K. 92:—g. aptr, to walk again, of a ghost (aptrganga), Ld. 58, Eb. 278, Fs. 131, 141, passim; and absol., g. um híbýli, to hunt, Landn. 107: to go back, be void, of a bargain, Gþl. 491:—g. at e-m, to go at, attack, Nj. 80, 160: to press on, Grág. i. 51, Dipl. ii. 19 (atgangr): g. at e-u, to accept a choice, Nj. 256; g. at máli, to assist, help, 207: to fit, of a key, lykla þá sem g. at kístum yðrum, Finnb. 234, Fbr. 46 new Ed., N. G. L. i. 383: medic. to ail, e-ð gengr at e-m; ok gengr at barni, and if the bairn ails, 340, freq. in mod. usage of ailment, grief, etc.:—g. á e-t, to go against, encroach upon; ganga á ríki e-s, Fms. i. 2; g. upp á, to tread upon, vii. 166; hverr maðr er ólofat gengr á mál þeirra, who trespasses against their measure, Grág. i. 3: to break, g. á orð, eiða, sættir, trygðir, grið, Finnb. 311, Fms. i. 189, Ld. 234; g. á bak e-u, to contravene, Ísl. ii. 382; ganga á, to go on with a thing, Grág. ii. 363; hence the mod. phrase, mikið gengr á, much going on; hvað gengr á, what is going on? það er farið að g. á það (of a task or work or of stores), it is far advanced, not much left:—g. eptir, to go after, pursue, claim (eptirgangr), Nj. 154, Þórð. 67, Fms. vii. 5; g. eptir e-m, to humour one who is cross, in the phrase, g. eptir e-m með grasið í skónum; vertu ekki að g. eptir stráknum; hann vill láta g. eptir ser (of a spoilt boy, cross fellow): to prove true, follow, hón mælti mart, en þó gékk þat sumt eptir, Nj. 194; eptir gékk þat er mér bauð hugr um, Eg. 21, Fms. x. 211:—g. fram, to go on well in a battle, Nj. 102, 235, Háv. 57 (framgangr): to speed, Nj. 150, Fms. xi. 427: to grow, increase (of stock), fé Hallgerðar gékk fram ok varð allmikit, Nj. 22; en er fram gékk mjök kvikfé Skallagríms, Eg. 136, Vígl. 38: to come to pass, skal þess bíða er þetta gengr fram, Nj. 102, Fms. xi. 22: to die, x. 422:—g. frá, to leave (a work) so and so; g. vel frá, to make good work; g. ílla frá, to make bad work; það er ílla frá því gengið, it is badly done:—g. fyrir, to go before, to yield to, to be swayed by a thing; heldr nú við hót, en ekki geng ek fyrir slíku, Fms. i. 305; þó at vér gangim heldr fyrir blíðu en stríðu, ii. 34, Fb. i. 378, Hom. 68; hvárki gékk hann fyrir blíðyrðum né ógnarmálum, Fms. x. 292; hann gékk þá fyrir fortülum hennar, Bs. i. 742: in mod. usage reflex., gangast fyrir íllu, góðu: to give away, tók hann þá at ganga fyrir, Fb. i. 530: Icel. now say, reflex., gangast fyrir, to fall off, from age or the like (vide fyrirgengiligr): to prevent, skal honum þá eigi fyrnska fyrir g., N. G. L. i. 249; þá er hann sekr þrem mörkum nema nauðsyn gangi fyrir, 14; at þeim gangi lögleg forföll fyrir, Gþl. 12:—g. í gegn, to go against, to meet, in mod. usage to deny, and so it seems to be in Gþl. 156; otherwise in old writers it always means the reverse, viz. to avow, confess; maðr gengr í gegn, at á braut kveðsk tekit hafa, the man confessed and said that he had taken it away, Ísl. ii. 331; ef maðr gengr í gegn legorðinu, Grág. i. 340; sá goði er í gegn gékk (who acknowledged) þingfesti hans, 20; hann iðraðisk úráðs síns, ok gékk í gegn at hann hefði saklausan selt herra sinn, Sks. 584,—this agrees with the parallel phrase, g. við e-t, mod. g. við e-u, to confess, both in old and mod. usage, id.:—g. hjá, to pass by, to waive a thing, Fms. vi. 168:—g. með, to go with one, to wed, marry (only used of a woman, like Lat. nubere), þú hefir þvert tekit at g. með mér, Ld. 262, Sd. 170, Grág. i. 178, Þiðr. 209, Gkv. 2. 27, Fms. xi. 5: medic., g. með barni, to go with child, i. 57; with acc. (barn), Bs. i. 790, and so in mod. usage; a mother says, sama sumarið sem eg gékk með hann (hana) N. N., (meðgöngutími); but dat. in the phrase, vera með barni, to be with child; g. með burði, of animals, Sks. 50, Stj. 70; g. með máli, to assist, plead, Eg. 523, Fms. xi. 105, Eb. 210; g. með e-u, to confess [Dan. medgaae], Stj., but rare and not vernacular:—g. milli, to go between, intercede, esp. as a peacemaker, passim (milli-ganga, meðal-ganga):—g. í móti, to resist, Nj. 90, 159, 171: of the tide, en þar gékk í móti útfalls-straumr, Eg. 600:—g. saman, to go together, marry, Grág. i. 324, Fms. xi. 77: of a bargain, agreement, við þetta gékk saman sættin, Nj. 250; saman gékk kaupit með þeim, 259:—g. sundr, to go asunder, part, and of a bargain, to be broken off, passim:—g. til, to step out, come along; gangit til, ok blótið, 623. 59; gangit til, ok hyggit at, landsmenn, Fms. iv. 282: to offer oneself, to volunteer, Bs. i. 23, 24: the phrase, e-m gengr e-ð til e-s, to purpose, intend; en þat gékk mér til þess (that was my reason) at ek ann þér eigi, etc., Ísl. ii. 269; sagði, at honum gékk ekki ótrúnaðr til þessa, Fms. x. 39; gékk Flosa þat til, at …, Nj. 178; gengr mér meirr þat til, at ek vilda firra vini mína vandræðum, Fms. ii. 171; mælgi gengr mér til, ‘tis that I have spoken too freely, Orkn. 469, Fms. vi. 373, vii. 258: to fare, hversu hefir ykkr til gengið, how have you fared? Grett. 48 new Ed.; Loka gékk lítt til, it fared ill with L., Fb. i. 276: mod., þat gékk svá til, it so happened, but not freq., as bera við is better, (tilgangr, intention):—g. um e-t, to go about a thing; g. um sættir, to go between, as peacemaker, Fms. v. 156; g. um beina, to attend guests, Nj. 50, passim: to manage, fékk hón svá um gengit, Grett. 197 new Ed.; hversu þér genguð um mitt góðs, 206: to spread over, in the phrase, má þat er um margan gengr; þess er um margan gengr guma, Hm. 93: to veer, go round, of the wind, gékk um veðrit ok styrmdi at þeim, the wind went round and a gale met them, Bs. i. 775:—g. undan, to go before, escape, Ver. 15, Fms. vii. 217, Blas. 49: to be lost, wasted, jafnmikit sem undan gékk af hans vanrækt, Gþl. 338: to absent oneself, eggjuðusk ok báðu engan undan g., Fms. x. 238:—g. undir, to undertake a duty, freq.: to set, of the sun, Rb. 468, Vígl. (in a verse): to go into one’s possession, power, Fms. vii. 207;—g. upp, to be wasted, of money, Fær. 39, Fms. ix. 354: of stones or earth-bound things, to get loose, be torn loose, þeir glímdu svá at upp gengu stokkar allir í húsinu, Landn. 185; flest gékk upp þat sem fyrir þeim varð, Háv. 40, Finnb. 248; ok gékk ór garðinum upp (was rent loose) garðtorfa frosin, Eb. 190: to rise, yield, when summoned, Sturl. iii. 236: of a storm, gale, to get up, rise, veðr gékk upp at eins, Grett. 94, Bárð. 169; gengr upp stormr hinn sami, Bs. ii. 50: of an ice-bound river, to swell, áin var ákafliga mikil, vóru höfuðísar at báðum-megin, en gengin upp (swoln with ice) eptir miðju, Ld. 46, Fbr. 20 new Ed., Bjarn. 52; vötnin upp gengin, Fbr. 114; áin var gengin upp ok íll yfirferðar, Grett. 134:—g. við, in the phrase, g. við staf, to go with a staff, rest on it: with dat., g. við e-u, to avow (vide ganga í gegn above):—g. yfir, to spread, prevail, áðr Kristnin gengi yfir, Fms. x. 273; hétu á heiðin goð til þess at þau léti eigi Kristnina g. yfir landit, Bs. i. 23: the phrase, láta eitt g. yfir báða, to let one fate go over both, to stand by one another for weal and woe; hefi ek því heitið honum at eitt skyldi g. yfir okkr bæði, Nj. 193, 201, 204, Gullþ. 8: so in the saying, má þat er yfir margan gengr, a common evil is easier to bear, Fbr. 45 new Ed. (vide um above); muntu nú verða at segja slíkt sem yfir hefir gengið, all that has happened, Fms. xi. 240; þess gengr ekki yfir þá at þeir vili þeim lengr þjóna, they will no longer serve them, come what may, Orkn. 84: to overrun, tyrannize over, þeir vóru ójafnaðar menn ok ganga þar yfir alla menn, Fms. x. 198 (yfirgangr): to transgress, Hom. 109: to overcome, þótti öllum mönnum sem hann mundi yfir allt g., Fms. vii. 326: a naut. term, to dash over, as spray, áfall svá mikit at yfir gékk þegar skipit, Bs. i. 422; hence the metaph. phrase, g. yfir e-n, to be astonished; það gengr yfir mig, it goes above me, I am astonished.

C. Used singly, of various things: 1. of cattle, horses, to graze (haga-gangr); segja menn at svín hans gengi á Svínanesi, en sauðir á Hjarðarnesi, Landn. 124, Eg. 711; kálfrinn óx skjótt ok gékk í túni um sumarit, Eb. 320; Freyfaxi gengr í dalnum fram, Hrafn. 6; þar var vanr at g. hafr um túnit, Nj. 62; þar var til grass (görs) at g., Ld. 96, Grág. passim; gangandi gripr, cattle, beasts, Bjarn. 22; ganganda fé, id., Sturl. i. 83, Band. 2, Ísl. ii. 401. 2. of shoals of fish, to go up, in a river or the like (fiski-ganga, -gengd); vötn er netnæmir fiskar g. í, Grág. i. 149; til landauðnar horfði í Ísafirði áðr fiskr gékk upp á Kvíarmiði, Sturl. ii. 177; fiskr er genginn inn ór álum, Bb. 3. 52. 3. of the sun, stars, vide B. above, (sólar-gangr hæstr, lengstr, and lægstr skemstr = the longest and shortest day); áðr sól gangi af Þingvelli, Grág. i. 24; því at þar gékk eigi sól af um skamdegi, Landn. 140, Rb. passim:—of a thunder-storm, þar gékk reiði-duna með eldingu, Fb. iii. 174:—of the tide, stream, water, vide B. above, eða gangi at vötn eða skriður, K. Þ. K. 78. 4. of a ship, gékk þá skipit mikit, Eg. 390, Fms. vi. 249; létu svá g. suðr fyrir landit, Eg. 78; lét svá g. suðr allt þar til er hann sigldi í Englands-haf, Ó. H. 149; réru nótt ok dag sem g. mátti, Eg. 88; gékk skipit brátt út á haf, Ó. H. 136. β. to pass; kvað engi skip skyldi g. (go, pass) til Íslands þat sumar, Ld. 18. II. metaph. to run out, stretch out, project, of a landscape or the like; gengr haf fyrir vestan ok þar af firðir stórir, Eg. 57; g. höf stór ór útsjánum inn í jörðina; haf (the Mediterranean) gengr af Njörva-sundum (the Straits of Gibraltar), Hkr. i. 5; nes mikit gékk í sæ út, Eg. 129, Nj. 261; í gegnum Danmörk gengr sjór (the Baltic) í Austrveg, A. A. 288; fyrir austan hafs-botn þann (Bothnia) er gengr til móts við Gandvík (the White Sea), Orkn. begin.: frá Bjarmalandi g. lönd til úbygða, A. A. 289; Europa gengr allt til endimarka Hispaniae, Stj. 83; öllum megin gengr at henni haf ok kringir um hana, 85; þessi þinghá gékk upp (extended) um Skriðudal, Hrafn. 24: of houses, af fjósi gékk forskáli, Dropl. 28. 2. to spread, branch out; en af því tungurnar eru ólíkar hvár annarri, þær þegar, er ór einni ok hinni sömu hafa gengit eða greinzt, þá þarf ólíka stafi í at hafa, Skálda (Thorodd) 160: of a narrative, gengr þessi saga mest af Sverri konungi, this story goes forth from him, i. e. relates to, tells of him, Fb. ii. 533; litlar sögur megu g. af hesti mínum, Nj. 90; um fram alla menn Norræna þá er sögur g. frá, Fms. i. 81. III. to take the lead, prevail; gékk þaðan af í Englandi Valska, thereafter (i. e. after the Conquest) the Welsh tongue prevailed in England, Ísl. ii. 221; ok þar allt sem Dönsk tunga gengi, Fms. xi. 19; meðan Dönsk tunga gengr, x. 179:—of money, to be current, hundrað aura þá er þá gengu í gjöld, Dropl. 16; eigi skulu álnar g. aðrar en þessar, Grág. i. 498; í þenna tíð gékk hér silfr í allar stórskuldir, 500, Fms. viii. 270; eptir því sem gengr (the course) flestra manna í millum, Gþl. 352:—of laws, to be valid, ok var nær sem sín lög gengi í hverju fylki, Fms. iv. 18; Óðinn setti lög í landi sínu þau er gengit höfðu fyrr með Ásum, Hkr. i. 13; þeirra laga er gengu á Uppsala-þingi, Ó. H. 86; hér hefir Kristindóms-bálk þann er g. skal, N. G. L. i. 339; sá siðr er þá gékk, Fb. i. 71, (vide ganga yfir):—of sickness, plague, famine, to rage, þá gékk landfarsótt, bóla, drepsótt, hallæri, freq.; also impers., gékk því hallæri um allt Ísland, Bs. i. 184; mikit hallæri ok hart gékk yfir fólkið, 486, v. l.; gékk sóttin um haustið fyrir sunnan land; þá gékk mest plágan fyrri, Ann. 1402, 1403. IV. to go on, last, in a bad sense, of an evil; tókst síðan bardagi, ok er hann hafði gengit um hríð, Fs. 48: impers., hefir þessu gengit (it has gone on) marga manns-aldra, Fms. i. 282; gékk því lengi, so it went on a long while, Grett. 79 new Ed.; gékk þessu enn til dags, Nj. 272; ok gékk því um hríð, 201; ok gékk því allan þann dag, Fms. vii. 147; lát því g. í allt sumar, xi. 57; gengr þessu þar til er …, Fb. i. 258. V. denoting violence; létu g. bæði grjót ok vápn, Eg. 261; létu þá hvárir-tveggju g. allt þat er til vápna höfðu, Fms. ix. 44; láta höggin g., to let it rain blows, Úlf. 12. 40; háðung, spottyrði, hróp ok brigzl hver lét með öðrum g. á víxl, Pass. 14. 3, (vápna-gangr); Birkibeinar róa þá eptir, ok létu g. lúðrana, and sounded violently the alarum, Fms. ix. 50, (lúðra-gangr); láta dæluna g., to pour out bad language, vide dæla. VI. to be able to go on, to go, partly impers.; ef þat gengr eigi, if that will not do, Fms. vi. 284; svá þykt at þeim gékk þar ekki at fara, they stood so close that they could not proceed there, Nj. 247; þá nam þar við, gékk þá eigi lengra, there was a stop; then it could go no farther, Fms. xi. 278; leiddu þeir skipit upp eptir ánni, svá sem gékk, as far as the ship could go, as far as the river was navigable, Eg. 127: esp. as a naut. term, impers., e. g. þeim gékk ekki fyrir nesið, they could not clear the ness; þá gengr eigi lengra, ok fella þeir þá seglið, Bs. i. 423; at vestr gengi um Langanes, 485, v. l. VII. with adverbs; g. létt, fljótt, to go smoothly; g. þungt, seint, to go slowly; oss munu öll vápna-viðskipti þungt g. við þá, Nj. 201; þungt g. oss nú málaferlin, 181; gékk þeim lítt atsóknin, Stj. 385; at þeim feðgum hefði þá allir hlutir léttast gengit, Bs. i. 274; seint gengr, Þórir, greizlan, Ó. H. 149; g. betr, verr, to get the better, the worse; gékk Ribbungum betr í fyrstu, Fms. ix. 313; gengu ekki mjök kaupin, the bargain did not go well, Nj. 157, cp. ganga til (B. above):—to turn out, hversu g. mundi orrostan, 273; gékk þá allt eptir því sem Hallr hafði sagt, 256; ef kviðir g. í hag sækjanda, if the verdict goes for the plaintiff, Grág. i. 87; þótti þetta mál hafa gengit at óskum, Dropl. 14; mart gengr verr en varir, a saying, Hm. 39; þykir honum nú at sýnu g. (it seems to him evident) at hann hafi rétt hugsað, Fms. xi. 437; g. andæris, to go all wrong, Am. 14; g. misgöngum, to go amiss, Grág. i. 435; g. e-m í tauma, to turn false (crooked); þat mun mér lítt í tauma g. er Rútr segir, Nj. 20; g. ofgangi, to go too high, Fms. vii. 269. VIII. of a blow or the like; hafði gengit upp á miðjan fetann, the axe went in up to the middle of the blade, Nj. 209; gékk þegar á hol, 60; gékk í gegnum skjöldinn, 245, Fb. i. 530. IX. of law; láta próf g., to make an enquiry; láta vátta g., to take evidence, D. N. X. to be gone, be lost; gékk hér með holdit niðr at beini, the flesh was torn off, Fb. i. 530: esp. in pass. part. genginn, dead, gone, eptir genginn guma, Hm. 71; moldar-genginn, buried, Sl. 60; hel-genginn, 68; afli genginn, gone from strength, i. e. powerless, Skv. 3. 13. β. gone, past; gengið er nú það görðist fyr, a ditty; mér er gengið heimsins hjól, gone for me is the world’s wheel (luck), a ditty. XI. used as transit. with acc.; hann gengr björninn á bak aptr, he broke the bear’s back in grappling with him, Finnb. 248; ok gengr hana á bak, ok brýtr í sundr í henni hrygginn, Fb. i. 530. 2. medic. with dat. to discharge; ganga blóði, to discharge blood (Dan. blodgang), Bs. i. 337, 383; Arius varð bráðdauðr ok gékk ór sér öllum iðrum, Ver. 47.

D. REFLEX.: I. singly, gangask, to be altered, to change, be corrupted; gangask í munni, of tradition; var þat löng ævi, ok vant at sögurnar hefði eigi gengisk í munni, Ó. H. pref.; má því eigi þetta mál í munni gengisk hafa, Fb. ii. Sverr. S. pref.; ok mættim vér ráða um nokkut, at málit gengisk, that the case could miscarry, be lost, Glúm. 380:—láta gangask, to let pass. waive; lét Páll þá g. þá hluti er áðr höfðu í millum staðit, Sturl. i. 102; ef þú lætr eigi g. þat er ek kref þik, Fms. xi. 61. 2. e-m gengsk hugr við e-t, to change one’s mind, i. e. to be moved to compassion, yield; sótti hón þá svá at honum gékksk hugr við, Eb. 264; þá gékksk Þorgerði hugr við harma-tölur hans, Ld. 232; ok mun honum g. hugr við þat, svá at hann mun fyrirgefa þér, Gísl. 98; nú sem hann grét, gékksk Ísak hugr við, Stj. 167; er sendimaðr fann at Birni gékksk hugr við féit, Ó. H. 194; við slíkar fortölur hennar gékksk Einari hugr (E. was swayed) til ágirni, Orkn. 24. II. with prepp. (cp. B. above); gangask at, to ‘go at it,’ engage in a fight; nú gangask þeir at fast, Dropl. 24, Ísl. ii. 267; gengusk menn at sveitum, of wrestlers, they wrestled one with another in sections (Dan. flokkevis), Glúm. 354; þeir gengusk at lengi, Finnb. 248:—gangask fyrir, vide B. above:—gangask í gegn, at móti, to stand against, fight against; at vér látim ok eigi þá ráða er mest vilja í gegn gangask (i. e. the extreme on each side), Íb. 12, cp. Fms. ii. 241; at þeir skipaði til um fylkingar sínar, hverjar sveitir móti skyldi g., i. e. to pair the combatants off, ix. 489; þeir risu upp ok gengusk at móti, Stj. 497. 2 Sam. ii. 15:—g. nær, to come to close quarters (Lat. cominus gerere), Nj. 176, Fms. xi. 240:—gangask á, to dash against one another, to split; á gengusk eiðar, the oaths were broken, Vsp. 30: to be squared off against one another, sú var görð þeirra, at á gengusk vígin húskarlanna, Rd. 288; ekki er annars getið en þeir léti þetta á gangask, i. e. they let it drop, Bjarn. 47; gangask fyrir, to fall off, Fms. iii. 255:—gangask við, to grow, gain strength; áðr en við gengisk hans bæn, before his prayer should be fulfilled, x. 258; ef þat er ætlað at trúa þessi skuli við g., Nj. 162; hétu þeir fast á guðin, at þau skyldi eigi láta við garrgask Kristniboð Ólafs konungs, Fms. ii. 32; þetta gékksk við um öll þau fylki, vii. 300; mikit gékksk Haraldr við (H. grew fast) um vöxt ok afl, Fb. i. 566; Eyvindr hafði mikið við gengizk um menntir, E. had much improved himself in good breeding, Hrafn. 24; vildi hann prófa hvárr þeirra meira hafði við gengisk, which of them had gained most strength, Grett. 107: to be in vogue, in a bad sense, ok löngum við gengisk öfund ok rangindi, Fms. i. 221, cp. Pass. 37. 7:—gangask ór stað, to be removed, Fms. xi. 107. III. in the phrase, e-m gengsk vel, ílla, it goes well, ill with one, Hom. 168, Am. 53; ílls gengsk þér aldri, nema …, the evil will never leave thee, thou wilt never be happy, unless …, 65.

ganga, u, f. a walking, Bs. i. 225, Vþm. 8; tóku heyrn daufir, göngu haltir, 625. 82, cp. Matth. xv. 31; nema sýn eðr göngu frá mönnum, Post. 645. 70: the act of walking, Korm. 182, Fms. vi. 325; ganga göngu, to take a walk, Korm. (in a verse):—a course, ganga tungls, the course of the moon, Edda 7; hvata göngunni, id.; ganga vinds, the course of the wind, 15, Rb. 112, 476:—a procession, Fms. x. 15, Fs. 85, Ísl. ii. 251; vera sarnan í göngu, to march together, Band, 11; lögbergis-g., the procession to the hill of laws, Grág. Þ. Þ. ch. 5, Eg. 703; kirkju-g., a going to church; her-g., a war-march; hólm-g., a duel, q. v.; fjall-g., a walk to the fell (to fetch sheep):—of animals, hrossa-g., grazing, pasture for horses, Dipl. v. 14; sauð-g., sheep-pasture: esp. in pl. fetching sheep from the fell-pastures in autumn (fjall-ganga), Grág. ii. 310, cp. Korm. ch. 3, Vd. ch. 44, Vápn. 22; ó-göngur, straits. COMPDS: göngu-drykkja, u, f. a drinking-bout, Fms. viii. 209. göngu-færi, n. = gangfæri, Fms. viii. 400. göngu-kona, u, f. a vagrant woman, Grág. i. 340, Nj. 142, Bs. i. 494. göngu-lag, n. gait. göngu-lið, n., collect. footmen, Bær. 17. göngu-maðr (pl. -menn), m. a vagrant, beggar, Grág. i. 163, 295, 341, K. Þ. K. 34, 80, Gísl. 54–56, 141. göngumanna-erfð, n. taking the inheritance of a vagrant, Grág. i. 190. göngumann-liga, adv. (-ligr, adj.), beggarlike, beggarly, Fms. iii. 209, Fas. iii. 202. göngu-móðr, adj. weary from walking. göngu-stafr, m. a walking-stick. göngu-sveinn, m. a beggar-boy, Korm. 192.

gangari, a, m. [Dan. and Scot. ganger, a transl. of the mid. Lat. ambulator]:—an ambling nag, a palfrey, Sturl. iii. 117; spelt gangvari in Þiðr. 16, 23; passim in the romances.

Gang-dagr, freq. spelt by metath. Gagn-dagr, m. [A. S. Gang-däg], the Rogation-days, called ‘Ganging days’ from the practice of going in procession round the boundaries on those days, K. Þ. K., Rb., N. G. L. passim: the 25th of April is called Gangdagrinn eini, the minor Rogation-day, K. Þ. K. 106, Rb. 46, 544; in pl., Grág. i. 325, Fms. vii. 228, N. G. L. i. 24, 348, K. Þ. K. 102, vide Bs. ii. 247. COMPDS: Gangdaga-helgr, f. Rogation-holidays, N. G. L. i. 10. Gangdaga-vika, u, f. Rogation-week, K. Þ. K. 100, 102, Rb. 544, 558. Gangdaga-þing, n. a meeting during Rogation-week, Fms. vii. 217, 347. In all these compds spelt variously ‘gagn-’ or ‘gang-.’ The word Gangdagar is undoubtedly borrowed from the A. S.

gang-fagr, adj. with a graceful gait, Eb. (in a verse).

Gang-fasta (Gagn-f.), u, f. the Rogation-fast, in the Rogation-week, Vm. 94, N. G. L. i. 17.

gang-færi, n. [Dan. före or gangföre], the condition of a road; íllt (gott) g., bad (good) walking, Fms. viii. 400.

gang-færr, adj. able to walk, Hom. 152.

gang-lati, a, m. a ‘lazy goer,’ an idler; and gang-löt, f. id., pr. names of the servants in the hall of Hela, Edda.

gang-leri, a, m. obsolete, except as a pr. name of the mythical wanderer Edda; in Scot. still found as an appell. in the true sense, a gangrel = stroller, vagabond.

gang-limir, m. pl. ‘gang-limbs,’ shanks.

gang-mikit, n. adj. a great crowd, tumult.

gang-prúðr, adj. with stately gait, Sks. 291.

gangr, m. [A. S. gong; Scot. gang = a walk, journey; Dan. gang; Swed. gång; cp. Germ. gehen]:—a going, walking, Sks. 370; vera á gangi, to be walking to and fro, Grett. 153: metaph., röng eru mál á gangi, bad reports are going about, Bs. i. (in a verse); vápn á gangi, weapons clashing (vide II. 2. below), Grág. ii. 8; þá var hvert járn á gangi, Fb. i. 212:—gefit mér gang, give me way, passage, let me go, Fms. xi. 275, 347:—pace, a horseman’s term, engan (hest) hafa þeir slíkan séð bæði sakir gangs ok vaxtar, Róm. 422: Icel. say, það er enginn g. í honum, he has no pacing or ambling in him; or gang-lauss, adj. not pacing:—grazing, úti-g., útigangs-hestr, opp. to a stall-fed horse:—course, of the sun, stars, moon, gangr himin-tungla, Edda (pref.), hence sólar-g., the course of the sun above the horizon = day; stuttr, lítill, langr sólar-g., a short, long day:—course, of money. II. metaph., 1. a going onward, prevailing, being in vogue; hafa mikinn gang, to be much in vogue, Al. 87; heldr er vaxandi g. at þeim, they were rather on the increase, Gísl. 66; þótti þeim hann hafa ofmikinn gang (favour) af konungi, Fms. ii. 54; með-g., good luck; mót-g., adversity; upp-g., thrift; á-gangr, inroad; yfir-g., tyranny. 2. rapid or furious going; þá var svá mikill gangr at um aptr-göngur Þórólfs, at …, the huntings of Th. (a ghost) went so far, that …, Eb. 314; ok nú görisk svá mikill g. at, Gísl. 151; svá görðisk mikill g. at þessu, Eb. 174; svá mikill g. var orðinn at eldinum, the fire had got to such a height, Bs. i. 445; elds-g., fire; vápna-g., a clash of weapons; vatna-g., a rush, flood of water; öldu-g., sjáfar-g., high waves; brim-g., furious surf; skriðu-g., desolation from earth-slips; berserks-g., berserker fury:—trampling, horns g. ok hófs, Grág. ii. 122. 3. law term, a process; laga-g., Skálda 201, rare in old writers, but freq. in mod., Dan. rettergang. 4. medic. a discharge, esp. from the stomach; vall-gangr, excrement; þarfa-g., urine; þeir vóru sumir er drukku gang sinn, Al. 168; niðr-g., diarrhoea; upp-g., expectoration:—a privy, ganga til gangs, Grág. ii. 119; þeir skyldu hafa búðar-tópt Skútu fyrir gang, Rd. 305; nú er hundr bundinn í gangi, Grág. l. c. III. collective, a gang, as in Engl.; drauga-g., a gang of ghosts; músa-g., a gang of mice; gaura-g., a gang of roughs; trolla-g., a gang of trolls (giants); þjófa-g., a gang of thieves.—Vide göng, n. pl. a lobby.

gang-rúm, n. a passage-room, lobby, Grett. 99 B.

gang-silfr, n. current money, Sturl. iii. 307, Fms. ix. 470, Jb. 157, Grág., N. G. L. passim.

gang-skör, f., in the phrase, göra g. at e-u, to make steps in a thing.

gang-stigr, m. a footpath, Sks. 4, Greg. 59.

gang-tamr, adj. pacing (of a horse), Hðm. 3.

gang-vari, a, m. (gang-ari, gang-verja, u, f.), collect. a suit of clothes, Grág. i. 299, Sks. 288, Bs. i. 876, Ann. 1330.

gang-verja, u, f. = gangvari, Stj. 367, 616.

ganti, a, m. [Dan. gante], a coxcomb, (mod.) ganta-skapr, n., Vídal.

GAP, n. [A. S. geap; Engl. gap; Dan. gab; cp. gapa], prop. a gap, empty space, whence Ginnunga-gap, the Chaos of the Scandin. mythol., Edda, Vsp. 2. metaph. gab, gibes; óp ok gap, háreysti ok gap, Fb. iii. 425, cp. Nj. 220. gaps-maðr, m. a gaping fool, a gaby, Fbr. 12.

gapa, pret. gapði, Edda 20, Mart. 118; and gapti, pres. gapi, Bs. i. 647; sup. gapat, imperat. gapi, Skm. 28: [Dan. gabe; Germ. gaffen]:—to gape, open the mouth wide, Edda l. c.; með gapanda munn, of a wolf, 41, Fms. iv. 57; með gapandi höfðum, Þórð. 94 new Ed.

gapaldr, m. a Runic character used as a spell, Ísl. Þjóðs.

gapi, a, m. a rash, reckless man, freq.; Icel. say, angr-gapi (q. v.), sólar-gapi, hann er mesti sólargapi, perhaps with reference to the Wolf and the Sun, Edda 7. COMPDS: gapa-legr, adj. (-lega, adv.), hare-brained. gapa-muðr, m. a gaping, heedless fellow, a nickname, Fms. gapa-skapr, m. recklessness. gapa-stokkr, m. the stocks or pillory. gap-uxi, a, m. a blusterer, a bully, Fs. 71.

gap-lyndi, n. bluster, Karl. 493.

gap-ripur, f. pl., or gap-riplar, m. pl. an απ. λεγ., for the reading vide Johnson. Nj. Lat. l. c., gaping, staring with open mouth, Nj. (in a verse).

gap-þrosnir, m. = gapi, Edda (Gl.), an απ. λεγ.

garð-bót, f. reparation of a fence, Grág. ii. 263 sqq., Gþl. 454.

garð-brjótr, m. (-brytill, Gþl. 388), a fence-breaker, N. G. L. i. 41.

garð-brot (garða-brot), n. breach of a fence, Gþl. 350, 391.

garð-fóðr, n. hay for fodder in a farm-yard, N. G. L. i. 38.

garð-hlið, n. a gate, Fms. ix. 414.

garð-hús, n. a privy, Fms. iv. 169, vi. 15, Stj. 629.

garð-hverfa, u, f. a fence, pinfold, Bs. i. 46.

garði, a, m. the wall in a stall supporting the manger (in western Icel.)

garð-lag, n. the laying of a fence, Grág. ii. 262 sqq., Sd. 180: a pound, Vm. 87. garðlags-önn, f. the work (season) for fencing, Grág. ii. 261.

garð-lauss, adj. fenceless, N. G. L. i. 8.

garð-leiga, u, f. house-rent, Gþl. 93.

GARÐR, m. [Ulf. gards = οικος; A. S. geard; Engl. yard, garth, garden; O. H. G. gart; Germ. garten; Dan.-Swed. gård; Lat. hortus]: I. a yard (an enclosed space), esp. in compds, as kirkju-g., a church-yard; vín-g., a vineyard; stakk-g., a stack-yard; hey-g., a hay-yard; kál-g., a kale-yard; urta-g., a kitchen-garden; aldin-g. and gras-g., a garden; dýra-g., a ‘deer-yard,’ a park:—garðr, alone, is a hay-yard (round the hay-ricks); hence garðs-seti or garð-seti, q. v. 2. a court-yard, court and premises; þeir ganga út í garðinn ok berjask, Edda 25, a paraphrase from ‘túnum’ in Gm. 41; þeir Grímr hittu menn at máli úti í garðinum, Eg. 109; þá sá hann at öðrum-megin í garðinum brunaði fram merkit, Ó. H. 31; ganga til garðs, 71; mikill kamarr (privy) var í garðinun, id.; en er þeir Hrærekr sátu í garðinum, 72; fóru þegar þangat í garðinn sem líkin vóru, id.; er hann kom heim í þorpit ok gékk um garðinn, Fms. x. 218; gengið hef eg um garðinn móð, gleðistundir dvína, a ditty; innan stokks (within doors) eða í garði úti, Gþl. 136; eigi nenni ek at hann deyi undir görðum mínum, Lv. 59:—a fishyard, Vm. 14. 3. esp. in Norway, Denmark, and Sweden, a house or building in a town or village, [Dan. gaard = Icel. bær]; hann var í Hróiskeldu ok átti þar garð, Bjarn. 6; Egill spurði hvar g. sá væri í borginni (in York) er Arinbjörn setti, Eg. 407; hann var í garði þeim er Hallvarðs-g. var kallaðr, Bs. i. 634; í garð Arons, 636; konungs-g., the king’s yard, Fms. passim and in records referring to Norway. garða-leiga, u, f. house-rent, H. E. i. 394. garða-sól, f., botan. the orach, Hjalt. garðs-bóndi, a, m. a house-owner, Grett. 103, Jb. 157. garðs-horn, n. a ‘yard-nook,’ cottage, Fas. iii. 648: esp. in tales, in the phrase, kongur og drottning í ríki sínu og karl og kerling í Garðshorni, Ísl. Þjóðs. passim: the saying, það er ekki krókr að koma í Garðshorn. garðs-húsfreyja, u, f. a town-lady, Grett. 158 A: in Icel., where the whole population are country-folk, this sense of garðr is only used in metaph. phrases, saws, = home, house; kemr engi sá til garðs (to the house) at viti hvat í sé, Band. 13; fátækum manni er til garðs kemr, Dipl. ii. 14; hyggjum ver at í yðvarn garð hafi runnit, into your hands, your possession, Ld. 206; helmingr skal falla í minn garð, the half shall fall into my share, Fær. 117; skal aukask þriðjungi í þínum garði, in thy keeping, Nj. 3; þótt nökkut komi þat ór várum garði, 54; leggja málaferli í garð e-s, to bring a case home to one, Sturl. ii. 27; þess alls ens ílla sem þá var honum í garð borit, all the evil that was brought to his door, Hom. 119; Guð í garði ok góð Jól, a greeting, Grett. 99 (MS.); líðr vetr ór garði, the winter passed by, Nj. 112; ríða í garð, to arrive (of a rider), Sturl. iii. 185; ríða ór garði, to depart, Ld. 96; ríða um garð, to pass by; vísa gestum á garð várn, Fas. iii. 5; göra e-n af garði (mod. ór garði), to equip one when departing, e. g. a son, a friend, or the like; eigi ertú svá af garði görr sem ek vilda (a mother to a departing son), Grett. 94; hversu herralega keisarinn görði hann af garði, Karl. 148; ok hefða ek gört þik af garði með gleði ok fagnaði, Stj. 181; but esp. to endow a daughter when married, göra dóttur sína vel (ílla) ór garði, etc.; búa í garð, to prepare; hann hefir svá í garðinn búit, he has made his bed so: the phrase, það er allt um garð gengið, all past, done, bygone; föður-g., father house, paternal house; bú-garðr, an estate: also in poets, í Eyjafirði upp á Grund á þann garðinn fríða, a ditty:—a local name of several farms in Icel., Garðr, sing., or more usually Garðar, Landn., prob. from corn-fields: the saying, víðar er Guð enn í Görðum, addressed to presumptuous people who think God is God only for themselves. 4. denoting a stronghold; tann-g., the ‘tooth-wall,’ the teeth and gums, Gr. ερκος οδόντων; Ás-garðr, the hold of the gods, Edda; Mið-garðr, Middle-hold, i. e. the earth; Út-garðar, Outer-hold, where the giants dwell, Edda: the phrase, ráðast á garðinn þar sem hann er laegstr, to assault the weakest part, to encroach upon the weak and helpless. 5. in western Icel. a heavy snow-storm is called garðr. II. in Icel. sense a fence of any kind; garðr of þjóðbraut þvera, Grág. ii. 264: in the law phrase, garðr er granna sættir, a fence (yard) is a settler among neighbours (i. e. forms the landmark), Gþl., Jb. 258; leggja garða, to make fences, Rm. 12, Landn. App. 325; þeir biðu hjá garði nokkurum, Nj. 170: esp. the fence around the homefield, also called tún-g., Grág. i. 82, 453, Nj. 83, 114, Eg. 766, Ld. 148. Ísl. ii. 357, passim; skíð-g., a rail fence; grjót-g., a stone fence; torf-g., a turf fence; haga-g., the hedge of a pasture, Eb. 132; tún-g., a ‘tún’ fence; virkis-g., a castle wall, Fb. ii. 73 (in a verse); stíflu-g., a ditch: rif-g., a swathe. COMPDS: garðs-endi, a, m. the end of a fence, Grág. ii. 263. garðs-hlið, n. a gate, = garðhlið, Eg. 713, Fms. vii. 245, viii. 170, N. G. L. i. 290. garðs-krókr, m. a nook of a fence, Sturl. i. 178. garðs-rúst, f. the ruin of a fence, Sturl. ii. 227. garðs-önn, f. = garðönn. III. Garðar, m. pl. (í Görðum), Garða-ríki or Garða-veldi, n. the empire of Gardar, is the old Scandin. name of the Scandinavian-Russian kingdom of the 10th and 11th centuries, parts of which were Hólm-garðar, Kænu-garðar, Nov-gorod, etc.; the name being derived from the castles or strongholds (gardar) which the Scandinavians erected among the Slavonic people, and the word tells the same tale as the Roman ‘castle’ in England; cp. the interesting passage in Ó. H. ch. 65—ok má enn sjá þær jarðborgir (earth-works, castles) ok önnur stórvirki þau er hann görði,—K. Þ. K. 158, Fms., Ó. H. passim, (cp. Munch Det Norske Folks Hist. i. 39 sqq.); the mod. Russ. gorod and grad are the remains of the old Scandin. garðr = a castle; cp. Gerzkr, adj. from Gardar, i. e. Russian, β. Mikli-garðr—the ‘Muckle-yard’ the Great town, i. e. Constantinople, passim. COMPDS: Garðaríkis-menn, m. pl. the men from G., Russians, Fas. iii. 314. Garðs-konungr, m. the Greek emperor, Fms. vi. 167, Fas. iii. 671, Mar. 141.

garð-rúm, n. a court-yard, D. N.

garð-saurr, m. sewage, N. G. L. iii. 14.

garð-seti, a, m. a ‘yard-sitter’ the end of a hay-rick, Eb. 190.

garð-skipti, n. partition by a fence, Js. 100.

garð-smugall, adj. creeping through a fence, N. G. L. i. 41.

garð-staðr, m., mod. garð-stæði, n. the place of a fence or hay-yard, Dipl. iv. 9, v. 16.

garð-staurr, n. a stake for fencing, 623. 58, Eg. 80, Fms. ix. 56: the phrase, enginn skal öðrum at garðstauri standa, no one is bound to stand up as a rail stake for another, i. e. an inroad into an unfenced field is no trespass, the owner must fence it himself, N. G. L. i. 40.

garð-sveinn, m. a ‘yard-boy,’ valet, hence Fr. garçon, Þiðr. 230.

garð-torfa, u, f. a slice of turf, a sod, Eb. 190.

garð-virki, n. fencing materials, Grág. ii. 263.

garð-vörðr, m. a ‘court-warder,’ overseer, Karl. 10.

garð-önn, f. the season of fence-work, Grág. ii. 261.

GARG, n. a shrieking, bawling; and garga, að, [from Gr. γαργαρίζω through Ital. gargagliare, Engl. gargle], to shriek with a coarse voice.

gargan, n. a serpent, Edda (Gl.); a nickname, Sturl. ii. 142.

garland, n. (for. word), a garland, Fms. x. 149.

GARMR, m. the name of a dog in the mythol. Edda, Vsp. 2. a tatter, rag, pl. garmar. rags; so also fata-garmar, hence metaph. in addressing any one, garmrinn, poor wretch! cp. tetrið! ræfillinn!

GARN, n. [A. S. gearn; Engl. yarn; Dan.-Swed. garn]; spinna gam, to spin yarn, Eb. 92; ek hefi spunnit tólf álna gam, I have spun yarn for a twelve ells web, Ld. 224; lín ok gam, Js. 78; silki-garn, silk yarn; tvinna-garn, twine yarn, twisted yarn; opp. to ein-gerni, q. v. II. the warp, opp. to vipt, the weft, Nj. 275.

garn-dúkr, m. a cloth of yarn, D. N.

garnir, f. pl. guts, vide görn; garn-engja, u, f. constriction of the bowels; garn-mörr, m. suet.

garn-vinda, n, f. a skein of yarn.

garp-ligr, adj. martial, Eg. 16, Ld. 274, Hom. 143.

garp-menni, n. a martial man, Ld. 42, Fms. iii. 83.

GARPR, m. a warlike man, but often with the notion of a bravo, Grett. 155; g. eða afreksmaðr, Nj. 261; mikilúðligr ok g. enn mesti, Fms. xi. 78; garpar miklir ok afætor, 111, Fb. ii. 72, Vápn. 19, Bjarn. 34: even of a woman (virago), hón var væn kona ok g. mikill í skapi, Sturl. i. 148. β. the name of an ox, Gullþ. 23, whence Garps-dalr, m. the name of a farm, Landn.: of a horse, hvat mun garprinn vilja er hann er heim kominn, Hrafn. 8. γ. the Hanseatic traders in Sweden and Norway were in the Middle Ages called Garpar, D. N., Boldt, Verel.; hence Garpa-skuld, n. a debt due to the Garps, D. N.

garp-skapr, m. bravery, Korm. 142, Fms. xi. 151, Grett. 131, Þórð. 36.

garri, a, m. in compds. garra-legr, adj. [from Ital. garrulo], garrulous.

gaskóna-háttr, m. (for. word), gasconade.

gaspr, n. gossip, prating.

gaspra, að. to gossip, a mod. word, prob. from the Engl.

gassi, a, m. a gander: metaph. a noisy fellow, a ‘goose,’ Gísl. 10. Band. 8 (in a verse), Karl. 474; g. ok glópr, El. 15. COMPDS: gassa-glæpr, m. a law term, a ‘goose’s crime,’ such as hitting one person when one has thrown at another, N. G. L. i. 72. gassa-ligr, adj. (-liga, adv.), boisterous, waggish. gassa-skapr, m. waggery.

GAT, n., pl. göt, [A. S. geat and Engl. gate = entrance; Hel. gat = foramen], a hole, Fms. iii. 217, Fas. iii. 486; skrár-gat, a key-hole; lúku-gat, a trap-door; cp. the following word.

GATA, u, f. [Ulf. gatva = πλατεια; Old Engl. and Scot. gate = way; O. H. G. gaza, mod. gasse; Swed. gata; Dan. gade]:—prop. a thoroughfare (cp. gat above), but generally a way, path, road, Nj. 75, Grág. i. 89, 93, Fms. ix. 519, Ld. 44, Ver. 21, passim; á götu e-s, in one’s way, Blas. 40; þótt slíkir sveinar væri á götu minni, Nj. 182; alla götu, as adv. ‘algates,’ always; ek hefi verit alla götu (throughout) lítill skörungr, Bs. i. 297, Stj. 119, 164, 188, 194, 252; götur Guðs, the ways of God, Post. 656 C. 14; gata til Guðs, 655 iv. 1; ryðja götu fyrir e-m, to clear the road for one, Hom. 146; búa götu e-s, 625. 96. Mark i. 2: the name of a farm, Fær.; Götu-skeggjar, m. pl. the name of a family in the Faroes, Ld., Fær.; reið-gata, a riding road; skeið-gata, a race-course; hlemmi-gata, a broad open road; fjár-götur, a sheep path; snið-gata, a zigzag path; kross-götur, four cross roads, for popular tales about them vide Ísl. Þjóðs. COMPDS: gatna-mót, n. pl. junction of roads, Grág. ii. 161, Landn. 306, Stj. 197, Fms. viii. 171, Karl. 456, Finnb. 328. götu-breidd, f. the breadth of a road, Eg. 582. götu-garðr, m. a road fence, D. N. götu-nisti, n. the Lat. viaticum, Bs. i. 249. götu-skarð, n. a slip in a road, Fs. 90. götu-stigr, m. a foot-path, Fas. iii. 279. götu-þjófr, m. a law term, a thief who has to run the gauntlet through a defile, Swed. gatu-lopp, N. G. L. i. 334.

GAUÐ, f. [geyja], a barking, Rb. 346; hunda-gauð né ulfa-þytr, Post. 645. 73. II. neut. a poltroon, Bb. 3. 47.

gauða, að, to bark at, scold one; út-gauða e-m, to out-scold one.

gauð-rif, n. abuse, barking, Sks. 435.

GAUFA, að, (and gauf, n., gaufari, a, m.), to saunter, be sluggish, freq. akin to gafi, cp. Goth. gepanta in a reference by Jornandes—nam lingua eorum ‘pigra’ gepanta dicitur, whence ‘Gepidi,’ the name of an ancient Teut. people.

GAUKR, m. [A. S. geâc; Scot. gowk], a cuckoo, Edda 79, Gs. 7; hrossa-g., the horse cuckoo, a name given to the green sand-piper, because of its neighing cry. COMPDS: gauk-mánuðr, m. cuckoo-month, the first summer month, about the middle of April to the middle of May, Edda 103. gauk-messa, u, f. cuckoo-mass, = the 1st of May, D. N., N. G. L. gauk-þjór, m. a kind of bird, Edda (Gl.)

GAUL, n. a lowing, bellowing, Fms. iii. 201, passim:—medic., garnagaul, ‘stomachus latrans.’ II. fem. a river in Norway, hence Gaular-dalr, m. the name of a county; Gaul-verjar, m. pl. the men from G.; Gaulverja-bær, m. a farm in Icel.; Gaul-verskr, adj., Landn.

gaula, að, to low, bellow, Ó. T. 70, Bev. 22, Fms. iii. 201, Hom. 69.

gaulan, f. a lowing, bellowing, Fms. v. 90, Ó. H. 135, 222, Barl. 3, Róm. 234.

gaum-gæfa, ð, to observe, give heed to, Str. 37, Rb. 4.

gaum-gæfð, f. attention, heed, 625. 166, Str. 24.

gaum-gæfi, mod. gaum-gæfni, f. a heeding, attention, Barl. 75, 100. gaumgæfis-leysi, n. heedlessness, Anecd. 18.

gaumgæfi-liga, adv. (-ligr, adj.), carefully.

GAUMR, m.; fem. gaum also occurs, góða, litla gaum, Hom. 33. 69, and so sometimes in mod. writers; [A. S. geâme and gymen, Ormul. gom]:—heed, attention; only used in the phrase, gefa gaum at e-u, to give heed to a thing, Nj. 57, Eg. 551, Fms. viii. 18, Hom. 69; var engi gaumr gefinn at því, Ó. H. 71, 116; gefa góða, litla (fem.) g. at e-u, Hom. l. c.

GAUPA, u, f. the lynx, Al. 167, 168, 173, N. G. L. iii. 47, Þd. 5, Merl. 2. 61; vide hergaupa.

GAUPN, f. [Scot. goupen or goupin; O. H. G. coufan; mid. H. G. goufen; Swed. göpen], prop. both bands held together in the form of a bowl; in the phrases, sjá, horfa, líta, lúta í gaupnir sér, to look, lout (i. e. bend down) into one’s goupen, to cover one’s face with the palms, as a token of sorrow, prayer, thought, or the like, Sturl. iii. 113, Orkn. 170, Al. 115, O. H. L. 13; hón sá í gaupnir sér ok grét, she covered her face and wept, Vápn. 21, cp. Grett. 129; þá laut hón fram í gaupnir sér á borðit, Greg. 65; ilja gaupnir, poët. the hollows in the soles of the feet, Þd. 3; hafa e-n í gaupnum sér (better reading greipum), to have a person in one’s clutch, O. H. L. l. c. 2. as a measure, as much as can be taken in the hands held together, as in Scot. ‘gowd in goupins;’ gaupnir silfrs, goupens of silver, Fas. ii. 176; gaupnir moldar, goupens of earth, id. gaupna-sýn, f. a looking into one’s palms, covering one’s face, O. H. L. l. c.

GAURR, m. [Ulf. gaurs = sad], a rough, a ‘sad fellow,’ used in Kormak 240, but esp. freq. in old romances translated from French; seldom used in genuine old writers; in exclamations, gaurr! vándr g! etc., Flóv., Art., Str. passim, Fas. iii. 6. gaura-gangr, m. a gang of ruffians, Gísl. 53.

gauta, að, to prate, brag, Fas. i. 485; still used in the east of Icel.

gautan, f. prating, Lv. 53, Gd. 16.

GAUTAR, m. pl. a Scandin. people in western Sweden, called in A. S. Geâtes, and to be distinguished from Gotar, Goths; hence Gaut-land, n. the land of the Gauts; Gaut-Elfr, f. the river Gotha, the ‘Elbe of the Gauts;’ Gauta-sker, n. pl. the Skerries of the north-western coast of Sweden; cp. also the mod. Göteborg, Ó. H., Fms., passim.

Gautr, m., a poët. name of Odin, Vtkv., Edda; it seems to mean father, vide gjóta: poët. a man, sá ógæfunnar gautr, that hapless man, Hallgr.; váða-gautslegr, adj. miscreant-like.

Gautskr, adj. from Gautland, Fms. passim.

GÁ, ð, pres. gái, part. gáð; pret. subj. gæði, Am. 70: [cp. Lat. caveo]:—to heed, mark, with infin. or gen., Landn. 30, Fb. i. 210; jarl gáði varla at lúka málum sínum fyrir tali þeirra, Orkn. 300: with gen., er miklu meiri hans ofsi, en hann muni nú þess gá eðr geyma, Ísl. ii. 239, Sks. 446, Hm. 115; Guðs hann gáði, he gave heed to God, Sl. 4; gá sín, to take heed to oneself:—gá til e-s, to mark, Fb. ii. 193:—in mod. usage, gá að e-u, to heed, observe; gef mér Jesu að gá að því, Pass. 1. 27; freq. in phrases such as, gáðu að þér, take heed! beware! gáðu að Guði, take heed to God! take care what thou art doing! with infin., eigi mun gáð hafa verit at setja fyrir lokurnar, they have not taken care to lock the door, Lv. 60, Fms. vi. 368: without the mark of infin., glýja þú né gáðir, thou didst not care to be gleeful, thou wast sorrowful, Hðm. 7.

GÁ, f. barking; hund-gá, Lv. 60; goð-gá (q. v.), blasphemy.

gáði, a, m. a scoffer, mocker, Edda (Gl.), Korm. 172 (in a verse).

GÁFA, u, f. [from Germ. gabe], a gift in a spiritual sense; skáldskapar-gáfa, a poetical gift: esp. in pl. gifts, wit.

gáfaðr, part. gifted; flug-g., vel-g., clever; ílla-g., treg-g., dull-witted.

gála, u, f. a lively girl, Lex. Poët.

gálast, að, dep. to make jokes.

gá-lausliga, adv. heedlessly, Grett. 93 A.

gá-lausligr, adj. heedless, wanton, Fms. viii. 4, Hom. 57.

gá-lauss, adj. wanton, careless, Hom. 73, Eluc. 28, Sks. 301.

gá-leysi, n. heedlessness, Gþl. 162, Bs. ii. 172.

GÁLGI, a, m. [Ulf. renders σταυρός by galga; A. S. gealga; Engl. gallows; Hel. galgo; Germ. galgen; Dan.-Swed. galge]:—the gallows; in olden times they were worked by a lever, and the culprit was hauled up (spyrna gálga), Fms. vii. 13; hence also the phrase, hengja á hæsta gálga, festa upp, and the like, vide Gautr. S. ch. 7; an old Swed. allit. law phrase, á gálga ok gren, on gallows and green tree (Fr.), as trees were used for gallows (cp. the Engl. ‘gallows-tree’); reisa, höggva gálga, Orkn. 436, Ó. H. 46, Am. 37, 55, Grett. 128: in poetry (vide Lex. Poët.) the gallows are called the horse of Sigar, from the love tale of the Danish hero of that name: the cross is now and then called gálgi, e. g. Mar. S., and even in mod. eccl. writers (Vidal.), but very rarely, and only in rhetorical phrases. COMPDS: gálga-farmr, m. load of the gallows, referring to the myth told in Hm. 139 sqq., of Odin hanging in the tree Vinga-meid or Ygg-drasil. gálga-gramr, -valdr, m. the king, ruler of the gallows, poët. names of Odin, Lex. Poët. gálga-tré, n. a gallows-tree, Fms. vii. 13, viii. 261, Fas. i. 215. A hook is poët. called agn-gálgi, ‘bait-gallows,’ Lex. Poët.

gálg-nár, n. ‘gallows-carrion,’ the corpse of one hung in chains, a law phrase, Grág. ii. 131.

GÁLI, a, m. a wag. COMPDS: gála-ligr, gála-samligr, adj. waggish, Fas. iii. 399. gála-skapr, m. waggery.

GÁLKN, n. [prob. a Fin. word; Lap. galco = a beast], a monster; in old poetry weapons are called hlífa-g.; randar-gálkn, the beast of shield and armour, Lex. Poët.; else in prose, finn-gálkn, q. v.; hrein-gálkn, a dub. word, Hým. 24.

gáll, m. a fit of gaiety; það er gállinn á honum núna.

gá-mikill, adj. waggish, noisy, Grett. 128 A.

gámr, m. a kind of cod-fish.

gáningr, m. attention; ó-gáningr, heedlessness.

GÁR, n. buffoonery, Sturl. i. 24.

gáraðr, part. full of chinks or sparks; sól-g., a poët. epithet of waves tipped by the sun, Vígl. (in a verse).

gár-fenginn, adj. given to buffoonery, Bs. i. 646.

GÁRI, a, m. the chinks in a tree; gára-lauss, adj. chinkless; gáróttr, adj. wood full of chinks.

gárungr, m. a buffoon, Grett. 144 A, Sturl. i. 172, Stj. 424. Ruth iii. 10 (young men); gárungs-háttr, m. buffoonery, Bb. 3. 49.

GÁS, f., gen. gásar, nom. pl. gæss, acc. gæs, mod. nom. gæs, gæsar, pl. gæsir, gæsa, gæsum, keeping the æ through all cases: [Dan. gaas, pl. gjæs; A. S. gôs, pl. gês or gees; Engl. goose, pl. geese; O. H. G. ganzo; Germ. gans, pl. gänse; cp. Lat. anser, dropping the initial; Gr. χήν]:—a goose, Grág. ii. 346, 347, N. G. L. i. 211 (Js. 78), Korm, 206, Ó. H. 86, Gkv. 1. 16; heim-g., a tame goose; grá-g., a ‘grey goose,’ wild goose; brand-g., q. v. COMPDS: gása-fiðri, n. a goose feather, D. N.; mod. gæsa-fjaðrir, etc. 2. gás, cunnus, Fms. xi. 52. II. Gásir, f. pl. the local name of a harbour in Icel., Landn.

gá-samr, adj. (-semi, f.), attentive, Hom. (St.) 62.

gás-haukr, m. a gos-hawk, Edda (Gl.), N. G. L. i. 242, Str., Karl., passim.

gáski, a, m. wild joy.

gás-veiðr, f. goose catching, Vm. 140.

GÁT, f. [gá, gæta], heed, attention, Pass. 21. 4; í ógáti, inadvertently.

gát, n. [geta], a dainty, Lex. Poët.; mun-gát, q. v., Dan. mundgodt.

GÁTA, u, f. [geta; Dan. gaade; Swed. gåta], a guessing; til-gáta, a suggestion; get-gáta, guess-work, but in old writers scarcely used in this sense. II. a riddle, Stj. 411, Fas. i. 464 sqq.; Icel. bera upp gátu, to ask a riddle; ráða gátu, to read a riddle; hence the saying, myrk er óráðin gáta, mirk (dark) is an unread riddle, cp. Bs. i. 226; koll-gáta, in the phrase, eiga kollgátuna, to guess the riddle; cp. geta í kollinn.

GÁTT, f. [gaatt, Ivar Aasen], the rabbet of a door-sill, against which the door shuts; hann gengr þá útar frá konungi til gáttar, to the door-sill, Jómsv. 12; hence such phrases as, hurð hnigin á gátt, a door shut but not locked, Gísl. 29, Fas. ii. 345; sá gægðisk út hjá gáttinni, Bárð. 171; cp. gætti; hurð á hálfa gátt, a door half open, = á klofa in old writers; innan-gátta, in-doors, Eb. 302; utan-gátta, out-of-doors, Stj. 436. gáttar-tré, n. a door-post, Gþl. 345. II. in pl. the door-way, the place nearest to the door, Hm. 1; hón lauk upp hurðinni ok stóð í gáttum stund þá, Fb. i. 547.—Gátt is now in Icel. esp. used of the space (esp. in stalls) between the door-post and the wall, hence troða upp í gáttina, to fill up the ‘gatt.’

GEÐ, n. [a Scandin. word, neither found in Ulf., Saxon, nor Germ.; lost in mod. Dan. and Swed.; gje, Ivar Aasen]:—mind, mood; the old Hm. often uses the word almost = wits, senses; hann stelr geði guma, he steals the wits of men, steeps them in lethargy, 12; vita til síns geðs, to be in one’s senses, 11, 19; heimta aptr sitt geð, of a drunkard, to come to one’s senses again, to awake, 13; vera gætinn at geði, to be on one’s guard, 6; cp. gá (geyma) síns geðs, Fms. vii. 133, x. 10: in pl., lítil eru geð guma, many men have little sense, Hm. 52:—this meaning is obsolete. 2. spirits; uppi er þá geð guma, then folk are in high spirits, Hm. 16. 3. mind; hverju geði styrir gumna hverr, Hm. 17; ok þér er grunr at hans geði, and thou trustest not his mind towards thee, 45. 4. in prose, favour, liking; at Þorgilsi var eigi geð á, whom Th. liked not, Ld. 286; féllsk hvárt öðru vel í geð, they liked one another well, Band. 3, 9; ok þat geð at ek görða mér vísa fjándr at vilöndum, and such grace (engaging mind) that I made open foes into well-wishers, Stor. 23; blanda geði við e-n, to blend souls with one, Hm. 43; hann var vel í geði til Freysteins, he was well disposed to Fr., Fb. i. 255:—ó-geð, dislike:—in mod. usage also vigour of mind; Icel. say of a boy, það er ekkert geð í honum, there is no ‘go’ in him, he is a tame, spiritless boy. COMPDS: 1. denoting character, temper, or the like; geð-fastr, adj. firm of mind; geð-góðr, adj. gentle of mood; geð-íllr, adj. ill-tempered; geð-lauss, adj. spiritless, tame, Rd. 241, Stj. 424, v. l.; geð-leysi, n. fickleness, Hom. 24; geð-mikill and geð-ríkr, adj. choleric; geð-stirðr, adj. stiff of temper; geð-styggr, adj. hot-tempered; geð-veykr, adj. brain-sick, of unsound mind; and geð-veyki, f. hypochondria; geðs-lag, n., and geðs-munir, m. pl. temper: or adjectives in inverse order, bráð-geðja, fljót-geðja, of hasty temper; harð-geðja, hardy; laus-geðja, fickle; lin-geðja, weak-minded, crazy; stór-geðja. proud; þung-geðja, hypochondriac. 2. denoting grace, pleasure; geð-feldr, adj. pleasant; ó-geðfeldr, unpleasant: geð-ligr or geðs-ligr, adj. engaging, Sks. 407, Fas. i. 233: geð-þekkni, f. good-will, content: geð-þekkr, adj. beloved, dear to one: geð-þokki, a, m. loveliness, engaging manners. 3. rarely of wit; geð-spakr, adj. witty (better get-spakr). 4. in many poët. compd adjectives, geð-bjartr, -framr, -frækn, -horskr, -hraustr, -rakkr, -skjótr, -snjallr, -strangr, -svinnr, bold, valiant, and the like, Lex. Poët.

GEDDA, u, f. [cp. gaddr; Swed. gädda; Dan. gjæde], a pike, Edda Gl.), Fas. i. 152, 489, Sæm.

geð-ferði, n. temper, disposition.

geð-fró, f. heartsease, Sks. 114: the name of an Icel. poem.

geðjask, að, dep. to be pleased with, like, Fms. iii. 97; e-m g. vel at e-u, to be well pleased with, Vígl. 25.

geð-mannligr, adj. fine-looking, portly, Safn i. 63.

GEFA, pret. gaf, 2nd pers. gaft, mod. gafst, pl. gáfu; pres. gef; pret. subj. gæfi; part. gefinn; with neg. suff. gef-at, gaft-attu, Fm. 7; mid. form gáfumk (dabat or dabant mihi, nobis), Stor. 23, Bragi, Edda: [Goth. giban = διδόναι; A. S. gifan; Engl. give; Dutch geven; O. H. G. gepan; Germ. geben; Swed. gifva; Dan. give.]

A. To give, with acc. of the thing, dat. of the person; g. gjafar, to give gifts, Fm. 7, Fms. vii. 40, Nj. 29, Hm. 48; mikit eitt skala manni gefa, 51; hann kvaðsk eingin yxn eiga þau áðr at honum þætti honum gefandi (gerundial, worth giving to him), Rd. 256; hann gaf stórgjafir öllu stórmenni, Ld. 114; hann gaf þeim góðar gjafir at skilnaði, Gísl. 9; Rútr gaf henni hundrað álna, Nj. 7; viltú g. mér þá, 73, 75, 281, passim. II. to give in payment, to pay; gefa vildim vit þér fé til, we will give thee money for it, Nj. 75; yðr væri mikit gefanda (gerundial) til, at þér hefðit ekki íllt átt við Gunnar, you would have given a great deal not to have provoked Gunnar, 98; ek mun g. þér til Guðrúnu dóttur mína ok féit allt, id.: to lay out, hann gaf sumt verðit þegar í hönd, Gísl. 12; gefa e-t við e-u, to pay for a thing; at þér gefit mjök margra Kristinna manna líf við yðvarri þrályndi, that you will cause the loss of many Christian lives with your stubbornness, Fms. iv. 195; þat er líkara at ek gefa mikit við, Nj. 53; gefa sik við e-u, to give oneself to a thing, attend to, be busy about, mod.: gefa í milli, to discount; hygg at hvat þú gefr í milli tveggja systra, Fms. iv. 195 (hence milli-gjöf, discount). III. in special sense, to give in matrimony; Njáll bað konu til handa Högna ok var hon honum gefin, Nj. 120; Vígdís var meir gefin til fjár en brautargengis, V. had been more wedded to the money than to her advancement, Ld. 26; segir at dóttir þeirra muni eigi betr verða gefin, 114:—gefa saman, to betroth, Fms. x. 381:—in mod. sense to marry, of the clergyman. 2. to give as a dowry, portion; búum þeim er Sveinn hafði gefit til hennar, Fms. x. 310 (hence til-gjöf, dowry); eigi skal ok í klæðum meira heiman gefask með konu en þriðjungr (hence heiman-gjöf, dowry), Gþl. 212:—so also, gefa í erfðir, to give as inheritance, Bs. i. 285:—gefa ölmusu, to give alms, Bs. passim; gefa fátækum, to give to the poor, passim. IV. to give, grant; hann gaf honum vald yfir öllu landi, Fms. i. 18; gefa heimleyfi, to grant ‘home-leave,’ furlough, ix. 474; gefa orlof, ii. 64; gefa grið, to grant a truce to one, pardon, Nj. 165, Fms. ix. 479; gefa e-m líf, to grant one his life, 470. V. in various phrases; gefa e-m nafn, to give one a name, Nj. 91, Fms. i. 23, Grág. ii. 146; gefa þakkir, to give thanks, Fms. i. 231; gefa e-m tillæti, to indulge one, Nj. 169; gefa e-m rúm, to give place to one, Fms. ii. 254, vi. 195; gefa ráð, to give counsel, advice, Nj. 75, 78; gefa góð orð, to give good words, answer gently; gefa e-m stór orð, to give one big words, Fms. v. 158; gefa slög, to deal blows, ix. 313; gefa gaum at, to give heed to, Nj. 57, Eg. 551; gefa hljóð, to give a hearing, in public speaking, Nj. 230; gefa tóm, to give time, leisure, 98; gefa ró reiði, to calm one’s wrath, 175:—gefa e-m sök, to bring a charge against, complain of, 82; ok gaf ek þó hjálminum enga sök á því, I did not like the helmet less for that, Ld. 128; at eigi sé mælt, at þú gefir dauðum sök, that thou bringest a charge against a dead man (which was unlawful), Nj. 82; en hvártki okkat gefr þat öðru at sök, neither of us likes the other the less for that, 52; ekki gef ek þér þat at sök þótt þú sér engi bleyðimaðr, 54; engi þorði þó sakir á at gefa, none durst complain, Al. 123; Sigurðr jarl bað konung eigi gefa Þrændum þetta at sök, Fms. i. 57; gefa kæru upp á e-n, to give in a complaint against one, Dipl. ii. 13. 2. gefa sér um …, to give oneself trouble about, take interest in, mostly followed by a noun; gefa sér fátt um e-t, to take coolly; gefa sér mikit um, to take great interest in; Þorfinnr lét gefa honum mat, en gaf sér lítið at honum, but else took little notice of him, Grett. 96; ekki er þess getið, at hann gæfi sér mikit um, that he shewed great interest, Fms. i. 289; mun ek mér ok ekki um þetta gefa, I will let this pass, not take offence at it, Boll. 354; en ef til mín kæmi tveir eða þrír, þá, gaf ek mér ekki um, then I took no notice of it, Fms. ii. 151; konungr gaf sér fátt um þat, Fb. i. 261; hann þóttisk vita hvat keisaranum mislíkaði ok gaf sér þó ekki um at sinni, Fms. vi. 71; ok gáfu sér ekki um viðbúnaðinn, vii. 87; so also, Skúli gaf sér litið at hvat biskup sagði, S. troubled himself little at what the bishop said, Bs. i. 873:—akin is the mod. phrase, eg gef ekki um það, I do not want it; gefðu ekki um það, do not care for it, mind it not; eg gaf ekki um að sjá það, I did not want to see it, etc. 3. gefa staðar, to stop; lét hann þá staðar gefa róðrinn, he stopped rowing, Fms. vi. 384; konungr gaf staðar ok hlýddi til frásagnar þeirra, viii. 400; ok þá er sá íss gaf staðar ok rann eigi, Edda 3; ok þeir gefa eigi stað ferðinni fyrr en þeir kómu norðr, 151 (pref.); svá at staðar gaf (MS. naf) höndin við sporðinn, 40. VI. to give out, deal out; hón bað gefa sér drekka, bade give him to drink, Eg. 604: to give a dose, gefa e-m eitr, Al. 156:—absol. to give fodder to cattle, gefa göltum, Hkv. 2. 37; gefa nautum, kúm, hestum, Sturl. ii. 42, Gísl. 28:—gefa á, to dash over, of sea-water, cp. ágjöf: to pour water on, var gluggr á ofninum syá at útan mátti á gefa, Eb. 134; síðan lét hann gefa útan á baðit í glugg, 136; gefa á ker, to fill a goblet, Clar.: metaph. to press on, gefr Ormr þá á, Fb. i. 530 (in wrestling). VII. with prepp., fyrir-gefa, to forgive, freq. in mod. usage, but scarcely found in old writers; so also gefa til, cp. Dan. tilgive, D. N., vide Safn i. 96, (rare and obsolete):—gefa upp, to give up; gefa upp gamalmenni, to give old people up, let them starve, Fms. ii. 225; gefa upp föður eða móður, 227; bændr báðu hann gefa upp eyna, Grett. 145: to remit, en þó vil ek nú upp gefa þér alla leiguna, Nj. 128; gaf honum upp reiði sína, Fms. x. 3, 6; ok gefit oss upp stórsakir, ii. 33; Brján konungr gaf upp þrysvar útlögum sínum inar sömu sakir, Nj. 269: absol., hvárt vilit þér gefa honum upp, pardon him, 205; gefa upp alla mótstöðu, to give up all resistance, Fms. ix. 322; gefa sik upp, to give oneself up, surrender, i. 198; þá gefum vér upp várn stað, 104; gefa upp ríki, konungdóm, to give up the kingdom, abdicate, resign, x. 4, xi. 392: to give up, hand over to one, Magnús konungr gaf honum upp Finnferðina með slíkum skildaga, vii. 135; ek vil gefa ykkr upp búit at Varmalæk, Nj. 25; allir hafa þat skaplyndi at gefa þat fyrst upp er stolit er, 76: to give up, leave off, gefa upp leik, to give up playing, Fas. iii. 530; gefa upp horn, Fms. vi. 241: to exhaust, empty, upp ætlu vér nú gefnar gersimar yðrar, vii. 197.

B. IMPERS., a naut. term; e-m gefr byri, byr (acc. pl. or sing.), one gets a fair wind; gaf þeim byr ok sigla þeir í haf, Nj. 4; gaf þeim vel byri, 138; er þeir vóru búnir ok byr gaf, Eg. 99: so also absol. with or without dat. of the person, gaf kaupmönnum burt af Grænlandi, the sailors got a wind off Greenland, so as to sail from it, Fb. iii. 454; því at eigi gaf suðr lengra, Fms. ii. 185; gaf þeim vel, ix. 268; gaf honum ílla, x. 4; gaf honum eigi austan, Nj. 63: so in the saying, svo gefr hverjum sem hann er góðr. 2. in other phrases, to get a chance; ef færi (acc.) gefr á, if you get a chance, Nj. 266; halda njósnum, nær bezt gæfi færi á honum, to keep a look-out, when there was best chance to get at him, 113; til þess gefr nú vel ok hógliga, ‘tis a fair and easy opportunity for that, Al. 156; mæltu menn at honum hafði vel gefit til (had good luck) um hefndina, Fms. vii. 230; ef yðr (dat.) gefr eigi missýni í þessu máli, if you are not mistaken in this matter, Fbr. 32; gaf þeim glámsýni (q. v.) er til vóru komnir, Sturl. i. 179, Stj. 401; þá gaf mér sýn, then I beheld (in a vision), Fms. vii. 163; þat gaf öllum vel skilja, it was clear for all to understand, it lay open to all, vi. 70; e-m gefr á að líta, one can see, i. e. it is open and evident.

C. REFLEX., gefask vel (ílla), to shew oneself, prove good (bad); það sé ván at þú gefisk honum eigi vel, er þú gefsk öllum öðrum mönnum ílla, Nj. 32; eigi deilir litr kosti ef þú gefsk vel, 78; hversu gafsk Björn þér, Kári, 265; opt hafa mér vel gefisk yður ráð, your counsels have often proved good to me, Ld. 252; hefir þeim þat ok aldri vel gefisk (it has never turned out well) í þessu landi, Fms. vii. 22; ílla gefask ílls ráð, a saying, Nj. 20; hétu allir góðu um at gefask vel (i. e. to fight manfully), Fms. vii. 262:—to happen, turn out, come to pass, sem síðan gafsk, x. 416; svá honum gafsk, so it turned out for him, Sl. 20; ok svá gæfisk, ef eigi hefði Guð þá sína miskun til sent, and so it would have come to pass, unless …, Fms. x. 395:—gefsk mér svá, it seems to me so, methinks it is so, Karl. 290, 308 (vide A. V. 2. above); þat allsheri at undri gefsk, to all people it is a wonder, Ad. 18; e-m er e-t svá gefit, to be so and so disposed, to think so and so of a thing; ef þér er þetta svá gefit sem þú segir, Fms. v. 236; svá er mér gefit, son minn, at ek em þér fegin orðin, Ó. H. 33; sagði hann at svá mundi jarli gefit, Fms. ix. 244; en svá ætla ek flestum lendum mönnum gefit, at eigi munu skiljask frá Skúla jarli, 429, v. l.; þyki mér ok sem svá muni flestum gefit, at fé sé fjörvi firr, Ld. 266; en þat mun þó mestu um stýra hversu Þórdísi er um gefit, 302; síðan talaði konungr þetta mál við systur sína, ok spurði hversu henni væri um þetta gefit, Fms. ii. 221: of the gifts of nature, mikill máttr er gefinn goðum várum, Nj. 132; ok er þat mál manna, at henni hafi allt verit ílla gefit þat er henni var sjálfrátt, i. e. that she was a bad woman in everything of her own making (but well gifted by nature), 268; ok svá er sagt at honum hafi flestir hlutir höfðinglegast gefnir verit, 254. 2. with prepp., gefask upp, to give up, give in, surrender, Nj. 64, 124, Eg. 79: mod. to lose one’s breath: upp gefinn, upset; eigi þykjumk ek upp gefinn þó at ek sjá smávofur, Grett. 112; eigi þyki mér vit upp gefnir, ef vit veitumk at, 131; en þó at þeir feðgar sé ríkir menn, þá eru vér þó ekki upp gefnir fyrir þeim, Fb. ii. 195: in mod. usage, exhausted, having lost one’s breath, eg er uppgefinn; also of a horse, hann gafsk upp, harm er stað-uppgefinn:—e-m gefsk yfir, to do wrong, commit a fault, fail; þat mæla menn at þessi hlutr hafi konunginum yfir gefisk helzt, Fms. xi. 283; ef göfgum mönnum gáfusk stórir hlutir yfir, if the noble gave gross offence, did evil things, Bs. i. 107; engi er svá vitr at eigi gefisk yfir nokkut sinn, Karl. 451:—to give oneself to one, gefask Kristi, N. G. L. i. 339; gefsk þú hánum þá í dag með Guði, Nj. 157; gefask á vald e-s, to give oneself into another’s power, Fms. ix. 479. II. recipr. to give to one another; gefask gjöfum, Bret. 48; gáfusk þeir gjöfum áðr þeir skildu, Bs. i. 274. III. part. gefinn, given to a thing, in a spiritual sense, devout; g. fyrir bækr, lestr, smíðar, etc., given to books, reading, workmanship, etc.

gefendr, part. pl. givers, Hm. 2, Grág. ii. 169.

gefins, adv. gratis, (mod.)

gefja, u, f. [Gael. gwayw], a missile, Edda (Gl.)

Gefjon, f. the name of the goddess, Yngl. S. ch. 1, Edda ch. 1; in the Middle Ages the Icel. used to render Diana by Gefjon, e. g. mikil er G. gyðja, great is the goddess Diana, 655 xvi. B, Acts xix. 28; hof Gefjonar = Lat. templum Dianas, Bret. 20 note, passim: rarely = Venus, Stj. 90, or = Minerva, Bret. 20:—name of a woman, Dropl. 36.

Gefn, f., poët. name of the goddess Freyja, Edda 21; prop. a giver, in poët. periphr. descriptions of women, Lex. Poët.

gefna-geð, n. even temper, good temper, Sks. passim.

gegða, u, f. a loose woman, Edda (Lauf.)

geggjast, að, dep. to get out of joint; geggjaðr, part. disordered.

GEGN, adv., old form gögn, with dat. [not found in Ulf., who uses and and viþra; A. S. gegn in compds; Engl. gain- (in gain-say), a-gain; Germ. gegen; Dan. igjen; Swed. gen: cp. the adj. gegn]:—against, right opposite; í gegn vindi sem forvindis, Bs. i. 22; gegn veðri, Bjarn. 52; sjá í gegn sólu, to look straight at the sun, Fms. viii. 114; þeir áttu at vega í gegn jelinu, xi. 136. 2. metaph. against, contrary to; Örn var til móts, en mestr hluti manna honum í gegn, voted against him, Ld. 74; rísa í gegn e-m, Fms. i. 221; í gegn slíku ofrefli, viii. 29; í gegn eðli, against nature, Bs. i. 335; þat eitt er eigi mæli því í gegn, which is not contrary to it, Grág. i. 7; ok mælti því manngi í gegn, Íb. 17, Anecd. 72: in medic. sense, þar eru alls-kyns tré ok aldin í gegn (against) meinum manna, Eluc. 24, (rare.) β. absol. or ellipt., svá bjartr at þeir þorðu eigi í gegn at vega, Fms. v. 161; þó vörðusk þeir eigi né í gegn hjöggu, 655 xi. 1: so the law phrase, ganga í gegn e-u, to avow or meet a charge; mod. to gainsay, deny, vide ganga. γ. þar er vígt í gegn þeim öllum, Grág. ii. 9; skalat húsum skipta í gegn land, i. e. land shall not be exchanged against houses, 256. 3. [Engl. again], in turn; hann sendi rit Drottni ok tók við í gegn af honum, 623. 52; en þeir hétu honum gulli í gegn, Sl. 21; þar í gegn (again, Germ. dagegen), Stj. 76; grát at gamni skaltú í gögn hafa (in turn), Skm. 30.

GEGN, adj. [North. E. and Scot. gone; Swed. gen; Dan. gjen:—akin to the adv. gegn; cp. gagn-, gegnt, gegnum]:—prop. ‘gane,’ short; hinn gegnsta veg, Mar. 545; a ‘gane’ way, the ‘ganest’ road are found in Old Engl. and Scot., and still remain in the northern provinces; cp. the prefix gagn- signf. B, and gegnt. II. metaph. ‘gane,’ i. e. ready, serviceable, kindly, a usage also found in old North. E. and Scot., vide Jamieson; gegn ok sannorðr, Band. 10; gegn ok öruggr, ‘gane’ and steady, Fs. 129; gegn ok vitr, Fms. v. 194; gegn ok úskapbráðr, ‘gane’ and good-tempered, Sturl. iii. 126; gegn ok gæfr, ‘gane’ and gentle, Grett. 90; gegn ok góðfengr, 92: in poët. compds, bráð-gegn, fjöl-g., frið-g., hvar-g., hyggju-g., ráð-g., i. e. good, wise, gentle, Lex. Poët.; ó-gegn, ‘ungainly,’ ungentle.

gegna, d, [Germ. begegnen, cp. gegn, the adv.], to go against, meet, encounter; hann hafði þar mikit lið ok skyldi g. Birkibeinum, Fms. vii. 324; g. þeim er á sund hlaupa, ix. 22; skyldu þeir g. um njósnir ok annask vegu alla, Sturl. iii. 236. II. metaph., 1. to meet an engagement, to pay, discharge; ef hann á bú, þótt hann gegni eigi tillögum, though he pays no rates, Grág. i. 160; þá á hón at g. þriðjungi (take the third part of the charges) fyrir ómaga þeirra, 337; ok skal hann þá g. (account, redress) við hinn ef landsleigur væri minni en verðit, ii. 239: as a law term, of a duty, to meet, discharge; but also of rights, to be entitled to; þá g. börn beggja arfi, N. G. L. i. 33; ok g. réttum öllum, 55; g. kostnaði, Fms. viii. 371: to pay, g. þingfarar-kaupi, Grág. passim, Ísl. ii. 344, Íb. ch. 10; g. skyldu sinni, to do one’s duty:—g. líkum, ok syngja sálu-messu, to meet the bodies, of the officiating clergyman, N. G. L. i. 390. 2. to suit one, be meet for one; velit þat er yðr gegnir, choose what best suits you, 623. 30; leyfi þér honum at fara sem honum gegnir bezt, Nj. 10, Fms. viii. 102; þat man bezt g. (be meetest) at þín ráð sé höfð, Nj. 24, Fs. 155; kjöri hann þat af er betr gegndi, Fms. i. 202; mun þat betr g., it will do better, iv. 209; ok mun mér þat allvel g., 237; hve ílla mönnum gegndi (how ill it suited men) at fara, Íb. 8; þann kost er þér gegnir verr, Fs. 134; þá gegnir þat, it is fit, Sks. 433. 3. to signify, mean, matter; ok spurði, ef hann vissi nökkut hverju gegndi, if he knew what was the matter, Eg. 53; spurðu hverju at gegndi um ferðir hans, Rd. 237; spurði, hverju gegndi úgleði sú er hann hafði, asked, what his sadness meant, Eg. 518; spyrr, hverju gegndi þyss sjá eða kliðr, Gísl. 56; sumir maeltu í móti, ok kváðu öngu g., some denied it, and said it went for nothing, Nj. 25; Háls kvað þat mundu öngu g., Rd. 237; það gegnir furðu, it means a wonder, it is astonishing; hví gegnir (what means?) þetta atkvæði? 656 B. 5; er helzt sá at ráði gegndi, i. e. where he saw that there was reason in it, Fms. vii. 257; g. tíðendum, to be of importance, of great consequence; séð hefi ek þat er ek ætla tíðendum muni g., Ld. 272; meir en hófi gegnir, more than is due, above measure, Fms. vii. 132; er viti gegnir, which has sense or meaning, Al. 6; um hluti þá er íþróttum gegndi, which imply or can be called art, Ó. H. 102:—of numbers, to amount to, svá at mörgum hundruðum gegndi, so that it amounted to several hundreds, by many hundreds, Fas. iii. 356; svá náttum gegndi, i. e. several nights, Ld. 304, v. l.; at degi einum vas fleira en heilum vikum gegndi í tveim misserum, i. e. that in a year there is one day over the complete number of weeks, Íb. 7: with gen. (rare), mér þyki tvennra vandræða g., it is a double difficulty, i. e. on both sides, Grett. 143 A. 4. to answer, reply, freq. in mod. usage, with dat. of the person and the reply; hann gegnir öngu, he gives no reply; hann gegnir mér ekki, he does not answer me. β. to yield, be obedient; hann gegnir öngum, he obeys none, is cross and disobedient, freq. in mod. usage.

gegnd, f. moderation, reason; það er engi gegnd í því, ‘tis unreasonable; ó-gegnd, excess; í ó-gegnd, excessively; það er mesta ó-gegnd, id.: gegndar-ligr, adj. (-liga, adv.), = gegniligr; gegndar-lauss, adj. (-leysi, n.), unreasonable, exorbitant.

gegn-görð, f. a Norse law term, ‘harbouring the king,’ a tax, D. N.

gegni-ligr, adj. (-liga, adv.), ‘gainly,’ meet, due, Vígl. 32, Sturl. ii. 63; vide the adj. gegn.

gegning f. = gegnd, Band. 3, Fms. ii. 88.

gegn-ligr, adj. straight, Sks. 4: metaph. = the adj. gegn II, Hom. 69.

gegnt, adv.: I. almost like a prep. with dat. opposite to, = gagnvart, q. v.; Laugabær stendr gegnt Tungu, Ld. 122; í öndvegi gegnt konungi, Eg. 304; yfir gegnt þeim á brekkunni, Ísl. ii. 200; gegnt rekkju þeirri er Kjartan var vanr at liggja í, Ld. 202; í öðru öndvegi g. honum, Ó. H. 43; gegnt Hofi, Sd. 142: vóru þá komnir mjök svá þar gegnt, Nj. 247. II. really as adv. straight; svá gegnt (so straight, with so good an aim) at í sitt auga kom hver örin, Fas. i. 271. 2. compar. gegnra or gegnara, more straight; gegnra skauztu í sumar, Fms. viii. 140; hann mun miklu lengra skjóta ok gegnara, ii. 266. 3. superl. gegnst, [Swed. genast = at once; Dan. gjennest], the ‘ganest,’ shortest way; hann stefnir þegar et gegnsta, the ‘ganest’ way, Ld. 240; ok it gegnsta reið hann til Þyrils, Ísl. ii. 109; ok skal gerða it gegnsta þar, Grág. ii. 264; for Öngull þar á land sem honum þótti gegnast (‘ganest,’ shortest), Grett. 155 A. β. metaph. meetest, most right or just; spyrja vitrir menn hvat gegnast muni í þessu máli, Ld. 80: cp. the adj. gegn.

GEGNUM, adv., old form gögnum rhyming to Rögn, Orkn. 80: [this word seems not to be found in Germ. and Saxon, but Dan. igjennem, Swed. genom; cp. gagn-, gegn]:—through, with acc.; laust gögnum súluna, gögnum Geirröð ok gögnum vegginn, Edda 61; holtriða hver í gegnum, Hým. 27; súlur í gögnum, 29; hann hljóp báðum fótum gögnum skipit, Edda 36; gögnum hellu mikla, 20; ok renndi svá í g. hann, El. 15; Gerzkan mann skýtr hann í gegnum með gafloki, Al. 40; ef þú leggr í gögnum báða skjölduna, El. 12; flaug skotið í gögnum hann, Edda 37; brjóta nýja ósa í gögnum fjöru manns, Grág. ii. 354; í gegnum skjöldinn, Nj. 84; en ek þykjumk sjá allt í gegnum þá er ek kem í land, 134; ok gókk þegar í gegnum, 262; í gegnum eyjarnar, Eg. 251; út í g. vegginn, 398; ef hval rekr í g. merkiósa, Grág. ii. 353, Fms. i. 217; ganga gegnum fylkingar, to go right through the ranks, Fms. xi. 131; í g. Danmörk, through Denmark, A. A. 288; settar gullknöppum í gegnum niðr, all through, Eg. 516; ek vil ísinn láta höggva í g. út, all along, all through, Fms. viii. 416; hence adverb., út í gegn, all through, from beginning to end. II. temp., allan dag í gegnum, all the day long, Fms. xi. 27; allan vetr í gögnum, all the winter long, Orkn. 80; haustnótt gögnum, all through the autumn night, Fms. vi. (in a verse).

GEIFLA, að, [cp. A. S. geaflas = grinders], to mumble with the lips; gömlum kennu vér nú Goðanum at g. á saltinu, see how we teach the old Godi to mumble the salt, Bs. i. 25;—it was usual to put salt into the mouth of neophytes when baptized as a symbol of the words (Matth. v. 13) ‘ye are the salt of the earth,’ vide Bingham’s Origg. iv. 39:—metaph. to mutter, þótt þú geiflir slíkt, Grett. 116 (MS.):—geifla sig, to make a wry mouth as if about to cry.

geiga, að, to take a wrong direction, to rove at random, of a bolt or the like; ok geigaði á fluginu, Grett. 124; hann skaut tveimr örum eðr þremr ok geigaði þat allt, Sturl. ii. 135; eigi veit hvar óskytja ör geigar, none can tell where a shaft ill-shot may stray to, Fms. vii. 262, Fas. ii. 358, (a saying.) 2. láta augun g., to look askance, Hom. (St.)

geig-orðr, adj. caustic, sarcastic, Nj. 38, v. l.

GEIGR, m. a scathe, serious hurt; ef þeir fá geig af vápnum sínum, Nj. 115; vinna, veita, göra e-m geig, to hurt one, 253, Fms. xi. 119; at óstyrk kona skyldi geig göra mega svá miklum sel, that she should have been able to cause death to so big a seal, Bs. i. 335; eigi vilda ek þér geig hafa gört, Njarð. 378; en þess varð aldregi víst, hverr honum hafði geig veittan, who had slain him, Orkn. 376, Fbr. (in a verse); ef kirkju verðr geigr af eldi, K. Þ. K. 48. 2. danger; er þat enn mesti geigr, Ld. 238, Fms. vii. 270; en mér þótti þú stýra oss til ens mesta geigs, Hkr. ii. 222; at eigi veitti hann þau áhlaup í bræði sinni er geig setti, 686 B. 1; sagði at þá væri búit við geig mikinn með þeim feðgum, Eg. 158. 3. a squint, a leer; geigr er þér í augum, Nj. in a ditty. COMPDS: geigr-ligr, adj., poët. dangerous, Lex. Poët. geigr-skot, better geig-skot, n. a deadly shot; in the phrase, at skjóta g. í móti e-m, to shoot the death bolt against one, i. e. to seek to take one’s life, Fb. ii. 353, Fms. v. 76. geigr-þing, n. a dangerous meeting, battle, Hallfred; better in two words.

geig-vænliga, adv. dangerously, Bs. i. 343.

geig-vænligr, adj. dangerous, fatal, Fas. iii. 123, Hom. 39, Fms. xi. 132, Finnb. 346.

GEIL, f. [cp. gil, a chasm]:—a narrow glen; geilar þær sem ganga fyrir framan Titlingshól, Vm. 156, Fms. viii. 409, Nj. 114, Gísl. 136; geilar þreyngar at ríða at bænum, Orkn. 450; gras-geilar, grassy ‘gills,’ Hrafn. 20; Hrossa-geilar, id. II. any narrow passage, e. g. a shaft through a hay-rick or the narrow lane between hay-ricks or houses. COMPDS: geila-garðr, m. a ‘glen-formed’ fence, a walk, id.; geilagarðs-hlið, n. a gate in a fence, Sturl. ii. 247; skal geilar göra af mönnum (defile of men) heim at kirkjugarðs-hliði, Bs. i. 291: göra e-m geilar, a law phrase, to let (a thief) run the gauntlet, N. G. L. i. 253, passim; hafs-geil, the sea-lane, through which the host of Pharaoh passed, Stj. 287, cp. Exod. xiv. 23.

GEIMI, a, m., mod. geimr, m., poët. the main, the sea, Edda (Gl.); skaut jörð ór geima, Edda Ht. 13: in mod. usage geimr means a vast empty space; himin-geimr, the universe, the air, ether; háfa skilr hnetti himingeimr, Jónas 167: the popular phrase, spyrja e-n útí alla heima og geima, to speer (ask) freely about everything.

GEIP, n. idle talk, nonsense, in mod. usage esp. foolish exaggeration, Nj. 214, Fms. ii. 286, Karl. 478.

geipa, að, to talk nonsense, Fms. v. 333, 341, Sturl. i. 206, Gísl. 99.

geipan, f. brag, nonsense, Sturl. i. 207, Lv. 60, Glúm. 342.

geir-fálki, a, m. [a for. word; mid. Lat. gyrfalco], a gerfalcon, H. E. i. 391, N. G. L. ii. 471.

geir-fugl, m. alca impennis, Edda (Gl.); hence Geirfugla-sker, n. a local name in Icel.

geir-hvalr, m. a kind of whale, Sks. 124, Edda (Gl.)

GEIRI, a, m. [Engl. goar or gore; Germ. gebre], a goar or triangular strip, Orkn. 374 (in a verse), freq.; land-g., a goar of land; gras-geirar, grass strips among rocks; set-g., a goar let into breeches. II. a pr. name, Landn. III. fire, poët., Edda (Gl.)

geir-laukr, m. garlic, Edda (Gl.), Gkv. 1. 18.

geir-nagli, a, m. the nail fastening a spear’s head to the shaft, Grett. 123, Gþl. 105, Fas. i. 239, Gísl. 11.

geir-nefr, m., and geir-nyt, f. a fish, chimaera monstrosa Linn.: a sea-rat, Eggert Itin. 598.

GEIRR, m. [A. S. gâr; Hel. gêr; O. H. G. keir, whence kesja, q. v.; cp. also Lat. gaesum, a Teut.-Lat. word]:—a spear, Edda 41, Fms. i. 177, Hm. 15, 37, Hkv. 1. 15, Hbl. 40; Odin is represented wielding a geir, called Gungnir, as are also the Valkyrjur; marka sik geirs-oddi, to mark oneself in the breast with a spear’s point, so as to make blood flow, was a heathen rite whereby warriors on their death-bed devoted themselves to Odin; it was the common belief that a man who died a natural death was not admitted into Valhalla after death; this rite is only mentioned in mythical Sagas such as Yngl. S. ch. 10; cp. also Gautr. S. ch. 7.—þá stakk Starkaðr sprotanum á konungi ok mælti, nú gef ek þik Óðni: the origin of this rite is in Hm., where Odin himself is represented as hanging on the tree Yggdrasil ‘wounded with a spear and given to Odin, myself to myself;’ some trace it to a Christian origin, which is not very likely. Again, the cruel blóðörn (q. v.) is no doubt connected with this kind of sacrifice to Odin. II. a pr. name, and also in many compds, Sig-geirr, Þór-geirr, Ás-geirr, Vé-geirr (the holy spear), and Geir-hildr, Geir-ríðr, Geir-mundr, Geir-laug, Geir-röðr, and many others, vide Landn. Geira, u, f. a pr. name, Landn.

geir-síl, n. a kind of herring, Edda (Gl.)

geir-skaft, n. a spear-shaft, N. G. L. i. 144.

geir-varta, u, f. the nipple, of a man, Rb. 346, Sturl. i. 41, Ld. 136, 140, Fs. 145: of a woman, less correctly, Mar. 603.

geis, n. [M. H. G. gis = yeast], boasting, Fbr. 99 new Ed.

GEISA, að, [Ulf. gaisjan or usgaisjan means to be alarmed, astonished; mid. Germ. gise and Swed. gäsa = to ferment; cp. Engl. yeast]:—to chafe, rage, of fire, Vsp. 57; láta gráðugan loga geisa, Mar. 530; hón (an excited lady) geisaði mjök, Nj. 57; látum Gamminn geisa, of a ship under sail, 135 (in a ditty); þeirra ofsi geisar hátt, their insolence runs high, Edda 146 (pref.); hversu sunnarlega geisar ríki föður þíns, Bær. 13; ofarr lét Grettir g. saxit í fyrra, Grett. 99 new Ed. Cod. Ups. II. to be panic-stricken, a notion which only appears in the word geiski: cp. geysask.

geisan, f. impetuosity, Band. 9.

geiski, a, m. panic, fear, Fas. i. 193, where spelt gyzki. geiska-fullr, adj. frightened, of a hunted deer, Hkv. 2. 35.

GEISL, m. (gísli, Fb. ii. 273, less correctly), [cp. O. H. G. geisila, mid. and mod. Germ. geissel, a scourge]:—the staff used by men sliding in snow shoes, O. H. L. 153. 2. the short ribs, costae, Björn.

geisla, að, to shed rays, Sks. 206, Fms. iii. 51, v. 341, Sl. 42; geislaði af meyjunni, it beamed from the maid, she shed rays of light, Mar. 618: metaph. to shed, Magn. 428.

GEISLI, a, m. 1. prop. a beam, staff, = geisl; but only used, 2. metaph. a beam, ray, of the sun, Rb. 472, Fas. i. 516, Hkv. 1. 15, Hom. 128; sólar-g., a sun-beam; ár-g., morning-beam, poët.: the eye is called brá-geisli, brow-beam, Korm. Geisla-dagr, m. ‘Beam-day;’ it is prob. a rendering of Epiphany, though it is not used of that very day, which is called Þrettándi, but of the seventh day after, viz. the 13th of January.

geislung, f. = gísling, Fas. i. 5 (badly).

GEISPA, að, [Engl. to gasp; Dan. gispe; Swed. gäspa], to yawn, Nj. 20, Fas. i. 11, Fms. x. 204, Fb. i. 259.

geispi, a, m. a yawn, Fms. vi. 199.

GEIT, f., gen. geitar, pl. geitr, [Goth. gaitei; A. S. gât; Engl. goat; Germ. geiz; Swed. get; Dan. geed; Lat. hoedus]:—a she-goat (the he-goat is hafr), Grág. i. 418, 503, Hkv. 1. 42, 2. 35, Skm. 35, Rm. 12, Gm. 25, Edda 24, 46, passim; stein-geit, the steinbock or wild goat. 2. metaph. a coward (cp. Engl. hare); hann er mesta geit, he is a ‘frightened hare,’ cp. Grett. ch. 8, Valla L. 212:—this metaphor is taken from the skógar-geit or roebuck, Fms. ii. 309, Hkv. 2. 35. COMPDS: geitar-hár, n. goat’s hair, Stj. 306. geitar-horn, n. a goat’s horn, Fms. vii. 156. geitar-hugr, m. a she-goat’s courage, cowardice, Fms. x. 351. geita-hús, n. a goat’s fold, Ó. H. 15, Njarð. 374, Grett. 150 A. geita-kúgildi, n. a cow’s value paid in goats, Am. 50. geitar-skegg, n. a goat’s beard, Fms. iii. 94. geita-sveinn, m. a goat-boy, goat-herd, Fas. i. 139. geit-belgr, m. a goat-skin (blown up), Rd. 245 (a nickname), geit-bjálfi, a, m. a goat-skin coat, Fas. iii. 621. geit-fé, n. collective noun, like Lat. pecus, Fas. iii. 383. geit-héðinn, m. a goat-skin jacket, Nj. 211; a pr. name, Bs. i. geit-sauðr, m. much the same as geitfé, Grág. i. 503; gener. she-goats, Stj. 45. geit-skinn, n. a goat-skin, Stj. 470: goat-skins were used by sorcerers, Nj. 20; hence the phrase, vefja geitskinni at höfði e-m, to hoodwink one. geit-staka, u, f. a goat-skin, Fas. iii. 502. II. botan., geitna-njóli, a, m. aegopodium. geitna-skóf, n. lichen proboscideus, Hjalt. geit-skór, m. ‘goat-shoe,’ the willow-weed, epilobium, Ivar Aasen: a nickname, Íb. ch. 2. III. medic. geitr, only in pl., scurvy in the head from vermin, Fas. i. 9.

geitir, m., poët. a giant: a pr. name, Landn.

geitla, u, f. angelica sylvestris, Hjalt.

geitungr, m. [Swed. geting; Dan. geding], a wasp; in Edda (Gl.) wrongly rendered as a bird.

GELDA, d, mod. t, [root in Goth. gilþa = a sickle], to geld, Grág. i. 301, Edda 149 (pref.), Sturl. ii. 69, 181, Fms. vii. 185, Hkv. 1. 39. II. part. geldr (geltr), Hkv. Hjörv. 20.

geldask, t, dep. to become barren, yield no milk.

geld-fé, n. a barren sheep (cp. geldær), Grág. i. 416, 421, Eg. 740, Vm. 87. COMPDS: geldfjár-afréttr, -hagar, m., -höfn, f. pasture for geldfé, Vm. 60, 80, Grág. ii. 326. geldfjár-kúgildi, n. a cow’s value paid in geldfé, Vm. 34, Jb. 361. geldfjár-rekstr, m. = geldfjárhöfn, Grág. ii. 327, Jb. 284, Dipl. iv. 9. geldfjár-samnaðr, m. a flock of geldfé, Grág. i. 416.

geld-fénaðr, m. = geldfé, Dipl. v. 7.

geld-hestr, m. a gelded horse, gelding, Vm. 18.

gelding, f. a gelding, Grág. i. 419. geldinga-maðr, m. = geldir.

geldingr, m. a wether, Grág. i. 502, 503, Nj. 26, Ísl. ii. 330, Vm. 58–60, Sturl. i. 81, Band. 4, Rd. 299, Þorst. Stang. 51, passim; also in local names, Landn., Bs. geldinga-hús, n. a fold for wethers, Rd. 235. II. an eunuch, K. Á. 120, Al. 57, Stj. 195.

geldir, m. a gelder; hesta-g., a nickname, Landn.

geld-mjólk, f. adj.; g. kýr, a barren cow (Swed. gall-ko), Grág. i. 502.

geld-neyti, n. barren neat (cattle), Ld. 98, Vm. passim.

GELDR, adj. [Swed. gall], barren, yielding no milk, Grág. i. 502, 503, Vm. 33.

geld-ær, f. a barren ewe (Scot. gelt gimmer, Jamieson), Vm. 168.

GELGJA, u, f. [akin to gálgi], the cheek bones of a fish; gelgju-bein, n. the small bones in the gelgja; hence gelgju-legr or gelgju-leitr, adj. haggard-looking, pinched in the face. II. mythol. the name of the tack or pin belonging to the chain whereby the wolf Fenrir was fastened, F. Edda 221, cp. 20.

GELLA, d, [A. S. gellan], to yell, esp. of wild beasts, Hkr. i. 229, Ísl. ii. 170, Karl. 140, Bs. ii. 10.

gellini, a, m. a nickname, Ó. H.

gellir, m. a yeller, a nickname, Landn.: a bull, Edda (Gl.)

gellungr, m. = geldingr, D. I. i. 257.

gelt, n. barking.

GELTA, t, (cp. gella), to yell; prop. of dogs, to bark; þeir gjölltu sem hundar, Fas. iii. 623: gelta and gelt are now the current words in Icel., but scarcely occur in old writers, as Hm. 86 is a mod. interpolation.

GEMLA, u, f. a stump, worn out tooth, in the mouth of old people, Bjarn. 186; but also of teeth in the mouth of new-born babes, called skálda-gemlur, ‘poet-grinders,’ from the old saying that a child born with teeth will become a poët. Ísl. Þjóðs. ii. 5.

gemlingr, m. (dimin. gemsi, a, m.), a year old (gamal) sheep, Sd. 154.

gemlir, m., poët. the old, an eagle, Lex. Poët.: in mythol. names as Ör-g., cp. Germ. ur-alt, Edda, Lex. Poët.

GEMS, n. a gibe, scoff, Fbr. 169, Sturl. iii. 80, Bs. i. 649, Band. (MS.) 19, where masc.

gemsa, að, to gibe, scoff.

gemsan, f. gibing, Bs. i. 649.

gems-mikill, adj., full of gibes, Sturl. iii. 69.

gemsungr, m. a giber, Sturl. iii. 262.

GENGI, n. [ganga], good luck, success; in the saying, án er ílls gengis (íllt gengi) nema heiman hafi, ill luck is homebred, is one’s own making, Nj. 27, Dropl. 23, Ísl. ii. 144, Gísl. 63; or, áni er ílls gengis, áni used substantively (vide ‘an,’ p. 43); ok várt g. vaxa, and promote our success, Þórð. 64:—help, support, várt g. eðr liðsinni, Fb. ii. 126, 131; afla sér gengis, to gather troops, Fms. x. 394; g. Þrænzkra drengja, g. goða, g. Norðmanna, Hallfred, Hkm. 3, 10; vígs-gengi, helping sword in hand, Ld. 224; heita e-m gengi sínu, Fms. viii. 151: victory = gagn, Lex. Poët.: the saying, vex (göfgask) hverr af gengi, good luck makes a man’s fame, Edda Ht. 26, Mkv. 12: Icel. also say, vera í góðu (miklu) gengi, to enjoy fame, popularity; vera í litlu g., to be of small reputation.

gengi-legr, adj. passable, Vellekla.

gengr, adj. able to walk, Grág. ii. 33, Fms. vii. 208, Landn. 226:—passable, fit to walk, Bs. i. 322; ó-gengr, unfit to walk or impassable; íll-g., bad to pass, of ice, crags, or the like:—the phrase, eiga heiman-gengt, to be able to go from home, i. e. to have leisure, Fbr. 17 new Ed.; eg á ekki heiman-gengt, ílla heiman-gengt, etc.:—of money, good, D. N.

genja, u, f. [gana], an απ. λεγ.: poët. an axe, Edda (Gl.): the name of a ship, Branda-genja, Sturl. ii. 166: the nickname of a woman, id.

GENTA, u, f. a girl; a special Norse word not used in Icel. and not found in old writers earlier than the 14th or 15th century, unless ‘getta’ in the verse in Hálfs S. be the same or kindred word; hvað líðr nú grautnum, genta, Fas. iii. 382, 389, 393 (Eg. Einh. S.), is the only passage where it is used in Icel. writers. In many languages the equivalents are curious, Engl. girl, Swed. flicka, Norse genta (proncd. yenta, vide Asbjörnsen’s Tales), Icel. stúlka, Dan. pige,—all words that baffle etymologers. The Germans seem to have no such word, as mädchen and mädel are plain enough. The Lapps have ganda = a girl, which may be the origin of genta.

gepill, m. a little ill-shaped spoon, spón-gepill; akin to geifla.

GER, n. [Dan. gjær], yeast, vide gör.

ger-, in compds, vide gör-, görsemi, etc.

GERA, ð, to do, vide göra.

gerð, gerningr, etc., vide görð, görningr, doing.

GERÐ (and görð less correctly), f. yeast, ferment; ok kom þó ekki gerð í mungát, Bs. i. 339; þá kom þegar görþ í keren gnóg ok góð, id.; þat öl brásk alldregi þá er gerðar beiddi, 394; ok lét í kerinu sem þá er gerð væri í, Mirm. β. medic., í-gerð, suppuration in a wound, (mod.)

GERÐ, f., used to rhyme with e (verðung—gerðar), Fms. vi. 448:—gear, harness, and in pl. esp. armour; sú gerð (fashion) var mönnum mjök tíð, iv. 110; klæði með slíkri gerð, sem …, Al. 121:—armour, vápn ok allar gerðar, Skáld H. R. 5. 43; gerðar hans er hann hafði, feld ok spjót, Glúm. 344; Hárs gerðar, war-gear, Fms. l. c.; gerðar várar, our armour, Hkm. 33. II. girth; digrask í gerðum, to become stout in the waist, euphon. of a woman, to be with child; Icel. now say, hón er farin að þykkna undir belti.

gerða, ð, [garðr], to gird with a fence, hedge, Lex. Poët.

GERÐI, n. [cp. garðr], a place girded round, a hedged or fenced field, garth; hann ferr til gerðisins ok sár niðr korninu, Nj. 170; ok snúa upp í gerði þat er heitir á Örlygsstöðum, sauða-hús stóð í gerðinu, Sturl. ii. 218; Finnbogi kvaðsk eiga gerði eitt, bað hann þangat fara ok leggja þar garð um, Finnb. 336: a pinfold, láta srnala sinn í gerði, Gþl. 406: akr-gerði, a field. COMPDS: gerðis-beiti, n. the ‘bite’ or pasture in a garth, Gþl. 406. gerðis-tún, n. a garden, Matth. xxvi. 36. gerðis-vöndr, m. fence-faggots, Gþl. 379.

gerðing, f. a girding, fencing, N. G. L. i. 41, Fb. ii. 7.

Gerðr, f. a pr. name of a goddess, Edda; also of a woman, Eb., Landn.; and in many compds, Ás-gerðr, Hall-g., Ingi-g., Val-g., Þor-g., etc., Landn.

geri, a, m. [gerr], ‘ravener,’ the mythol. wolf of Odin, Gm., Edda.

ger-járn, n. a gridiron, Fas. iii. 240, an απ. λεγ.

gerp-ligr, gerpi-legr, m. [garpr], martial, Nj. 72, Fb. ii. 204; g. ráð, good circumstances, Þorst. Síðu H. 178.

GERR, adj. [akin to gjarn, q. v.], greedy; eigi ofdrykkju-maðr né ákafliga gerr, 686 B. 2, 1 Tim. iii. 8: gluttonous, opp. to neyzlu-grannr, freq. in mod. usage.

gerr, adj. = perfect, vide görr, göra.

gersemi, vide görsemi.

GERSTA or gesta, t, [A. S. gæstan], to annoy; g. hug e-s, to tease one, Greg. 64, Pr. 442, 623. 54; vér skulum g. hug hans, eigi sem þeir gerstu forðum á eyðimörkinni er Moysi fylgdu, Mart. 132: this word is quite obsolete, and chiefly used in old translations of legends. II. part. gerstr, [Germ. garstig = hideous; O. H. G. garst = sour, harsh; cp. Engl. ghastly, agast], sour, dismal; gerstan dag, Skm. 30, Rm. 9:—sulky, hann leit gerstr við mér, he looked sulkily on me, Sighvat, Ó. H. 81 (Ann. for Nord. Oldk. 1866, p. 196).

gervi, n. gear, vide görvi.

Gerzkr, adj. from Gardar, Nj. 46, Fms. passim. II. = Girkskr, Greek, Al. 26, 40.

gest-beinliga, adv. hospitably, Vápn. 23.

gest-erfð, f. inheritance after a stranger (guest) who dies in one’s house, N. G. L. i. 51.

gest-feðri and gest-feðrungr, m. a law term, defined in N. G. L. i. 209, ch. 5; a man who dies leaving no heirs and whose property lapses partly to the king and partly to the owner or landlord of the house in which he dies (or to the captain if he dies on board ship), N. G. L. i. 208, 209, Js. 74.

gest-félagi, a, m. a guest-friend, rendering of Gr. ξένος.

gest-gjafi, a, m. a host; góðr g., a good host, Gísl. 47.

gest-kominn, part. come as a guest, a stranger, Stj. 152: a guest, Matth. xxv. 38.

gest-kvæmt, n. adj. much visited by strangers.

GESTR, m., gen. gests; pl. gestir, acc. gesti; [Ulf. gasts = ξένος; A. S. gest; Engl. guest; Germ. gast; Dan. gjæst; Swed. gäst; Lat. hostis]: I. a guest; the original meaning of this word is a stranger, alien, cp. Lat. hostis. β. the Guests, one division of the king’s men; the Guests were a kind of policemen, and had not the full privileges of the king’s guardsmen or hirðmenn, although they were in the king’s pay; they had their own seats in the king’s hall, the guests’ bench, gesta-bekkr, m., Fb. i. 347; their own chief, gesta-höfðingi, a, m., Nj. 7, Hkr. ii. 69, Fms. vii. 35; their own banner, gesta-merki, n., Fms. ix. 489; their own meeting, gesta-stefna, u, f., Fms. viii. 250; they formed a separate body, gesta-sveit, f., Fas. i. 318; skulu þar fylgja hirðmenn ok gestir, Ó. H. 204, in the battle at Stiklastað: a guests’ hall, gesta-skáli, a, m., is mentioned in Eg. 28, Fas. ii. 93: a ship, gesta-skip (gesta-fley), n., Fms. viii. 139; cp. the Sagas passim, esp. the Konunga Sögur, Fms. x. 147, Hkr. passim, but esp. N. G. L. in the section Hirðs-skrá, or the law (rules) for the king’s men, and Sks. 257 sqq. As the gestir were lower in rank than the hirðmenn, a recruit had often to serve his apprenticeship among them, e. g. var hann í gestasæti, he was seated among the guests, i. e. was held in small repute, Fas. i. 51. II. a stranger, guest, Lat. hospes, but keeping the old notion of a stranger, prop. an accidental guest, chance comer, and is distinguished from boðs-maðr, an invited guest, or the like; hence the allit. phrase, gestr ok gangandi, a guest and ganger, since with the ancients the poor had to go from house to house (cp. gangleri); this is to be borne in mind, if one would understand old sayings such as, Guð elr gesti, God feeds guests, Bs. i. 247; or many passages in the old heathen poem Hávamál, e. g. órir gestr við gest, guest quarrels with guest, Hm. 31; gestr at gest hæðinn, guest mocking guest, 30, which reminds one of Hom. Od. xviii. 1–33; gest þú né geyja né á grind hrekir (scoff not at a guest, nor drive him to the door), get þú váluðum vel, Hm. 136, where gestr (a guest) and válaðr (a vagrant) are used synonymously; ganga skal, skala gestr vera æ í einum stað, 34. In olden times there were no public hostelries, and all entertainment was (as it still is in Icel.) private bounty; a fine instance of a munificent hostess of the heathen age is recorded in Landn.,—Geirríðr sparði ekki mat við menn, ok lét göra skála sinn of þjóðbraut þvera, hón sat á stóli ok laðaði úti gesti, en borð stóð inni jafnan ok matr á, 2. 13. After the introduction of Christianity, when churches were built and endowments given, the donors often imposed the duty of ‘feeding guest and ganger for a night’ (ala gest ok ganganda), Dipl. i. 169, 174; or, þar er ekki gesta eldi skylt (it is not required to feed guests), ala hvern at ósekju er vill, 200; ala þurfa-menn ok þá er fara skylda-erinda, 201, cp. 273 passim:—gener. a visitor, guest: gesta-eldi, n. shelter for guests, D. I. (vide above): gesta-fluga, u, f. a guest-fly, a moth, Ísl. Þjóðs. i. 558: gesta-herbergi, n. a ‘guest-harbour,’ hostel, inn, Gr. καταλύμα, Luke ii. 7: gesta-hús, n. a guest-room, Sturl. i. 216, ii. 191: gesta-koma, u, f., gesta-nauð, n. a coming, crowding of guests: gesta-maðr, m. a guest-man (bishops had a special servant so called), Bs. i. 850, 876: gesta-rúm, n. a guest-bed: gesta-skáli, a, m. a guest-chamber, Hom. 36: gesta-spjót, n. pl., a cat is said to raise the ‘guest-spears’ when it lies on its back and cleans itself with its hind legs, which is a token that a stranger is at hand, Ísl. Þjóðs. i. 558. III. as pr. names, Landn., freq.; also in compds, Þor-gestr, Heim-gestr, Goð-gestr, Hleva-gastir on the Golden horn (Bugge’s reading), and Gr. Ξενο-φών, Ξενο-φάνης. Gestr is a name of Odin = the Traveller, Edda, Vþm., Gm., Hervar. S. ch. 15 (Gestum-blindi). It is curious to notice that whereas with the Romans hostis came to mean a foe, with the Teutons (as with the Gr. ξένος) the equivalent word became a term of friendship, used of a friend staying at one’s house.

gest-risinn, adj. hospitable, Greg. 32, Bs. i. 101, 1 Tim. iii. 2, Tit. i. 8, 1 Pet. iv. 9, passim.

gest-risni, f. hospitality, 655 v. 2, Bs. i. 81, 830, Rom. xii. 13, Heb. xiii. 2, passim.

gest-vænliga, adv. hospitably, Vápn. 23, (prob. a false reading.)

get, n. = geta, a guess, Fms. vi. 383 (and Mork. l. c.)

GETA, pret. gat, 2nd pers. gazt, pl. gátu; pres. get; pret. subj. gætí; sup. getið, but getað in the mod. sense of could; part. getinn; reflex. pres. and pret. getsk or gezk, gatsk or gazk, mod. gezst and gazst; with the neg. suff. gátu-ð, Korm. 224, Sighvat; gat-at, Lex. Poët.

WITH ACC.

A. [Ulf. begitan = ευρίσκειν; A. S. getan; Engl. get; O. H. G. gezan]:—to get; this use of the word, which is so common in Engl., is dying out in Icel.; it is found in the old poems, esp. in the old Hm.; it is used in law phrases, but is rare in common prose, even in the oldest Sagas; geta þögn, to get silence, a hearing, Höfuðl. 3, Hm. 8; geta orðstír, to get fame; en orðstír deyr aldrigi hveim sér góðan getr, 75; orðstír of gat, Eirekr at þat, Höfuðl.; ey getr kvikr kú, Hm. 69; sjaldan liggjandi úlfr lær um getr, né sofandi maðr sigr, 57; ef hann sylg um getr, 17; né þat máttu … geta hvergi, they could nowhere get it, Hým. 4; gambantein at geta, gambantein ek gat, Skm. 34; hvar gaztú vára aura, Vkv. 12; geta gjaforð, to marry, Alm. 6: geta sér, to get for oneself; hættr er heimis-kviðr nema sér góðan geti, Sdm. 25; sá er sæll er sér um getr lof ok líknstafi, Hm. 8; er sér getr slíkan sefa, Hkm. 19; góðs um æðis, ef sér geta mætti, if he could get it, Hm. 4; geta gjöld, laun e-s, 64, 124, Gm. 3; geta gott af e-m, to get good of one, Hm. 43, 44:—in law, nema hann getí þann kvið, at …, unless he can get that verdict, that …, Grág. i. 17; goðinn seksk ef hann getr engi (acc.) til at nefna féránsdóm, 95; ella skal hverr þeirra geta mann fyrir sik, 26:—in common prose, biðja konu þeirrar er honum væri sómi í, ef hann gæti, Fms. xi. 47; veit ek eigi hvar sú kona sitr er mér sé mikit happ í at geta, Ld. 88: to get, earn, svá at hann megi sér mat geta af sínu fé eðr verkum, Grág. i. 293:—to get, learn, fátt gat ek þegjandi þar, Hm. 104; lengi man þat er ungr getr, an old saying, Ísl. ii. 248; þá skal hann eiga stefnu við fimm lögmenn, þá er hann má helzt geta af (five lawyers of whom he can best learn, i. e. five of the wisest men of law) áðr hann segi hvern þátt upp, Grág. i. 3. 2. with dat. of the person added, mostly in reference to feeding or entertaining; get þér vel at borði þínu, keep a good table, Sks. 20; get þú váluðum vel, entertain well the poor, Hm. 136; nú er honum vel getið (he has good cheer) af gnógum mat ok góðum drykk, Str. 7; geta e-m sumbl, to give a feast to one, Ls. 8; geta e-m fótlaug, to get him a foot-bath, Hkv. 2. 37; geta e-m drápu, to entertain one with a poem, Sighvat: the phrase, geta sér (e-m) vel, ílla, to do, cause good or evil to one; ofrmælgi hygg ek at ílla geti hveim er …, a loose tongue will bring evil to any one that …, Vþm. 10; en ef hann forðask minn fund þá mun hann sér ílla geta í því, if he shuns me he will do worse to himself, Orkn. 252 (in a verse). II. joined to an infinitive, a participle, or a supine, to get to do (fá, q. v., is used in a similar sense),—hence to be able: 1. almost like an auxil. verb, α. with infin. but without ‘at;’ ek gat’k unna Gunnari, I got to love G., Óg. 21; en sá gat taka við syndum, Sl. 6; ek gat líta, I got to see, beheld, Korm. 14 (in a verse); ek gat blóta, Hallfred (Fs. 94); getum hræra, we do rear, Edda; geta sjá, to get to see, Hkr. i. 205 (in a verse); hann gat teygja at sér, he did draw to himself, Edda 65 (in a verse); geta fæða, to give birth to, Am. 103; ef hann eignask getr, Hm. 78; hveim er eiga getr, Hkv. Hjörv. 9:—with ‘at,’ esp. in the phrase, geta at sjá, líta; þá geta þeir Hákon jarl at líta, earl H. got to see, behold, Fms. xi. 131; þá gátu menn at sjá land fyrir stafu fram, 656 C. 22; Sölvi gat at líta hvar þeir flýðu, Nj. 247; Enok gat at eiga þann son, Stj. 45; gat at heita, Rm. 42. β. with part. acc., with a notion of being able, Lat. posse; Gyðingar gátu enga sök sannaða, the Jews could not prove any of their charges, 656 C. 19; því mér lízt svá, sem vér munim þá aldri sótta geta, Nj. 197; ef vér getum Harald Gráfeld af lífi tekinn, Fms. xi. 21; ok geta rétta fylking sína, 131; mikinn fisk ok fagran ok gátu eigi veiddan, iv. 89. γ. so also with sup.; gátu þeir ekki at gört, Nj. 115; ok hætta á hvárt ek geta keypt (kaup, v. l.) fyrir yðr. if I can get a bargain for you, 157; Björn gat séð (beheld) manna-reiðina, 260; ef ek gæta vel fyrir mér séð, 22; sem mest gat hann flutt eptir sér, Ó. H. 85; eigi at heldr gat hann veitt þann íkorna, id.; ef ek get eigi fylgt yðr, Fms. vi. 211. 2. absol. in old writers geta seems never to occur in the sense of to be able, but only periphrastically as above; but in mod. usage geta has almost displaced the old verb kunna in this sense, e. g. eg get það ekki, I cannot; getr-ðú komið, canst thou come? ef hann hefði getað, if he could have; ekki þurfti, eg gat, I could, and endless other instances. III. impers. there is got, there is, cp. Germ. es giebt; eigi getr slíkan (there is none such) í konungs herbergjum, Fms. vii. 148; þar getr stein (acc.) er asbestos heitir, there is got the stone asbestos, xi. 415; eigi getr vitrara mann, no wiser man is to be got; slíka menn getr varla til vitrleiks, Lv. 54; þar getr reykelsi, Hb, 8. IV. reflex., in the phrase, e-m getsk at e-u, one is pleased at a thing, one likes it; því at mér gezk vel at þér, because I like thee well, Fms. i. 66; ok mun mér ekki at getask, nema hann sé sæmilega af höndum leystr, and I shall not be pleased, unless …, Ld. 298; at þú fengir mér konu þá er mér gætisk at, Fms. i. 289; honum gatsk ílla at þessu, Ld. 104; eru þeir nokkurir hér at þér getisk eigi at, Fms. vii. 104; konungr sagði at honum gatsk eigi at þeirri sætt svá búit, ix. 486; haf þökk fyrir, ok getsk mér nú vel at, vi. 372; segir, at henni getsk eigi at þessi ætlan, Finnb. 312; Þorgrímr bað hann til hætta hve honum gætisk at, 336; svá hefir þeim at getisk vápnum Franceisa, so they have tasted thus far the weapons of the French, Karl. 184: with sup., láta sér getið at e-u, to take interest in, be pleased with; eigi læt ek mér at einu getið, ‘tis not my taste to have always the same, I want some change, something new, Grett. 149 new Ed.; lát þér at góðu getið, rejoice in the good, Hm. 129.

B. To get, beget, engender, used alike of both parents, severally or jointly; fótr gat son við fæti, Vþm. 33: hve sá börn gat, 32; þá ek mög gat, Ls. 35; við systur þinni gaztu slíkan mög, 36; hann gat son er Guðröðr hét, Fms. i. 11; þat barn er þau geta, Grág. i. 178; ef austmaðr getr barn með konu, ef skógarmaðr getr launbarn með konu, 352; svein þann sem hón hafði getið með Abram, Stj. 114; dróttning gat son við Ívari, Fms. vii. 230; sonu marga Öndurdís við Óðni gat, Ht.; þau gátu sér son er Mörðr hét, Nj. 38; fíllinn getr eigi optarr en um sinn, Stj. 70; þegar sem þeir geta burð saman, 97; hann var getinn (born) austr, Landn. 148; throughout Matth. i. the Icel. text renders begat by gat, cp. Mar. S. 19, Luke i. 35:—to conceive, þú munt verða getandi í kviði, Stj. 409. Judges xiii. 5; fyrir sinn erfingja getinn ok ógetinn, Grág. ii. 170; þú munt son geta ok fæða, Mar. 18; gefr hann son at geta þann er hon fæðir síðan, Mar.: reflex. to be engendered, þaðan getsk löngunin, 656 B. 7: to be born, Mar. 19.

WITH GEN., of the same form throughout, though different in construction and sense.

A. [Engl. guess (from the Scandin.?); Swed. gissa; Dan. gjætte; not in Germ. nor Saxon]:—to guess; geta gátu, to guess a riddle, Fas. i. 465; in the saying, opt verðr villr sá er geta skal, Fb. iii. 384; hvárt getr þú þessa, eðr veiztú með sannindum, Fms. ii. 260; ef þik hefði svá dreymt sem áðr gat ek, xi. 7; ok gat þess til, at þú mundir, Nj. 90; þess munda ek geta, at …, Lv. 104; þá fór sem hann gat, at …, Fms. xi. 22; ek get verit munu hafa Gunnar á Hlíðarenda, Nj. 35; sendimenn sögðu at hann gat rétt, Eg. 541; ef ek skal geta til, þá ætla ek …, Nj. 134; eptir því sem Halldórr gat til, Ld. 324; sem Ólafr konungr gat til, Fms. vii. 104, x. 354; get þú til (guess!) segir Stúfr, rétt getr þú (thou guessest right) segir Stúfr, vi. 390; gat síns hverr til hvat skipum vera mundi, viii. 213; nú geta menn þess til at Gísli muni druknaðr vera, Gísl. 46, (tilgáta); þá get ek at á sína hönd mér setisk hvárr þeirra, Ld. 324: so in the phrase, geta til launanna í knefa e-m, to guess for the reward into another’s nieve (closed hand), Sturl. iii. 151; geta í kollinn, to guess, guess right, passim. 2. to think, mean, almost like the American I guess; ekki get ek at hón sálug sé mjök djarftæk, I guess that she, poor thing, will …, Stj. 422; ek get hann eigi þessa eina hjálp okkr veita, 423, passim: recipr. getask, proncd. getrast.

B. [Found neither in Engl., Saxon, nor Germ.; lost in mod. Swed. and Dan.]:—to speak of, mention; þess er getið sem gört er, Grett.; gettu eigi vafurleysu þeirrar, Band. 28; öngra manna gat Kári jafnopt sem Njáls, Nj. 211; konungr þagnar hvert sinn er Þórólfs er getið, Eg. 54; þá þarf þess eigi at geta ef sættask skal, Fms. iv. 130; so also, geta um e-t, to speak about; Guanarr reið heim ok gat fyrir öngum manni um, Nj. 82; ok gátu fyrir henni um bónorðit, Fms. xi. 22; ok er ekki getið um ferð þeirra fyrr en þeir kómu til hirðar Rögnvalds jarls, iv. 130. 2. to tell of (in records etc.); þess getr Glúmr Geirason í Gráfeldar drápu, Fms. i. 25, 30, 38, 50, 55, 65, 91, iv. 62, 63, passim; en í annarri sögu er þess getið, at …, xi. 14; enn getr Einarr hversu Hákon jarl hefndi föður síns, i. 56; sem síðarr mun getið verða, as will be told later (i. e. below), 230; sem fyrr var getið, as is told above, v. 24: impers., e-s getr, it is told, recorded (in books, poems); þess getr í Hrunhendu, at …, opt skal góðs geta, a saying, the good shall be often spoken of, Hm. 102.

geta, u, f. a guess, mostly in pl.; leiða getum um e-t, Nj. 14, 205; margar getur, guess-work, Fms. iv. 288, vi. 400, xi. 244, Eg. 766: rarely in sing., getu verðir eða frásagnar, worth mentioning, Sks. 180; ætla ek eigi þat til getu, at hann sé þar, it is not likely that he is there, Fms. ii. 110; vandast oss nú getan, Mork. 167: cp. the saying, spá er spaks geta, the spae (prophecy) is the wise man’s guess, Fms. xi. 154. getu-mál, n. a doubtful case, Fs. 59.

getara, u, f. one who gives birth to, Mar. passim.

get-gangr, m. guessing, Fb. iii. 385.

get-gáta, u, f. guess-work.

getnaðr, m., gen. ar, conception, Mar. 33, K. Á. 104, passim: birth, foetus, vera með getnaði, Sks. 689, Stj. 159. Gen. xxv. 24. COMPDS: getnaðar-frjó, n. seed, Stj. 80. getnaðar-liðr (-limr), m. genitalia, Bs. i. 310, 644, Stj. 63, 80, 326, Fms. ix. 414. getnaðar-tími, a, m. (-tíð, f.), the time of conception, K. Á. 18, Mar. 345.

getning, f. = getnaðr, Str. 52.

getrask, að, dep. to play at guessing with small shells in the hands, a favourite Icel. child’s play.

get-sakir (proncd. gessakir), f. pl. ‘guess-charges,’ i. e. imputations, insinuations without evidence, in the phrases, fyrir getsakir, Fms. vi. 383; sækja getsakir, to prosecute one upon loose imputations, Gísl. 123: the mod. phrase, gera e-m getsakir, to make insinuations; gerðu mér engar getsakir, make no insinuations to me.

get-spakr, adj. wise at guessing, prophetic.

get-speki, f. ‘guess-wisdom,’ gift of prophecy, Rb. 394, Pr. 83.

getta, u, f. = genta, a girl; Geirhildr getta, gott er öl þetta, Fas. ii. (in a verse); norræn getta, Egilsson’s Poems, 115 (and, ‘getta er sama og genta’).

gey, n. barking, elsewhere gauð, (mod.)

GEYJA, pret. gó, Orkn. 114, 150, Nj. 74, Rd. 302, Fas. ii. 33; 3rd pers. pl. gó, Fms. xi. 12; pret. subj. gœi, 10; pres. indic. geyr (spelt gœr), Clem. 44: [Dan. gjö; Swed. ]:—to bark; er vér heyrðum hvelpana g., Fms. xi. 12, passim (above):—metaph. to scoff at, blaspheme, with acc., vil ek eigi goð geyja, Bs. i. 17: in a ditty of the year 999 A. D., hann gœr Gefjon (acc.), Clem. l. c.; g. gest, Hm. 136; also, g. á e-n, to abuse one (á-gauð); geyr hón á þá, Gísl. 139: geyja at e-m, to bark at one, Nj. 106: reflex. recipr. geyjask, to abuse one another, N. G. L. i. 333. This word is now obsolete in Icel. and replaced by gelta, q. v.

GEYMA, d, [Ulf. gaumjan = οραν, βλέπειν, etc.; A. S. gyman; lost in Germ., but gaume = to keep house, in the Zürich idiom, De Herr Professer by August Corrodi; Dan. gjemme; Swed. gömma]:—to keep, watch, heed, mind; and with gen. to take care of; at allir geymi þín sem bezt, Nj. 14; ok g. eigna várra, Fms. i. 156; hann hafði geymt hlutverka (not hlut verks) sinna, he had minded his work, Gísl. 29; g. tungu sinnar, to keep a guard on one’s tongue, Th. 78; göra hark, svá at lögréttu-menn mega eigi g. dóma sinna, to make a noise (in court) so that the judges cannot mind their duty, Gþl. 16; g. þess (to watch) at enginn komizt í braut, Nj. 198, Fms. vi. 390; g. at e-u, id.; nú geymir Björn eigi, B. heeded not, iv. 110; geyma til, id.; geymit þér til vel (mark well) ef þér verðit við nokkura nýbreytni varir, i. 71. β. with dat., g. sauðum, to watch sheep, Stj. 177; þú skalt g. mínum skilmála, 115, and geymir þeim síðan, 81, 99. γ. absol., Fms. i. 126; hann geymdi eigi hvat tré þat var, Grett. 151 A, Stj. 365, 486. δ. with acc., hvárt hann vildi heldr g. (watch) bæinn eðr ganga at jarli, Grett. 85 A; g. heilræðit, Fms. xi. 433, both of them late MSS.; bað hann þá hlífa sér ok g. skotvápn öll, Fb. ii. 43; but gætum vápna várra, Ó. H. l. c.; cp. Stj. 231, where dat. in text, but acc. in v. 1.; þó treystisk hann eigi at g. þá, Sd. 160 (paper MS.), Bev. 16. The acc. seems not to occur in very old MSS., but in mod. usage it is very freq., although the gen. is not quite obsolete: Icel. still say, geyma Guðs boðorð, to keep God’s commandments, N. T., Pass., Vídal. passim:—to keep a thing for another, eg skal g. bókina fyrir þig á meðan, geymdu það fyrir mig: reflex, to be observed, of law, H. E. i. 509, N. G. L. i. II. part. geymdr, observed, retained, Rb. 202.

geymari, a, m. a keeper, Fms. iii. 158, Stj. 9.

geymd, f., only in pl., gefa geymdir at e-u (= gefa gaum at e-u), Lv. 44, Hom. 160, Sks. 564 B; hafit g. á hvar þessi hinn vándi maðr er, Stj. (MS.)

geymiliga, adv. heedfully, Grett. 150, Stj. 150.

geyminn, adj. heedful, Bs. i. 48, Fms. v. 240.

geymsla, u, f. guardianship, watch, Stj. 8, 177, Fms. vii. 25, Sd. 160, Grett. 112 (vigilance); fjár-g., sheep-keeping. COMPDS: geymslu-engill, m. a guardian angel, Stj. 8. geymslu-lauss, adj. unguarded, Fas. ii. 138, Karl. 161. geymslu-leysi, n. carelessness. geymslu-maðr, m. a keeper, Stj. 42.

geypna, að, [gaupn], to encompass, Geisli 16, Us. 29, Lb. 25.

GEYSA, t, [from gjósa, q. v., and different to geisa]:—to rush furiously, gush, = Lat. grassari, of fire, the sea, etc.; hann lætr g. eld ok járn, Fms. xi. 42:—usually dep., geysask vötn at þeim með forsfalli, Ó. H. 164; þá geysisk hafit á löndin, Edda 41; geystisk at því allr lands-múgr, Ó. H. 34; múgrinn flotans geystisk inn á stórskipin, Fms. viii. 227: part. geystr, gushing, rushing forth, Nj. 247, Fms. vii. 326, Fb. i. 253: metaph. enraged, Fms. vii. 230, viii. 202, Hkr. ii. 356: big, enormous, Fms. vii. 99:—neut. geyst, as adv. furiously, violently, i. 165, Finnb. 352.

geysi-, a prefix, exceedingly, greatly; geysi-újafnt, Edda 11; geysi-glaðr, exceeding glad, Stj. 478; geysi-mörg, very many, Edda 14; þat er þeim geysi-haglig geit, what a wonderful goat, 24; geysi-illa, very badly, Fms. ii. 295; g. kalli, piercing cold, viii. 306; g. feginn, uncommonly glad, Barl. 85; g. mjök, very much, Fb. i. 210; g. mikill, very muckle, 481; g. fagr, wonderfully fair, Olf. 3. 41, and many others:—with nouns, geysi-fól, a big fool, Flov.

geysiliga, adv. enormously, Fas. i. 64.

geysiligr, adj. enormous, Fas. ii. 243, Mar. 166, 423.

geysingr, m. impetuosity, Finnb. 354, Fas. i. 157, Ísl. 11. 347, Fms. xi. 81.

Geysir, m. the name of a famous hot spring in Iceland. Foreign writers often use geysir as an appellative; but the only Icel. words for hot springs are hver (a cauldron, hot well) and laug (a hot bath). The present Geysir is never mentioned in old writers, and it seems from a record in the Icel. Annals that the great hot wells in the neighbourhood of Haukadale were due to the volcanic eruptions of 1294, when old hot springs disappeared and those now existing came up,—hjá Haukadal kómu upp hverir stórir en sumir hurfu þeir er áðr höfðu verit; unfortunately the end of Árna S. (the bishop), the sole historical work of that time, is lost. The word geysir = a gusher must be old, as the inflexive -ir is hardly used but in obsolete words (læknir a leach, hellir a cave, etc., are exceptional); it was probably borrowed from some older hot spring. A pretty legend, referring to the ‘moving’ of springs when defiled with innocent blood, is recorded in Ísl. Þjóðs. ii. 112, 113; this tale could not have sprung up unless a change in the place of the hot springs had been observed.

geytlan, f. gluttony, Róm. 306, (an απ. λεγ.)

-GI (or -ki after t or s), a particle suffixed to nouns and adverbs.

A. In a positive sense [Lat. -que], ever, Lat. -que, -cunque: 1. with the pronoun hverr (quis) through all cases, answering to the Lat. quis-que: out of the Laws we can nearly make a full paradigm:—nom. hverr-gi or hver-gi, Lat. quis-que, qui-cunque, Grág. Kb. i. 14, 31, 45, 85, 171 (twice), 183, 195, 221, ii. 7, 23, 82, 101: nom. and acc. neut. hvat-ki (quod-que). i. 34, 155, 162, 183, 244, ii. 77, 140, 154, Jómsv. 15, Íb. 3; also hvárt-ki, id., Grág. Kb. i. 61 (twice): gen. hvers-kis (cujus-que), 238: dat. hverjun-gi (cui-que), 31, 156: acc. masc. hvern-gi (quem-que), 147, 155, 221, 225, 245, ii. 47, 66: abl. hve-gi or hví-gi, however, i. 147, 195, ii. 64, 101, 128, 151, Jómsv. 14:—plur. acc. neut. hver-gi (quae-que): dual dat. sing. hvárun-gi megin, on both sides (of a river), Grág. Kb. ii. 93:—even in historical prose, því at hit næsta sumar gat hvergi ber á Íslandi, the following summer every man gathered berries in Iceland (to make some kind of wine), Bs. i. 135, (or are we to read hvar-gi, everywhere?). 2. with adverbs; hvert-ki (quocun-que modo), Grág. ii. 50; nær-gi, whenever (ubi-cunque), i. 191; hvar-gi, wherever, 25, 166, 240, ii. 128, 212.

B. In a negative sense, with a few pronouns, adjectives, adverbs, and rarely in old poems with substantives: 1. with nouns, in the pr. name Lopt-ki, an απ. λεγ., Ls. 19: with appellatives, þörf-gi, no need, an απ. λεγ., Hkv. Hjörv. 39; freq. in mann-gi, no man, cp. Lat. nēmo, Íb., which is even used in mod. writers and poets; væt-ki, naught; vettu-gi (dat.) and vetter-gis (gen.), Vsp.: with adjectives, ein-gi (q. v.), none, a common word; otherwise rare, sjálf-gi, ‘self-not,’ i. e. not oneself, Ls. 29, an απ. λεγ.: with a dat. case of langr, þá löngu-gi, then not for a long time, Konr. (MS.): with pronouns, in the dual, hvárr-gi, neither, Lat. neuter, Grág. Kb. i. 46, ii. 93, 151; gen. hvárs-kis (neutrius), freq.; dat. hvárun-gi (neutri), i. 215; hvárum-gi, ii. 63: neut. hváru-gi, 216; hitt-ki, ne illud quidem, Hm. 21, 23; þat-ki, Hbl. 6; þat-ki at ek fá (not even that I get) mála minn falslausan, Mork. 83. 2. with adverbs, only in poetry or laws or very old prose; svá-gi, not so, Grág. Kb. ii. 99, Mork. 83; þá-gi, then not; þey-gi, though not, qs. þó-gi; æva-gi, never: again, hver-gi (q. v.), nowhere; ei-gi (q. v.), not; aldri-gi (q. v.), never; hvár-ki (q. v.), neither, are common words in prose and in speech. The negative -gi can never be suffixed to verbs (vide ‘-at,’ p. 2); therefore býð-gi, non jubeo (in Íslands-vaka 61, a poem of the last century, Fél. i. 236), is a spurious imitation of the old idiom; neither can -at be put to nouns; ráð-at hann kunni, Jónas 105, ought therefore to be ráð hann kunni-t, issue be knew not.

C. In an indefinite sense; in a few instances -gi seems to be used almost like Latin quidem with a preceding negative: eigi miklo-gi minna, ne multo quidem minus, Heiðar. S., Ísl. ii. 360; eigi stóru-gi meiri, ne multo quidem majora, 386; engi miklo-gi görr …, nemo multo quidem plus …, Grág. i. 209; cp. also the adverbs öllun-gis or öldun-gis, quite, altogether (allr, -gi); einun-gis, only, solely (einn, -gi). both formed from dat. sing.: the obsolete vil-gi (qs. vel-gi) is ambiguous, being used both in a neg. sense = not well, and posit. = well, bene quidem, cp. Bs. i. 393, note; Hm. 66, málun-gi, is doubtful;—prob. þyrftig-at málun-gi mat should be read, -at being taken not as a prep. but as a negative verbal suffix, and -gi as a positive suffix; Icel. now say, hann á ekki málungi matar, he does not know where to look for his next meal.

☞ The negative -gi is peculiar to Scandin., and no traces of it are found in any Saxon nor German idioms; whereas, as a positive suffix, it is common to all Teutonic tongues, and remains in the Engl. many and any; ‘many’ being qs. man-y = man-ever, ‘homo-cunque,’ Goth. manags, and ‘any’ qs. ane-y = every-one; so also is the g in Icel. margr and hvárigr, which are remnants—the former of the positive, the latter of the negative -gi.

gift, gifta, u, f. gift, vide gipt, gipta.

GIKKR, m., pl. ir, [Dan. gjæk = jester], a pert, rude person. COMPDS: gikks-háttr, m. pert manner. gikks-ligr, adj. pert, rude; the saying, hver sem glettist við gikkinn fær af honum hnykkinn, who meddles with a ‘gik’ will get a kick.

GIL, n., gen. pl. gilja, dat. giljum, [Ghyll or Gill in North. E. and Scot., local names]:—a deep narrow glen with a stream at bottom, like the Gr. χαράδρα; brooks and tributary streams flowing through clefts in the fell side to the main river at the bottom of a vale are in Icel. called gil; very freq. in local names, Ísfirðinga-gil, Branda-gil, Hauka-gil, Hrafna-gil, Hellra-gil, Gilj-á, Þver-gil, vide Landn.; (a chasm without water or with stagnant water is not gil, but gjá; also gljúfr, a deep chasm forming the bed of a river), Valla L. 223, Hrafn. 7, Eg. 766, Ld. 218, Krók. 64, Fms. vii. 149, passim. COMPDS: Gils-bakki, a, m., prop. Gill-bank, a local name, Landn., whence Gils-bekkingar, m. pl. the name of a family, Landn. gils-botn, m. a gill bottom, Sturl. i. 82, 84. gils-gjá, f. a chasm with a gill (rare), Grett. 111. gils-þröm, f. the edge of a gill, Ld. 218, Dropl. 23, Grett. 111.

gilda, t, to be worth so and so, only in mod. usage, esp. in metaph. and impers. phrases, mig gildir einu, I do not mind; láttu þig einu g., never mind: hvað sem gildir, at any price; hirt aldrei hvað sem gildir, at hætta á, ósatt mál, Pass. 13. 2.

GILDI, n. [gjalda; Ulf. gild = tribute, Luke xx. 22, Mark xii. 14; A. S. gild; Hel. geld; Frank. chalta; Germ. geld = money; it remains in Old Engl. weregild]:—payment, tribute; this sense is very rare, as gjald (q. v.) is the common word; chiefly used in compds, as nef-gildi, head-tax; baug-gildi, q. v.; skatt-gildi, a tax; skulda-gildi, payment of debts, Grág. i. 302. 2. recompense; in the saying, æ sér til gildis gjöf (mod. æ sér gjöf til gjalda), Hom. 146. 3. value; al-gildi, full-g., hálf-g., whole, full, half value; ið-gilði or í-gildi, equivalence; hon er karlmanns-ígildi. β. worth, value, esteem; the phrase, vera í miklu, litlu, engu gildi, to be in great, small, no repute; án Drottins ráða er aðstoð manns í engu minsta gildi, Pass. 9. 2: freq. in mod. usage, but rare in old writers, þegar ér komizt í gildi við höfðingja eðr kærleika, Finnb. 266. II. a banquet, feast, [cp. Dan. gilde; so called from the fee paid?], Eg. 20 sqq., Edda 45, 57, Fb. i. 283, Gþl. 178, freq. in old poems; the poetical mead is called Gauta g., Kormak; or gildi Grjótaldar, the cheer of the Giants; gefa úlfum gildi, to feast the wolves, Lex. Poët.; to this seems to belong the passage in Vsp. 27, hvárt skyldi Æsir afrað gjalda eðr skyldi goðin öll gildi eiga, where the eiga gildi means to hold a feast, with the notion of making a league or peaceful agreement, as opp. to gjalda afrað (q. v.), to pay tribute as a badge of submission. III. in a technical sense, a guild, throughout England and Scandinavia during the Middle Ages; the first guilds in Norway were instituted by king Olave (1066–1093), Ólafr konungr lét setja Mikla-gildi í Níðarósi, ok mörg önnur í kaupstöðum, en áðr vóru hvirfings-drykkjur (but before there were drinking-bouts), Fms. vi. 440: the guilds were secular brotherhoods or trades’ unions (and often became political clubs); they assumed the names of saints or sacred things, as Kross-g., Cross-guild; Ólafs-g., St. Olave’s guild (in Norway); Knúts-g., St. Canute’s guild (in Denmark), and so on: in Icel. this sense rarely occurs, mælti at einhverr vildis-manna ætti at hefja gildit, Sturl. i. 20; ok var gildit at Ólafs messu hvert sumar, 23; cp. also gildis-fundr, m. a guild-meeting, mentioned in Sturl. i. 58; and gildis-bændr, m. pl. guild-franklins, guild-brothers, 23, (about the middle of the 12th century); but guilds never took root in Icel.: gildis-skáli, a, m. a guild-hall, Fms. viii. 160, ix. 22, D. N. passim: gildis-tíð, n. a guild-term, Fms. viii. 151.

gildingr, m. a thing rated at its full worth, fully measured, Grág. ii. 357, 380: pride, pretension, án gildings, 655 xxvii. 2.

gildir, m., in poetry a payer, contributor, Lex. Poët.: a feaster, poët. the wolf that feasts in blood: a guild-brother, öld Ólafs gilda (gen. pl.), the host of St. Olave’s guild-brothers, Geisli 10; Hropts gildar, the champions of Odin, Hd.

gild-leiki, a, m. strength, full size, Grett. 148: mod. stoutness.

gild-liga, adv. stoutly, metaph. with a grand air, Korm. 60.

gildna, að, to become stout.

GILDR, adj., neut. gilt, [cp. gildi, gjalda; Swed., Dan., and Norse gild]:—of full worth, full: 1. a trade term, of full measure, size, quality, and the like; gillt fé, Grág. i. 503; gildr skal tréskjöldr, ef, Gþl. 105, cp. 104; bolöxar gildar, N. G. L. i. 126; þeim manni er bæði hefir gildar (full-measured) álnar ok faðma, Grág. ii. 262; gild dagleið, Bs. ii. 2. valued at, with dat., gildr tveim mörkum, Grág. ii. 86; g. átta aurum, id.; svá gildr, id.; hversu þau sár eru gild, at how much those wounds are rated, N. G. L. i. 172; tví-gildr, hálf-g., al-g., of double, half, full worth. II. metaph. complete, absolute, great; g. konungr, Fms. ix. 69; g. höfðingi, xi. 18; gild húsfreyja, Glúm. 349; gildr maðr, Eg. 182; flestir enir gildari menn (honoratiores), Ld. 106; Hallfreyðr var þá sem gildastr, H. was then at his best, Fs. 100; á gildasta aldri, id., Stj. 230: so of things, honum var þat gildr þykkr, a great shock, Ísl. ii. 321; með gildum sóma, with great fame, Fms. xi. 18; gild hefnd, Ísl. ii. 116; gild ferð, a famous journey, Fas. ii. 513. III. in mod. usage, stout, brawny, cp. Grett. 148; Icel. now say gildr of a man, digr of things; but in compds, mittis-digr, not mittis-gildr; to use digr and digrask (q. v.) for gildr and gildna is now thought rude; but in olden times only digr was used in that sense, e. g. Ólafr Digri, Þorbjörg Digra (a lady); the passage referred to, Grett. 148, comes near the mod. sense of that word, but is not to be so understood.

GILDRA, u, f. a trap, Gþl. 445. Niðrst. 3; sem melrakki í gildru, 4; vide knatt-gildra: gildru-merki, n. a trap mark, Gþl. 444: metaph., Fms. i. 221, ii. 48, vi. 145, Mar. 506.

gildra, að, to trap, Gþl. 444: metaph. to contrive, g. til e-s, ef maðr gildrar til þess at vápn skuli sjálf falla á menn, Grág. ii. 117, Fms. ii. 294, vii. 202; g. til veiða, viii. 63, 80; g. svá til, at…, to contrive so, that…, Stj. 451, Þiðr. 242, Róm. 257.

gildri, n. the laying a trap, N. G. L. i. 341, 379.

gildri, n. = gildi, [Ulf. gilstr, Róm. xiii. 6; O. H. G. gelstar], payment, Grág. Kb. ii. 204.

gilja, að, [Ulf. gailjan = ευφραίνειν; Swed. gilja], to beguile a woman, Grett. 161, Krók. 64 (a pun), Bs. i. 238.

Gilli, a, m. [Gael. gillie = a servant], only in Irish pr. names, Fms., Landn.

gil-maðr, m. a libertine, Blanda.

GIM, n. [in A. S. gim is masc., and so it seems to be used in Vkv. 5; A. S. gim from Lat. gemma]:—in poetry a gem, a jewel; the sun is called fagr-gim, the fair gem; gims gerðr, a lady, Lex. Poët. 2. in poets metaph. fire, Edda (Gl.): never used in prose.

Gimli, a heavenly abode, sal sá hón standa sólu fegra gulli þakðan á Gimli, Vsp. 63; it occurs only there, whence it came into Edda 12; even the gender is uncertain, whether n. or perhaps better dat. of a masc. gimill = himill = himin, n. heaven.

gim-steinn, m. a ‘gem-stone,’ a jewel, Edda 147, Greg. 27, Fms. i. 15, vi. 3, Stj. 191, 254; a name of a poem: gim-steinaðr, part. set with gems, Karl. 284.

GIN, n. [A. S. gin], the mouth (Germ. rachen) of beasts, Edda 42, Al. 37, Fms. vi. 165; ulfs-gin, Bs. i. (in a verse), passim. COMPDS: gin-faxi, a, m. a magical character, Ísl. Þjóðs. i. 446. gin-fjara, u, f. a very low ebb. gin-kefli, a, m. a mouth-piece, a gag, put in the mouth of animals, Fas. iii. 314. gin-keyptr, adj., in the phrase, vera ginkeyptr eptir e-u, to be eager for a thing, prop. open-mouthed as a fish for bait. gin-klofi, a, m., medic. spasmus cynicus, Fél. gin-ljótr, adj. with a hideous mouth.

gingi-brauð, n. ginger-bread, H. E. ii. 91.

gin-hafri, a, m. a kind of oats, Edda (Gl.)

ginn, ginnr, or ginnir, m. a juggler, jester, Fms. vi. 295, viii. 307 (in a verse). II. a magical character, Ísl. Þjóðs. i. 446.

GINN-, or perhaps better gínn-, [cp. A. S. gin or ginn = vast, wide; it seems however better to derive it from the verb beginnan, Engl. begin, a word used in all Teutonic languages, except the old Scandinavian tongue, where it is unknown, unless in this mythological prefix]:—only used as a prefix: I. in old mythol. words, great, holy: ginn-heilög (adj. pl.) goð, the most holy gods, the supreme gods, as opposed to Asir and Vanir, the lower gods, Vsp. passim: ginn-regin, n. pl. ‘magna numina,’ Hm. 143, Haustl. 13, in the same sense as ginnheilög goð in Vsp.; in Hým. 4 opp. to tívar (dii); in Alm. goð and ginnregin are distinguished, cp. also Hm. 79: ginnungar, m. pl., seems used in the same sense as ginnregin, whence Ginnunga-gap, n. chaos, the formless void, in which abode the supreme powers, before the creation, Edda, Vsp.: later, in the 11th century, the sea between Greenland and America was called Ginnunga-gap, A. A. 295: Ginnunga-himin, m. of the heavenly vault of Ginnunga-gap, Edda 5: Ginnunga-vé, n. pl. the holy places of the Ginnungar, the universe, Haustl. 15: Ginnarr (Ginnir), m., is a name of Odin, prop. = aetherius, and also used of the eagle, the falcon. II. in an intensive sense only in poets; ginn-viti, a, m. a large fire, Sighvat; perhaps also we may read, Vkv. 5, ginn-fasti, a, m. a great fire in a smithy, for gim fasti.

GINNA, t, to dupe, fool one, Nj. 225, 263, Band. 5, 27, 69, Fms. vi. 205, Edda 36; g. e-t af e-m, Fms. iii. 98; g. e-n at sér, to fall out with one, Vápn. 7:—to intoxicate, lát af at drekka vín, svá at þú gerir þik ginnta, Stj. 428; ferr þessi maðr í tavernis hús, ok ferr eigi fyrr burt en hann er ginntr, Mar.; drykkja var þar óstjórnleg, svá at þeir urðu allir ginntir, Bárð. 26 new Ed.: intoxicating, of liquor, hennar vatn er svá ginnt ok galit, Stj. 84.

ginning, f. imposture, fraud, Fms. vi. 205, Ld. 322, Stj. 267: ginningar-fífl, m. a fool, one who runs a fool’s errand, Nj. 160; Gylfa-ginning, the Fooling of Gylfi, a part of the Edda, vide Edda Ub. the beginning.

ginnungr, m. a juggler, jester, Fs. 87, Edda (Gl.)

GIPT, gift, f. [gefa], a gift, 656 C. 12, Greg. 37, Hom. 62; Heilags Anda gipt, 625. 30, 655 A. 13. 3: a gift of nature, endowment, Fms. x. 314, Eluc. 27, Edda 144 (pref.): income, N. G. L. i. 345, 347: a wedding, A. S. gifta, giptar-gáfa, u, f. a wedding gift, D. N.: giptar-jörð, f. a dowry farm, N. G. L. i. 356: giptar-kveld, n. a wedding eve, cp. brúðgjöf and bekkiargjöf, N. G. L. i. 356: giptar-mál, n. [Dan. givtermaal], a marriage, D. N.: giptar-orð, n. marriage, El. 10: giptar-vitni, n. a wedding witness, N. G. L. i. 356.

gipta, u, f. [A. S. gifeðe = fatum, Beowulf], good luck, Ld. 104, Nj. 17, Fms. vi. 299, Fs. 27, 97, Stj. 198, passim; cp. auðna, hamingja. COMPDS: giptu-drjúgr, adj. lucky, Fs. 142. giptu-fátt, n. adj. luckless, Fær. 154. giptu-liga, adv. happily, boding good luck, Fms. iii. 174, Fas. ii. 429. giptu-ligr, adj. lucky, auspicious, Fms. vi. 9. giptu-maðr, m. a lucky man, Grett. 163, Fms. vi. 274, Fs. 43, 80. giptu-munr, m. the turn of the scale, the crisis of one’s luck, Fas. iii. 312. giptu-ráð, n. a good, auspicious match, Vigl. 23. giptu-samliga, adv. auspiciously, Fms. i. 214, Sturl. ii. 78. giptu-samligr, adj. = giptuligr, Fms. x. 31. giptu-skortr, m. bad luck, Fær. 265. giptu-tómr, adj. luckless, Al. 95. giptu-vænligr, adj. promising good luck, auspicious, of a man, Njarð. 344, Fs. 10. II. marriage (rare); giptu-mál, n. a marriage, Landn. 110 (v. l. in the MS. Melabók).

gipta, t, to give a woman in marriage; fyrr skulu grónir grautardílarnir á hálsi þér, en ek muna gipta þér systur mína, Eb. 210; gipti Höskuldr Gró systur sina, Ld. 24, Nj. 17, Eg. 5, Rm. 20, 37, passim. II. reflex, to marry, of both man and wife; in old writers the man ‘kvángask,’ i. e. takes a wife, the woman is ‘gipt,’ i. e. given away, Fms. ix. 269, Ld. 128 passim; in the course of time the primitive sense of the word was lost, and it came to mean to marry: the saying, það grær áðr en þú giptist, i. e. never mind, it will be healed before thou marriest, addressed to a boy or girl about to cry for a slight hurt.

gipting, f. marriage, in old writers only of a woman, Js. 63, Fms. ix. 269. COMPDS: giptingar-dagr, m. a wedding day, Gþl. 221. giptingar-maðr, m. one who gives away (parent, warder), Gþl. 212, 215, 229. giptingar-orð, n. = gjaforð, marriage, Fms. x. 87. giptingar-veð, n. wedding-security, i. e. for the dowry, N. G. L. ii. 304. giptingar-vitni, n. a wedding witness, N. G. L. ii. 305. II. in mod. usage marriage, applying both to man and wife, passim, and in many compds.

GIRÐA, ð, mod. t, older form gerða, [Ulf. gairdan = περιζώννυμι]:— to fence, Fms. x. 211, Grett. 168, Grág. ii. 263; cp. gyrða, which means to tie up, gird.

girði, n. materials for fencing, Jb. 100: wood for making hoops.

girðing, f. fencing, Fms. x. 212: mod. fences.

Girkir, m. pl. the Greeks; Girkland, n. Greece, mod. Grikkir, Grikkland.

GIRNA, d, [Ulf. gairnjan = ἐπιποθειν; A. S. girnan; Engl. to yearn], to desire, in act. used impers., e-n (acc.) girnir til e-s, 655 xxxviii. 11; cp. fýsa. II. reflex. girnask, to desire (personally), Stj. passim, Sks. 105, 623. 21. Fs. 4: absol., Fms. i. 262, Sks, 152, Band. 3, Bs. 1. 691, v. l.

girnd, f. desire, lust, Fms. ii. 238, x. 373, passim. COMPDS: girndar-augu, n. pl. eyes of lust, 623. 23, Stj. 54, 125. girndar-bruni, -eldr, -logi, a, m. the burning (fire, flame) of lust, i. e. ardent lust, Greg. 60, Vígl. 22. girndar-grafar, f. pl., Stj. 324, rendering of ‘Kibroth-hattaavah,’ Numb, xi. 34. girndar-hugr, m. amour, Stj. 7. girndar-ráð, n. a (foolish) love match, Ld. 128, Fms. iv. 194; veit ek at báðum er þetta girndarráð, ye are both mad with love, Nj. 49; vide fýsn.

girni, f. = girnd, [Ulf. gairnei], yearning, desire, esp. in compds, metorða-g., drottnunar-g., ambition; fé-g., avarice; heipt-g., spite; á-girni, q. v.; sín-g., selfishness; eigin-g., id.

girni-liga, adv. desirably, Th. 75.

girni-ligr, adj. desirable, to be coveted, Sks. 499; girnilegt til fróðleiks, Gen. iii. 6, passim, Fms. v. 259 (pleasant, engaging).

Girskr, adj. Greek, Skálda 160, Greg. 75, K. Þ. K. 74, Fms. vi. passim; mod. Grískr: Girska, u, f. the Greek language, Stj. 70, Fms. vii. 96, Skálda 160 passim. II. = Gerzkr, i. e. from Garðar, Russian, passim.

GISINN, part. [Swed. gisten; Scot. and North. E. geizened], leaky, of tubs, wooden vessels, freq. in mod. usage.

gisna, að, [Swed. gistna], to become leaky (gisinn).

GISTA, t, [gestr], to pass the night; g. at e-s (etc.), Eb. 222, Nj. 15, 74, Ld. 130, Al. 40, Fs. 138: with acc. of the host, g. e-n, to spend a night with one, N. G. L. i. 51, 623. 14.

gis-tenntr, part. with teeth far apart, not closed.

gisting, f. a passing the night as a guest at a place, or the place in which one stays, night quarters, Eg. 37, Nj. 258, Ld. 46, F. b. 266, Sturl. i. 74, Grág. i. 91, Ísl. ii. 10, Grett. 149 new Ed., Fbr. 14, Lv. 92, passim. COMPDS: gistingar-ból, n. = gistingarstaðr, Fbr. 55 new Ed. gistingar-staðr, m. night quarters, Ísl. ii. 23, 25, 343, Bs. i. 140, Fms. viii. 66, passim.

gizka, að, to guess; g. á e-ð, to guess at a thing; á-gizkan, a guess.

gizki, a, m. a kind of kerchief (of goal-skin?); hón horfði upp í fjallit ok veifði gizka eðr dúki, Fs. 59; síðan veifði hann gizka til fjalls ok tók þá af veðrit, 78:—mod. a scarecrow. II. an island in Norway, Fms.

GÍFR, n. pl. [A. S. gîfre = rapacious, used as an epithet of the devil, wildfire, etc., and as noun, a glutton, vide Grein]:—witches, fiends, = Germ. unhold, Vsp. 52, Hkv. Hjörv. 15; freq. in poetry, al-gífri, pandemonium, Bragi; gífrs grand, ‘witch-bane’ = the god Thor, Eb. (in a verse); wolves are gífrs hestar, ‘witch-horses,’ Jd., and hræ-gífr, carrion beasts, Gkv. 2. 29, Lex. Poët.: the simple word is never used in prose, but in compds; it however remains in prose in the following adv.

gífr-liga, adv. savagely; láta gífrliga, Sturl. ii. 238, Fas. ii. 424 (of a dog): mod. exorbitantly.

gífr-ligr, adj., prop. savage: mod. immoderate, exorbitant.

GÍGJA, u, f. [Germ. geige; mid. H. G. gîge; old Fr. gigue; and to jig in Scot. means to play the fiddle, while in Engl. a jig is a lively dance]:—a fiddle, Stj. 181, Hkr. ii. 136, cp. Yngl. S. ch. 25, Fms. vii. 97 (in a verse); this instrument was known at an early age, as a lawyer in Icel. in the first part of the 10th century was called gígja, prob. because of his eloquent pleading or his clear voice, Nj., Landn.

gígja, að, to fiddle (Germ. geigen), Str. 82.

gígjari, a, m. a fiddler, Hkr. i. 30.

gíma, u, f. a vast opening, Fb. i. 210; in mod. usage also gímald, n. id.

GÍNA, pret. gein, pl. ginu; pres. gín (Edda 101); sup. ginit; in old poems a weak pret. gínði also occurs, Arnór, Orkn. 90; pl. gíndu, Geisli 29, Fms. iii. 4 (in a verse); [A. S. gînan; Engl. to yawn; Germ. gähnen; Gr. χαίνω]:—to gape, yawn, esp. of wild beasts; gínandi úlfr, Hm. 84; hann brá líndúk um hödduna ok gein yfir, Fms. i. 36: of wounds, en er gína tóku sár hans, Bjarn. 10; gína við agni, to snap at the bait, Hým. 22; gína við flugu, to snap at a fly; þóttisk Sigmundr nú yfir flugu ginit hafa, Ísl. ii. 25; Miðgorðs-ormr gein yfir oxa-höfuðit, Edda 36; vide fluga.

GÍSL, m. [A. S. gîsel; lost in Engl.; Germ. geissel; Swed. gislan; Dan. gidsel; to be distinguished from geisl; mod. Germ. and Dan. confound the two forms, one of which has ei and the other î as root vowel; mid. H. G. retained a distinction]:—a hostage, Ls. 39, Fms. v. 171, ix. 359, passim. II. a king’s officer, a bailiff; gísl keisarans, Fms. i. 151, cp. Bs. i. 9, i. e. of the German emperor:—a warder, watchman, þeir höfðu sett til gísla at gæta hans (of a prisoner), Fms. viii. 23; konungr lagði fe til höfuðs honum ok setti hvervetna fyrir hann gísla (viz. to catch him) hvar sem hann kynni fram at koma, vi. 16:—this sense is very rare, and in Icel. never occurs except in metaph. phrases. III. a pr. name, Gísl and Gísli; in many compds, Þor-gísl, Spá-gísl, Auð-gísl, Her-gísl, but usually by metathesis -gils, e. g. Þor-gils, etc.

gísla, að, to give as hostage, Edda 15, Fms. ix. 447, N. G. L. i. 103; menn höfðu gíslat Knúti konungi sonu sína, Hkr. ii. 385; hann hafði verit gíslaðr (taken as hostage) af Skota-konungi, Orkn. 418 old Ed.; gilstir = gíslaðir, N. G. L. i. 103; gísla sér land, to take possession of the land as a hostage, Fagrsk. 158.

gíslar, f. pl. sureties, securities; hann tók gíslar af honum ok bóndum, Eg. 589; hann tók gíslir (v. 1. gíslar, gísla) af bóndum, Fms. ix. 313, 409, passim; gísla (the persons) and gíslar (the things) are often used indiscriminately. II. metaph. security, guard, in the phrase, setja gíslar fyrir, to guard, secure (vide gísl II); Hjalti bað hann gæta sín, ok setja þær gíslar fyrir sem honum þætti vænst at þeim mundi duga, Sturl. iii. 7; þá var svá gíslum skipat fyrir at á Heiðmörk vóru áttján skip í Mjörs, Fms. viii. 45.

gísling, f. hostage, Gþl. 81, Fms. ii. 43, vi. 240, ix. 447, passim: guard, setja gíslingar fyrir = to guard (vide gíslar); setti Þórir þá gíslingar fyrir Gretti (an outlaw) hvar hann kæmi fram, Grett. 139 C: in the old Swed. law gislunga-lagh = the section of law respecting bail and mainprise, Verel.

gjafar-, vide gjöf.

gjafari, a, m. a giver, K. Á. 76.

gjaf-erfð, f. a bequest, Fms. vii. 124, N. G. L. i. 50.

gjaf-falr, adj. to be had for a trifle, Fms. vii. 124.

gjaf-göltr, m. a fat bog, Gþl. 396.

gjaf-laust, n. adj. ‘gift-less,’ without gift, Sturl. ii. 145, Fms. vii. 106.

gjaf-lendingar, m. pl. feudatories, Fms. viii. 244.

gjaf-lyndi, n. open-handedness, Fms. v. 188.

gjaf-mildi, f. liberality, Thom. 6 (Ed.)

gjaf-mildr, adj. open-handed, Karl. 170.

gjaf-orð, n. a match, of a woman to be married, Fr. parlie, Eg. 36, 598, Nj. 38, Fms. i. 298, Lv. 38, Aim. 6, passim.

gjaf-stóll, n., poet, a throne, Lex. Poët., cp. A. S. gifstol.

gjaf-vaxta, adj. (a maid) grown up, of marriageable age to be given away, Grett. 118.

gjaf-vinr, m. an open-handed friend, benefactor, Fbr. 204, Sturl. i. 89.

gjald, n. [vide gildi]: I. sing. tribute, payment; því er gjöf gjaldi betri, at …, N. G. L. i. 54; gjald þat er Finnar skyldu reiða, Eg. 67; seint gengr gjaldit, Fms. iv. 329; þá héldu bændr gjaldinu, they kept back the payment, vii. 302; beiddi nokkurra fresta um gjaldit, viii. 174; hann lagði gjald á borgina, Ó. H. 22. II. usually in pl.; hann tók stór gjöld af sumum, Fms. i. 28; til gjalda ok til útgöngu, payment, Grág. i. 184; lýsti hann til gjalda ok útgreizlu, Nj. 15; stefna til tveðra gjalda, double payment, i. e. double the value, Grág. ii. 188; gjalda einum gjöldum, the actual value, 132; fullum gjöldum, Ó. H. 86: a fine, maðr á at taka gjöld um konu, Grág. i. 278; mann-gjöld, weregild. 2. metaph. retribution; Drottinn sýndi hver gjöld koma munu fyrir ofstopa, 655 xxi. 3: rarely in sing., ella mun þér gjald at verða, thou shalt pay dear for it, Nj. 126:—freq. in eccl. use, synda-gjöld, illverka-gjöld, Pass. 32. 11: so in the phrase, góðra gjalda vert, ef …, i. e. one must even be thankful, if not …; ok góðra gjalda vert ef ekki eru drepnir sumir, Sturl. iii. 266:—reward, compensation, in a good sense, æ sér gjöf til gjalda, gift calls for gift, Gísl. 28.

GJALDA, pret. galt, 2nd pers. galt, mod. galzt; pl. guldu; pres, geld: pret. subj. gyldi; imperat. gjalt or gjald þú; sup. pret. goldit, goldinn; with neg. suff. gjald-attu; [Ulf. us-gildan = ἀποδιδόναι; A. S. gyldan; Engl. yield; O. H. G. geltan; old Fr. ielda; Germ. gelten; Dan. gjelde; Swed. gälla]:—to pay money, pay a fee, duty, or the like, the person in dat., the money in acc., Grág. i. 87, 408, passim, Fær. 120, Fms. iv. 346, xi. 81, Nj. 58, K. Þ. K. 162, passim:—to yield, repay, return, g. gjöf við gjöf, Hm. 42; gjaldið engum íllt móti íllu, Róm. xii. 17; sakir þær er ek á at g. Ólafi, Ó. H. 213; sögðu, at þeim var sín óhamingja miklu íllu goldin, 232; skal ek g. þeim svá útrúleik sinn, 58:—þér eigit at g. aptr (to restore) sendimenn hans manngjöldum, Eg. 575:—g. leiðangr, to yield a levy, Fms. viii. 173. II. metaph. to yield or yield up, deliver; þá guldu þeir Guði andir sínar, they yielded up their souls to God, Blas. 36; gjalt mik lærifeðrum mínum, 656 B. 5; væri hann þá andaðr goldinn sínum borgar-mönnum, 10. β. so in the phrases, g. skynsemi við e-u, to give (yield) reason for, Skálda 205, Sks. 787, Johann. 28; g. samkvæði, to yield, give consent to, Fms. v. 70, Nj. 233; also to vote for, Grág. i. 2, 43; g. varúð, varhuga, við e-u, to be on one’s guard against, beware of, Ísl. ii. 369, Fms. ii. 166, vi. 42, Hkr. i. 50; g. e-m fjandskap, to shew ill-will towards, Ld. 134; g. öfund, Ls. 12. 2. with gen. ellipt., the fine being understood, to pay for, suffer on account of; ok munu margir þess g., Nj. 2: njóta e-s denotes to profit, gjalda e-s to suffer on account of another; þar munuð þit mín gjalda, Vígl. 28; sú harma-bylgjan djúpa, gékk yfir þig þá galztu mín, Pass. 41. 4; svá mun ok vera, segir Njáll, ef þú geldr eigi annarra at, Nj. 147; Helga (gen.) hefir þú goldit at í þessu, Fas. i. 28; hugði, at hann mundi þess víðar koma at hann mundi njóta föður síns en gjalda, Gísl. 73; heldr geldr Leifr Þrándar en nýtr frá mér, Fms. ii. 116; geldr at nýbreytni (gen.) konungs ok þessa ens nýja siðar, i. e. it is a just punishment for the innovation of the king and the new creed, Ld. 168; konungr sagði, at hón skyldi eigi gjalda frá honum tiltækja föður síns, Fms. ix. 477: part. gjaldandi, a payer, Grág. i. 394.

gjald-dagi, a, m. pay-day, Grág. i. 199, ii. 235.

gjald-fang, n. payments, equivalents, Sturl. i. 182.

gjald-gengr, adj. taken in payment, Grág. i. 502, Fms. v. 346.

gjald-keri or gjald-kyri, a, m. the king’s rent-master or steward, N. G. L. i. 311, 335, Fms. vi. 12, Grett. 158 A, Jb. 173, Orkn. 204:— mod. a treasurer: the word is prob. of foreign origin.

GJALL, n, cinders from a smith’s furnace.

GJALLA, pret. gall, pl. gullu; pres. gell, pl. gjalla; pret. subj. gylli; sup. gollit; mod. infin. gella; [A. S. giellan; Engl. yell; Dan. gjalde; Swed. gälla]:—to yell:—of birds of prey, to scream, shriek, hrafnar tveir ok gullu hátt, Fms. i. 131; ernir gjalla hátt, Sighvat; fuglar sýngja, gjalla eðr klaka, Skálda 170: of a bull, to bellow, Fb. i. 545: of things, as of a bow-string, to twang, strengr gellr, Fbr. 206; strengir gullu, Arnór; gjallandi geir, Eg. (in a verse): of a man, to yell, shout, hann stökk þá upp ok gall við, Fms. vii. 171: mod. to shout out (in reply), hún er gipt dóna fyrir austan, gall einhver við af Neðri-bekkingum, Piltr og Stúlka, p. 73: of an echo, to ring, svá gall í hverjum hamri, Fms. ix. 513, v. l.; so of a blacksmith’s hammer, Eg. (in a verse).

gjallr, adj., also spelt gallr, ringing, poët. epithet of gold, a shield, weapon, horn, Fs. 111 (in a verse), Vsp. 42, Haustl. 1, Fm. 9, 20; gallir geirar, Ó. H. 23: of a person weeping, Skv. 3. 33: as the word is rare and obsolete, esp. in the form gallr, transcribers and editors have in some passages wrongly put the well-known gamlir (old) where that word yields no sense, as in Vsp. l. c., Ó. H. l. c. 2. as subst., the sea, a sword, shield are called gjallr, the resounding, Edda (Gl.)

gjalti, vide göltr.

gjarða, u, f. a hood, Edda (Gl.)

gjarðari, a, m. a cooper, N. G. L. iii. 2, 10.

GJARN, adj., compar. gjarnari; superl. gjarnastr; [Ulf. gairns, only once; A. S. georn; Germ. gern; lost as adj. both in Dan. and Swed.; cp. gerr above, which is only used in a limited sense]:—eager, willing, Fms. iv. 81, Dropl. 19; a saying, gjörn er hönd á venju, Grett. 130: with gen., gjarn e-s, 656 C. 24, passim; used in a great many poët. compds, but also freq. in prose, as in góð-g., gentle; íll-g., malevolent; öfund-g., envious; metorða-g., ambitions; væru-g., loving rest; á-gjarn, avaricious; fé-gjarn, covetous; sín-g. and eigin-g., selfish; óbil-g., unyielding; nám-g., eager for learning; háð-g., scoffing; ó-gjarn, unwilling; sátt-gjarn, peaceful; vide Lex. Poët. p. 246.

gjarna, mod. gjarnan, adv. willingly, Nj. 57, Lv. 20, Eg. 234, Fms. i. 79, Ísl. ii. 441, Bret. 34, Sks. 241, Orkn. 158.

gjarnliga, adv. willingly, Bs. i. 355.

gjarn-samliga, adv. = gjarnliga, Sks. 221.

GJÁ, f., gen. gjár, acc. and dat. gjá; pl. gjár, gen. gjá, dat. gjám, mod. gjáar; [a Scandin. word, akin to gína; found in the north of Scotland in the form geo, geow: cp. Gr. χάσμα]:—a chasm, rift, in fells or crags; hrinda þeim fyrir björg eðr í gjár, Fms. ii. 238; til þess er hann kemr at gjá einni, en sú gjá gengr um eyna þvera, fyrir annan enda gjárinnar, hinu-megin gjárinnar, yfir gjána, etc., Fær. 170, 171; kasta hringinum í gjár eða vötn, Bs. i. 329; milli gjá ok gljúfra, Stj. 90; at enni efri gjánni, Nj. 224: also freq. in local names, Ahnanna-gjá, the famous rift in Thingvalla, Nj. 113, 246, 247, Sturl. i. 206, Landn. 312, v. l.; Hrafna-gjá, Brímils-gjá, Kötlu-gjá; it often denotes a rift with a tarn or pool at bottom, whereas gil is a rift with running water. COMPDS: gjár-bakki, a, m. a rift brink (that of the Almanna-gjá), Nj. 224. gjár-barmr, m. the edge of a geow, Fas. iii. 414. gjár-munni, a, m. the mouth of a geow, Fas. iii. 415. gjár-skúti, a, m. a geow-nook, Bárð. 166.

gjá-hamarr, m. the upper wall of the Almanna-gjá, Grág. i. 26.

GJÁLFR, m., gen. rs, poët. the din of the sea, the swelling waves, Sks. 148:—the sea, freq. in poëtry and in poët. compds, vide Lex. Poët.; in prose Icel. say, orða-gjálfr, ‘word-din’ empty sounding wards, flood of phrases. gjálfr-ligr, gjálfr-samr, gjálfrugr, adj. noisy, roaring, Sks. 192. Ships are gjálfr-dýr, gjálfr-marar, gjálfr-stóð, steeds of the sea, Lex. Poët.

gjálfra, að, to roar, of the sea: to chatter.

gjálgrun, f. [cp. gjelg = din, Ivar Aasen], idle talk, prating, Ísl. ii. 139.

gjá-lífi, n. = gjólífi.

Gjálp, f. [A. S. gealp; Hel. gelp; Engl. yelp], Yelper, name of a giantess, Edda; from gjálpa, að, to yelp.

gjár, yesterday, vide gær.

GJÓ, f. [cp. Engl. gay], enjoyment, esp. in a bad sense, sensuality, Sks. 435. COMPDS: gjó-lífi, n. a ‘gay,’ i. e. vain, life; g. eðr ofdrykkjur, Fms. viii. 106 (v. l.), Stj. 161. gjólífis-menn, m. pl. vain persons, Fms. viii. 238, v. l. gjó-menn, n. pl. id., Sks. 366; in mod. usage gjá-lífi, n. (and gjá-lífr, adj.), a life of pleasure, a gay, idle life, Vídal., Pass. 4. 10.

GJÓÐR, m. [gjo, Ivar Aasen], (a bird, falco haliaetus, Edda (Gl.), Stj. 316, Róm. 382, Þiðr. 93.

gjóla, u, f. a gust of wind.

GJÓSA, pret. gauss, mod. gaus, pl. gusu; pres. gýss, mod. gýs; pret. subj. gysi; part. gosinn: [a Scandin. word not found in Saxon nor Germ., cp. Engl. gush]:—to gush, break out, of a furnace, volcano, or the like; þar gauss upp stundum eldr, Nj. 204; hann sá eld mikinn g. upp, Grett. 96; gauss ór honum spýja (a vomit) mikil, Eg. 216; froða gaus ór kjapti þeim, Fas. i. 425; svá sem þar gjósi upp svartr reykr, Sks. 203; gaus upp grátr, Róm. 234.

gjósta, u, f. a gust, Edda 99, Bs. i. 667 (in a verse).

gjós-æðr, f. a ‘gush-vein,’ an artery, Sturl. iii. 97.

GJÓTA, pret, gaut, pl. gutu; pres. gýtr; pret. subj. gyti; part. gotinn;, [Ulf. gjutan; A. S. geôtan; O. H. G. giuzan; Germ. giessen; Dan. gyde; Swed. giuta = to cast (of metal), but this sense is not found in the Icel.]:—to drop, throw, cast one’s young, with dat.; Icel. say kefla or kelfa (kálfr), of a cow, whale, deer; kasta, of a mare; kæpa, of a seal (kópr, a young seal;) hrygna, of a fish; gjóta, of a cat, dog, fox, mouse, and of a fish, to spawn; whence gota, spawn; got-rauf, q. v.; þá gjóta þeir hrognum sínum, Sks. 46; nýgotinn hvolpr, a new-dropped cub (dog, kitten). 2. in the phrase, gjóta augum, to twinkle, Fas. iii. 497; gjóta hornauga, to look askant.—That gjóta was originally used in a nobler sense maybe inferred from the fact that the names of two Teutonic people, the Gautar (Gauts) and Gotar (Goths, = the born, Lat. nati) are in all likelihood derived from the same root.

gjóta, u, f. [Dan. gyde], a narrow lane.

GJÖF, f., gen. gjafar, pl. gjafar, later gjafir; dat. gjöfum: [Ulf. giba; A. S. gifu, geofu; Engl. gift; Germ. gabe, whence mod. Swed. gåfua, Dan. gave, and Icel. gáfa]:—a gift, Nj. 7, 163, Eg. 33, Fms. i. 296, iv. 105, x. 47, Bs. i. 76, 143, N. G. L. i. 8, passim: in mod. usage Icel. distinguish between gjöf and gáfa, using the latter of the gifts of nature, gifts of mind, cleverness, but gjöf in a material sense. The ancients were fond of exchanging gifts, which were either a part of hospitality or tokens of friendship; the former were munificent, the latter might be small, Hm. 51: at a feast (wedding, funeral, or the like) the host used to make gifts to all his more honoured guests at departure; the technical phrase for this was, leysa menn út með gjöfum, to dismiss with gifts; vóru allir menn með gjöfum brott leystir; hence útlausnir, departure from a feast, Sturl. iii. 268: a departing friend or visitor had to be dismissed with a gift (kynnis-gjöf, Fms. vi. 358). The gifts consisted chiefly of weapons and costly clothes; but favourite gifts were a steed (Bjarn. 55, 58) or oxen of a fine breed (Sturl. i. 106), hawks, tents, sails, white bears (Ó. H. ch. 114, Fms. vi. ch. 72–75, 100, Hung. ch. 2), in short anything that was rare and costly, görsimi, metfé. Again, friends had to exchange gifts, so as to cement their friendship, cp. Hávamál passim,—vápnum ok váðum skulu vinir gleðjask; gefendr ok endrgefendr erusk lengst vinir, 40; gjalda gjöf við gjöf, 41; geði skaltú við hann (viz. the friend) blanda ok gjöfum skipta, 43; glík skulu gjöld gjöfum, 45; sýtir æ glöggr við gjöfum, 47. Gifts were obligatory, and were a token of grace and goodwill on the part of giver and receiver. A gift when received was called the ‘nautr’ of the giver, e. g. a ring or sword presented by a king was konungs-nautr. The instances in the Sagas are very many, e. g. Eg. ch. 36, 81, Ld. ch. 7, 27, 43, 45, Sturl. passim, Glúm. ch. 6, 25, Vápn. p. 19, Hrafn. 23, Lv. ch. 14, 15, Ó. H. ch. 114, Har. S. Gilla ch. 16, Hung. ch. 13, 17, Páls. S. ch. 16, and last, not least, the curious Gautr. S.; the remark of Tacit. Germ. ch. 21, gaudent muneribus, sed nec data imputant nec acceptis obligantur, is only partly true; ást-gjafar, love-gifts; vin-gjafar, friend-gifts, cp. Gr. ξένια, Ó. H. 125; hefndar-gjöf, a fatal gift; Jóla-gjöf, a Yule present, Eg. ch. 70; sumar-gjafir, summer-gifts, on the day when summer begins. COMPDS: gjafa-laust, n. adj. dismissed without gifts, Nj. 167, Fms. vii. 106, Sturl. iii. 268. gjafa-leysi, n. scanty gifts, Fms. v. 188. gjafa-skipti and gjafa-víxl, n. exchange of gifts, Gísl. 13, 96, Bs. i. 82:—in a technical sense, brúð-gjöf (q. v.), bekkjar-gjöf (q. v.), morgun-gjöf, a bride-gift, bench-gift, morning-gift, cp. N. G. L. i. 27, 29, 51, passim: til-gjöf, a dowry,—all referring to a wedding: með-gjöf—fúlga, q. v.; á-gjöf, q. v.; milli-gjöf, discount; líf-gjöf, pardon; ofaní-gjöf, rebuke: Icel. also give the name to foddering, setja á gjöf, hence gjafar-mál, n. foddering hour, Gþl. 442.

gjöfull, adj., pl. gjöflir, munificent, Eg. 42, Fms. v. 240, Bs. i. 61: with gen., g. síns fjár, Hm. 38; stór-gjöfull, q. v.

GJÖGR, f. a cleft, rift; gljúfr ok gjögrar, Bs. i. 200; rare, but still existing as the local name of a fishing-place in north-western Icel., (Gjögr, or á Gjögri), used as neut.

gjögra, að, to reel, stagger (now skjögra), Fas. ii. 550 (in a verse).

gjögta, að, to jolt, rattle, of a thing badly fitted; það gjögtar til og frá.

GJÖLL, f. [vide gjalla], din, alarum (poët.) COMPDS: Gjallar-brú, n. the bridge leading to Hel, vide Edda. Gjallar-horn, n. the horn of Heimdal, Edda, Vsp.

GJÖLNAR, f. pl. [Engl. gills; Dan. gjæller; Swed. gäl]:—the gills of a fish, Edda (Gl.); elsewhere rare, tálkn (q. v.) being the common word.

gjölnir, m. a kind of fish, Edda (Gl.)

GJÖRÐ, f., pl. gjarðar, mod. gjarðir, [Ulf. gairda = ζωνή; Engl. girth, girdle; Dan. gjord]:—a girdle, Ísl. ii. 340, Sks. 403, freq.; söðul-g., a saddle-girth; megin-g., main girdle, the belt of Thor, vide Edda: poët. the sea is called jarðar-g., earth-girdle:—a hoop on tubs, botn-g., a bottom hoop:—a kind of lady’s head-gear, in western Icel. a kerchief wrapped round the head.

glaða, að, = gleðja, to gladden, but only in pres., Hkv. 1. 44, Höfuðl. 17, Fsm. 48: in prose, Fas. i. 221, Barl. 60.

glaðel, n. [from Lat. gladiolus], a kind of sword, Ld. 330, Þiðr.

glað-látr, adj. cheerful, Grett. 140 A, Fas. iii. 219.

glaðliga, adv. gladly, friendly, Nj. 177, Fms. xi. 376: gladly, willingly, i. 102, ix. 254, Fas. i. 218.

glaðligr, adj. glad, bright, cheerful, Fms. vi. 357.

glað-mæltr, adj. talking cheerfully, Fms. i. 19, ii. 109.

glaðna, að, to be gladdened: esp. of the sky, to brighten, clear up, það glaðnar til; and of a face, það glaðnar yfir honum, his face brightens.

glaðning, f., gladdening, Mar.: good cheer.

GLAÐR, adj., fem. glöð, neut. glatt, compar. glaðari, superl. glaðastr; [A. S., Engl., Swed., and Dan. glad; it does not occur in Ulf. nor in Germ.; in Hel. gladmod = glad-mood (twice), vide Schmeller; cp. also Lat. laetus]:—glad, gladsome; glaðr ok reifr skyli gumna hverr unz sinn bíðr bana, Hm. 14; ek væra glaðari ef þú værir með hundrað manns, Lv. 80; snotrs manns hjarta verðr sjaldan glatt, Hm. 54; Gunnarr varð g. við þat, Nj. 42; Flosi var allra manna glaðastr ok beztr heim at sækja, most cheerful of all men and the best to visit, 254, cp. Eb. 88, Fms. i. 31; glaðr í máli, vi. 59; hraustr ok g., x. 420; glaðr ok spurall, iv. 82; glaðr, heilhugaðr, vitr, Fagrsk. 14; glöð trú, cheerful faith, Lex. Poët.; drekka glaðr inn góða mjöð, Gm. 13; drekka glöð ór gullnum kerum, 7; ok þótti glaðara (pleasanter) at tala við Helgu en vera í starfi með kaupmönnum, Ísl. ii. 212: acc. adverb., taka glaðan á e-u, to take it gladly, Fms. xi. 112; ó-glaðr, sad, moody. II. glad, bright, of the sky, weather; tunglið skein glatt, Fas. iii. 622; veðr glatt, Þjal. 47; þat ljós gaf glaðan veg, Bs. ii. 109; eldarnir vóru sumir sem glaðastir, Gísl. 126: of gold, Bs. ii. 142: freq. in mod. usage, glaða sólskin, glad sunshine; glaða túnglskin, bright moonshine; loga glatt, to blaze merrily; eldrinn logar þess glaðar, Vídal. i. 145: the phrase, sjá aldregi glaðan dag, never to see a sunny day, be dull and downcast; Glöð, f., pr. name of a bell (cp. Engl. a merry peal), Fms. vi.

GLAÐR, m., poët. a horse, Edda (Gl.), Gm. 30, vide Lex. Poët.

glað-væri, mod. glað-værð, f. gladness, Sturl. i. 206, ii. 125.

glað-værr, adj. gladsome, cheerful, Bs. ii. 89, Magn. 474.

GLAM, mod. glamr, m. [cp. glaumr], a tinkling sound, Finnb. 348, Fms. xi. 129: noise, Hom. 34; gný ok glamm, a clash of weapons, Fms. vi. 156; ára-glam, a dash of oars; orða-glamr, tinkling words; Skála-glam, a nickname, ‘Tinkling-scale,’ xi. 128, 129. Glammaðr or Glömmuðr, m. a nickname, Tinkler, Landn.

glama, ð, to twaddle, talk idly, Hm. 30.

glampi (or glanpi?), a, m. a ray of light; akin to glenr.

glanni, a, m. a reckless jester, Edda (Gl.) COMPDS: glanna-legr, adj. hoydenish. glanna-skapr, m.

glansi, a, m. [mod. from Germ. glanz], glitter.

GLAP, n. hallucination, seems only to be used in pl. glöp, as elli-glöp, dotage: a law term, flaws in law proceedings, Grág. i. 10.

glap-máll, adj. speaking vainly of, Ad. 1.

glapna, að, to grow blunt or dim; glapnaði honum heyrn ok sýn, Eg. 754; hversu honum glapnaði sona-eignin, Fms. iv. 321.

glapp, n., pl. glöpp, only in the phrase, höppum og glöppum, by ‘haps and gaps,’ by haphazard; and in compds, glappa-skot, n. as a law term, a chance shot, a mishap (shooting one inadvertently), N. G. L. i. 157, cp. § 27:—in mod. usage, a blunder, slip: glappa-verk, n. accidental mischief done, Fs. 160.

glappast, dep. to blunder.

glap-ræði, n. a blunder, Band. 4.

glap-skuld, f. a fool’s fine for pranks or foolish acts, Hallfr.

glap-stígr, m. a fool’s path, a stray path, cp. the Dan. saying, gjensti bliver ofte glapsti.

glap-víg, n. accidental manslaughter, Landn. 180.

GLAS, n. glass, vide gler. glas-ker, n. a glass vessel; glaskeri ber eg minn fésjóð í, Pass. 1. 27, cp. 2 Cor. iv. 7.

Glasir, m. the Glassy, name of a grove with golden leaves, Edda.

GLATA, að, (the old pres. glatir, K. Þ. K. 66, Sks. 700; mod. glatar), with dat. to destroy, slay; at glata manndráps-mönnum, Hom. 43, Stj. 643; ella mun ek g. þér, 656 B. 4: with acc. a Latinism, 673. 55, Mar. passim: to ruin, esp. in mod. sense, glata önd ok líkama, Blas. 48: to lose, til þeirra óðala er nú glatar hann, Sks. 512; þá glatisk þau auðæfi fyrir honum, 700; hverfr fé þat eðr glatizt á annan veg, K. Þ. K. 66; ef maðr finnr fjárhlut manns ok hefir eigandi glatað, Gþl. 546; görla þú nem ok glata (imperat.) eigi, Sl. 32.

glatan and glötun, f. perdition, esp. in eccl. sense, 671. 1, 625. 75, Sks. 654, 661, freq. in N. T., Vídal., Pass.

GLAUMR, m. [glam, cp. Scot. glamer = noise], a merry noise, esp. at a banquet; var þar inn at heyra glaumr mikill, Ld. 170; glaum ok hornaskol, Eb. 28; sat við drykkju, þar var g. mikill, Eg. 303; glaumr mikill ok fjölmenni, Fms. xi. 108; g. ok gleði, Sturl. i. 23, 24, Fms. iv. 48; gný ok glaum herliðsins, Hkr. iii. 65: freq. in mod. usage, g. heimsins, g. veraldar, the noise and bustle of the world, Vídal. 2. in old poetry joy, merriment; glaums andvana, cheerless, Gkv. 2. 41; bella glaumi, 29; manna g., joy (society) of men, Skm. 34; glaumr þverr, the cheer (the heart) sinks, Glúm. 339 (in a verse). β. a lusty crowd of men; val-glaumr, a host of warriors, Gm. 21.

glaupsa, að, to talk glibly; heimilt á ek at g. af því, Mkv. 3.

gláma, u, f. a bald, barren tract, a gab, Ísl. Þjóðs. i. 491.

GLÁMR, m. a poët. name of the moon, Edda (Gl.):—the name of a ghost in Grett. S., see the famous ghost story in that Saga, ch. 34–37; the word is interesting on account of its identity with Scot. glamour, which shews that the tale of Glam was common to Scotland and Iceland, and thus much older than Grettir (of the year 1014, cp. glam = a ghastly-looking man, Ivar Aasen). glám-sýni, f. (in mod. usage also glám-skygni, f. and glám-skygn, adj.), ‘glam-sight,’ glamour, illusion, Grett. 115 A, Sturl. i. 179, Stj. 401. Judges ix. 36, Ölk. 36 (blunder), Þorst. Síðu H. 178: Icel. also say, glám-bekkr, m., in the phrase, að fleygja e-u á glámbekk, to throw a thing on the ‘glamour-bench,’ i. e. to fling it carelessly about where it can be taken by any one, or lost. glám-blesóttr, adj. a horse with a moon-shaped blaze on the forehead. Gláma, u, f. the name of a glacier.

glápa, t, to stare vacantly; gláp, n. a stare.

GLEÐA, u, f. [A. S. glida; Engl. glead; Scot. gled], a kite, Brest. 50.

GLEÐI, f. [glaðr; Swed.-Dan. glæde], gladness, merriment, good cheer; in old writers esp. of enjoyment at a festival, story-telling, music, sport of any kind; leikar ok allskyns gleði, Fs. 25; gleði ok gamanræður, 72; g. ok góð fylgd, 130; lítil var gleði manna at boðinu, Ísl. ii. 251; var þar þá gleði mikil, Nj. 254; eptir þat fór fram g. ok skemtan, Ld. 202; kvaðsk mundu undir standa með þeim um hverja gleði er þeir vildi fram hafa, Sturl. i. 20; tóku þeir þar veizlu góða ok höfðu gleði mikla, Eg. 371; gleði ok góð Jól, Grett.; þar var gleði mikil, leikar ok fjölmenni, Sturl. iii. 258; görði hann sik léttan við alþýðu ok átti alþýðugleði, Bs. i. 680; görðisk þá gleði mikil í hallinni, Fms. i. 162; drukku með mikilli gleði ok skemtan, iv. 82; glaumr ok g. (vide above); vilda ek nú til þess mæla at ér tækit upp nokkura gleði nýja til skemtunar mönnum, xi. 109; eptir þetta vóru leikar upp teknir, gengu Fossverjar fyrir gleðinni, Vígl. 24: in the Middle Ages the wakes were often called gleðir (pl.), Jóla-gleði, Christmas games, etc. COMPDS: gleði-bragð, n. merry looking, Nj. 118. gleði-búnaðr, m. festival gear, Stj. 52, Sks. 39. gleði-dagar, m. pl. days of merriment, happiness, Grett. 151 A. gleði-fullr, adj. joyful, Fb. ii. 331. gleði-hljómr, m. a merry peal. gleði-kendr, part. merry, i. e. tipsy. Stj. 424. gleði-ligr, adj. happy, Stj. 33. gleði-maðr, m. a cheery man; Ingimundr var hinn mesti g. ok fékk sér allt til skemtunar, Sturl. i. 19, Eg. 3, 146, Lv. 74. gleði-mót, n. = gleðibragð, Nj. 118. gleði-orð, n. words of joy, Vígl. 89 new Ed. gleði-raust, f. a merry voice. gleði-spell, n. a kill-joy, Mag. gleði-stundir, f. pl. merry, happy hours, Vígl. 23. gleði-söngvar, m. pl. glad songs, hymns, Stj. 50. gleði-vist, f. a merry sojourn, Lv. 75.—Gleði in the sense of Lat. gaudium is freq. in mod. use, but old writers prefer fögnuðr in the abstract sense; ó-gleði, sadness, despondency, Lv. 75: medic. ailment, cp. the phrase e-m er óglatt, one is ailing.

gleðill, m. a nickname, Landn.

gleðja, pret. gladdi; pres. gleðr; part. gladdr; sup. glatt:—to gladden, enliven, make glad, Hom. 18, 159, Fms. v. 49, Fas. i. 122: reflex. to be glad, rejoice, Eg. 55, Ísl. ii. 360, Fms. i. 261, vi. 60, Sks. 551, Fb. i. 405: to brighten, sem dagrinn gladdisk, Verel.

gleiðr, adj., neut. gleitt, [glíða, qs. líða, cp. gliðna], standing astraddle, with one’s legs wide apart. Sturl. ii. 106, freq. in mod. usage.

Gleipnir, m. the Lissom, name of the mythol. fetter in Edda 19.

glenna, t, to open wide the mouth, fingers, or the like (a slang word); greipa-glennir, a nickname, Ísl. Þjóðs.

glenna, u, f. mummery, N. G. L. ii. 424: a nickname, Sturl. ii. 192.

Glenr, m., mythol. the husband of the Sun, Edda.

GLENS, n. gibing, fun, a gibe, jest, Fms. ii. 279, Ld. 220, Ísl. ii. 393. COMPDS: glens-ligr, adj. gibing, Fms. ii. 182. glens-mikill, adj. full of gibes, Háv. 4. glens-yrði, n. pl. (and orða-glens), gibes, fun, Fms. iii. 80. glens-öl, n.; dauðinn er glensöl sjaldan saup, sagði skenktú nú mér í staup, Jón Þorl.

glensa, að, to jest, gibe, 655 xxxii. 2, Sturl. iii. 170.

glensan, f. gibing, Sturl. iii. 265.

GLEPJA, pret. glapði; sup. glapið or glapt; pres. glep; [glap]:—to confuse one in reading, speaking, or the like, Nj. 33: as a law term, to confound, glepja sókn, vörn, görð, Grág. i. 60, 382; g. þingför, þingreið, ii. 78; ok varðar þeiin fjörbaugs-garð ef þeir göra eigi ok hvegi er þeir glepja, i. 485: to beguile, Fms. i. 7, ii. 7, vi. 163, vii. 113, viii. 391, Eg. 587, Ls. 20, Eb. 252. 2. reflex. to be confounded; hugði hann at glepjask mundi þerririnn (of weather), Eb. 152; hversu honum glapðisk sona-eignin, Ld. 236, Ó. H. 145 (vide glapna).

glepsa, að, an iterat. to snap, bite, 655 xxxi. 7, Al. 144.

GLER, n. [A. S. glæs; Engl. glass; Germ. glass; early Dan. glar; the mod. Dan. and Swed. glas seem to be borrowed from Germ.; Icel. distinguish between gler (glass) and glas (a small glass bottle); but s seems to be the original consonant, and the word is akin to Glasir, glys, glæsa, q. v.]:—the word originally meant amber, ‘succinum’ quod ipsi (viz. the Germans) glaesum vocant, Tacit. Germ. ch. 45; glass beads for ornament are of early use; quantities are found in the great deposits (in cairns and fens) of the earliest Iron Age, but only in a single instance in a deposit of the Brass Age (which ends about the beginning of our era), vide Ann. for Nord. Oldk. 1868, p. 118; and such is the sense of the word in the three places that it occurs in old heathen poems: magical Runes were written on glass, Sdm. 17: metaph., nú er grjót þat at gleri orðit, now those stones are turned into gler, of an altar ‘glassed’ with sacrificial blood, Hdl, 5; cp. also the curious reading, bresta í gleri, to be shivered, to break into shivers, Hým. 29,—the reading of Kb., ‘í tvau,’ is a gloss on the obsolete phrase:—glæs also occurs twice or thrice in A. S. poetry, but not in the oldest, as Beowulf, vide Grein. For window-panes glass is of much later date, and came into use with the building of cathedrals: a Danish cathedral with glass panes is mentioned in Knytl. S. ch. 58 (year 1085); in Icel. the first panes brought into the country were probably those presented by bishop Paul to the cathedral at Skalholt in the year 1195; the ancient halls and dwellings had no windows in the walls, but were lighted by louvres and by round openings (gluggr) in the roof, covered with the caul (of a new-born calf, called skjall or líkna-belgr) stretched on a frame or a hoop and called skjár: these are still used in Icel. farms; and Icel. distinguish between the round small caul windows (skjár or skjá-gluggar) and glass windows (gler-gluggar):—háll sem gler, slippery as glass, of ice, Nj. 144: in eccl. and later writings, Hom. 127, Sks. 424, Vm. 21, Fas. iii. 393: in the saying, sjaldan brýtr gæfu-maðr gler. COMPDS: gler-augu, n. pl. ‘glass-eyes,’ spectacles. gler-gluggr, m., vide above, Fms. iii. 187, xi. 271–276, Bs. i. 131, B. K. 98, Vm., Pm. passim. gler-hallr, m. a glass stone, agate. gler-hálka, u, f. (gler-háll, adj.), slippery as glass, of ice. gler-himinn, m. a sky-light, Hom. 130, Mag. 5. gler-kaleikr, m. a glass chalice, Hom. 138. gler-ker, n. a glass vessel, Mar. 603, Am. 58. gler-lampr, m. a glass lamp, Vm. 129, 162. gler-pottr, m. a glass pot, Þiðr. 164. gler-steinar, m. pl. glass stones, agates, Edda 68. gler-tölur, f. pl. glass beads, Þorf. Karl. 374, belonging to the gear of a heathen prophetess. There is a curious Icel. local name Gler-á, f. Glass Water, Eb.,—perhaps from the Gaelic glas, dark-gray.

glerungr, m. a glassy sheeting of ice, frozen after thawing, (mod.)

gletta, u, f. banter, Fms. iii. 9, x. 141, Sturl. i. 69.

gletta, u, f., or glettun, f. banter, raillery, Fms. ii. 9, Sturl. i. 69. glettu-atsókn, f. a feint or ruse to provoke the enemy to attack, Fms. x. 141.

glettask, tt, dep. to banter, rail against one; g. við e-n, Fms. ii. 180, Fær. 51, Grett. 101 A: milit. to taunt, provoke the enemy, Fms. vi. 151, viii. 49, 405.

glettiliga, adv. tauntingly, Fms. ii. 13.

gletting, f. banter, raillery, Fær. 109: gen. as adv. glettingar-bára, u, f. a splashing (no trifling) wave.

glettinn, adj. (glettni, glettun), bantering, Sturl. i. 69 C. gletunar-maðr, m., engi g., not a man to be trifled with, Nj. 105.

GLETTR, m. banter, raillery, taunting; and as a milit. term, a feint or ruse to irritate or provoke the enemy; þeir létu vakka við skipin ok höfðu nokkut svá í glett, Fms. viii. 289; munum vér ganga í glett við borgamenn, ok vita ef vér getum ginnt þá frá borginni, Stj. 364. Josh. viii. 5; ekki mun ek eggja þik at fara í glett við þá Svía, to provoke the Swedes, Fær. 88; eigi leiðisk þeim enn at vit eigimk við glettur, Sturl. i. 69; ríð ekki í glett við oss, því at úsýnt er hvárt vér þolum þér þat, ii. 52.

GLEYMA, d, [glaumr, q. v.; Swed. glömma; Dan. glemme; but unknown to Germ. and Saxon]:—prop. to make a merry noise; this sense is almost obsolete, but occurs in Bret., þeir gleymdu þar yfir, they held a bout around the horse, 94: reflex. to be merry, Merl. 1. 52. II. metaph. to forget, with dat.; at hann gleymi öllum Guðs boðorðum, Fms. v. 217, xi. 235, Barl. 7, 56, Al. 12, Sks. 743, passim: absol., Edda 154 (pref.), Sks. 238: with acc., Karl. 524 (rare): with infin., freq. in mod. usage, eg gleymdi að taka það: with gen., a Latinism, Stj. 78. 2. in a pass. sense, to be forgotten, Th. 79.

gleyming, f. forgetfulness, Stj. 212, Hom. 125, Barl. 130.

gleymr, m. pranks, jollity, Bjarn. (in a verse); vide glaumr.

gleym-samligr, adj. forgetful, Sks. 451 B.

gleymska, u, f. forgetfulness, H. E. 494, Stj., N. T., Vídal., Pass.

GLEYPA, ð and t, [cp. Dan. glube, glubsk = voracious], to gulp down, swallow, Stj. 193, Barl. 56, Edda 8, Fms. iii. 216, Eluc. 10.

gleyping, f. a gulping down, swallowing, Stj. 236.

gleypi-næmr, adj. quick at learning (of children); hann er g.

gliðna, að, to fall asunder, go to pieces; því at bótin gliðnar frú fatinu aptr, Matth. ix. 16.

GLINGR, m. [A. S. gleng = showy things], a toy, Fas. iii. 219; barna-glingr, a child’s toy, freq.

glingra, að, to toy, trifle with.

glipja, u, f. a thin texture; vefjar-glipja, Jón Þorl. i. 324.

glipjulegr, adj. thin, of a texture, (mod.)

GLISSA, t, [Norse glisa], to grin, Hm. 30, but obsolete in Icel.

GLIT, n. ‘glitter,’ used of brocades or rich tissues; ofit í glit af gulli, Gísl. 21; dúkr hálfr með sprang, hálfr með glit, Pm. 123. COMPDS: glit-ábreiða, u, f. a brocaded cover. glit-dúkr, m. a brocaded stuff. glit-ofinn, part. brocaded. glit-vefnaðr, m. brocade weaving.

glita, að, [Ulf. glitmunjan = στίλβειν, Mark ix. 3; Hel. glitan; O. H. G. glizan]:—to glitter, Fms. viii. 350 (v. l.), ix. 301, Sturl. i. 21 (in a verse); glitar á vápnin, Karl. 254.

glitaðr, part. tissued, Vm. 5.

Glitnir, m. a mythical name of the Golden Hall in heaven, Gm. 15.

glitra, að, = glita, Barl. 74, Karl. 358, Fms. viii. 350.

glit-rauðr, adj. gleaming red, Fas. iii, 491.

glitsamligr, adj. glittering, Sks. 530.

glitta, tt, = glita; það glittir í e-ð, a thing glitters far away.

glíka and líka, adv. also, freq. in mod. usage and always without the g.

glíkindi and líkindi, n. pl. likelihood; skaði meiri en ek mætta at glíkindum ráða, Ld. 126, Band. 10; ef at glíkindum færi, Bs. i. 338; but, at líkindum, 337, 529; Halli þóttisk sjá at glíkindum, at …, Glúm. 378; þótti honum frá líkindum (beyond likelihood, extraordinary) hversu þungr hann var, Eg. 769; ok er þat at líkendum, it is as could be expected, Nj. 187; eptir líkindum, Fms. x. 208; glíkindi, Gísl. 137; engi líkindi til, Fms. viii. 147; meiri, minni, engin líkindi, more, less, no probability, id., passim; ef þetta mætti verða með nokkrum líkendum, Sks. 149; allt er með líkindum ferr ok eðli, Edda 69; þeir sögðu Jakob þess líkindi at …, Ver. 16; þeir görðusk nú mannvænligir sem líkindi er á, Sturl. i. 3; hégómlig líkendi, vain forecast, Stj. 142; til líkinda við, in comparison with, Barl. 55:—as a law term, fara þangat er hann veit mest líkendi á, N. G. L. i. 255; gefa sök þeim er í líkindum þykkja vera, bring a charge against those who are likely to have done it, 351, 362; at þeir mætti því heldr kenndir verða at líkendum, from likeness, appearance (of detecting criminals), Gþl. 18. II. semblance, remains; svá at um morguninn eptir sá menn engin líkendi Dana-virkis nema grjótið, so that the morning after one saw not a remnant of the Danish wall but a heap of stones, Fms. i. 128; snúask í kvikindis líkindi, Barl. 135; ólíkindalæti, feint, dissimulation.

glíking and líking, f. likeness, image; glíking Guðs, Eluc. 18; glíking góðs verks, 655 xxvi. 4: liking, imitation, í líking Tróju, Bret. 98; líking djöfuls, Best. 54; til þeirrar sömu líkingar, Fms. ii. 89; ok af þeirra líkingu mun hann fremjast, v. 345; gerðú þó í líking annarra manna, after the liking of other people, Edda 37; svá sem með nokkurri skynsemdar líking, with some shade of reason, Stj. 143:—eptir-líking, a parable.

glíkja and líkja, ð and t, to make like; Clemens glíkði atferð sína eptir Petro postula, Clem. 39; glíkir sik gömlum karli, Stj. 475: to imitate, with acc., a Latinism, Hom. 57; g. eptir, to imitate; er öllum sé gott eptir at glíkja, Bs. i. 140; þat skyldi eptir öðru líkja er goðin ætti rammari, Fms. v. 319; hinna höfðingja dæmi, er betra er eptir at líkja, vii. 296, Magn. 504; kölluðusk þat allt líkja eptir biskupi, Sturl. ii. 12, (likea, Bs. i. 500, l. c.); líkja alla sína dóma eptir Guðligum daemum, Sks. 599. II. reflex. to belike, resemble; mun ek glíkjask foglum þeim er …, 623. 53; nú glíkðusk menn Guði, Greg. 21; líkjask í ætt e-s, Ld. 24; at þú skyldir nú meir líkjask í ætt Haralds ens Hárfagra um skaplyndi en Rana Mjónef móður-föður þínum eðr Nereið jarli enum Gamla, Ó. H. 31; Haraldr líktisk í móður-ætt sína, Fas. (Hb.) i. 356; nú líkisk barn þat honum, N. G. L. i. 30; at líkjask þeim, Sks. 18, Magn. 466.

glíkleikr, m. (glíkleiki, a, m.), likelihood, Sks. 195, 565.

glíkliga and líkliga, adv. favourably, esp. in the phrase, taka líkliga á e-u, to give a favourable answer to; því máli var vel tekit ok svarat líkliga, Eg. 26; Tryggvi tók því vel ok líkliga, Fms. i. 59, iii. 78; for þá allt tal þeirra líkliga ok sáttgjarnliga, ii. 36, x. 132; skiljask þau nú drottning ok konungr heldr líkliga, they parted on friendly terms, Fas. i. 33: in mod. usage, probably;—the spelling with g scarcely ever occurs.

glíkligr and líkligr, adj.; in old poets with gl, geta þykkjat mér gotnar | glíkligs, Hallfred; but usually with l only, e. g. Nj. 49, Fms. xi. 87, Hkr. i. 261, where Mork. gl:—likely, probable, þótti mönnum glíkligast at stolit mundi vera, Bs. i. 348; gör af drauminum slíkt er þér sýnisk líkligast, Ísl. ii. 196; at honum þætti Rauðs-synir líkligstir til at valda, Fms. iv. 380, Hom. 115:—fit, promising, nú þykkir Eyjúlfi þetta et glíkligsta, Gísl. 148; göra sik líkligan til e-s, to shew oneself inclined to, countenance, Fms. x. 334.

GLÍKR, adj., mod. líkr; in old poems in alliteration the g is always sounded, e. g. glíkr er geira sækir | gunnsterkr …, Bjarn. 33; urðu-a it glíkir | þeim Gunnari, Gh. 3; glík skulu gjöld gjöfum, Hm. 45; Baldri glíkan bur, Ls.; but the vellum MSS. use both forms, though glík is more freq. in the older, líkr in the later; sometimes false readings arose, e. g. ólíkt (unlike) hafa gört þeir menn, Bs. i. 140, where the sense requires glíkt, but the lower part of the g having been obliterated, the transcriber read it as o; or Fs. 22, where ugglikt (suspicious) yields no meaning, and is to be read úglíkt (different, quite another thing): [Ulf. galeiks = ομοιος; A. S. gelîc; Engl. alike, like; O. H. G. glîk; mod. Germ. gleich; Swed. lik; Dan. lig]:—like, alike; with dat., sonr er feðr glíkari en dóttir, Eluc. 10; annarr atburðr varð enn þessum glíkr, Bs. i. 346; ekki því grjóti glíkt öðru er þar er, Eg. 142; því glíkt, as adv. such-like, in like manner, Post. 686 C. 2; lifði því líkara sem hann væri ílldýri, Ísl. ii. 481; fríðr sýnum ok mjök líkr föður sínum, Fms. i. 14, x. 265; ok er Kári öngum manni líkr, K. has no match, Nj. 265; skal ek eigi göra þik þeim líkastan er þú vill líkastr vera en þat er Óðinn, Sturl. i. 101; þat þótti mér líkara harmi en skaða, Ld. 126; landi líkari en fiski, Sks. 139; þá munu þit verða Guði lík, 503; svá sem þeir menn verða líkastir er tvíburar eru, Rb. 100; hnot eða myl, eða líkt, or the like, Edda 109; líkt ok ekki, like nothing, Gullþ. 54; er ok eigi líkt (i. e. it is beyond comparison) hvárt sannari er sú saga, eðr hin, Fms. viii. 1; cp. ok er þat úglíkt hvárt þú ferr í lofi mínu, eðr …, Fs. 22 (vide above):—at glíku (líku), adv. all the same, nevertheless; því at jarl hefir at líku líf várt, ef hann vill eptir því leita, Nj. 267; þykki mér þat at glíku, it seems to me all the same, Ísl. ii. 483: so in the phrase, leggja til líka, to settle; at þeir vildi allt til líka leggja með góðra manna ráði, Dipl. ii. 11; því-líkr, ‘that-like,’ such; ú-líkr, unlike; slíkr, qs. svá-líkr, such, Germ. solch = so like. II. metaph. likely, probable, Fs. 4; en þó er þat líkast at hann snúisk til várrar ættar, Nj. 38; þat er líkara at fyrir öðru þurfi ráð at göra, 261; þat er ok líkast at þeir komist þar at keyptu, Eg. 64; Björn segir þat líkast at hann mundi fara af landi á brott, 156; þat var líkara, Ísl. ii. 141: neut. líkt, likely; ok líkt at þér fylgi gipta, Fms. vi. 8; hann kallaði þá líkasta til slíkra íllbragða, 379; ok líkara at hann mundi koma í Þórarinsdal, Bjarn. 6l; þá þyki mér þat líkt, at …, Sks. 52. 2. likely, promising, to the purpose; taka oss þar fari hverr sem líkast þykkir, Nj. 259; nær líkast væri til at veita atför jarli, Fms. i. 54; þá leituðusk þeir um hvar líkast var út at komask, Eg. 233; mér þykir eigi til líkt (it looks not well) um ferð þeirra bræðra, Vígl. 25; sá hann eigi annan líkara útveg, Bs. i. 690; því at þeir sá þá sinn kost engan annan líkara, Fb. i. 405; kann vera at endirinn verði líkari (better) en upphafit, Bs. ii. 64; at þat væri líkast til heilla sátta, Fms. iv. 139; til þeirrar stundar sem mér þyki nokkuru líkast at fram megi komask þetta eyrendi, 133.

GLÍMA, u, f. [this word occurs neither in Germ. nor in Saxon, nor yet in the mod. Scandin. tongues (of Sweden, Norway, and Denmark), and the origin is not known]:—wrestling, a favourite national sport with the Icel. people, in old as well as in modern times, answering to the Gr. πάλη: glímu-brögð, n. pl. wrestling-tricks, vide bragð II. 2: to the technical terms there mentioned, add, hnykkr, hælkrókr, sveifla, etc.: glímu-félagi, a, m. a wrestling-match, Háv. 41: glímu-færr, adj. able-bodied as a wrestler, Finnb. 328: glímu-galdr, m. a ‘wrestler-spell,’ to charm one’s legs and make them steady, Ísl. Þjóðs. i: glímu-maðr, m. a wrestler: glímumann-liga, adv. like a good wrestler, nimbly, Fas. iii. 502: glímu-völlr, m. the wrestling-ring. The earliest match recorded is that of Thor and the giantess Elli (Age),—for the tale vide Edda 33; freq. in the Sagas, Sturl. iii. 20, 268; glenz ok glímur, Fms. i. 149 sqq., 182, iii. 187, 188, Grett. and Finnb., Kjaln. passim, Eg. ch. 40; leikr (sport) and glíma are often used synonymously, as Ld. ch. 45. The glíma was a popular game at any meeting or festival, where many young and active men met together: thus at the banquet in Reykhólar (1119) the guests amused themselves by dancing, glímur, and story-telling, Sturl. i. 23; at the parliament (alþing) there was a palaestra, Fanga-brekka (‘wrestling-brink’); in Glúm. ch. 13 a fight is recorded between the Northerners and Westerners assembled there; as also in Grett. ch. 75 (in the parliament at Hegranes); in Gunnl. ch. 11 the crew of the ships in harbour made up a glíma. The mod. Icel. bænda-glíma is just the same, as it was practiced in the college at Hólar, and later in the school at Bessastaðir, as also at fishing-stations and wherever young men came together; the young men are divided by lot into two parties, which are then drawn up in a row, each having their leader or ‘bóndi’ (whence the name); the bændr pair off their men against one another to wrestle in the arena or defile between the two ranks, one after another; if the one side was weaker in number, or the one bóndi had lost all his men, he might challenge his antagonist, and their match decided the game, Eggert Itin. ch. 518. The bænda-glíma at college and school was by far the best-played, and much stress was laid on nimble and graceful movements. ☞ In Hom. 24 scurrilitas is rendered by glíma.

glíma, d, to wrestle, Landn. 185, Fms. iii. 187, Sturl. iii. 268, Finnb. 222.

glíminn, adj. able or alert as a wrestler.

glíra, u, f. [cp. glire = to blink with the eyes, Ivar Aasen], in a nickname in Vápn., Glíru-Halli.

gljá, ð, to glitter, Lat. nitere; það gljáir á það.

gljá, f. a spot glittering against the sun: the name of a river.

GLJÚFR, n. almost only in pl. [A. S. glôf = cliff], an abrupt descent or chasm, esp. in the bed of a river, ár-gljúfr; hvar hin litla áin féll ór gljúfrum, Eg. 134; eru gljúfr mikil upp með ánni, Fær. 62, Landn. 251, Glúm. 362, Al. 92, Fms. viii. 51, Gullþ. 8; en tveim-megin gengu at g. há ok hin brattastu björg, Stj. 452. 1. Sam. xiv. 4: sing., Grett. 142 (in a verse): so the mod. phrases,—glæfra-ferð, f. a neck-breaking, dangerous exploit (as among precipices); glæfra-göng, n. pl. straits, Broddi er kominn í g., a ditty of Pal Vídalín; glæfra-ligr, adj. dangerous, horrible,—are all derived from gljúfr.

gljúpr, adj., see glúpr.

gloppa, u, f. a big hole, a nickname, Fms. x. 142; gloppu-gat, id.

glopra, að, with dat. to drop, lose a thing heedlessly.

glor-hungraðr, part. very hungry.

glossi, a, m. [glousse = a spark, De Professer], a blaze.

glott, n. a grin; draga glott at, Ó. H. 151, Bs. i. 647.

GLOTTA, tt, to grin: absol., g. at e-u, to grin at a thing, Fbr. 160, 162 (in a verse); hón (the witch) glotti við sólunni, Fas. ii. 127; so also, g. við, Nj. 27; g. við tönn, to smile scornfully, sarcastically, so as to shew the teeth, Edda 30, Nj. 182 (of Skarpheðinn), and passim; Erlingr sá til hans, ok glotti við tönn, ok mælti, Ó. H. 114.

GLÓA, að, [A. S. glowan; Engl. glow; Germ. glühen; etc.], to shine, glitter (of metals or bright things); er vápnin glóðu, Fagrsk. 138, Bs. i. 348, Rb. 358; hón glóaði af gulli, Stj. 206, Fas. i. 333; hann glóar sem eldr, Hb. 544. 39: red-hot, járn-sía glóandi, a red-hot iron, Edda 61, Fms. viii. 8; glóandi hiti = Germ. glühend, Greg. 36: scalding hot, of broth or the like.

gló-barr, n. the glowing bud; poët. the gold of the tree Glasir, Bm.

gló-bjartr, adj. light blond, of hair.

GLÓÐ, f., pl. glæðr (glóðir, Post. 656 C. 5), [A. S. glêd; Germ. gluth; Dan. glöd]:—red-hot embers; taka glóð af eldi, Eb. 278; þeir höfðu reykelsi á glóð, burning incense (at mass), Bs. i. 22; hann lét glóð undir fætr sér, Fs. 176; hafði glóð í hendi, Hom. 156: esp. in pl., hón tók glæðr af arni, Sturl. ii. 101, Fas. ii. 182; sitja við glæðr, to sit at the fireside; Pétr sat við glæðr ok vermdi sik, Post. 656 C. 4, Clem. 25; ganga yfir glæðr, Hom. 17; munnlaug full af glóðum, Fms. ii. 167, v. 324: the metaph. phrase, vera (ganga) á glóðum, to be as on glowing coals. COMPDS: glóðar-auga, n. a black eye. glóðar-járn, n. an iron plate for baking, a girdle (griddle), Am. 92, Vm. 65. glóðar-ker (glóð-ker), n. a fire-pot, Fms. v. 106, Vm. 21, 83, Stj. 316, 319.

glóð-rauðr, adj. red as embers, Fm. 9.

glóð-volgr, glóð-heitr, adj. ember-hot.

GLÓFI, a, m. [A. S. glôf occurs as early as Beowulf], a glove, Nj. 46, Fms. i. 246, Dipl. v. 18, Bs. i. 342, Gullþ. 6, 8, Fb. i. 529. glófaðr, part. gloved, Karl. 288. The word is no doubt borrowed from the English, and is used in the Sagas chiefly of costly embroidered gloves; another word is handski = ‘hand-shoe,’ prob. from the Germ. handschuhe; the popular words are vöttr and vetlingr.

gló-föxóttr, adj. light-maned, of a horse, Bs. ii. 261.

glói, a, m. the name of a dwarf, Vsp.: in mod. usage freq. the name of a light-coloured dog.

glópaldi, a, m. an idiot, Glúm. 342.

GLÓPR, m. an idiot, baboon, Glúm. 358, Finnb. 298, Háv. 41, Bær. 5. Gísl. 53.

glópska, u, f. foolishness.

glóra, ð, [glüürle, De Professer], to gleam, glare like a cat’s eyes; það glórir í e-ð.

glósa, u, f. (for. word), a gloss, explanation, Sks. 552, Bs. i. 737: a banter, taunt (Dan. glose), mod.

glósa (glósera), að, to explain by a gloss, Bs. i. 737, Sks. 7: to chatter, Fas. ii. 110.

gluggaðr, part. with windows, Ísl. ii. 402.

GLUGGR, m., and gluggi, a, m., Stj. 171, 207, Fms. ix. 427, and so always in mod. use; (glyggr, m., pl. ir, Sks. 427 B, rare):—a window, Nj. 114, Eg. 420, 421, vide gler above; according to Nj. ch. 78 the windows were placed above the wall plate in the roof; gler-gluggi, skjá-g., baðstofu-g., skemmu-g., stofu-g., búr-g., eldhús-g;. COMPDS: glugga-grind, f., and glugga-kista, u, f. a window-frame, (mod.) glugga-tjald, n. window-curtains. glugga-tópt, f. a window-sash. II. prop. an opening, a hole, Ó. H. 152; inn um þann glugg er hann hafði rofit, Fbr. 66 new Ed.; einn laup ok skar allan gluggum, he took a box and cut holes in it all over, Fms. viii. 342; var gluggr yfir ofninum, Eb. 136; létta steini af brunnsins glugga, Stj. 171. Gen. xxix. 10 (‘the well’s mouth’); marga glyggi (acc. pl.) ok smá, Sks. l. c.; höfðu þeir brotið á stóran glugg, Bárð. 180: metaph., glugga-þykn, n. dense clouds with openings in them, Grett. 114 A.

glugg-stúka, u, f. a window-sash, Bev.

glumra, að, to rattle, Fas. i. 91, ii. 492, Hkm. 5, Sks. 229.

glumra, u, f. a masc. nickname, Landn. glumra-gangr, m. rattling.

glundra, að, to turn topsy-turvy, glundroði, a, m. topsy-turvy.

glutra, að, (glytra, Fms. xi. 439), to squander, Þiðr. 143, Th. 6.

glutran, f. (glutr, n., Fms. xi. 439, Bs. i. 907), squandering, extravagance. COMPDS: glutr-maðr, m. a spendthrift, Bs. i. 581. glutr-samligr, glutrunar-samr, adj. dissolute, Al. 6. glutr-samliga, adv., Mar.

glúmr, m. a bear, poët., Edda (Gl.): a pr. name, Landn.

GLÚPNA, að, [a Scandin. word found in Ormul. forr-gloppnedd, and Scot. and North. E. gloppen]:—the radical sense was prob. to become soft, but in usage to look downcast, let the countenance fall, as one about to cry, Fm. 31, Am. 73, Gísl. (in a verse), Eb. 60, Ó. H. 63.

glúpr or gljúpr, adj. soft, porous, esp. of sponge or sponge-like things.

glyðra, u, f. a harlot, Edda (Gl.)

glygg, n., dat. glyggvi, the opening of a visor. Al. 39, Karl. 473: poët. wind, gale, Lex. Poët.

GLYMJA, glumdi, pres. glym, to rattle, clash, plash, Str. 46: freq. in poetry of the sea or waves, vide Lex. Poët.: in prose esp. of an echo, það glumdi í klettunum, það glymr undir, or the like.

glymr, m. a clash, plashing, Edda 110, Skálda 169: freq. in poët. compds, esp. of wind or waves, Lex. Poët.

glypsa, að, vide glepsa, to snap, Sturl. i. 128 C.

glyrnur, f. pl. [glóra], cat’s eyes glittering in the dark, Fas. iii. 385: in mod. usage as a cant name for eyes red or blood-shot.

GLYS, n. finery, and as a trade term millinery, Fms. vi. 263, x. 30, Barl. 6, Al. 34, Stj. 78, 188, passim; gull ok glys, Edda 220; kaupa glys, Fb. iii, 175; glys fjandans, Greg. 15; glys heimsins, Hallgr., Vídal. COMPDS: glys-gjarn, adj. fond of finery, Eb. 256 (of a lady), Fas. ii. 182. glys-ligr, adj. showy, specious, Fms. i. 74, ii. 135. glys-mang, n. millinery, N. G. L. iii. 159. glys-mangari, a, m. a ‘finery-monger’ milliner, N. G. L. ii. 246. glys-mál (glys-mæli), n. pl. specious, vain words, Bjarn. 19. glys-máll, adj. flattering in one’s speech. glys-samligr, adj. specious, vain, Sks. 528.

GLÝ, n. [A. S. gleow; Engl. glee], glee, gladness, poët., Edda (Gl.)

glýja, u, f. dazzling from whiteness. glýju-skin, n. dazzling light.

glýja, að, to be gleeful, Hðm. 7. glýjaðr, part. gleeful, Vsp. 39; fá-glyjaðr, dismal, Eyvind.

glýjari, a, m. a ‘gleeman,’ jester, Str. 68, Barl. 4.

glýra, u, f. glitter, Sks. 229.

glý-stamr, adj. an απ. λεγ., glee-steaming, epithet of tears, Hðm. 1, cp. Homer’s θαλερόν δάκρυ.

GLÆÐA, dd, [glóð], to sparkle; sá þeir at glæddi ór forsinum, Gullþ. 9: in mod. trans., esp. in eccl. writers, to kindle.

glæja, dd, to glow; glæjanda frost, a sharp frost, Sks. 229.

glæ-napask (qs. glæ-gnapast), að, to go thinly clad in blast or cold.

glæ-nýr, adj. clear, opp. to clouded, of eggs.

glæpask, t, dep. to transgress, do foolishly, Stj. 454, 577, Greg. 38: the phrase, g. á e-u, to do amiss in a thing, Stj. 469: mod. to make a foolish bargain, buy a pig in a poke.

glæpi-liga, adv. wickedly, Fas. iii. 664, Fb. i. 206.

glæpi-ligr, adj. wicked, Fms. x. 334, Stj. 584, Mar. passim.

GLÆPR, m., gen. s, pl. ir, [glópr], crime, wickedness, Fs. 178, 180, Hkv. Hjörv. 32, Stj., Sks. passim, and freq. in mod. usage, Vídal., Pass. COMPDS: glæpa-fullr, adj. full of wickedness, ungodly, Stj. 457, Mar. 449, Barl. 107. glæpa-maðr, m. a miscreant, Fms. ii. 85, Skálda 204. glæpamann-ligr, adj. ruffianly, ill-looking, Band. 7. glæpa-verk, n. a crime, Stj. 91. It is worth notice that in the heathen morals (as in the Old Test.) ‘foolish’ and ‘wicked’ are kindred words: glæpr, the derivative with changed vowel, means an evil deed, the primitive word glópr a fool; cp. also glap, glepja, which are from the same root.

glæpska, u, f. a foolish, evil act, Fms. iii. 112, Hkr. ii. 395, Stj. 622.

glæp-varr, adj. righteous (sceleris purus), Fms. v. 240, Sks. 355.

glæp-yrði, n. pl. foul language, Þorst. Síðu H. 177.

GLÆR, m., poët. the ‘glaring,’ i. e. the sea, Lex. Poët.: in prose in the phrase, kasta á glæ, to throw into the sea, squander, Bjarn. 57, Ó. H. 38, Finnb. 250, Fms. vii. 62 (in a verse), cp. Ad. 13; hlaupa á glæ, to run in vain, Al. 181.

glær, adj. clear, e. g. of a fresh egg, = glænýr, q. v.

glæra, u, f., in regn-g., drops of rain, Sks. 227; vide eld-glæringar.

glæ-ræði, n. = glapræði, a job, Band. (MS.) 9.

GLÆSA, t, to make shining, embellish, Fms. iv. 247, Bs. ii. 10: part. glæstr, splendid, embellished; gulli g., embellished with gold, gilded; halli g., painted, etc., vide Lex. Poët.

glæsi-ligr, adj. shining, splendid, Fms. ii. 300, Ó. H. 161, passim; g. orð, specious words, Fb. i. 76, 374.

glæsi-maðr, m. a bright, illustrious man, Edda (Gl.)

Glæsir, m. a pr. name; of an ox (because of the horns), Eb. Glæsis-vellir, m. pl. a mythical local name, Hervar. S. ch. 1, Fms. iii. 183 sqq.

glæsur, f. pl., in orða-glæsur, fine phrases, Thom. 297.

glæta, u, f. a glittering spot; vatns-glæta, a speck or pool of water; ljós-glæta, a gleam of light.

glögg-leikr, adj. sharpness of sight, acuteness, Stj. 12.

glögg-liga, adv. [cp. Ulf. glaggvuba = ἀκριβως, ἐπιμελως], clearly, distinctly, Eg. 54, Fms. ii. 102, vi. 36; spyrja g. at, Fb. i. 253.

GLÖGGR, adj. (also spelt gleggr and gleyggr), acc. glöggvan with a final v in the weak cases; compar. glöggra and glöggvari; superl. glöggstr and glöggvastr; [the prob. Goth. form is glaggvus; A. S. gleaw; Hel. glau; Scot. gleg = quick, clever; O. H. G. glaw]:—clear-sighted, and in metaph. sense clever, of things clear, distinct; ok hafa þat allt er hitsug leifir eðr glöggra er, Grág. i. 7; glöggt er gests augat, sharp (prying) is the stranger’s eye, a saying; skýring eðr glöggvari greining, a clearer distinction, Skálda 205; Stjörnu-Oddi er gleyggstr var í allri tölu ok himintungla-gangi, Rb. 90; glöggr til brjósts ok bækr, Thom. 12:—neut., skýra glöggt frá e-u, to expound distinctly, Hom. 47; eigi þarf glöggra at skýra, 52; eigi er mér þat glöggt, ‘tis not clear to me, Grett. 108; vera glöggrar greinar, to distinguish sharply, Bs. ii. 11; hón kenndi hann glöggt, she knew him well, Fms. iv. 131; Þorgnýr föður-faðir minn mundi glöggt (remembered clearly) Eirík Uppsala-konung, 162; mun ek glöggt vita hvárt rétt er ráðit eðr eigi, vii. 107; víðast af löndum spurði hann um siðu manna þá menn er glöggst vissu, Hkr. ii. 61; vita gleygt, id., 625. 96. 2. metaph. stingy; sýtir æ glöggr við gjöfum, a saying, Hm. 47; glöggr við gesti, a stingy host, Hym. 9; glöggr flugar, poët. unflinching, Skv. 1. 7; fé-glöggr, stingy of money; matar-g., stingy of meat; hugar-g., mean, Fbr. 162 (in a verse).

glögg-rýnn, adj. ‘clear-rouning,’ Fas. i. 212.

glögg-skygn, adj. (glögg-skygni, f.), sharp-sighted, Nj. 77, Stj. 228.

glögg-sýniliga, adv. distinctly, Str.

glögg-sýnn, adj., Stj. 228, v. l.: sharp-witted, Bs. i. 272, Eluc. 16.

glögg-sær, adj. clear-sighted, Bs. i. 808, v. l.: manifest, Þorf. Karl. 380.

glöggvingr, m. a stingy man, Edda (Gl.), Ad. 1.

glögg-þekkinn, adj. clear-sighted, quick to know or discern, Ísl. ii. 341, Vápn. 24, Ld. 274, Fb. ii. 288.

glögg-þekkni, f. a clear sight, Sks. 559 B.

glögg-þekkr, adj. = glöggþekkinn, Barl. passim.

glömmungr, m. a kind of fish, Edda (Gl.)

glöp, n. pl. blunders, as a law term. Grág. i. 10; vide glap, elli-glöp.

GNADD, n. a grumbling, muttering, Bjarn. 18, Fms. x. 342, Stj. 322, 326, 330, 453, Fbr. 27 new Ed.

gnadda, að, to murmur, Stj. 327, Grett. 98 A (where nödduðu stands): to vex, hón gnaddar hit sama bæði dag ok dægr, ‘she pressed him daily with her words,’ Stj. 417. Judges xvi. 16.

GNAGA, að, mod. naga, but in allit. and old writers with g, as ok um grjót gnaga, Hm. 106: it was originally a strong verb, pret. gnóg, as ala ól, and is still used so in some provincial dialects of Norway, vide Ivar Aasen; hence part. gnagit, Barl. 56 (Norse); in old Icel. writers it only remains in poetry, viz. pres. gnegr, Fms. vi. 310 (in a verse of the 11th century); gengr, i. e. gnegr, Edda (A. M.) i. 68, note 12: [Engl. gnaw; Swed. gnaga; Dan. gnave]:—to gnaw; en Níðhöggr gnagar neðan rótina, Edda 10, Gm. 33; hestar gnöguðu beizlin, Karl. 376; þeir gnöguðu skjaldar-rendr, Fas. i. 425; mýss tvær gnagaðu um rætr trésins, Barl. 56.

gnap, n., poët. high places, the high sea, Edda (Gl.): in poët. compds, gnap-hjarl, -salr, -stóll, -turn, Lex. Poët.

GNAPA, t, to jut out, stoop forward; hann (the ghost) gnapti innar yfir dyrnar, Grett. 114 A; fjallit sýnisk mjök yfir gnapa öðrum fjöllum, Fms. x. 313; ef hón sæi háska eðr skaða yfir gnapa (impendere) sínu ríki, 223: to droop with the head, snapa ok gnapa, to be snubbed and droop the head, Hm. 62; gnapir grár jór yfir gram dauðum, Bkv. 6; sköltar gnöpðu, Fms. ii. 259 (in a verse); hann gnapir með hettu, Fas. iii. 494 (in a verse).

gnarr, n., poët. the sea, Edda (Gl.); prop. the ‘gnarrer,’ murmurer.

gnastan, f. a gnashing, Hom. 70.

gnat, n. a clash (of weapons), Höfuðl.; the Engl. gnat is so called from the sound of its wings.

gnata, að, to clash, Vsp. 51.

gnauð (gnauðan, Bs. i. 206), f. a rustling noise, Fas. iii. 129, Ór. 56; metaph. a murmur, Grett. 98.

GNAUÐA, að, mod. nauða, to rustle, ring; hann lætr g. broddinn í jöklinum, of the sound of a mountaineer’s staff, Bárð. 171; gnauðaði svá at skjálfa þóttu húsin, of troops riding over the ice, Sturl. iii. 147; hence mod. nauða á e-m, to din in one’s ear.

gnaust, n., and gnaustan, f. a clash, tinkling, Hallfred, Lex. Poët.

Gná, f. the name of a goddess, Edda: freq. in poetry, of women.

gnegg, n., mod. hnegg, neighing, Hrafn. 7, Al. 67, Karl. 282.

GNEGGJA, að, mod. hneggja, to neigh, Hrafn. 8, Rd. 267, Stj. 78, Karl. 376, Hkv. Hjörv. 20.

gneista, að, [mid. H. Germ. ganeiste], to emit sparks, Fms. viii. 8.

GNEISTI, a, m., mod. neisti, [mid. H. Germ. ganeist; Dan. gnist; Swed. gnista; cp. the mineral gneiss, so called from its sparkling particles]:—a spark, Edda 4, Fms. iii. 193, v. 175, Sks. 204, Skálda 175: metaph., g. lífsins, Fms. x. 368. gneista-flaug, f. a shower of sparks, Bs. i. 44, Fms. iii. 180.

gnella, gnall, gnullu, to scream; haukar þeirra gnullu leiðiliga, Karl. 376.

GNERR, m. [Chaucer’s gnarr], a knot or knob: metaph., stóð við þann gnerr nokkra daga, it stopped at that ‘gnarr,’ i. e. it lasted, for some days, Fms. viii. 263, v. l.

GNESTA, pret. gnast, pl. gnustu, [A. S. gnæstan], to crack; hlíf gnast við hlíf, Skálda (in a verse); viðir brotna eðr gnesta, 169; málmar gnustu, Hallfred; gnestr hann (the sword) hátt í þeirra hausum, Fas. i. 102: the phrase, g. í eyrum e-s, to tinkle in one’s ears; múgrinn æpti svá at gnast í eyrum borgar-manna, Stj. 360, 647. 2 Kings xxi. 12; þessi ódæmi sem öllum mönnum gnestr í eyrum, Mar.; gnustu þá saman vápnin, Sturl. iii. 174; ok gnestr í steininum, Bs. i. 601; gnast í brynjunni, Karl. 175.

gneypr, adj. jutting, bent forward; stóð höfuðit gneypt af bolnum, Eb. 244; Egill sat uppréttr ok var gneypr mjök, Eg. 304, Fas. iii. 117.

gniða or niða, að, [Dan. gnide], to rub; þat var sem sviðit ok gniðat öðru-megin, hón lét telgja á lítinn flatveg þar sem gniðat var, Grett. 177 new Ed.

gnissa, u, f. a spectre, Edda (Gl.); cp. Dan. nisse = a hobgoblin.

gnit, f., mod. nitr, f. pl. [Dan. gnid; Ivar Aasen gnit], a nit, Lat. lens.

GNÍPA, u, f., not gnýpa, (ríp í bratta gnípu, Rekstefja 28), a peak, Fms. ii. 154, Sks. 171 C, Greg. 62, Bs. i. 360, Róm. 352.

gníst, n. a gnashing, Nikulás-d. 56.

GNÍSTA, t, mod. also nista, to gnash the teeth; g. tönnum, Mar. freq., Greg. 55, Mart. 118, Fas. iii. 629 (where nísta, paper MS.); ok þeir nístu tönnum yfir honum, Acts vii. 54:—trans. to tease, mundu þér eigi gníst hafa yðvarn biskup með svá skarpri meingörðar ör, Mar. 457. 2. to snarl as a dog; þeir ýldu ok gnístu, Fms. vii. 192; við þetta spratt hundrinn upp gnístandi, iii. 13; hans hundar hversu þeir gnístu, Þíðr. 368; gnístandi frost, a biting frost, Fms. ii. 225. ☞ Nesta or nísta (q. v.), to pin, is a different word.

gnístan, f. gnashing of teeth, in the phrase, óp ok tanna g., Post. 656 C. 30; spelt gnístran, Matth. viii. 12, xiii. 42, 50, xxii. 13, xxiv. 51, xxv. 30, Luke xiii. 28.

gnístingr, m. a creaking, Stj. 71.

gnjóðr, m. a kind of seed, Edda (Gl.)

gnjóstr, m., Tann-g., Teeth-gnasher, one of Thor’s he-goats, Edda.

gnolla, d, to shiver; impers., tekr þeim at gnolla, Fms. xi. 136.

Gnóð or Gnoð, f., poët. name of a ship, Edda (Gl.); properly a mythical ship like the Greek Argo, Fas. iii. 406, 407, (Eg. S. Einh. fine.)

gnóg-leikr, m. abundance, Magn. 450, Rb. 110.

gnóg-liga, adv. (mod. nóg-liga, and so Stj. 30, Fms. vi. 15, MSS. of the 14th century), abundantly, Edda 9, Fms. i. 77, Hom. 37, Stj. 414.

gnóg-ligr, adj. (mod. nóg-ligr, and so Fms. ii. 228, Sks. 134 B. new Ed., MSS. of the 13th century), abundant, Stj. 428, Mar. 474.

GNÓGR, adj.; in old alliterative poets gn, þess var grams und gömlum | gnóg rausn, Arnór, and so in very old MSS.; but even vellum MSS. as old as Hb., Stj., Arna-Magn. 66 (vide below), begin to drop the g, which was either lost or replaced by í (í-nógr) as in Engl. e-nough: the declension also is interesting; in old writers it has regular neut. gnógt or nógt, but later the t was dropped; an Icel. says, það er nóg rúm (room enow), the old form being gnógt rúm; the gen. has also been dropped, and so the word has become an irregular though not indeclinable adjective: again, an indeclinable nógu has been formed, nógu margr, mikill, etc., answering to Engl. enough after an adjective: [Ulf. ganôhs, = ἱκανός; A. S. genôh; Engl. enough and enow; O. H. G. ganah; Germ. genug and genung; Dan. nok; Swed. nog and noga]:—enough, sufficient, plentiful, of stores; þar er sæmðar ván er gnóg er til, Nj. 21; selveiðar gnógar ok fiski-fang mikit, Eg. 130; mundu þar fá gnógt lið, Fms. vii. 276; ok svá nógt er í fjöllum þeim gull sem grjót, Pr. 400; þat it fjórða er nógt var, which was enough by itself, Bret. (Hb.) 66; þeim með er hann hefir gnógastan til, Sks. 229 B; hafa gnógan liðs kost, Fms. viii. 220; því at þar var nógt búfé Dana til strandhöggva, i. 128; gaf hann öllum nóga skotpenninga, xi. 202; honum mun gefast svo hann gnóg hafi, Matth. xiii. 12; skógar-dýr er jafnan vóru gnóg, Stj. 560 (nóg and í nóg, v. l.); með svá nógum gný (so great a din) ok vápna-braki, at …, Stj. (MSS.) 127:—of persons (rare), nú var hann nógr orðinn um kvikfé, now he was well stocked with cattle, Bjarn. 39; nú muntú ok vera þér nógr einn (= einhlítr, q. v.) um þetta mál, Band. 6. II. adverbial use; at nógu, sufficiently, plentifully; þat sem at nógu döggvir allan aldin-viðinn, Stj. 68; ok vinnsk oss þat at nógu, it is enough for us, Fms. v. 48 (but at gnógu, Ó. H. 202, l. c., and so Fb. ii. 329); í-nóg, enough; hann (the cypress) er þar í-nóg, Stj. 88, Al. 171; þar til er þeir allir hafa drukkit í-nóg, Stj. 136; fóðr höfum vér í-nóg, id.; allt var í-nóg þat er hafa þurfti, 203; biskup sagði at þeir hefði í-nóg at geyma, Bs. i. 866:—nógu, indecl. enough, only in the later Sagas, þreif Öngull til saxins, ok kvað hann nógu lengi (long enough) borit hafa, Grett. 154; því at nógu margir munu vera mótstöðu-menn þínir, 156; nógu mikit, mickle enough, Bs. i. 909 (Laur. S.)

gnótt, f. [A. S. geniht], abundance, plenty; ærin gnótt vista, Fms. xi. 36; gnótt fjár, Band. 9; aura gnótt, plenty of money, Greg. 39; gnótt grunnýðgi (gen.), Am. 1; þau áttu gnótt í búi, Nj. 257; en svá mikil gnótt at sólunni um sumarit, so great plenty of sun during the summer, Sks. 71; hljóta sumir mikla gnótt af þessum gjöfum, 561; hann mun gefa þér gnótt allra hluta, Blas. 43; þar vóru gnóttir hvers-vetna, Fs. 65; en at ek gera gnótt spurning þinni, that I give sufficient answer to thy question, Fas. iii. 665. COMPDS: gnótta-brunnr, m. the well of abundance, Stj. 164. Gen. xxvi. 22. gnótta-maðr, m. a wealthy man, Grett. 127 (MS. A. nótta-maðr).

gnurra, að, to gnarr, grate, as a door moving on the hinges.

GNÚA, mod. núa, pres. gný; pret. gneri, gnöri, or neri; part. gnúit; [cp. Dan. gnide]:—to rub; hann tók til orða, ok gneri nefit, and rubbed his nose, Orkn. 394; gnera ek vátum höndum um augu mér, Ó. H. 224; gnera (gnöra, v. l.) ek í sundr öll málmhlið sterkra borga, Sks. 631 B, Mirm. 31: with dat., hón rakaði af honum allt hárit ok neri (paper MS.) í tjöru (dat.), and rubbed it with tar, Fas. i. 18; hann gnýr þar við bakinu þar til er boga-strengrinn skarsk, ii. 547; þó at þér sveinar haeði at því, at þú sitir mjótt ok gnúir saman lærum þínum, Band. 13, Mar. 539; nokkurrir fiskar gnúa sér svá fast við kviðinn, at …, Stj. 77.

gnúfa, ð, (qs. gnúpa), to droop, stoop; skalf hón öll af hræðslu ok gnúfði hón með höfði sínu, Str. 76.

gnúfa, adj. drooping, stooping; hann sat gnúfa hryggr … lypti upp höfði sínu, Str. 73.

gnúpa, u, f. = gnúfa, a nickname, Landn.

gnúp-leitr, adj. = gnúfa, Edda 19.

GNÚPR, m. a peak (= gnípa); þá gékk maðr út ór gnúpinum, Nj. 211; undir gnúpinum, Landn. 277, v. l.: freq. in local names, Lóma-g., Rita-g.; Gnúpar, pl., and Gnúpr, names of farms, Landn.: a pr. name, Bs.

GNYÐJA, gnuddi, to mutter, grumble; herrinn gnuddi nú ílla, Fms. vi. 156 (nuddi, v. l.); en þó gnuddi þetta mest á Sturlu, they grumbled most against Sturla, Sturl. 157: to scream, grunt, gnyðja mundu nú grísir ef þeir vissi hvat hinn gamli þyldi, Fas. i. 282.

gnyðr, m., pl. ir, mod. nyðr, or even spelt niðr, a murmur; þykki mér íllt at heyra gnyð ykkar yfir mér, Fas. iii. 194; görðisk þá mikill gnýr ok gnyðr af ópi ok hlaupum, Stj. 452, v. l. II. in mod. usage freq. the murmur of a river or brook, ár-niðr, lækjar-niðr.

gný-fari, a, m., poët. the wind, Edda (Gl.)

GNÝJA, pres. gnýr, pret. gnúði, to sound, of wind and sea; derived from gnúa, with the notion of a grating sound, as of a stream over pebbles, the tide against the beach, etc.; brím gnýr Kormak, vide Lex. Poët.; breki gnúði á stafni, Höfuðl. 11; gnýr allr Jötun-heimr, Vsp. 53; gnýjanda gjálfr, Sks.; útan gnýr á eyri Ýmis blóð, Edda (in a verse); vindar eru þá úkyrrir ok gnýja héðan ok handan, Edda 8; þar megu vér nú heyra gnýja bana Þorkels frænda, Ld. 326; gnúði á hallæri mikit ok veðrátta köld, Bs. i. 171; þá gnúði á hin snarpasta hríð, Fms. ii. 225; þótti honum görask mikit vandkvæði í þessu er á gnúði, iv. 145; hvat sem á gnýr, Thom. 114.

gný-mikit, n. adj. stormy, windy, Grett. 111 A.

gnýpr, m., mod. nýpr, = gnúpr, a local word.

gnýr, m. a clash, din, as of wind, waves, weapons, etc., Nj. 272, Edda 41, Mag. 6, Skálda 169, Fms. vi. 156, x. 264, Sl. 57: esp. freq. in poët. compds referring to the din of war, Lex. Poët.: metaph., gnýr ok ótti, alarm and fright, Niðrst. 5.

gnæða, dd, mod. næða, to feel a draught, það næðir um þig.

gnæðingr, m., mod. næðingr, a gust of wind, Bárð. 171.

GNÆFA, ð and að, to project, Lat. eminere; af Gnár nafni er svá kallat, at þat gnæfi sem hátt ferr, Edda. 22; merki mörg óðfluga ok gnæfðu fyrir ofan brekkuna, Hkr. i. 150; engi sá fyrr en þar gnæfaði merki yfir þeim, Fms. viii. 62; en er bændr sá þat í móti dags-brúninni at merki konungs gnævaði hátt, 126; ok gnæfar yfir liðinu sem einn hár turn, Al. 141; hans bust næfði (sic) náliga við limar uppi, Fb. ii. 27; g. við himin, Fas. i. 185 (in a verse); hann gnæfði ofarliga við ráfrinu, Grett.: metaph., Lat. impendere, hvílíkr háski at yfir gnæfir þeirra sálum, H. E. i. 514:—very freq. in mod. usage.

gnæfr (gnæpr, Fb. i. 258), adj. floating high, of a banner, Hd. 40.

GNÆGJA, ð, [gnógr], to endow, bestow upon; gnægð með góðum hlutum, Stj. 421; hve hann yrþjóð (acc.) auði gnegir, how he endows men with bliss, Ad. 18; and gnegðr at fjárafli, endowed with wealth, id. In mod. usage nægja, það nægir, ‘tis enough, e. g. sá hefir nóg sér nægja lætr, a saying, freq.

gnægr, adj., mod. nægr, = gnógr; þú hefir þat gnægara, er meira þarf við, Lv. 43; því at lands-folkit var gnægt til, i. e. populous, Hkr. i. 45; hann á nægri börn en kýr, he is better stocked with bairns than kine, Bs. ii. 141; skaupi gnegr, full of contempt, scoffing, Ad. 2.

gnægt, f. (nægt, nægð, Stj. 235, freq. in mod. usage), = gnótt, abundance: esp. in pl., eiga alls nægtir, to have one’s fill of all good things, freq.

gnægta, t, = gnægja; Dróttinn mun þik g. öllum góðum hlutum, Stj. 421.

GNÖLLRA, að, (nöllra, Karl. l. c.; hence the mod. nöldra to grumble, nöldr grumbling):—to howl, bark; hundrinn hljóp upp gnöllrandi, Fas. iii. 545; haukar þeirra gnöllraðu, Karl. 376, v. l.; við þessi orð spratt hundrinn upp ok gnöllraði hátt, Fms. iii. 13; hjarta hans gnöllraði í honum innan-brjósts eins og greyhundr, rendering of Od. xx. 13, 14; þar eru tveir hundar ok nöllra þeir ok grenja, Þiðr. 245.

gnöllran, f. howling, Mar.

GNÖTRA, að, [gnat], to clatter, rattle; gnötrar (gnottir, Verel.) sverðit hvárt yfir annat, Bret. 55; menn þóttusk heyra at beinin gnötruðu við hræringarnar, his bones clattered, Bs. i. 69: esp. of the teeth, skelfr hann svá mjök at gnötrar í honum hver tönn, Háv. 54; tennr hans nötruðu, Fbr. 149: metaph., þar hlaut at nötra um, Sd. 169:—in mod. usage freq. to shiver, shake, as with cold.

gnötran, f. a rattling, Eluc.

GOÐ, n. pl. [all the Teutonic languages have this word in common; Ulf. guþa, n. pl., Gal. iv. 8; guda, id., John x. 34, 35; and Guþ, m.; A. S. godu, n. pl., and God, m.; O. H. G. Cot: in mod. languages masc.; Engl. God; Germ. Gott; Dan.-Swed. Gud].

A. HISTORICAL REMARKS.—In heathen times this word was neuter, and was used almost exclusively in plur., as were also other words denoting Godhead, e. g. regin or rögn = numina, q. v.; and bönd, höpt, prop. = bonds, and metaph. gods:—this plur. usage seems not to refer to a plurality of gods, but rather, as the Hebrew אלהים, to the majesty and mystery of the Godhead; it points to an earlier and purer faith than that which was current in the later ages of the Scandinavian heathendom; thus the old religious poem Völuspá distinguishes a twofold order of gods,—the heavenly powers (regin or ginn-heilög goð) who had no special names or attributes, and who ruled the world, like the Μοιρα or Αισα of Gr. mythology;—and the common gods who were divided into two tribes, Æsir (Ases) and Vanir, whose conflict and league are recorded in Vsp. 27, 28, and Edda 47. II. after the introduction of Christianity, the masculine gender (as in Greek and Latin) superseded the neuter in all Teutonic languages, first in Gothic, then in Old High German and Anglo-Saxon, and lastly in the Scandinavian languages; but neither in Gothic nor in Icel. did the word ever take the masc. inflexive r or s, so that it remains almost unique in form. 2. in Scandinavian the root vowel was altered from o to u (goð to guð), [Swed.-Dan. gud], yet in old poems of the Christian age it is still made to rhyme with o, Goðs, boðnum; Goð, roðnar, Sighvat; as also in the oldest MSS. of the 12th century; sometimes however it is written ḡþ, in which case the root vowel cannot be discerned. 3. in Icel. the pronunciation also underwent a change, and the g in Guð (God) is now pronounced gw (Gwuð), both in the single word and in those proper names which have become Christian, e. g. Guðmundr pronounced Gwuðmundr, whence the abbreviated form Gvendr or Gvöndr. The old form with o is still retained in obsolete words, as goði, goðorð, vide below, and in local names from the heathen age, as Goð-dalir; so also Gormr (q. v.), which is contracted from Goð-ormr not Guð-ormr. On the other hand, the Saxon and German have kept the root vowel o. III. in old poems of heathen times it was almost always used without the article; gremdu eigi goð at þér, Ls.; áðr vér heilög goð blótim, Fas. i. (in a verse); ginnheilög Goð, Vsp. passim; goðum ek þat þakka, Am. 53; með goðum, Alm.; in prose, en goð hefna eigi alls þegar, Nj. 132. 2. with the article goð-in, Vsp. 27: freq. in prose, um hvat reiddusk goðin þá er hér brann hraunit er nú stöndu vér á, Bs. i. (Kr. S.) 22; eigi eru undr at goðin reiðisk tölum slíkum, id.; Hallfreðr lastaði eigi goðin, þó aðrir menn hallmælti þeim, Fms. ii. 52; allmikin hug leggr þú á goðin, Fs. 94; eigi munu goðin þessu valda, Nj. 132, passim. 3. very seldom in sing., and only if applied to a single goddess or the like, as Öndor-goðs (gen.), Haustl. 7; Vana-goð, of Freyja, Edda; enu skírleita goði, of the Sun, Gm. 39. IV. after the introduction of Christianity, the neut. was only used of false gods in sing. as well as in pl., Sólar-goð = Apollo, Orrostu-goð = Mars, Drauma-goð = Morpheus, Bret. (Verel.); and was held up for execration by the missionaries; gör þik eigi svá djarfa, at þú kallir goð hinn hæsta konung er ek trúi á, Fb. i. 371. Yet so strongly did the neut. gender cleave to the popular mind that it remains (Grág. Kb. i. 192) in the oath formula, goð gramt = Goð gramr; and Icel. still say, í Guðanna (pl.) bænum. 2. guðír, masc. pl., as in A. S. gudas, is freq. in eccl. writers, but borrowed from the eccl. Lat.

B. IN COMPDS: I. with nouns, goða-blót, n. sacrifice to the gods, Fb. i. 35. goða-gremi, f. a term in the heathen oath, wrath of the gods, Eg. 352. goða-heill, f. favour of the gods, Þorst. Síðu H. 9. goða-hús, n. a house of gods, temple, Dropl. 11, Nj. 131, Fb. i. 337. goða-stallar, m. pl. the altar in temples, Fas. i. 454. goða-stúka, u, f. the sanctuary in heathen temples, answering to the choir or sanctuary in churches, Landn. 335 (App.) goða-tala, u, f. in the phrase, í goðatölu, in the tale (list) of gods, 625. 41. goð-borinn, part. διογενής, god-born, Hkv. 1. 29. goð-brúðr, f. bride of the gods (the goddess Skaði), Edda (in a verse). Goð-dalir, m. pl. a local name, hence Goð-dælir, m. pl. a family, Landn. goð-gá, f. blasphemy against the gods, Nj. 163, Ld. 180. goð-heimr, m. the home of the gods, Stor. 20, cp. Ýt. goð-konungr, m. (cp. Gr. διογενής βασιλεύς), a king,—kings being deemed the offspring of gods, Ýt. goð-kunnigr and goð-kyndr, adj. of the kith of gods, Edda 6, 11, 13. goð-lauss, adj. godless, a nickname, Landn. goð-lax, m. a kind of salmon, Edda (Gl.) goð-leiðr, adj. loathed by the gods, Korm. goð-máligr, adj. skilled in the lore of the gods, Hým. 38. goð-mögn, n. pl. divine powers, deities, Edda 1; biðja til þinna goðmagna, Bret. (Verel.) goð-reið, f. ‘a ride of gods’ through the air, a meteor, thought to forebode great events, Glúm. (in a verse), cp. the Swed. åska. goð-rifi, n. scorn of the gods, Sks. 435. goð-rækr, adj. ‘god-forsaken,’ wicked, 623. 30. goðum-leiðr, adj. = goðleiðr, Landn. (in a verse). goð-vargr, m. a ‘god-worrier,’ sacrilegus, ‘lupus in sanctis,’ Bs. i. 13 (in a verse). goð-vefr, vide guðvefr. goð-vegr, m. the way of the gods, the heaven, the sky, Hdl. 5. Goð-þjóð, f. the abode of the gods, Vsp.:—but Goth. Gut-þjuda = the land of the Goths, by assimilation Goð-þjóð, passim in old poems and the Sagas. II. with pr. names, originally Goð-, later and mod. Guð-; of men, Guð-brandr, Guð-laugr, Guð-leifr, Guð-mundr, Guð-röðr, Guð-ormr or Gutt-ormr, etc.; of women, Guð-björg, Guð-finna, Guð-laug, Guð-leif, Guð-ný, Guð-ríðr, Guð-rún, etc.; cp. the interesting statement in Eb. (App.) 126 new Ed. (from the Hauks-bók), that men of the olden time used to call their sons and daughters after the gods (Goð-, Þór-, Frey-, Ás-); and it was thought that a double (i. e. a compound) name gave luck and long life, esp. those compounded with the names of gods; menn höfðu mjök þá tvau nöfn, þótti þat likast til langlífis ok heilla, þótt nokkurir fyrirmælti þeim við goðin, þá mundi þat ekki saka, ef þeir ætti eitt nafn, though any one cursed them by the gods it would not hurt if they had ‘one’ name, i. e. if they were the namesakes of the gods, Eb. l. c.;—we read ‘eitt nafn’ for ‘eitt annat nafn’ of the Ed. and MS. In Fb. i. 23, the mythical king Raum is said to have had three sons, Alf, Björn, and Brand; the first was reared by the Finns, and called Finn-Alf; Björn by his mother (a giantess), and called Jötun-Björn; and Brand was given to the gods, and called Goð-Brand (Guð-brandr, whence Guðbrands-dalir, a county in Norway); cp. also Eb. ch. 7.

☞ For the Christian sense of God and its compds vide s. v. Guð.

goddi, a, m. [cp. Germ. götze] a nickname, Ld.

GOÐI, a, m. [Ulf, renders ἱερεύς by gudja (ufar-gudja, ahumista-gudja, etc.), ἱερατεία by gudjinassus, ἱερατεύειν by gudjinôn; an Icel. gyði, gen. gyðja, would answer better to the Goth. form, but it never occurs, except that the fem. gyðja = goddess and priestess points not to goði, but to a masc. with a suppressed final i, gyði; a word coting occurs in O. H. G. glossaries, prob. meaning the same; and the form guþi twice occurs on Danish-Runic stones in Nura-guþi and Saulva-guþi, explained as goði by P. G. Thorsen, Danske Runem.; (Rafn’s explanation and reading of Nura-guþi qs. norðr á Gauði, is scarcely right): with this exception this word is nowhere recorded till it appears in Icel., where it got a wide historical bearing]:—prop. a priest, sacerdos, and hence a liege-lord or chief of the Icel. Commonwealth.

A. HISTORICAL REMARKS.—The Norse chiefs who settled in Icel., finding the country uninhabited, solemnly took possession of the land (land-nám, q. v.); and in order to found a community they built a temple, and called themselves by the name of goði or hof-goði, ‘temple-priest;’ and thus the temple became the nucleus of the new community, which was called goðorð, n.:—hence hof-goði, temple-priest, and höfðingi, chief, became synonymous, vide Eb. passim. Many independent goðar and goðorð sprang up all through the country, until about the year 930 the alþingi (q. v.) was erected, where all the petty sovereign chiefs (goðar) entered into a kind of league, and laid the foundation of a general government for the whole island. In 964 A. D. the constitution was finally settled, the number of goðorð being fixed at three in each þing (shire), and three þing in each of the three other quarters, (but four in the north); thus the number of goðar came to be nominally thirty-nine, really thirty-six, as the four in the north were only reckoned as three, vide Íb. ch. 5. On the introduction of Christianity the goðar lost their priestly character, but kept the name; and the new bishops obtained seats in the Lögrétta (vide biskup). About the year 1004 there were created new goðar (and goðorð), who had to elect judges to the Fifth Court, but they had no seats in the Lögrétta, and since that time the law distinguishes between forn (old) and ný (new) goðorð;—in Glúm. ch. 1 the word forn is an anachronism. It is curious that, especially in the 12th century, the goðar used to take the lesser Orders from political reasons, in order to resist the Romish clergy, who claimed the right of forbidding laymen to be lords of churches or to deal with church matters; thus the great chief Jón Loptsson was a sub-deacon; at last, about 1185, the archbishop of Norway forbade the bishops of Icel. to ordain any holder of a goðorð, unless they first gave up the goðorð, fyrir því bjóðum vér biskupum at vígja eigi þá menn er goðorð hafa, D. I. i. 291. In the middle of the 13th century the king of Norway induced the goðar to hand their power over to him, and thus the union with Norway was finally brought about in the year 1262; since that time, by the introduction of new codes (1272 and 1281), the name and dignity of goðar and goðorð disappeared altogether, so that the name begins and ends with the Commonwealth.

B. DUTIES.—In the alþingi the goðar were invested with the Lögrettu-skipan (q. v.), that is to say, they composed the Lögrétta (the Legislative consisting of forty-eight members—on the irregularity of the number vide Íb. ch. 5), and were the lawgivers of the country; secondly, they had the dómnefna (q. v.), or right of naming the men who were to sit in the courts, vide dómr:—as to their duties in the quarter-parliaments (vár-þing) vide Grág. Þ. Þ. and the Sagas. The authority of the goðar over their liegemen at home was in olden times somewhat patriarchal, vide e. g. the curious passage in Hænsaþ. S. ch. 2; though no section of law relating to this interesting part of the old history is on record, we can glean much information from the Sagas. It is to be borne in mind that the goðar of the Saga time (10th century) and those of the Grágás and Sturlunga time (12th and 13th centuries) were very different; the former were a kind of sovereign chiefs, who of free will entered into a league; the latter had become officials, who for neglecting their duties in parliament might be fined, and even forfeit the goðorð to their liegemen, vide Grág. Þ. Þ. Neither þing (q. v.) nor goðorð was ever strictly geographical (such is the opinion of Konrad Maurer), but changed from time to time; the very word goðorð is defined as ‘power’ (veldi), and was not subject to the payment of tithe, K. Þ. K. 142. The goðorð could be parcelled out by inheritance or by sale; or they might, as was the case in the latter years of the Commonwealth, accumulate in one hand, vide esp. Sturl. passim, and Grág. The liegemen (þingmenn) were fully free to change their lords (ganga í lög með goða, ganga ór lögum); every franklin (þingmaðr) had in parliament to declare his þingfesti, i. e. to name his liegeship, and say to what goði and þing he belonged, and the goði had to acknowledge him; so that a powerful or skilful chief might have liegemen scattered all over the country. But the nomination to the courts and the right of sitting in the legislative body were always bound to the old names, as fixed by the settlement of the year 964; and any one who sought the name or influence of a goði had first (by purchase, inheritance, or otherwise) to become possessor of a share of one of the old traditionary goðorð; see the interesting chapter in Nj. The three goðar in one þing (shire) were called sam-goða, joint-goðar; for the sense of allsherjar-goði vide p. 17.

C. NAMES.—Sometimes a chief’s name referred to the god whom he especially worshipped, as Freys-Goði, Hrafn., Gísl., whence Freys-gyðlingar, q. v.; (the ör-goði is dubious); more frequently the name referred to the liegemen or county, e. g. Ljósvetninga-Goði, Tungu-Goði, etc.; but in the Saga time, goði was often added to the name almost as a cognomen, and with some, as Snorri, it became a part of their name (as Cato Censor in Latin); hann varðveitti þá hof, var hann þá kallaðr Snorri Goði, Eb. 42; seg, at sá sendi, er meiri vin var húsfreyjunnar at Fróðá en Goðans at Helgafelli, 332. Names on record in the Sagas:—men living from A. D. 874 to 964, Hallsteinn Goði, Landn., Eb.; Sturla Goði, Landn. 65; Jörundr Goði and Hróarr Tungu-Goði, id.; Ljótólfr Goði, Sd.; Hrafnkell Freys-Goði, Hrafn.; Oddr Tungu-Goði, Landn.; Þormóðr Karnár-Goði, Vd.; Áskell Goði, Rd.; Úlfr Ör-goði, Landn.; Grímkell Goði, Harð. S.; Þorgrímr Freys-goði, Gísl. 100, 110:—964 to 1030, Arnkell Goði, Landn., Eb.; Þorgrímr Goði, Eb.; Geirr Goði, Landn., Nj.; Runólfr Goði, id.; Þóroddr Goði, Kristni S.; Þormóðr Allsherjar-Goði, Landn.; Þorgeirr Goði, or Ljósvetninga-Goði, Nj., Landn.; (Þorkell Krafla) Vatnsdæla-Goði, Vd.; Helgi Hofgarða-Goði, Landn., Eb.; Snorri Hlíðarmanna-Goði, Lv.; Þórarinn Langdæla-Goði, Heiðarv. S.; and last, not least, Snorri Goði:—in the following period goði appears, though very rarely, as an appellative, e. g. Þormóðr Skeiðar-Goði (about 1100):—of the new goðar of 1004, Höskuldr Hvítaness-Goði, Nj.:—used ironically, Ingjaldr Sauðeyja-Goði, Ld. 2. goðorð mentioned by name,—in the south, Allsherjar-goðorð, Landn. (App.) 336; Dalverja-goðorð, Sturl. ii. 48; Lundarmanna-goðorð, i. 223; Reykhyltinga-goðorð, 104, iii. 166, 169; Bryndæla-goðorð, Kjaln. S. 402: in the north, Ljósvetninga-goðorð, Lv. ch. 30; Möðruvellinga-goðorð, Bs. i. 488; Vatnsdæla-goðorð, Fs. 68; Fljótamanna-goðorð, Sturl. i. 138: in the west, Snorrunga-goðorð, 55; Jöklamanna-goðorð, iii. 166; Rauðmelinga-goðorð, Eb. 288; Reyknesinga-goðorð, Sturl. i. 9, 19; Þórsnesinga-goðorð, 198: the new godords of the Fifth Court, Laufæsinga-goðorð, Nj. 151; Melamanna-goðorð, id., Band., Sturl. i. 227. Passages in the Sagas and Laws referring to goðar and goðorð are very numerous, e. g. Íb. ch. 5, Nj. ch. 98, Grág., Lögréttu-þáttr, and Þ. Þ. passim, esp. ch. 1–5, 17, 35, 37, 39, 44, 58, 60, 61, Lv. ch. 4 (interesting), Vd. ch. 27, 41 (in fine), and 42, Vápn., Hrafn. ch. 2, Eb. ch. 10, 56, Sturl. iii. 98, 104, passim; for the accumulation of godords, see i. 227 (3, 22), Bs. i. 54; for the handing over the godords to the king of Norway, D. I. i; and esp. article 3 of the Sáttmáli, D. I. i. 631, 632. The godords were tithe-free, ef maðr á goðorð, ok þarf eigi þat til tíundar at telja, vald er þat en eigi fé:, K. Þ. K. 142. COMPDS: goða-kviðr, m. a law term, the verdict of a jury composed of twelve goðar, commonly called tylftar-kviðr, a ‘twelver-verdict,’ fixed for some special cases, defined in Grág.; the goða-kviðr was opposed to the búa-kviðr, vide búi, Grág. i. 168, passim. goða-lýrittr, m. a law term, a protest or interdict, Grág. i. 112, ii. 97, passim; but it is uncertain whether it is derived from goði, i. e. the protest of a goði, or from goð, i. e. the great ban, a protest in the holy name of the gods. goða-þáttr, m. a section of law about the goðar, Grág. i. 73. II. = goð, i. e. good genius, in the Icel. game at dice called goða-tafl, with the formula, heima ræð eg goða minn bæði vel og lengi, … og kasta eg svo fyrir þig, cp. also ást-goði.

goð-orð, n. (seldom spelt guðorð, as in Grág. ii. 154); hann var maðr félítill en átti staðfestu góða í Skálholti ok goðorð, Bs. i. 54; for this word vide goði. COMPDS: goðorðs-lauss, adj. without a godord, Nj. 149, Band. 2. goðorðs-maðr, m. a ‘godord-man,’ = a goði, Hrafn. 13, 14, Fs. 67, Glúm. 324, Sturl., passim. goðorðs-mál, n. an action concerning a godord, Sturl. ii. 89. goðorðs-tilkall, n. a claim to a godord, Sturl. ii. 88: erfða-goðorð (q. v.), Sturl. i. 198; fornt goðorð, vide above: forráðs-goðorð = manna-forrað, a godord to which forráð (power) is attached, an απ. λεγ. in Ísl. ii. 173 (Hænsa Þ. S.)

goggr, m. a gag or hook: brýna gogginn, to whet the beak, of a raven: a term of abuse, Edda (Gl.)

gogli, a, m. ooze, mud, Mork. 13; cp. blóð-gögl, blood-ooze, Björn.

GOL, n., mod. gola, u, f. a breeze: metaph., Al. 99; fjalla-g., q. v.

gol-grænn, adj. yellow-green, epithet of the sea.

gollr, m. [Old Engl. goll], the talon or claw of a hawk, esp. of artificial kind; in N. G. L. i. 242 a man has to return to the owner a goshawk if found astray with the goll fastened to him, but he may claim landnám, i. e. compensation for damages done on the land.

gollungr, m. [gollr], poët. a kind of hawk, Edda (Gl.)

gollurr, m. the pericardium, Edda (Gl.) gollur-hús, n. id., Ísl. Þjóðs. ii. 579; hence gollor-heimr, m., poët. the breast.

gol-mórauðr, adj. yellow-brown.

golsi, a, m., golsóttr, adj. a sheep with a dark yellow belly.

gol-þorskr, m. ‘yellow-cod,’ a cod-fish so called from its colour.

gopi, a, m. a vain person, Edda (Gl.)

goppa, að, [Dan. gumpe; Engl. jump], to skip, (rare.)

GOR, n. [A. S. gor; Engl. gore; Swed. går], whence Gor-mánuðr, m. Gore-month, the first winter month, about the middle of October to the middle of November, so called from the slaughtering of beasts for winter Store, Edda 103; vetr ok g. kemr laugardag, Rb. II. the cud in animals, but also used of chyme in men, e. g. spúa græmi gorinu, to vomit the green g., of one far gone in sea-sickness. COMPDS: gor-blautr, adj. clammy, of the hide of a fresh slaughtered animal. gor-geir, m. impudence. gor-kúla, u, f. a fungus, lypoperdon. gor-vargr, m. a law term, [early Dan. and Swed. gornithing; Ivar Aasen gortjuv], a ‘gore-worrier,’ one who feloniously destroys another man’s cattle, liable to outlawry, defined in N. G. L. ii. 523. gor-vömb, f. the first stomach, Ísl. ii. 375.

GORMR, m. ooze, mud, grounds in coffee and the like:—a local name of a muddy creek at the bottom of Gils-fjörðr in the west of Icel. II. name of an old Danish king, prob. contracted from Goð-ormr, cp. Guthrum in the Saxon Chronicle.

gort, n. bragging, fanfaronade, and gorta, að, to brag.

gosi, a, m. [Swed. gossa = a boy], the knave in cards.

got, n. spawning. gota, u, f. spawn.

Goti, a, m., pl. Gotnar, the Goths; hence Gotland, n. Gotland; Gotneskr, adj. Gothic, Lex. Poët.; Gota-veldi, n. the Gothic empire, (of the island Gotland, A. D. 1319.) The name of the Goths with compds occurs freq. in Scandin. history, esp. in Sagas referring to the mythical age; and distinction is made between Ey-Gotar, the Island-Goths, i. e. the inhabitants of the Danish Isles, and Reið-Gotar or Hreð-Gotar in the south of Sweden. According to Jornandes and the late Norwegian historian P. A. Munch, a race of Gothic origin, speaking a dialect closely akin to that of Ulfilas, lived in parts of Scandinavia during the 3rd and 4th centuries of our era; Munch even supposes that Ermanarik (Jörmunrekr) was a Scandinavian-Gothic king, and lived in the 4th century, and that the Runic monuments on the Golden horn, the stone in Tune, the Bracteats, etc., are of this and the subsequent period; on this interesting question see Munch’s Norske Folk’s Hist., vol. i, and several essays by the same. II. poët. a horse, Lex. Poët.

got-rauf, f. the spawn hole in female cod-fish or salmon.

gotungr, m. young fish, fry.

góð-brjóstaðr, part. kind-hearted, Glúm. 308.

góð-fengr, adj. good-natured, Grett. 92 A, 107, Fms. iii. 107.

góð-frægr, adj. of good repute, famous.

góð-fúsliga, adv. willingly, Fms. ii. 204, Stj.

góð-fúss, adj. benevolent, 655 xxx. 10, Fms. ii. 238, Th. 12, Stj. 154.

góð-fýsi, f. goodness, Sks. 12, Fms. i. 304, v. 239, xi. 297, Mar.

góð-fýsi, f. piety, devotion: góð-fúss, adj. devoted, Thom.

góð-fýst, f. good-will, Fms. ii. 225.

góð-gengr, adj. going well, smooth-going, of a horse, opp. to harð-gengr.

góð-girnd and góð-girni, f. goodness, kindness, Fms. x. 368, Nj. 250, Grett. 106 A, Clem. 51, Fs. 29, 38.

góð-gjarn, adj. benevolent, kind, Nj. 30, Fms. i. 76, ii. 19, Bs. i. 61, 66.

góð-gjarnliga, adv. kindly, Fms. iii. 48, vii. 148.

góð-gjarnligr, adj. kind, kindly, Nj. 255, Fms. viii. 101.

góð-granni, a, m. a good neighbour, Sks. 226.

góð-gripr, m. a costly thing, Fms. ii. 61, iii. 134, Fas. i. 394, Thom.

góð-gæfiliga, adv. gently, quietly, Str.

góð-gæt, f. good cheer, good fare, cp. Dan. mundgodt, Str. 21.

góð-görð, f. charity, Barl. 60, 71: mod. in pl. good cheer, hospitality. góðgörða-samr, adj. charitable; góðgörða-semi, f. charitableness.

góð-görning, f. = góðgörningr, Hom. 128.

góð-görningr, m. a good deed, charity, 655 xxiii. 1, Fms. i. 142, vi. 272, Hom. 70, Stj. 25, 399, Bs. i. 109.

góð-háttaðr, part. well-mannered, Bs. i. 38.

góði, a, m. a boon, Fms. xi. 72.

góðindi, n. pl. boons, good things, Barl. 6, 190, 193, Stat. 289.

góð-kunningi, a, m. a good acquaintance.

góð-kunnugr, adj. on good terms.

góð-kvendi, n. collect. a good, gentle woman.

góð-kvennska, u, f. goodly womanhood, Jb. 64.

góð-látr, adj. good-natured, gentle, Pr. 429. góðlat-samr (góðlát-semi, f.), adj. id.

góð-leikr, m. (góð-leiki, a, m.), goodness, Fms. i. 141, 258, ii. 152, vii. 118, Stj. 374.

góð-lifnaðr, m. a good life, Stj. 120, Bs. i. 46.

góð-lífi, n. a good life, 625. 183, Bs. i. 109.

góð-lyndi, n. good nature, Str. 21.

góð-lyndr, adj. good-natured, Str. 21, Fas. i. 3.

góð-mannliga, adv. like a good man, Fms. vi. 304, Bs., passim.

góð-mannligr, adj. gentle, Bs. i. 874.

góð-málugr, adj. = góðorðr, Hým., or better goð-málugr (?).

góð-menni, n. a good, gentle man, Sturl. i. 211, Fms. viii. 136.

góð-mennska, u, f. goodness, gentleness, Barl. 60 (freq.)

góð-mennt, n. adj. good people, Eg. 201, Fms. ix. 293; vide fámennt.

góð-mótliga, adv. (-ligr, adj.), kindly, gently, Sturl. 14.

góð-orðr, adj. gentle in one’s words, Nj. 147.

GÓÐR, adj., neut. gott with a short vowel; but that the ancients, at least in early times, said gótt is clear from the analogy with óðr neut. ótt, fróðr neut. frótt, and from rhymes such as gótt, dróttni; [Ulf. usually renders καλός by gôþs, but ἀγαθός by þiuþigs; A. S. gôd; Engl. good; O. H. G. got; Germ. gut; Dutch goed; Swed.-Dan. god]: 1. good, righteous; góða frá íllum, Eluc. 37; góðan mann ok réttlátan, Ver. 7; góðr ok réttlátr konungr, Fms. vii. 263; góðir ok ágætir, Alex. 65; góðr maðr, Sks. 456; góð kona, 457; er hón góð kona, er þú hefir svo lofat hana? Bs. i. 799; góð verk, Hom. 97; góðr vili, good-will: allit., Góðr Guð; biðja Góðan Guð; Guð minn Góðr! and the like: also as a term of endearment, my dear! Elskan mín góð! barnið gott, good child! M. N. minn góðr! 2. good, honest; drengr góðr, passim; góðir vinir, good friends, Ísl. ii. 393; góðir menn, good men, Grág. i. 301; aðrir góðir menn, Fms. ix. 268; Guði ok góðum mönnum, Grág. ii. 168; góðr vili, good will, honest intention, Bs. i. 746: in addressing one, góðr maðr! Sks. 303, passim; góðir hálsar! 3. kind; góð orð, good, kind words, Fms. vii. 40; vera í góðu skapi, to be in good spirits, Sturl. ii. 178: with dat. kind towards one, þá er þú vart honum íllr þá var hann þér góðr, 655 xiii. A. 4. 4. good, gifted; gott skáld, a good poet, Nj. 38; góðr riddari, a good knight, Fms. vii. 56; góðr þrautar, enduring, Sks. 383:—good, favourable, göra góðan róm at e-u, to applaud; gott svar, and many like phrases. II. good, fine, goodly, rich; góð klæði, Fms. v. 273; góðar gjafir, vii. 40; góðr mjöðr, Gm. 13; góða hluti, good things, Nj. 258; góðr hestr, a fine horse, 90; hafr forkunnar góðan, Fms. x. 224; af góðu brauði, Sks. 321; gott veðr, fine weather, Fms. v. 260; góðan kost skipa, a goodly host of ships, vii. 40; með góðu föruneyti, with a goodly suite, x. 224; fá góða höfn, to make a good harbour, Ísl. ii. 398; mikil ey ok góð, a muckle island and a good, Eg. 25; í góðri virðingu, in good renown, Fms. vi. 141; góðr sómi, Ísl. ii. 393; góð borg, a fine town, Symb. 21; góðr beini, good cheer, Fms. i. 69; góðr fengr, a good (rich) haul, Ísl. ii. 138; gott ár, a good year, good season, Eg. 39; góðir penningar, good money, Fms. vii. 319; góðr kaupeyrir, good articles of trade, vi. 356:—wholesome, medic., hvat er manni gott (bezt)? Fas. ii. 33; úgott, unwholesome. 2. the phrases, göra sik góðan, to make oneself good, to dissemble; heyr á endemi, þú görir þik góðan, Nj. 74. β. in the phrase, góðr af e-u, good, liberal with a thing; góðr af griðum, merciful, Al. 71; góðr af tíðindum, good at news, communicative, Grett. 98 A; at þú mundir góðr af hestinum, that thou wast willing to part with (lend) the horse, Nj. 90 (cp. af C. VII. 2); góðr af fé, open-handed, Band. 2: with gen., góðr matar, good in meat, a good host, Hm. 38. III. neut. as subst.; hvárki at íllu né góðu, neither for evil nor good, Sks. 356; eiga gott við e-n, to deal well with one, stand on good terms with, Stor. 21; færa til góðs eðr ílls, to turn to good or bad account, Grág. ii. 144; fátt góðs, little of good, Hom. 38; fara með góðu, to bring good, Ísl. ii. 136; enda mundi eigi gott í móti koma, Ld. 150; gott gengr þér til, thou meanest it well, dost it for good, Nj. 260; gott var í frændsemi þeirra, good was in their kinship, i. e. they were on good terms, Hrafn. 2; vilja e-m gott, to wish one well, Fms. ix. 282; vilja hverjum manni gott, i. 21: with the notion of plenty, bountifulness, in the phrase, verða gott til e-s, to get plenty of; var þá bæði gott til fjár ok mannvirðingar, there was ample wealth and fame to earn, Eg. 4; ok varð ekki gott til fjár, they got scant booty, 78; var þar gott til sterkra manna, there was plenty of able-bodied men, 187; ok er gott um at velja, plenty to choose from, Nj. 3: the phrase, verða gott við e-t, to be well pleased with a thing, Al. 109; verði þér að góðu, be it well with thee! IV. compds, ey-góðr, ever good; hjarta-góðr, kind-hearted; skap-góðr, geð-góðr, good-tempered; skyn-góðr, clever; svip-góðr, engaging, well-looking; sið-góðr, moral, virtuous; hug-góðr, bold, fearless; lið-góðr, a good helper, good hand; vinnu-góðr, a good workman; sér-góðr, odd, selfish: as a surname, Hinn Góði, the Good, esp. of kings, Fms. ☞ For compar. betri and superl. beztr, vide pp. 6l, 62.

góð-ráðr, adj. giving good counsel, Landn. 239, Fms. iv. 82, x. 266.

góð-ræði, n. goodness, Lv. 108, Fms. ii. 150.

góðs and góz, n. goods; prop. a gen. from góðr, hvat góðs, quid boni? Nj. 236; allt þat góðs sem hann átti, 267, Hrafn. 29; sá er síns góðs misti optliga, Thom. 2 (Ed.): esp. freq. in later writers, Ann. 1332, 1346, Stj. 135, Bs. passim, H. E. i. 432; cp. Dan. gods = property.

góð-siðugr, adj. well-mannered, Thom. 23.

góð-verðr, adj. worthy of good, Rd. 242.

góð-viðri, n. good, fine weather, 623. 21.

góð-vikinn, adj. bounteous, kind, Hugvekju S. 28. 4.

góð-vild, f. = góðvili, Nj. 15, Fms. i. 159, x. 234.

góð-vili, a, m. good-will, Eg. 411, Fms. i. 74, 281, Sturl. i. 210; friðr á jörðu og mönnum góðvili, Luke ii. 14, in the text of 1540, but góðr vili (in two words) in the later texts. COMPDS: góðvilja-fullr, adj. benevolent, kind, Fms. i. 219. góðvilja-maðr, m. a benevolent man, Sturl. ii. 14, Orkn. 50. góðvilja-mikill, adj. full of good-will, Gísl. 87.

góð-viljaðr, part. benevolent, Barl. 200: willing, Fms. ii. 37.

góð-viljugliga, adv. willingly.

góð-viljugr, adj. kind, Magn. 474, Fs. 9: willing, ready, Anecd. 96.

góð-virki, n. good work, Anecd. 96.

góð-virkr (góð-yrkr), adj. painstaking, making good work, Nj. 55.

góð-vænligr, adj. promising good, Band. 5.

góð-vættliga, adv. amicably, Sturl. i. 14.

góð-ættaðr, adj. of good family, Grett. 93 A.

GÓI, f. indecl., always so in old writers, (gœ, i. e. góe, Bs. i. 9, v. 1.), mod. góa, u, f.; the month Gói has thirty days, from the middle of February to the middle of March; for the mythical origin of this word vide Fb. i. 22, Edda 103, Landn. 154, 225, Rb. 48, 50, Ann. 1276, 1340, Bs. i. 9, Ó. H. 64:—in Icel. the names of the winter months Þorri and Góa are still very common. COMPDS: Gói-beytlar, m. pl., botan. equisetum vernum hyemale, Landn. 222. Gói-blót, n. a sacrifice in the month Góa, Fb. l. c. Gói-mánaðr, m. the month Gói, Landn. 256, Rb. 516. Gói-þræll, m. the last day of the month Góa, see the Icel. almanack.

GÓLF, n. [Dan. gulv; Swed. golf], a floor, Vþm. 9, 11, 13, Nj. 2, Eg. 217, Fms. vi. 365, passim; kona liggr á gólfi, to be in childbirth; stein-gólf, a stone floor; fjala-gólf, a deal floor: gólf-stokkar, m. pl. floor beams, Eg. 90; gólf-þili, n. floor deals, Eg. 236, Hkr. i. 17, Hom. 95. 2. an apartment, Edda 2, Stj. 56, Dipl. v. 18, Gm. 24, Clar. 134, Mar.; this sense, which is more rare, is preserved in the Icel. staf-gólf, a room formed by a partition, an apartment; a room is divided into two, three, or more stafgólf.

gó-ligr, adj. gay, joyful, Eluc. 35, Hom. 50, 152, Fms. viii. 23; gólig föng, good cheer, Lex. Poët.

GÓMR, m. [A. S. gôma, whence Engl. gums; O. H. G. guoma; Germ. gaumen; Dan. gane], the palate, Edda 20, Sks. 178: in the phrase, e-m berr mart á góma, to talk freely of many things, Fms. vi. 208, Grett. 148. COMPDS: góm-bein, n. os palati, Fas. iii. góm-sparri, a, m. a gag, Edda 20. góma-spjót, n. pl., metaph. the tongue, Anal. 177.

GÓMR, m. a finger’s point, Edda 110: freq. fingrar-gómr, a finger’s end, Fs. 62.

góm-sætr, -tamr, adj. sweet, tickling to the palate, dainty.

GÓNA, d, to stare sillily.

graðall, m., Bk. 83, Vm. 6; or grallari, a, m., Am. 10, 40, Dipl. v. 18 (gradlari), Pm. 24, 80, Jm. 8, passim, which also is the mod. form, a gradual, a choral book.

graddi or griddi, a, m. a bull, Fas. iii. 212, 499.

GRAÐR, adj. entire, of cattle, Grág. i. 502, Gþl. 392, Lv. 18, Nj. 187. COMPDS: grað-fé, n. entire cattle, Grág. i. 426, Fb. i. 545. grað-hafr, m. a he-goat, Grág. i. 503. grað-hestr, m. an entire horse, a stallion. grað-rót, f., botan. mandrake, Hjalt. grað-smali, a, m. = graðfé, Jb. 431. grað-uxi, a, m. a bull, Boldt. 168.

grað-ungr, mod. and less correct grið-ungr (both forms occur e. g. in Stj.), m. a bull, Grág. i. 426, ii. 122, Landn. 245, Eg. 506, Jb. 276, Bret. 8, Edda 148 (pref.), Stj. passim.

GRAFA, pret. gróf; pres. gref; part. grafinn, with neg. suffix gróf-at, Fas. i. 436 (in a verse): [Ulf. graban = σκάπτειν; A. S. grafan; North. E. to grave; Germ. graben; Swed. grafva; Dan. grave]:—to dig; grafa engi sitt, to drain one’s field, Grág. ii. 181; jörðin var grafin í hám fjallatindum, Edda 144; en er vatnit gróf tvá vega þá féllu bakkarnir, Ó. H. 18; grafa til vatns, id.; grafa út ósinn, Bs. i. 331; þá er þeir höfðu út grafit fitna (dug through it), Ó. H. 18; g. gröf, to dig a grave, 623. 28, Eg. 300; grafa niðr, to dig down, Grág. ii. 351; hann (the horse) var svá kyrr, sem hann væri grafinn niðr, as if he had been rooted in the ground, Hrafn. 7; g. torf, to dig peat, Njarð. 370, Rm. 12; g. upp, to dig up; þeir grófu upp líkamina, Nj. 86; g. upp bein, K. Þ. K. 40, N. G. L. i. 44; grafa alone, Fms. iv. 110: reflex. to bury (hide) oneself, hanu grófsk í brúkit, he hid himself in the seaweed, Njarð. 380; var grafinn lykill (the key was hid) í dyra-gætti, Störnu-Odd. 20. 2. to earth, bury (Old Engl. en-grave); vóru þá allir ríkis-menn í hauga lagðir en öll alþýða grafin í jörð, Ó. H. (pref.); var hann grafinn (buried) hjá leiði Kols biskups, Bs. i. 64, passim; grafa lík, g. niðr, etc., Bjarn. 19, Eb. 338, K. Þ. K. passim. 3. to carve, engrave; grafa innsigli, Mar., Sturl. ii. 222; krismu-ker grafit með tönn, Vm. 117; g. fílsbein í eik, Edda 151 (pref.); Margret gróf ok tönn til ágæta-vel, Bs. i. 143; grafa, steinsetja ok amalera, Fms. xi. 427. II. metaph. to enquire, dive deep into, Hom. 84: to unearth, find out the sense, kveða má svá, at vísan sé fegri þá grafin er, Grett. 94 A; nú festir maðr sér konu, ok grefsk upp skylda með þeim, and relationship is found out afterwards, N. G. L. i. 350; þá grófsk Þórir eptir (Th. enquired) en Úlfr segir at lyktum, Gullþ. 5; gróf hann vandlega eptir (he made a close enquiry) þess manns atferð, Fms. viii. 15; gróf hann svá undir þeim (he sounded them so), at hann varð margra hluta víss, 16; hann gróf at vandlega, ok bað hana segja sér, Dropl. 4; g. um e-t, id., Hom. 43; en grafa eigi um þat er vér megum eigi skilja, Greg. 75: g. upp, to unearth, make out; gátu menn þá upp grafit, at …, Grett. 162; grafask upp, to come to the light, Orkn. (in a verse). III. medic. to suppurate; impers., lærit (acc.) tók at grafa bæði uppi ok niðri, … var lærit allt grafit upp at smá-þörmum, Grett. 153, 154.

grafar-, vide gröf, a grave.

grafgangs-maðr, m. a Norse law term; if freed slaves married against their master’s will, and became paupers, the master might put them into an open grave till one died, when the survivor was taken out. The tale of Svaði digging a grave for the poor, Fms. ii. 222, refers no doubt to this cruel law, which is described in N. G. L. i. 33, but not recorded elsewhere. II. generally a proletarian, N. G. L. i. 97.

graf-götur, f. pl., in the phrase, ganga í grafgötur um e-t, to make a close enquiry about.

grafjurr, m. an engraver, Stj. 158.

graf-kyrr, adj. quiet as if rooted to the spot.

graf-letr, n. an epitaph.

grafningr, m. or f. expounding, Stj. 412. II. a local name, Graveling, in Flanders, Thom.

graf-silfr, n. a buried treasure, Landn. 146, 243.

graf-skript, f. an epitaph, (mod.)

graf-svín, m. a battering swine = a battering ram, Sks. 412.

graf-tól, n. pl. digging tools, Eg. 398, Eb. 176, Bs. i. 331, Fms. vi. 271.

graf-vitnir, m., poët. a serpent, Lex. Poët.

gram-fullr, adj. dire, Art. 109.

gram-ligr, adj. vexatious, Hom. 143.

GRAMR, adj. [mid. H. G. gram; Dan. gram; gramr and grimmr (q. v.) are kindred words from a lost strong verb, grimman, gramm]:—wrath, esp. of the gods, in the heathen oath formula, sé mér goð holl ef ek satt segi, gröm ef ek lýg, whence the Christian, Guð sé mér hollr ef ek satt segi, gramr ef ek lýg, N. G. L. ii. 397, 398, (cp. the Engl. so help me God); goð gramt, Grág. i. 357: esp. in poetry, gramr er yðr Óðinn, Fas. i. 501; mér skyli Freyr gramr, Fs. 95; Dönum vóru goð gröm, Fms. vi. 385. II. gramir or gröm, n. pl. used as subst., fiends, demons; deili gröm við þik, Hkv. Hund. 1. 40; taki nú allir (allar MS.) gramir við honum! (a curse), Fs. 147; gramir munu taka þik, segir hann, er þú gengr til banans, Mork. 43; farþú nú, þars þik hafi allan gramir, Hbl. (fine); mik taki hár gálgi ok allir gramir ef ek lýg, Fas. i. 214; hence gramendr, f. pl., qs. grama hendr: farið ér í svá gramendr allir! Dropl. 23, (vide tröll, tröllendr); glama með grömum, Hm. 30. III. in poetry, gramr means a king, warrior, Edda 104, Hkr. i. 25, Lex. Poët.: name of a mythical sword, Edda.

GRAN, n. a pine-tree, Lex. Poët.; but better fem. grön, q. v.

gran-bein, n. the bone of a fish’s gills, Bs. i. 365.

gran-bragð, n. grinning, moving the lips with pain, N. G. L. i. 67: granbragðs-eyrir, m. a law term, a fine for an injury causing the pain of granbragð, 172.

GRAND, n. a grain, Thom.; ekki grand, not a grain. II. metaph. (prop. a mote?), a hurt, injury, Fms. iii. 80, viii. 112, xi. 228, 277, N. G. L. i. 74 (freq.) 2. in poetry freq. that which causes evil, ruin, Lex. Poët. 3. evil doing, guile, Symb. 19, Skv. 3. 5: granda-lauss, adj. guileless, Lex. Poët. 4. medic. mortification, Al. 120.

granda, að, to hurt, damage, with dat., Fms. i. 31, Sks. 69, Fas. iii. 250, Bs. ii. III (freq.)

grand-gæfiligr, adj. (-liga, adv.), minute, (mod.)

grandi, a, m. an isthmus, a strip of beach above the water at ebb tides, or on the edge of the snow, Gþl. 419, Stj. 14, Mar.

grand-lauss (mod. grann-laus), adj. guileless, Bær. 21, Al. 106: esp. suspecting no evil, single-minded, eg var grannlaus, etc.; hence grann-leysi, n. singleness of heart, eg gerði það í grannleysi.

grand-ligr, adj. dangerous, Grett. 145.

grandvar-liga, adv. without guile, Hom. 141.

grand-varr, adj. guileless, 656 C. 30, Pr. 133, Mar. 291.

grand-veri, f. guilelessness, Róm. 332, Bs. ii. 40, Stj. 302, Hom. 17.

granna, u, f. a female neighbour, Str. 16, 23.

grann-fengr, adj. slender, tiny, Korm. (in a verse).

grann-hygginn, adj. silly, of weak understanding.

GRANNI, a, m. [for etym. see p. 186 A. II], a neighbour, N. G. L. i. 11, 341; granna-stefna, a meeting of neighbours, Gþl. 383; granna sætt, 380: the saying, garðr er granna sættir, N. G. L. i. 40, cp. Jb. 258, (freq.)

grann-kona, u, f. = granna, N. G. L. i. 340.

grann-leikr (-leiki), m. slenderness, Bs. ii. 164.

grann-leitr, adj. thin looking, Ld. 274, Fms. i. 185.

grann-liga, adv. tenderly, Skálda 198.

grann-ligr, adj. slender of build, Edda 81, Ld. 274, Eg. 486, Eb. 42.

GRANNR, adj., compar. grennri and grannari, [as to etym., grannr is prob. akin to grein, a branch, hence the long vowel (vide II); but both are different from grœenn, green, which is from gróa]:—thin, slender, very freq. in mod. usage, = Lat. gracilis, epithet of a lady, Edda 85 (in a verse); mittis-grannr, thin in the waist: in gramm. single, of vowels, opp. to digr, of diphthongs; þat hljóð er grannara, Skálda 177: neut. grannt, adv. nicely; ör-grannt, id. II. it appears with a long vowel in grón (or gr́n, qs. grönn) ván, thin, slender hope, Gísl. 66 (in a verse); friðv́n segi gr́na (granna), Sturl. iii. 216 (in a verse); and perhaps also in grón lind, a thin, slender shield, Edda 106 (in a verse).

grann-vaxinn, part. slender of stature, Fms. vii. 175, Bs. ii. 164.

grann-vitr, adj. thin-witted, silly.

gran-rauðr, adj. [grön], red bearded, a nickname = Barbarossa. Fms. xii.

gran-selr, m. a kind of seal, Sks., Fms. ii. 270.

gran-síðr, adj. long bearded, Akv. 34.

gran-sprettingr, m. [cp. Dan. grönskolling], = Lat. puber, Róm. 304.

gran-stæði, n. the lips, where the beard grows, Eg. 304.

GRAS, n. [Ulf. gras = χόρτος, λάχανον; A. S. græs and gærs; Engl. grass; Germ. gras; Swed. and Dan. gras]:—grass, herbage, opp. to wood, trees, Vsp. 3, Fm. 25, Hm. 20; hrísi ok grasi, 120; grös ok viðu, Rb. 78; fölr sem gras, Nj. 177; góðir landa-kostir at grösum ok skógum, Fs. 26; svá er sagt, at á Grænlandi eru grös góð, good pastures, Sks. 44 new Ed.; reyta gras, to pick grass, Nj. 118; þar var náliga til grass at ganga (better görs), Ld. 96; bíta gras, to graze, Grág. ii. 299; gras grær, grass grows, Edda 145 (pref.); tak af reiðinginn ok fær hestinn á gras, Sturl. iii. 114; þú ætlaðir mik þat lítilmenni at ek munda hirða hvar hestar þínir bitu gras, Fs. 57; þar þótti Grelöðu hunangs-ilmr ór grasi, Landn. 140: vegetation, in such phrases as, þar sem mætist gras ok fjara, grass and beach, Dipl. iii. 11: the grassy earth, opp. to a wilderness or the sea, þat var í ofanverðum grösum, high up, near the wilderness, Dropl. 33; allt austr undir jökla sem grös eru vaxin, Landn. 65:—phrases, hníga í gras, to bite the dust, Ísl. ii. 366; mun ek hafa mann fyrir mik áðr ek hníga at grasi, Njarð. 378; lúta í gras, id., Fbr. 90 new Ed.; heyra gras gróa, to hear the grass grow (of the god Heimdal), cp. Edda 17: sugared language is said to make the grass grow, við hvert orð þótti grös gróa, Clar.; þau vóru orðin, at gróa þóttu grösin við, Mirm.: ganga eptir e-m með grasið í skónum, to go after one with grass in one’s shoes, i. e. to beg hard, intercede meekly with one who is cross and angry. 2. a herb, a kind of grass; ek hefi þat eitt gras, etc., Fms. ix. 282; af grasi því er vér köllum hvann-njóla, x. 336: esp. in plur. herbs with healing powers, þau grös sem mandragore heita, Stj. 175; afl dauðfærandi grasa, Johann. 26; með góðum grösum, Blas. 43; ilmuð grös, sweet herbs, Bb. 2. 20; tína grös, to clean grass, pick the moss clean:—botan. in plur., Iceland moss, Jb. 310; and in composition, brönu-grös, mandrake; esp. of lichens, fjalla-grös, fell lichen, Lichen Islandicus; fjöru-grös, seaweeds, sea-wrack; Gvendar-grös, id.; Mariu-grös, lichen nivalis; Munda-grös, lichen coacervatus edilis; trölla-grös, lichen albus. COMPDS: grasa-fjall, n., in the phrase, fara á grasafjall, to go gathering moss. grasa-fó1k, n. folk gathering moss. grasa-grautr, m. a porridge of Iceland moss. grasa-leit, f. herb-gathering, Pm. 7. grasa-mjólk, f. milk cooked with Iceland moss. grasa-poki, a, m. a grass-poke, of Iceland moss. ☞ In derivative compds, blá-gresi, geranium; star-gresi, sedge; íll-gresi, evil grass, weeds; blóm-gresi, flowers, etc.

grasa, að, to collect moss.

grasaðr, part. prepared with herbs (of mead), Ó. H. 71, Barl. 136.

gras-bítr, m. a ‘grass-biter,’ a beast, brute, Nj. (in a verse), freq.

gras-blettr, m. a grass-plot.

gras-dalr, m. a grassy dale, Karl. 14.

gras-garðr, m. a garden, Hkr. i. 71, Gþl. 178, Fas. i. 530: hortus, þat köllum vér g., Stj. 68, Bs. i. 698, N. T., Pass. (Gethsemane). grasgarðs-maðr, m. a gardener, D. N.

gras-gefinn, part. grassy, fertile.

gras-geilar, f. pl. grassy lanes, Hrafn. 20.

gras-geiri, a, m. a grass goar, strip of grass.

gras-gott, n. adj. a good crop of grass, Fb. i. 522.

gras-grænn, adj. grass-green, Sks. 49.

gras-hagi, a, m. a grass pasture.

gras-kyn, n. grass kind, the species ‘grass,’ Stj. 389.

gras-laukr, m. a kind of leek, garlic, Hom. 150.

gras-laust, adj. without grass, barren.

gras-leysa (-lausa), u, f. ‘grasslessness,’ barren ground; í graslausu, Grág. i. 383, Sturl. i. 121, 127, ii. 128, Ann. 1181.

gras-leysi, n. barrenness, Sturl.

gras-ligr, adj. grassy, Hom. 37.

gras-loðinn, adj. rich in grass, Ld. 156, Fas. iii. 276; mýrar víðar ok grasloðnar, Bs. i. 118; but gras-loðnur, f. pl. a rich crop, 306, l. c.

gras-lægr, adj. lying in the grass, touching the grass, Hkr. i. 293, (of a ship’s keel); a scythe is called graslægr, if it cuts too close.

gras-maðkr, m. a grass maggot.

gras-mikill, adj. rich in grass, Konr. 56.

gras-nautn, f. the use of grass (grazing), Grág. ii. 222, Jb. 215, Vm. 48, 79.

gras-rán, n. grass-stealing, N. G. L. i. 40. grasráns-baugr, m. a law term, a fine payable for grazing one’s cattle in another’s field, N. G. L. i. 40, Js. 99.

gras-rætr, f. pl. roots of herbs or grass, Bs. ii. 81, Sks. 48.

gras-setr, n. ‘grass-farming,’ opp. to sowing and tilling; þrjú ár seri hann jörðina ok fjórða sat hann gras-setri, D. N. ii. 248.

gras-skaði, a, m. loss in crop, D. N.

gras-sótt, f. grass-fever, in a pun, Fb. ii. 365.

gras-svörðr, m. greensward.

gras-toppr, m. grass-top, Bb. 2. 23.

gras-tó, f. a strip of grass among rocks or in a wilderness, Fbr. 156.

gras-vaxinn, part. grown with grass, Str. 4, Gþl. 405.

gras-verð, n. a fine for grazing, = grasránsbaugr, Gþl. 405.

gras-víðir, m. a kind of willow, salix herbacea, Hjalt.

gras-völlr, m. a grassy plain, Str. 4, Art.

gras-vöxtr, m. growth of grass, crop.

graut-nefr, m. a nickname, porridge nose, Sturl.

GRAUTR, m., gen. grautar, [A. S. grut, gryt; Engl. groats; Dan. gröd; Swed. gröt; Ivar Aasen graut; hence Germ. grütze]:—porridge, a favourite mess with Scandin. peasants, see the tale of Grautar-Halli, answering to Germ. Hanswurst, N. G. L. i. 349, Korm. 150, Eb. ch. 13, 39, Fas. iii, Eg. S. Einh. ch. 5, Fms. vi. 363 sqq. (porridge eaten with butter): a pudding, Fms. ii. 163: the phrase, gera graut, to make porridge, Eb.; hefja graut, to lift (i. e. to eat) graut, Fms. vi. l. c.: a nickname, Dropl. 3. COMPDS: grautar-ketill, m. a porridge-pot, Fbr. 209. grautar-sótt, f. porridge fever, a pun, Fms. v. 93. grautar-trog, n. and grautar-trygill, m. a porridge trough, mash trough, Fms. vi. 364, Eb. 36. grautar-þvara, u, f. a ladle to stir the porridge in cooking, Eb. 198: töðugjalda-grautr, a harvest porridge, supper of porridge.

grá-bakr, m. ‘grey-back,’ poët. a dragon, Edda.

grá-barði, a, m. grey-beard, a cognom., Fms. ix.

grá-beinn, adj. [graabein in the Norse tales], ‘grey-leg,’ i. e. the wolf, D. N. i. 199.

grá-bíldóttr, adj. with grey-spotted cheeks, of a sheep, Rd. 240.

grá-björn, m. a grey bear, opp. to white bear, Fb. i. 257, Fas. i. 51.

gráða, u, f. [Lat. gradus], a step, Stj. passim, Fms. vi. 267, vii. 97, Skálda 209: in mod. usage esp. the steps round the altar in a church: metaph. degree, Stj. 8: mathem. a degree, Rb. 458, 460; í gráðu eru sextigi minuta, Hb. 732. 7.

gráði, a, m. [grár; Ivar Aasen graae], a breeze curling the waves, Edda (Gl.): in mod. usage fem. gráð, það er gráð á sjónum:—bad grey butter is called gráði, borinn var innar bruðningr og gráði, Snót 216.

GRÁÐR, m. [Ulf. grêdus = λιμός; Engl. greed], prop. hunger, freq. in Lex. Poët.; úlfa gráðr = úlfa sultr: greed, gluttony, Bs. ii. 137, Róm. 184, Sks. 113 B (gráði); hel-gráðr, voracity presaging death; ok er nú kominn á þik helgráðr er þú hyggsk öll ríki munu undir þik leggja (of insatiable ambition as presaging downfall), Fas. i. 372; cp. hel-fíkr, id., 385; (these passages are paraphrases from old lost poems.)

gráðugr, adj. [Ulf. grêdags; A. S. grædig; Engl. greedy; O. H. G. grâtag]:—greedy; g. logi, Stj. 385; g. elska, Hom. 84; g. ágirni, id.; g. halr, a glutton, Hm. 19; g. búkr, a gluttonous belly, Bb. I. 5; g. vargar, Bs. ii. 134.

gráðu-liga, adv. (-ligr, adj.), greedily, Mar., Magn. 420.

grá-eygr, adj. grey-eyed, Grett. III A.

grá-feldr, m. a grey furred cloak, Hkr. i. 176: a nickname, id., whence Gráfeldar drápa, name of a poem, id.

grá-fygli, n. and grá-fygla, u, f. = grágás II. 2.

grágás, f. a ‘grey goose,’ a wild goose, Edda (Gl.), Þiðr. 347. II. metaph. the name of a Norse code of laws in Drontheim (Frostaþingslög), prob. from the grey binding or from being written with a goose quill, Fms. viii. 277 (Sverr. S.), Hkr. iii. 23; cp. Gullfjöðr, gold feather, gold quill, name of an eccl. code; or Hryggjar-stykki, a kind of duck, but also the name of a book. 2. in later times (in the 16th century) the name Grágás was misapplied to an old MS. of Icel. laws of the Commonwealth time, the present Cod. Arna-Magn. 134 folio, or Sb., and has since been made to serve as a collective name for all Icel. laws framed before the union with Norway, sometimes including, sometimes excluding the eccl. law (Kristinna-laga þáttr = K. Þ. K.); the whole matter is fully treated by Maurer, s. v. ‘Graagaas,’ in Ersch and Gruber’s Encyclopedia; he makes out that the Icel. of the Commonwealth, although they had written laws, had no code, and that the passage in Íb. ch. 10 does not refer to codification, but to the committal of oral laws to writing; the two vellum MSS., the Kb. and Sb., are merely private collections of the 13th century, and differ very much one from the other. Upon the union with Norway, Iceland was for the first time blessed with a code, which they called Ironside (Js.); and a second code, the Jon’s Book, was introduced A. D. 1281.

grá-hærðr, adj. hoary, with grey hairs.

grá-jurt, f. gnaphalium montanum, Björn.

grá-klæddr, part. grey-clad, Sturl. ii. 190.

grá-kollóttr, adj. grey and ‘humble’ (i. e. without horns), of sheep, Gullþ. 19. grá-kolla, u, f. a grey humble ewe.

grá-kufl, m. a grey cowl, Fb. ii. 333.

grá-leikr, m. malice, trickery, Bs. i. 809, Fb. i. 408, Barl. 117.

grá-leitr, adj. pale-looking, pinched, Bs. i. 797.

grá-liga, adv. spitefully, with malice, Nj. 71, Mar.

grá-ligr, adj. malicious, cruel; g. leikr, rude play, Stj. 497. 2 Sam. ii. 16, Fms. x. 445.

grá-lyndr and grá-lundaðr, adj. pettish, malicious, Bs. i. 646, Valla L. 205, Nj. 38.

grá-magi, a, m. ‘grey-maw,’ a stone grig, cyclopterus, Bjarn. 42, 43.

grá-munkr, m. a grey friar, Fms. ix. 377, x. 127, 128, Sturl. iii. 209.

grána, að, to become grey, metaph. to be coarse and spiteful; tekr at grána gamanit, the play began to be coarse, Sturl. i. 21, (græðna, v. l.)

Grána, u, f. a grey mare. Gráni, a, m. a grey horse: the mythol. horse of Sigurð Fáfnis-bani is prob. to be proncd. thus, not Grani.

GRÁP, n. a storm, sleet; grund var grápi hrundin, Haustl. 15; Egils hryn-gráp, the hail of Egil, poët. arrows; Egil, brother of Völund, is the Tell of the northern mythology, vide Lex. Poët.; in prose this word seems not to occur, whereas krap, n. sleet (q. v.), and krapi, a, m. id., are common words; cp, the mod. grape-shot.

grápa, að, [grípa], to pilfer, Stj. 78, 154, 167.

grá-peningr, m. a ‘grey penny,’ a false coin, Karl. 247.

GRÁR, adj., contr. acc. grán, dat. grám, etc. [A. S. græg; Engl. gray or grey; O. H. G. graw; Germ. grau; Dan. graa; Swed. grå]:—grey; grám vaðmálum, Fms. i. 118; í grám kyrtli, Ísl. ii. 218; gjalda rauðan belg fyrir grán, Nj. 141; grár fyrir hærum, grey, hoary, Fms. vi. 95, Fas. ii. 557; grár fyrir járnum, mailed in grey steel, of armour, Mag. 98: grá þoka, grey fog: of silver, grátt silfr, grey, false silver, opp. to skírt (true) silver, whence the phrase, elda grátt silfr, to play bad tricks. II. metaph. spiteful, Bjarn. 3; þó at í brjósti grátt búi, although bearing malice in the heart, Str.; cp. grá-lyndr, as also grá-beinn, grá-dýri, of the wolf: neut. grátt, basely, Ísl. ii. 467.

grá-rendr, part. grey-striped, Gísl. 156.

grá-silfr, n. grey (bad) silver, brass; bera af e-m sem gull af grásilfri. Gkv. 2. 2; cp. the mod. phrase, sem gull af eiri,—the old language has no special word for brass, eir being derived from Latin.

grá-síða, u, f, name of a spear, grey steel, Gísl.

grá-skinn, n. grey fur, Fms. vii. 74, Grett. 61, Jb. 187.

grá-skinnaðr, part. lined with grey fur, Sks. 228.

grá-skýjaðr, part. covered with grey clouds, Sks. 228.

grá-slappi or gró-slappi, a, m., mod. grá-sleppa, u, f. a female stone grig, cyclopterus: a nickname, Ld.

grá-steinn, m. grey-stone, Bjarn. 64: a kind of stone, Ivar Aasen.

GRÁTA, grét, grátið, pres. græt, with neg. suff. grátt-at-tu, weep not thou, Hkv. Hjörv. 41; [Ulf. grêtan; A. S. grætan; Hel. greotan; lost in mod. Engl., but used in North. E. and Scot. to greit or greet = weep; Swed. gråta; Dan. græde; Ivar Aasen graata]:—to greit, weep; grét Þórir, en Sigmundr mælti, grátum eigi, frændi, munum lengr, Fær. 33; Freyja grætr eptir, en tár hennar eru gull rautt, Edda 21; hón tók at gráta ok svaraði engu, Nj. 11; hvárt grætr þú nú Skarphéðinn, 202; hón greiddi hárit frá augum sér ok grét; Flosi mælti, skapþungt er þér nú, frændkona, er þú grætr, 176, cp. Edda 38, 39; fár er fagr ef grætr, Fb. i. 566; hversu bersk Auðr af um bróður-dauðann, grætr hón mjök? Gísl. 24, 62; gráta sáran, to ‘greit sore,’ Ísl. ii. 103; gráta hástöfum, to weep aloud; hón mátti eigi stilla sik ok grét hástöfum, Nj. 27; gráta beiskliga, to weep bitterly, N. T.; gráta fögrum tárum, to weep fair tears (cp. θαλερόν δάκρυ), to ‘greit sore;’ gráta fegins-tárum, to weep tears of joy. II. trans. to bewail, weep for one, 677. 1; þó er þat vel er þú grætr góðan mann, Nj. 176; gráta Baldr ór Helju, Edda 39; ef allir hlutir í heiminum kykvir ok dauðir gráta hann, 38: the saying, sé gret aldrei fyrir gull sem ekki átti það, he never wept for gold who had it not, Vídal. i. 286, ii. 84. III. part. grátinn, bathed in tears, Stj. 385, Am. 94; hón var löngum grátin, Bs. i. 193; hón var grátin mjök, Vígl. 28.

grát-bæna, d, to implore, beg with tears.

grát-fagr, adj. beautiful in tears (epithet of Freyja), Edda 63.

grát-feginn, adj. weeping for joy, Ld. 82, Fms. vi. 235, Bs. ii. 132.

grát-gjarn, adj. prone to weeping.

grátinn, part., vide gráta III.

grá-titlingr, m. ‘grey-titling,’ a kind of sparrow.

grát-kjökr, n. sobbing, choked tears.

grát-liga, adv. piteously.

grát-ligr, adj. pitiable, Hom. 11: piteous, Fms. ii. 223.

grátr, m. [Dan. graad; Swed. gråt], ‘greiting,’ weeping, Edda 37, Fms. i. 138, Rb. 332, Bret. 68, Mar. gráta-guð, n. the weeping goddess, Freyja, Edda.

grát-raust, n. a weeping voice, Nj. 82, Fms. vii. 38.

grát-samligr, adj. piteous, Mar. 12.

grát-stafir, m. pl. weeping, crying aloud.

grát-stokkinn, part. bathed in tears; g. augu, Bs. ii. 28.

grát-sök, f. a cause of tears, Mar. 28.

grát-þurfa, adj. needing tears, needing repentance by tears, Hom. 38.

grá-valr, m. a grey falcon, H. E. i. 391, Art.

grá-vara, u, f. grey fur, Eg. 69, 575, Ó. H. 134.

grá-víðir, m. ‘grey-withy,’ a kind of willow.

greðgi = reður (?), Sturl. ii. 39.

grefill, m. a little hoe, Landn. 293, v. l.

grefja, u, f. a kind of bier (?), Sturl. ii. 223.

gref-leysingr, m. a law term, a kind of freedman, intermediate between a freedman and a slave, a freedman, but whose freedom is not published from the thingvold and who has not been ‘leiddr í lög,’ defined in Grág. i. 358.

grefr, m., grefi, acc. pl., Róm. 167, [grafa], ‘a digger,’ a hoe, Landn. 141, 293, Vm. 87, Stj. 451, N. G. L. iii. 2, 10, Bk. 83: the phrase, hafa e-n í grefi fyrir sik, cp. hafa e-n fyrir grjótpál, to have another for one’s hoe, use him as a tool, Róm. l. c.: in mod. usage called járn-karl or páll.

grefsi, m. = grefill, Landn. 293, v. l.

grefta, t, [gröftr, grafa], to earth, bury, Fms. i. 241, Karl. 551, Trist. 14: part. greftr, Bs. i. 426. Stj. 112, 228.

greftr, m. = gröftr, burial, Karl. 263.

greftra, að, = grefta, Fms. x. 208, Fær. 187, Sturl. i. 112; part. greftraðr, buried, Mar. passim.

greftran, f. burial, freq. in mod. usage, Pass. 50.

GREIÐA, dd, [Ulf. garaidjan = διατάττειν, 1 Cor. xvi. i, Tit. i. 5, and προτίθεσθαι, Ephes. i. 9; A. S. gerædan; North. E. (see Atkinson’s Cleveland Glossary) to graith = to furnish or equip; in Icel. greiða and reiða seem to be only a double form of the same word, the former having kept the prefixed g; in sense they are akin, cp. Dan. rede, Swed. reda, and see greiðr]:—to arrange, disentangle; greiða hár, to comb or dress the hair; Hildigunnr greiddi hárit frá augum sér, H. combed or stroked back the hair from her eyes, Nj. 176; þá tók konungr þar laugar, ok let greiða (comb) hár sitt, Fms. i. 189; en hón hafði hendr at, ok greiddi lokka hans, Karl. 532; sem fyrst er hann var greiddr (combed), Mar. 161; ógreitt hár, unkempt hair; greiða ull, to comb or card wool, Bret. 30, 32. 2. to make or get ready; greiða segl, to make the sail ready, Sturl. i. 118; g. vað, to make the fishing-line ready, Edda 36; g. net, a fishing term:—also intrans. to get ready, g. til um e-t, to get ready for a thing, i. e. get it ready; g. til um vápn sín, to get the weapons ready, Eg. 220; sagði at hann skyldi til g. at verðir væri öruggir, that he should take it in charge, that …, Fms. ix. 22; g. til frásagnar, to make ready for the story, 655 xxvii. 6. 3. to speed, further; g. ferð e-s, Fms. ii. 16; greiðit Drottins götur, make straight the way of the Lord, 625. 90. Luke iii. 4: reflex., greiddisk honum vel, it speeds well with him, he speeds well, Eg. 180; honum greiddisk vel ferðin, Ísl. ii. 393; greiddisk ferð hans vel, Eg. 140; ef henni greiðisk seint, if she speeds slowly, Fms. iv. 28. II. [Ulf. garaþjan = ἀριθμειν, Matth. x. 30; Dan. rede, udrede], to pay; hann skal honum greiða í slíku fé sem hann hefir til, Gþl. 305; nú vil ek at þú greiðir öxar-verðit, Fs. 68; fé þetta skyldi greiðask á þremr várum, Fms. ii. 114; hann skyldi heimta landskyldir ok sjá yfir at allt greiddisk vel, x. 227; Mörðr greiðir fram (paid out) heimanfylgju dóttur sinnar, Nj. 11; g. aptr, to pay back, H. E. i. 460: to discharge, annan dag eptir greiðir Þórólfr skattinn af hendi, Eg. 64; þeir leggja féð fram þóat ek greiða af hendi, they find the money although I pay it, Fms. v. 293. 2. to discharge, perform; greiða vörð, to keep watch, Fms. ix. 23; g. útvörð, hestvörð, viii. 90, Sturl. iii. 241; g. róðr, to pull, Fms. ii. 178; g. atróðr, to attack (in a sea-fight), vii. 264; g. til atlögu, id., 290: merely circumlocutory, g. rás, to run, Rb. 210; g. göngu, to proceed, walk, Stj. 566; g. skírslu af höndum, to perform the ordeal, Fms. vii. 230; g. ok gjalda leiðangr, to perform (of personal duty) and pay the levy, 173. III. metaph. to interpret, make out; at þeir gangi í lögréttu ok í setur sínar, at greiða lögmál þetta, to expound the law, Grág. i. 7; en þat eru stórsögur, ef þær eru greiddar út í gegnum, if they are told to the end, Al. 36; hann ræddi um við Árna at hann skyldi greiða (settle) mál hans búandans, Orkn. 336; bað Þorstein eiga í allan hlut at þetta mál greiddisk, Boll. 352; hví gengr eigi fram málit? Guðmundr kvað brátt greiðask munu, Fs. 74; greiða fyrir e-m, to entertain one, or the like.

greiða, u, f. a comb; hár-greiða, a hair comb.

greið-fara, adj. walking with speed, Ísl. ii. 469.

greið-færr, adj. speeding well: neut. passable, of a road, Ísl. ii. 410, Eg, 239: easy, Fms. ii. 84.

greið-gengr, adj. = greiðfærr, Eg. 239.

greiði, a, m. [Ulf. garaideins = διαταγή, κανών, δόγμα], disentanglement, arrangement, ordering; mun hann ekki fýsa Önund at göra greiða á málinu, to put the case right, Eg. 366; þau tóku lítið af hans máli til greiða, Fms. viii. 17; skipaðisk lítt til greiða með þeim, nothing was settled between them, Bs. i. 752, Sturl. i. 239 C; ok er honum þótti ráð hennar mjök seinkask til greiða, there was no change for the better in her state, Bs. i. 158; fara at greiða, to go on well, N. G. L. i. 137; Þrándr segir at þat var skylt ok heimilt, at hann gerði þann greiða á fyrir konungs orð sem hann mátti, that he discharged it for the king’s sake as well as he could, Fms. iv. 344; bændr gerðu þar engan greiða á, vi. 333; Leifr spurði hverr greiði á mundi verða um silfr þat, L. asked if the money would be paid, Fær. 215. 2. entertainment; vera má at þér þyki alkeypt, at þú vildir engan greiða göra oss, that thou wouldest give us no entertainment, Eb. 266; þar höfðu þeir greiða-dvöl, they baited there, waited for refreshment, Eg. 564, v. 1.; Þorkell fagnar þeim vel, ok býðr þeim greiða, Fbr. 97 new Ed.; þeir heilsuðu Þorgilsi, en bjóða honum engan greiða, Sturl. iii. 140; bað hann göra góðan greiða Gauti, Fb. i. 505, Róm. 210; Starkaðr fór inn ok kvaddi sér greiða, Bs. i. 544.

greiðir, m. = greiði, N. G. L. ii. 431: a furtherer, Lex. Poët.

greiðka, að, to speed, quicken; g. sporið.

greið-liga (greiðu-liga, B. K. 118), adv. readily, promptly, North. E. ‘gradely,’ Sturl. i. 155, Fms. v. 306, Hkr. iii. 6: quite, downright, actually, þeir eru eptir tveir menn þeir er g. (actually) vóru at víginu, Bjarn. 72; g. berr, quite stripped off, Fb. ii. 139; þó at engir menn bæri vápn á mik g. (downright), Bs. i. 580; ekki vígi ek vötnin g. (really), 575; eigi er ek g. í heyþroti, I am not actually without hay, Ísl. ii. 137.

greið-ligr, adj. ready, prompt; var söngrinn eigi g., the song did not go smoothly, Fms. vii. 152; greiðlig kaupstefna, Þorf. Karl. 402; ok er miklu greiðligra, at …, more to the purpose, that …, Nj. 92, v. 1.; görit greiðligt fyrir mér (speak out plain to one) hvat yðr býr í skapi, Grett. 146; göra e-m greiðlig orð, to make plain words of it, Fb. i. 64.

greið-mæltr, part. of ready speech, Þiðr. 175.

greiðr, adj. [cp. North. E. gradely], ready, free; vísa e-m á greiða götu, to lead one in the straight path, Fms. i. 304; lá honum þat greitt fyrir, it was ready at hand, Fær. 257; verða má, at leiðin verði eigi svá greið sem þeir ætla, that the passage will not be so free as they think, Sturl. i. 18: as adv., skip þat fór greitt, that ship speedeth well, Clem. 38; it greizta, 45; hit greiðasta, straight, with good speed, Fms. i, 292; hann er góðr ok greiðr (expedite) við alla sína nágranna, Band. 3; g. ok góðviljugr, D. N. i. 88; úgreiðr, unready, entangled.

greið-skapr, m. readiness, promptness, Nj. 18, Fms. ii, 287, Jb. 12; entertainment, Korm. 68, Fms. iii. 61.

greiðsla (greizla), u, f. payment, discharge, Sturl. ii. 203, iii. 265, Am. 40; ef þat væri til greiðslu með þeim, if that could do them good, Sturl. ii. 239.

greið-talaðr, part. = greiðmæltr, Stj. 253.

greið-ugr, adj. = greiðvikinn.

greið-vikinn, adj. serving, obliging; greið-vikni, f.

greifi, a, m. [A. S. gerêfa; Engl. reeve (shire-reeve = sheriff); Germ. graf; the word is not Scandin., and for the etym. see Grimm’s Rechts-alterth. 752 sqq.]:—an earl, count; Edda 93 states that gerêfas in Saxony (i. e. Germany), barons in England (after the Conquest), and lendir menn in Norway are all synonymous; Nj. 157, Fms. vii. 59, 60, Mar. passim: Stj., Al., and Róm. render Lat. praefectus by greifi: as a nickname, Bs. i. 555. greifa-dómr, m. an earldom, county, Ann. 216, Stj.

GREIN, f., pl. ar and ir; the mod. pl. greinar means branches, in other senses greinir: [Dan. green; Swed. gren; not found in Germ., Saxon, nor Engl.]: I. prop. a branch of a tree, ‘lim’ is the foliage; af hverri grein draup hunang sætt, Pass. 32. 4; vínviðar-greinir, vine branches, Stj, 200; pálma-viðar-g., a palm branch; kvíslask með stórum greinum, spread with large branches, Sks. 441, 443; þar vex fyrst upp einn bulr af rótunum, ok kvíslast síðan með mörgum greinum ok limum, 555. II. metaph. a branch, arm: 1. hafs grein, an arm of the sea, Stj. 287; í sjau staði er skipat þessarar listar greinum, Alg.; vísinda grein, branch of science (Germ. fach); lærdóms-grein, branch of doctrine; sundr-skiptingar grein, subdivision, Stj. 287; tvífaldleg grein, double kind, N. G. L. ii. 352; þessi er grein (particulars) á kaupeyris tíund, id.; sannkenningar hafa þrenna grein, Edda 122; Guð er einn í Guðdómi en þrennr í grein (of the Trinity), Fas. iii. 662; einkanligr í grein, Bs. ii. 21; allar greinir loptsins ok jarðarinnar, Edda 144 (pref.); hann greindi í tvær greinir ok tuttugu, Rb. 78; í þessi grein, on this head, in this case, Band. 11. β. denoting cause, reason; fyrir þá grein, therefore, Stj. 124; fyrir sagða grein, for the said reason, Mar., Sks. 682; fyrir þá (þessa) grein, Stj. 22, 23, 167, passim; finnr hann til þess þrjár greinir, Grett. 208 new Ed.; at þér upp lúkit nokkurri grein fyrir mér, at þat megi skilja, Sks. 660. γ. a point, head, part; meðr samri grein, under the same head, Dipl. i. 521; í annari grein, in the second place, iv. 7, Grett. 156, Fb. i. 216; með slíkri grein sem hér segir, K. Á. 82; í öllum greinum, Mk. 9; sagða grein, the said point, head, Dipl. iii. 13; í nokkurum greinum, in some points, i. 3; hverja grein, in every point, Gþl. 177; fyrir allar greinir, in all respects, Mar. 616; en er biskup vissi þessar greinir, the points, particulars (of the case), Bs. i. 727. 2. denoting distinction, discernment, division; höggva svá títt at varla mátti grein sjá, Bret. 64; sjá grein handa, to discern one’s hands, Bs. ii. 5; fyrir utan alla grein, without exception, i. 281; hver er grein setningar háttanna, disposition of the metres, Edda 120; hljóðs grein, distinction of sound, accent, id., Skálda 182; göra grein góðs ok ills, Eluc. 20; setja glögga grein, to make a clear distinction, 677. 5; fyrir greinar sakir (for the sake of distinction) er diphthongus fundinn í norrænu, Skálda 178; sundr-grein ok saman-setning, 177; ok veit ek þó grein allra stunda, Fms. v. 335; litlar greinir ok tengingar höfum ver konungs-málanna ór flokki yðrum, i. e. you take little notice of the king’s errand, Mork. 138; bera grein á e-t, to discern a thing, Mar.; þar kann ek at göra grein á, I can explain that, Fb. i. 419. β. understanding; þau (the idols) hafa enga grein, Fms. x. 232; vitr ok frábærrar greinar, xi. 429; glöggrar greinar, sharp-witted, Bs. ii. II; sumum gefsk anda-grein, spiritual discernment, Greg. 20. γ. a record; þessa grein konungsdóms hans ritaði fyrst Ari, this record of the king’s reign was first written by Are, Ó. H. 188; í greinum ok bóklegu námi, Mar. δ. a part, head, paragraph, in a book (mod.); ritningar-grein, a quotation from Scripture. 3. denoting diversity, difference; en þó er hér, herra, grein í, Fb. ii. 78; en þó er þar grein á, hvárt …, K. Á. 124; ok voldi því grein tungna þeirra er hann var konungr yfir, Sks. 458; at grein var á trú þeirri er hvárt þeirra hafði til Guðs, 470; sú er grein á syslu biskups ok konungs, at …, 803. β. dissent; brátt görðusk greinir í um samþykki konunganna, Fms. vi. 185; varð mart til greina með þeim, 195; greinir ok sundrþykki, ix. 428; var þá grein mikil með fólki um konungs-tekjuna, x. 41; vald fyrir utan alla grein, power without dissent, i. e. absolute, undisputed power, Bs. i. 281; grein eða áskilnaðr, Stj. 298; en ef verri menn gengu á milli þá vóru jafnan greinir talaðar, Fb. ii. 411; urðu margar greinir með þeim Kolbeini Tumasyni, Sturl. ii. 1. COMPDS: greinar-laust, n. adj. indiscriminately, Bs. ii. 96, Stj. 272: unconditionally, Bs. i. 736, 767. greinar-mál, m. a reasonable case, Bs. ii. greinar-mikill, adj. discerning, clever, Stj. 95. greinar-munr, m. discrimination, distinction; göra g. góðs ok ílls, to know good and evil, Gen. iii. 5. greina-vænn, adj. likely to cause a difference, Fms. x. 107.

GREINA, d, to branch: I. to divide into branches; veröldin var greind í þrjár hálfur, Edda (pref.); sá er greinir ok sundr skilr, Stj. 95; greina í sundr dag ok nátt; greina tíma, daga, 15; skaltú hana (the ark) með gólfum greina, 56; hann greindi skepnuna í tvær greinir, Rb. 78; var þá engi skepna greind önnur frá annarri, Ver. i; hanu greindi (set apart) þá tíð (viz. Lent) meirr til meinlæta en aðrar, 625. 93; heimrinn allr greindr í þrjá þriðjunga (of a map), Al. 117. 2. to discern, distinguish; máttir þú greina þann Guð, er á himnum er, frá þeim guðum, er …, 625. 65; ef greina má þeirra bein frá annarra manna beinum, N. G. L. ii. 351; þá skilr hann ok greinir alla hluti görr, Skálda 169; at greina hvern lim eða kvist þeirrar ræðu, Sks. 568; greina gang himintungla, Fms. v. 334; hljóð þat sem eyru megu greina, Skálda 173; grein þér vitrlega hversu …, discern wisely for thyself how …, Mar.; til þess er konungr ok erkibiskup greina (discern, settle) allt þat er milli manna stóð, Bs. i. 727. 3. to expound, tell, record; sem áðr er greint, as is told above, Fms. ii. 168; þó at ek greina þat eigi at sinni, i. 223; til greindrar bænar, Magn. 532; eptir greinda sýn, Mar. 471; í greindri sæmd, 617; áðr greindum mönnum, Dipl. ii. 19: impers., sem fyrr greinir, as above mentioned, Rb. 232; at hann skyldi svá greina frásögu (tell his story) um atburð þenna, Ld. 58; greindi Örnúlfr þessi landa-merki, Dipl. iv. 17; vitnin kunnu eigi at greina með hverjum hætti, the witnesses could not tell how …, Mk. 79; nú skal greina framkvæmd þessa hlutar, Bs. ii. 163. II. reflex. to branch out; svá sem tungurnar greindusk, Edda 145; en af því at tungurnar era þegar úlíkar, þær þegar er or einni ok enni sömu tungu hafa gengið eða greinzk, Skálda 160; hennar efni leiðisk ok greinisk af fyrir-farandi frásögn, Stj. 246; hanga sumar limarnar niðr en sumar greinask (branch) útí frá tveim-megin, Róm. 148; sumar (arms of water) greinask ok renna mjök grunnt, Barl. 72. 2. to be separated; ok greindusk sér hvar skipin, Fms. vii. 289; síðan greinisk tigu ok vald með þeim, Sks. 249. 3. to differ, disagree; menn greinask at því, hvárt …, Ó. H. 219, cp. Fms. v. 83; greinask menn at (there are different records) hvárr fyrri áverki varð, Sturl. iii. 249; greinask menn á fyrir því hvárt tíguligra þótti, Fms. xi. 316. β. to disagree, fall out, become enemies; var þá skipuliga með þeim í fyrstu en greindisk brátt, Sturl. ii. I; en þá meirr tók at greinask með þeim kompánum, Bs. i. 620; var þá sæmiliga með þeim í fyrstu, en þó greindisk (MS. grênðisk) brátt, 489; friðr grenisk (i. e. greinisk), the peace is broken, Sturl. i. 458 (in a verse); vánir grenask, the hope is broken up, Hkv. 2. 49; (the explanation of this passage given in Aarböger for Nord. Oldk. 1866, p. 384, where it is derived from grár, grey, qs. græ-na, does not hold good either in sense or form, as the inflex. inchoative -na causes no umlaut, and grár, grey, when metaph. only denotes spite.) III. impers. to fall out, discord; spurði Helgi at kistlinum en Geitir í mot at hringnum, ok greindi þá (acc.) sýnt um, Vápn. 9; en ef nokkura menn greindi á (quarrelled), bá þótti engi maðr skjótlegri til stórræða en Ögnumdr, Fms. ii. 68; þat höfum vit ætlat at láta okkr (acc.) ekki á greina, Nj. 58.

greind, f. discernment, freq. greindar-liga, adv. (-ligr, adj.), cleverly.

greini-liga, adv. distinctly, Eg. 55, 271, Nj. 235, Fms. i. 300, Fb. i. 503: quite, sheer, Stj. 10.

greini-ligr, adj. distinct, articulate, Skálda 174 (of sound).

grein-ing, f. distinction; glöggvari g. = epexegesis, Skulda 205; greiningar-vit, the senses, Bs. i. 785; að-greining, distinction.

GREIP, f., pl. greipr, [A. S. grâp], the space between the thumb and the other fingers, a grip, grasp, Edda 110; at hin hægri greip spenni um hinn vinstra úlflið, Sks. 291; ok rann upp á greipina, Fms. v. 85; þrekligar greipr, Sd. 147; því næst brestr fram ór bjarginu greip eigi smáleit, Bs. ii. 111: metaph., ganga í greipr e-m, to fall into one’s clutches, Fs. 37, Fms. vi. 210; meir fyrir þat at vér vórum þá komnir í greipr honum, Orkn. 88; ganga ór greipum e-s, to slip from one’s grasp; spenna greipr, to clasp the hands: the phrase, láta greipr sópa, um e-t, to make a clean sweep, Grett. 127: the name of a giantess, Edda. ☞ Icel. distinguish between greip and neip (qs. gneip, the interval between the other fingers).

greipa, að or t, to grasp, comprehend, Edda (in a verse): metaph., g. glæp, to commit, Am. 82.

gréla, u, f. a rusty, blunt knife, Snot 70.

gre-ligr, adj. = greiðligr, Sks. 407 B.

grell-skapr, m. [Germ. groll], spite, Edda 110.

gremi, f. [gramr], wrath, anger; gremi Óðins, Hkv. 1. 11: esp. of the gods, in the allit. phrase, goða gremi legg ek við, lögbrot ok goða gremi ok griða rof, Eg. 352; hann skal hafa goða gremi ok griðníðings-nafn, Fs. 54; gremi Guðs, Ísl. ii. 382; Guð Drottins gremi, Grág. ii. 382, 383.

GREMJA, gramði, [vide gramr; Ulf. gramjan = παροργίζειν; A. S. and Hel. gramian; Dan. græmme; Swed. gräma = to grieve]:—to anger, provoke, esp. the wrath of the gods (God), to offend the gods (by perjury or wickedness); gremðu eigi goð at þér, Ls. 12; sá gremr Guð at sér, Hom. 86, 159; þú hefir gramit at þér Maumet, Karl. 434; ok gremja svá Guð at sér ok alla góða menn, Fms. xi. 364; þú ert her kominn at óleyfi bræðra minna ok gremr svá goð at þér, Fas. ii. 69, else rare; gremr hann konunginn at sér (vexes the king) með vápna-gangi, Al. 42; hvat gremr þik líf þitt, quid te offendit vita tua, Hom. 12; göra lítið úr gáfum hans, gremja svo mildi skaparans, Bb. 1. 8. II. reflex. to get angry, be grieved; en ef þit vildut þat göra, þá munda ek ekki gremjask ykkr, Fms. v. 238; fagna þeirra fagnaði er fögnuð göra Guði, en gráta hina er við hann gremjask (those who provoke him), D. I. i. 362 (to render the Lat. flere cum flentibus): mod., mér gremsk að sjá það, it grieves me to see it, etc.

gremja, u, f. fretting, annoyance. gremju-verðr, adj. annoying.

GREN, n., gen. pl. grenja, a lair; gren eðr holur (of a snake), Stj. 93; varga gren, hafði úlfrinn dregit eitt lík inn í grenit (lair, of a wolf), Mirm. 36: in Icel. only of a fox’s lair, sem melrakki í greni, Nj. 198, Karl. 144, Sturl. i. 88; hann mun bíta kunna nær greninu, Ld. 278. COMPDS: grenja-leit, f. seeking a fox’s lair. gren-smogin, part.; tóa grensmogin, a fox with cubs.

greni, n. [grön], pine timber. greni-borð, n. a pine-wood board.

grenja, að, to howl, bellow, Eg. 486, Bs. i. 42, ii. 49, Fms. iii. 179, vi. 150, Konn. 82, Fas. ii. 484, Edda 20, Mar. 116.

grenjan, f. bellowing, Fas. ii. 481; g. inna úörgu dýra, Post. 645. 73.

gren-lægja, u, f. = grenskolli.

grenna, d, [grannr], to make thin, slender: reflex. to become thin.

grennd, f. [granni], vicinity, Gþl. 393, Js. 98, 100. grenndar-far, n. = búsifjar, q. v., N. G. L. i. 40.

grenni, n., in ná-grenni, neighbourhood, D. N.: the phrase, svá er mál með grenni (mod. svo er mál með vexti), Fas. iii. 59.

gren-skolli, a, m. a fox in its earth, Fs. 48.

grenslan, f. enquiry; eptir-grenslan, investigation.

grenslask, að, dep. [granni], to pry into, enquire, Grett. 111.

greppi-liga, adv. = greypiliga, Fb. i. 530.

grepp-ligr, adj. (-liga, adv.), frowning, ugly, Fær. 9, Fs. 142.

GREPPR, m. [perhaps akin to garpr], a poet; g. enn ungi, the young bard, Lex. Poët.; biðjandi hjartans grepp minn góðan, göra fyrir mig drápu-korn, Jón Þorl.; skáld heita greppar, ok rétt er í skáldskap at kenna svá hvern mann, Edda (Arna-Magn.) ii. 528. greppa-minni, n. a kind of metre, Edda (Ht.); a kind of memorial verses, the questions in the first half stanza, the responses in the second, Edda (Ht.) 40. II. a strange creature, a monster; sér hann þá hvar gengr greppr mikill (of a giant), þykist hann þá kenna Dofra tröll, Fb. i. 565; þá sá þeir ekki lítinn grepp (of a ghost) suðr við garðinn, ok var þar Klaufi ok hafði höfuðit í hendi sér, Sd. 160.

grér, m. [gróa (?)], a twig (?), only used in mod. poët. circumlocution ot a man; geira grér, örva grér, etc.

gresja, að, [gras; Dan. græsse], to graze: in the saying, þar er ekki um auðugan garð að gresja, i. e. there is little to be had.

gres-járn, n. a kind of iron, Edda 34, Fas. iii. 240.

GRETTA, tt, esp. reflex, grettask, to frown, make a wry face; hann skaut marga vega augunum ok gretti sik, Fb. i. 541: to frown, Fb. i. 530, Stj. 459 (of a lion), Bárð. 35 new Ed.; g. um tennr, to grin, El.

grettinn, adj. making wry faces, freq. in mod. usage.

grettir, m., poët. a ‘frowner,’ dragon, Edda: pr. name, Landn., whence Grettis-færsla, u, f. name of a poem; Grettis-haf, n. Grettir’s lift, is in Icel. the popular name for giant boulders.

grettur, f. pl. wry faces: metaph., búa-grettnr, quarrels among neighbours (cp. mod. búa kritr), 655 xxi. 3; vina-grettur, quarrels among friends, Frump.

GREY, n., pl. greyja, a greyhound; greyjum sinum gullbönd sneri, Þkv. 6, Hm. 100 (of a lap dog); grey (a bitch) þykki mér Freyja, Jb. ch. 10: metaph. a paltry jellow, coward; grey þitt, Gísl. 68; grey eðr bleyðimaðr, Fagrsk.; grey eðr ættar-skömm, Mirm.; greyja atgangr, a dog-fight, Fms. viii. 308.

grey-baka, u, f. a bitch, Þiðr. 106.

GREYFA, ð, [grúfa], to grovel, bow down with the face to the earth, Fms. viii. 333 C: reflex., Eg. 508, Fms. iii. 127, Fas. ii. 251.

grey-hundr, m. a greyhound, Fms. xi. 10.

grey-karl, m. a dogged churl, Bær. 2.

grey-liga, adv. meanly, poorly, El. 101.

grey-ligr, adj. paltry.

grey-mennska, u, f. and grey-skapr, m. paltriness, Fas. iii. 64.

GREYPA, t, to groove, Fb. i. 258, Ísl. ii. 462.

greypi-liga, adv. fiercely, Fms. vi. 367, vii. 134, Sturl. i. 44 C, Vígl. 26, Fas. iii. 123.

greyping, f. a groove, N. G. L. ii. 110 (freq.)

greyp-leikr, m. fierceness, Rum. 298.

greyp-ligr, adj. fierce, fearful; g. langræki, Hom. 143, Stj. 144; g. sár, fearful wounds, Fas. iii. 126.

GREYPR, adj. fierce, cruel, Róm. 333, 346, Fms. x. 380, 385, Eg. 304; g. glæpr, a fearful crime, Bs. ii. 117; g. úhlýðni, 112.

grey-skapr, m. paltriness, Fms. ii. 61, Fs. 99, El. 580. i, Al. 46.

grey-stóð, n. a couple of hounds, Akv. ii.

GRIÐ, n. [a Scandin. word, found in the Saxon Chron. year 1011, and in the A. S. poem Byrnoth, but in both passages it is a Danish, not a Saxon word].

A. Prop. a domicile, home, with the notion of service; segja mann af griði, to give one notice to leave, Grág. i. 146; fá e-m grið, to get one a situation, id.; ef maðr hefir sér eigi grið (if a man has no home, no livelihood), ok varðar þat útlegð, id.; koma til griðs, to come to (take up) service, 147; þiggja grið með e-m, to lodge with one, 160; taka grið með e-m, id., 149; vera í griði með e-m, to be in lodgings with one, N. G. L. i, 210; lög-grið, a lawful home, id.; búi sínu eðr griði, one’s household or abode, Grág. i. 163; fara ór griði, to leave service, ii. 144. COMPDS: grið-fang, n. the taking a dwelling, Grág. i. 20. griðfanga-dagr, m. = skildagi, Grág. ii. 468. grið-fastr, adj. having a home, Lex. Poët. griðka, u, f. = griðkona, Grett. 148 A. grið-kona, a, f. a housemaid, Nj. 118, Fms. viii. 243, Fs. 51, Grett. 148 A, Hrafn. 25, Grág. passim. grið-lauss, adj. homeless. grið-maðr, m. a ‘house-man,’ servant, lodger, Grág. i. 35, 242, ii. 143. grið-taka, u, f. a hiring of servants, Grág. i. 153. grið-vist, f. lodging, Njarð. 366.

B. In pl., metaph. a truce, peace, pardon; friðr is the general word, grið the special, deriving its name from being limited in time or space (asylum); rjúfa grið, spilla griðum, to break truce; setja grið, to make truce; halda grið, to keep truce; mæla fyrir griðum, to say the truce formula, etc., Grág. ii. 165 sqq.: the phrase, grið ok frið, fé-grið ok fjör-grið, truce for money and life, 168; segja í sundr griðum, to declare the truce to be at an end, Sturl. iii. 317; lífs grið ok lima, safety for life and limbs, Eb. 310; biðja griða, to sue for quarter (in battle), Nj. 45; beiða griða Baldri fyrir allskonar háska, Edda 36; gefa e-m grið, to give one quarter (after a battle), Nj. 265; ganga til griða, to sue for (take) pardon, Fms. vii. 245; þeir beiddu griða (truce) einn dag til heimreiðar, Eg. 279; kom hann þá griðum á ok því næst sættum, Fms. i. 81: a sanctuary, asylum, þeim er á grið kirkjunnar flýr, K. Á. 34. COMPDS: griða-beiðandi, part. one who sues for peace, Grág. ii. 23. griða-brek, n. pl. breach of truce, Grág. ii. 22. griða-gjöf, f. a granting truce (life), Orkn. 456, Fms. ix. 524. griða-lauss, adj. truceless, Germ. vogelfrei, Edda 40, Fas. iii. 391: neut., er allt var griðalaust (truceless) með mönnum, Eb. 234. griða-mark, n. a sign of truce, Edda 47. griða-mál, n. pl. truce formularies, Ísl. ii. 379. Grág. ii. 165 sqq., Fms. vii. 62, griða-rof, n. pl. breach of truce, Grág. ii. 22, Eg. 352, Fas. i. 72. griða-sala, u, f. a granting truce, N. G. L. i. 177, Eg. 232. griða-setning and grið-setning, f. truce-making, Sturl. ii. 159, Grett. ch. 77. griða-staðr, m. a sanctuary, asylum, Edda 37, Gþl. 179, Fas. ii. 63. griða-stund, f. a term of truce, Bret. griða-tíð, f. id., v. l. grið-bítr, m. a truce-breaker, Grág. ii. 166, O. H. L. 75. grið-níðingr, m. a law term, a truce-breaker, Grág. ii. 167, Nj. 102, Orkn. 430. grið-samr, adj. peaceful, merciful, Fms. viii. 234. grið-spell, n. pl. breach of truce, N. G. L. i. 254.

griði, a, m. a horseman, servant, Fb. ii. 335.

grið-mál, grið-sala, grið-setning, etc., vide griða- above.

Grikkir, m. pl. Greeks; Grík-land, mod. Grikk-land, n. Greece; Grikkja-konungr, m. the Greek king; Grikklands-eyjar, f. pl. the Grecian Isles, 625. 64; Grikklands-haf, n. the Grecian Archipelago, Fms. passim.

grikkr, m. [prob. from Engl. grig, cp. Johnson on this word], a juggle (mod. word); göra e-m grikk, to play one a trick.

Grikskr, adj. Greek, passim; Gríska, u, f. the Greek tongue; in old writers usually by metathesis, girskr, etc.

grimd, f. grimness, fierceness; sakir grimðar eðr íllvilja, Fms. i. 71; en eigi skorti hann spekt né grimd, 117; grimdar-andi, breathing wrath, Stj. 288; grimdar-mála dagar, days of wrath, Stj. 642. 2 Kings xix. 3; grimdar-náttúra, savage disposition, Mar. 604: grimdar-fullr, adj. savage, Fms. i. 207, Stj. 469: grimdar-hugr, m. fiery mood, Fms. v. 271. II. metaph. a biting frost; var grimd svá mikil at klæði þeirra freri, Fas. ii. 427: grimdar-frost, n. id., Bs. i. 381.

grimmask, d, (and að, Háv. 39), dep. to chafe, be furious; g. móti Guði, Fms. viii. 240; g. upp á heilaga kirkju, Thom. 6 (Ed.); hann byrsti sik ok grimmisk mjök (of a wild bear), Finnb. 248, Mar. 563; útan Þorbjörn, hann grimmask við hann fyrir allt saman, Háv. l. c.; hvárt mun þín reiði grimmask í gegn öllum mönnum, Stj. 329; grimmask á e-n, to rage against one, Pr. 402.

grimm-eygr, adj. fierce-eyed, Fms. ii. 20; better grunneygr, q. v.

grimm-hugaðr, adj. in a grim, fierce humour, Fas. i. 178, Stj. 187.

grimm-leikr (-leiki), m. savageness, cruelty, Eg. 255, Nj. 176, Fms. x. 380, Hom. 42, Sks. 496, Stj. 256, Mar. passim.

grimm-leitr, adj. grim, stern-looking.

grimm-liga, adv. grimly, fiercely, sternly, esp. in the phrase, hefna g., to take a fearful revenge, Fms. i. 266, vii. 157, x. 221, Fas. i. 13; g. reiðr, fearfully angry, Anal. 240; gráta g., to ‘greit’ sorely, Skv. 3. 25.

grimm-ligr, adj. ‘grim-like,’ fierce, Eg. 305, Nj. 104, Hkr. i. 10, Fms. ii. 100, vi. 131: savage, Edda 19; g. atganga, a furious onslaught, Mar. 575; g. orrosta, Bret.; g. dómr, Fms. ii. 223: fearful, Fs. 17; g. gnýr, a fearful crash, Sl. 57.

grimm-lundaðr, adj. of grim temper, Fagrsk. 24.

GRIMMR, adj. [A. S., Engl., and Hel. grim; Dan. grim = ugly; in old Icel. writers this word implies the notion of ferocity, sternness, wrath, but not of wanton cruelty, and seldom of ugliness as in Engl., Dan., etc.]:—grim, stern, horrible, dire, sore; grimmt er fall frænda at telja, ‘tis grim to tell of a kinsman’s death, Stor. 10; grimt várumk hlið, a sore gap it was to me, 6; gráta grimmum tárum, to weep grim, bitter tears, Hkv. 2. 43; fimm grimmar nætr five grim, miserable nights, Korm. 184 (in a verse); grimm orð, lamentation, Gh. 1; hugðak mér grimt í svefni, I had a fearful dream, Bkv. 16. 2. stern, savage, Lat. ferox; hón var allra kvenna grimmust ok skaphörðust, Nj. 147; ákafa-maðr mikill í skapi, grimmr, úþýðr ok fátálr, Fms. i. 19; glaðmælt, undirhyggju-maðr mikill, ok hin grimmasta, 20; fyllask ens grimmasta hugar, to be filled with rage, 623. 25; g. híðbjörn, a grim bear, Grett. 100. 3. with dat. wroth; svá var hón orðin grimm Brjáni konungi, at …, she hated him so much, that …, Nj. 269; hence in poët. phrases, baugum, vellum grimmr, fé-grimmr, hodd-g., hating, wasting gold, munificent, Lex. Poët.: neut., með grimmü, grimly, Fms. ii. 9; gjalda e-t grimmu, to take grim revenge, 223. II. metaph., 1. with the notion of ugly, hideous; ljótt andlit ok grimmt ok andstygt mannligu kyni, Sks. 539, (rare.) 2. piercing, of cold; svá sem kalt stóð af Niflheimi ok allir hlutir grimmir, Edda 4.

grimm-úð, f. ferocity; grimm-uðigr, adj. furious, Fas. i. 32, Am. 55.

GRIND, f., pl. grindr, a lattice door, gate; lék þar grind á járnum, Fms. v. 331; eru garðar hennar forkunnar háfir ok grindr stórar, Edda 18; forn er sú grind, en þat fáir vitu hve hón er í lás um lokin, Gm. 22; gest þú né geyja né á grind hrekir, Hm. 136, Am. 36, Fsm. 9; láta hlið á ok grind fyrir eðr hurð, Grág. ii. 228; nú ganga menn í gegnum garðs-hlið þá skal sá ábyrgjask er upp lýkr grindum, N. G. L. i. 41; hestrinn hljóp svá hart yfir grindina, at hann kom hvergi niðr, id.; var grind fyrir borghliðinu ok lokin aptr, Þórr gékk á grindina ok fékk eigi upp lokit, þá smugu þeir milli spalanna, 30; Hel-grindr, the gates of Hel, Edda 38; Ás-grindr, the gates of the Ases, id.; ná-grindr, the gates of death, Skm. COMPDS: grindar-hlið, n. a gate with a lattice, Fms. ii. 148. grindar-hæll, m. a peg to keep the gate fast, Gþl. 383. grinda-sög, f. a saw (in a frame). grind-garðr, m. a lattice fence, Fs. 183. grind-hlið, n. = grindarhlið, Lv. 19. II. an enclosure, α. for ships, docks; liggja (of ships) í grindum, Hkv. 1. 49: pens for catching whales, hence the Dan. grinde-hval, grinde-fangst, of catching whales by penning them in; esp. veiða elgi (to catch elks) í görðum eða grindum, Gþl. 449: of store-houses, folds, fullar grindir, full-stocked folds, Hm. 77; fé byrgt í grindum, sheep penned, Eg. 375; honum var sagt at fé allt væri heilt í grindum ok úsakat, Fas. i. 71: lattice work, fjórar grindr lætr hann göra með fjórum hornum, ok níu reita rístr Þrándr alla vega út frá grindunum, Fær. 183, 184; lét göra grind um útan um legsteininn, Fms. viii. 237: in compds, beina-grind, a skeleton; dún-grind, q. v.: a gridiron, grinda-brauð, n. bread baked on a gridiron, Dipl., Vm.

grip, n. a grip, grasp; upp-grip, plenty to take, abundance; á-grip, q. v.; yfir-grip, compass: medic. spots on the skin, believed to be the finger-prints or marks of goblins or demons, Fél.

grip-deildir, f. pl. rapine, robbery, N. G. L. i. 20, Gþl. 473, Fms. i. 221, vi. 218.

gripla, að, to grope; fara griplandi hendi eptir, Gþl. 46.

griplur, f. pl. groping; henda griplur til e-s, to grope after, Eluc. 22; griplur er sem hendi þá, Mkv. 2: gloves without fingers, mittens. II. name of an epic Rímur in parchment, a dimin. = Rímur af Hrómundi Gripssyni.

GRIPR, m., gen. ar, pl. ir, [akin to grípa, to hold, seize, cp. A. S. gripe = manipulus]:—prop. anything possessed; nú hafa tveir menn veðmæltan einn grip báðir, Grág. i. 412; hross eðr skip eðr aðra gripi, 437; alla þá gripi er menn eiga saman, hvárt sem þat er akr eða eng eða aðra hluti, Gþl. 505. 2. value, money’s worth; hann kvað þó verra grip í (of less worth) enn hann ætlaði, Nj. 73; yðr er ekki happ at drepa hann, ok engi gripr at hafa hann brott, not worth one’s while to drive him away, Fms. vii. 218; enn þriðja hlut á hann þann er mikill gripr er í, Edda 15; epli þau er henni munu gripir í þykkja, 46; í gripum sæmiligum ok löndum, … í þeim gripum er engi væri minna en tíu aura verðr, Sturl. iii. 293: gripa-tak, n. seizure of property, Grág. ii. 196, Gullþ. 19. 3. esp. in pl. costly things, pretiosa; klæðnaðr Þóru ok gripir, Eg. 158; hann skyldi ok kaupa gripi til handa henni svá at engi jafnfjáð kona ætti betri gripi, Ld. 132; klæði, vápn, ok annars-konar gripi, Fms. vi. 182; hann gaf sinn grip hverjum þeirra, Gullþ. 9, 19; húsbúnað ok klæðnað ok góða gripi, Fb. ii. 186; kost-gripr and kjör-gripr, a costly thing, Fs. 43; dýr-gripr, a jewel; spilla gripum sínum, to spoil one’s own things, 51: gripa-kista, u, f. a jewel chest, Sturl. ii. 108 C: grip-auðigr, adj. rich in precious things, Ld. 154. II. in mod. usage esp. of cattle, stock; gangandi gripir, live stock, Bjarn. 22; stór-gripr, great cattle (cows, horses), opp. to smali, small cattle (sheep). III. a pr. name, Landn.

gripr, m. [Germ. griff], a vulture, Þiðr. 92.

GRÍÐ, f. frantic eagerness; í gríð, eagerly: gríðar-liga (gríðu-liga, Mag. 99, Ed.), adv. eagerly: gríðar-ligr, adj. eager. II. mythol. Gríðr, f. a giantess; Gríðar-völr, m., Edda 60.

GRÍMA, u, f. [A. S. grîma; Dan. grime = a horse’s halter], a kind of hood or cowl covering the upper part of the face, Edda (Gl.), Sks. 304, Þórð. 30; ríðr Barði at Snorra Goða ok hefir grímu á höfði sér, Ísl. ii. 378, Mirm. 58. β. armour covering a horse’s breast, a poitrail; en utan yfir beisli ok um allt höfuð hestsins ok um háls framan ok til söðuls þá skal vera g. gör á panzara lund, Sks. 405: the beak on a ship, gyldar grímur, Gkv. 2. 16: grímu-eiðr, m. a Norse law term, a kind of oath taken by six compurgators, an απ. λεγ., N. G. L. i. 56 (vide eiðr); the origin of the name is uncertain, perhaps the compurgators had to appear in court in cowls: grímu-maðr, m. a cowled man, a man in disguise, Fb. i. 509, Fas. iii. 321, N. G. L. i. 175. II. metaph. the night, poët., Alm. 31, Edda (Gl.), Lex. Poët.; óróar gríma, a night of woe, Stor. 18; so in the saying, hverf er haust-gríma, shifty is the autumn night, Hm. 73: curious is the phrase, það renna á e-n tvær grímur, one wavers, is uncertain, það runnu á mig tvær grímur; the metaphor is either derived from a horse’s halter or hood = doubly hoodwinked or from the night = in double darkness.Grímr and Grímnir are names of Odin from his travelling in disguise, Edda: Grímr also is freq. a masc. pr. name, and in compds, Þor-grímr, Ás-grímr, Stein-grímr, Hall-grímr, etc.; and of women Gríma, Hall-gríma, etc.; prefixed in Grím-kell, Grím-úlfr, etc.: a serpent is in poetry called grímr.

grína, d, to ‘grin,’ but only in the special sense, to stare into, putting one’s face close to a thing; grína ofan í bókina.

GRÍPA, greip, gripu, gripit, [Ulf. greipan = κρατειν, λαμβάνειν; A. S. grîpan; Engl. grip, gripe, grapple; O. H. G. grîfan; Germ. greifen; Swed. gripa; Dan. gribe]:—to grasp, seize: 1. with the notion of suddenness or violence; hann greip skjöld sinn ok sverð, Ó. H. 117; konungr greip til sverðs þess er stóð hjá honum, Fms. i. 16, vi. 159; Egill kastaði þegar niðr horninu, en greip sverðit ok brá, Eg. 215; Egill greip þá skjótt meðalkafla sverðsins, 379; síðan greip hann til Egils, 192; hann greip upp Þórð ok keyrði niðr, id.; Ormr grípr þá í móti fleininum, Fb. i. 530; hann greip upp beiti-ásinn ok barði með, 491; hann greip til hans (the dog snaps at him) um sinn ok reif kviðinn, Fms. ii. 174; hann grípr nárann, Anal. 122. 2. to capture, seize; gripinn, and gripinn höndum, captured, Hom. 131, Pass. 6. 12, 9. 1, 11. 1. β. to seize upon, rob; þat er mér sagt at þú farir heldr óspaklega ok grípir fyrir mönnum góðs sitt, Grett. 130 (grip-deildir). γ. to grasp; hann greip á stafni, Hým. 27. 3. phrases, grípa gulli á við e-n, to coax one; at svá þykki (lest it shall seem) at ek grípa gulli á við þá, Nj. 6; ok gríp nú gulli á við konunginn, ok lát sem þú þykisk þar allt eiga er konungrinn er, Fms. xi. 112; grípa á kýlinu, to touch upon the sore place; Eysteinn konungr svarar, nú greiptu á kýlinu því er ek hugða at fyrir löngu myndi springa, vii. 121: grípa í tómt, to grasp the air (cp. when the bird is flown): grípa á e-u, to decide; hann kvaðsk ekki mundu svá skjótt grípa á slíku, he said he would take time to consider, xi. 362. 4. medic. of fits or sickness, to seize upon; þitt geð grípi, seize thy senses (of insanity)! Skm.; þá var hann gripinn af æði mikilli, 623. 12. II. metaph. to understand, very rare and borrowed from Lat. comprehendere, Sks. 559 C, Eluc. 21: in mod. usage, to grasp, encompass with the mind; but nema, to learn. III. reflex., grípask þeir þá til (they grasped at one another) ok glíma lengi, Fb. i. 530.

GRÍSS, m., pl. ir, gen. ar, Odd. 28, [Swed.-Dan. gris; Scot. grice], a young pig; gyltar gríss, a sucking pig, Fs. 107; gyltr ok gríss, Gullþ. 60, Fs. Vd. ch. 44, Grág. i. 504, Jb. 287, Sd. 163: the saying, grísir gjalda þess er gömul svín valda, cp. quidquid delirant reges plectuntur Achivi, Stj. 63; gnyðja mundu grísir ef þeir vissi hvat hinn gamli þyldi (ef galtar böl vissi, v. l.), Fas. i. 282: of a young wild pig, Fb. ii. 25: grísa-gyltr, f. a sow with pigs, Vm. 85; grísar-höfuð, n. a pig’s head, Odd. 28. 2. a pr. name, Landn.; cp. Grísar-tunga, name of a farm, 71. II. [as in Norse, vide Ivar Aasen], gener. a pig; er gamlir grísir (old swine) skyldi halda mér at höfuðbeinum, Grett. (in a verse); as also the Icel. grís-efldr, adj. strong as a grís (a hog?), i. e. prodigiously strong, of great muscular strength; this word however, which is freq. in mod. usage, is not recorded in old writers, but it occurs in Lex. Run.

GRJÓN, n. pl. [Swed.-Dan. gryn], groats, Edda (Gl.), Gþl. 524: grjóna-grautr, m. a porridge of groats.

grjón-bakr, m. ‘groat-back,’ a nickname, Fms.

GRJÓT, n. [A. S. greôt; Engl. grit; Hel. griot; O. H. G. grioz; Low Germ. grott = gravel; Germ. greis, meaning gravel, shingle, pebbles, or the like; cp. also Engl. to grout = to build a wall of rubble with liquid mortar poured in; the Icel. grautr (q. v.) and grútr (q. v.) are also kindred]:—stones, but chiefly with the notion of rough stones or rubble in a building, etc.; grjót, like Engl. grit, is a collective word, and is consequently never used in plur.; a single stone is called steinn, not grjót; velta grjóti, to roll stones, Gs. 12; nú er grjót þat at gleri orðit, Hdl. 10; grjót (quarry) þat er til kirkna þarf at hafa, N. G. L. i. 240; hann lét ok göra há-altarit með grjót, Bs. i. 830; telgt grjót, cut stones, Stj. 564; rata munn létumk grjót gnaga, Hm. 106; hljóp ofan skriða mikil með grjóti, Anal. 64; verða at grjóti, to be turned into stones, Edda 89; þeir báru grjót á rótina, Gullþ. 50; torf eða grjót, Grág. ii. 262; þeir ruddu hitt ok báru þar í grjót (sinking a ship), Eg. 125; dys ór grjóti, Ld. 152; berja grjóti, to stone, Gísl. 34; vóru þau barin grjóti í hel, id.; sá engin líkindi Dana-virkis, nema grjótið, but the heaps of stones, Fms. i. 28; konungr hugði at grjótinu ok sá þar rautt allt, xi. 239; svá at þess mætti eigi sjá merki, nema þat eina er grjótið var rautt eptir, 241 (of the shingle on the beach); hvárt sem vill, af heitu grjóti eðr köldu, Sks. 421; límsett grjót, lime-set stones in a wall, Orkn. 352 (in a verse); lét jarl bera vatn í at kæla grjótið þat er brunnit var, id., (in a siege in order to make the walls crack, see Notes and Queries, Nov. 21, 1868); berjask með skotum ok grjóti (in a battle), Fs. 14; grjót ok skot, stones and missiles, Fms. vii. 82; þeir höfðu borið at sér grjót ok báru á þá, bíða þess er grjótið eyddisk, Sturl. ii. 59: of bricks, Stj. 264: in poetry, ölna grjót, the stones of the wrist, = jewels; skýja-grjót, ‘cloud-stones,’ hail; grjót orða, munns, the stones of words, of the mouth, i. e. the teeth: giants are called grjót-niðaðr, grjót-móði, grjót-öld, the stone people, people of the Stone Age, Lex. Poët.; Grjót-unn, name of a giantess (cp. Steinunn, a female name), whence Grjótunnar-garðar, a giant’s castle, Edda: collectively in compds, -grýti, blá-grýti, stór-grýti, rough stones; hraun-grýti, lava. COMPDS: grjót-berg, n. quarry, Fms. viii. 278, Bs. i. 890. grjót-björg, n. pl. rocks, Vsp. 52. grjót-björn, m. a pun, = Arinbjörn, Ad. grjót-brot, n. a stone hoe, Vm. 92, 117. grjót-burðr, m. throwing showers of stones (in a fight), Sturl. ii. 136. grjót-fall, n. raining stones, Ann. 1362. grjót-flaug, f. a stone shower (in a fight), Fms. vi. 156, x. 361, Fas. ii. 449, Fs. 17, Al. 46, Bs. i. 412. grjót-flutning, f. carrying stones, Fms. viii. 279. grjót-garðr, m. a stone fence, Grág. ii. 282, Jb. 242: a pr. name, Fms. grjót-hagl, n. stone-hail, Stj. 369. grjót-haugr, m. a heap of stones, a cairn, Stj. 364. Josh. vii. 26, 655 xiv. B. 2. grjót-hlað, n. a stone pavement, Hkr. ii. 5. grjót-hlass, n. a load of stones, N. G. L. i. 415. grjót-hóll, m. a stone mound, stone heap, Hrafn. 21, Finnb. 314. grjót-hríð, f. a shower of stones (in battle), Fms. ix. 514, xi. 95. grjót-hörgr, m. a stone altar (heathen, vide hörgr): a stone heap = grjóthaugr, Sturl. ii. 223 C, where Ed. grjóthaugr. grjót-kast, n. throwing stones, Fas. iii. 243, Bs. i. 412. grjót-klettr, m. a boulder, Bs. ii. 134. grjót-ligr, adj. stony, flinty, Fms. x. 445, Mar. 609. grjót-meistari, a, m. a stone-mason, B. K. 124. grjót-möl, f. ‘stone-grit,’ gravel, pebbles, Stj. 67. grjót-páll, m. a stone hoe: metaph., vera e-s g., to break stones for one, do a stone-breaker’s work; þeir vóru knáligir menn ok vóru mjök grjótpálar fyrir búi Ósvífrs, Ld. 122; en Halli var grjótpáll fyrir málum hans, Valla L. 205. grjót-skriða, u, f. a stone slip, Ann. 1337. grjót-smiðr, m. a stone-mason, B. K. 124, Bs. i. 830. grjót-smíð, f. stone masonry. grjót-starf, n. stone work, Stj. 562. grjót-sveinn, m. a stone-mason’s lad, D. N. grjót-sýsla, u, f. = grjótstarf, D. N. grjótrugr, adj. stony, Barl. 18. grjót-varði, a, m. a stone pile, obelisk, Dropl. 23. grjót-varp, n. = grjóthríð, Lex. Poët.

grjúpan, n. a sausage, Orkn. (in a verse), still in use in the east of Icel., [cp. grupa = to hatch or grind, Ivar Aasen.]

grobba, að, (grobb, n.), to boast: grobbari, a, m. a boaster.

Grotti, a, m. the mythical mill in Edda; whence Grotta-söngr, m. name of a poem; also in local names Grotti, a current near to Reykjavík; akin to Engl. grit, groats, cp. also Ivar Aasen s. v. grötte (the nave in a mill-stone); the tale of the enchanted mill grinding gold and salt etc. at the bottom of the sea is common to all Teutons (vide Edda), and survives in popular tales of Germany, Norway, and Iceland: the sea is called Skerja-grotti, Skerry-grinder, Edda (in a verse).

GRÓA, greri, gróinn, pres. græ (grœ), [A. S. growan; Engl. grow; Swed. gro; Dan. groe; cp. Lat. cre-scere, crev-i]:—to grow: I. of grass, trees, vegetation; þá var grund gróin grœnum lauki, Vsp. 4; viði gróin, grown with wood (of the earth), Edda 65 (in a verse); jörð grær, the earth grows, Eg. (in a verse), Ísl. ii. 381; gras grær, grass grows; gróandi grös, Sks. 728 B; þá grær gras á þeirri moldu er efst er á jörðunni, Edda 145 (pref.); gróa ok ávaxtask (of the earth), Stj. 38: absol. to grow, þann vetr var veðrátta góð, ok greyri snemma um várit, the winter was mild, and early crops in the spring, Fms. ii. 244; er íllu korni niðr sáð, enda mun íllt af gróa, Nj. 174. II. to grow together, to close; var einart þak á húsinu ok ekki gróit, a fresh thatch (of turf) and not yet set, Ld. 280; en um morguninn var hann gróinn aptr sem áðr, the opening (in a cairn) had grown together as before, Bárð. 180; ok æ sem annarr grær (unites, joins to) við meginland, þá kemr annarr hólmi í, Sks. 94; höfuð konungsins var gróit við bolinn, Nj. 275. 2. to be healed, of wounds; sár hans gréru seint, Korm. 130; tóku sár Þórólfs at gróa, Eg. 34; þat sár greri svá, at …, Fs. 153; en hann lá lengi í sárum ok greri seint, ok rifnuðu aptr þá er gróin vóru, Gullþ. 31: cp. the saying, betra heilt en gróit, better hale than healed: absol., ok greyri þegar fyrir stúfinn, Nj. 275; grær fyrir tungu-stúfinn, Fms. v. 152; Íngólfr lá í sárum vetr þenna, ok greri yfir at kalla, Ingolf’s wounds were outwardly healed, Fs. 67: mod. gen., gróinn sára sinna, healed of one’s wounds, Fms. iv. 164, Grett, 82: the phrase, gróa um heilt, to be quite healed; þá skera þeir af grandit allt at um heilt megi gróa, Al. 120: metaph. to be reconciled, at um heilt mætti gróa með þeim, Fms. xi. 57; héðan frá greri aldrei um heilt með þeim Glúmi ok Esphælingum, Glúm. 348.

Gróa or Gró, f. a pr. name, Landn., cp. Edda 58 (the giantess mother of Örvandil, Orion); cp. Swed. groda, Norse gro = a toad, paddock,

gró-andi, f. the growing one, poët. the earth, Alm. 11.

gróði, a, m. 1. = gróðr; þess vondr skyldi gróða taka, Post. 686 B. 13. 2. increase; þá skal gróði (swell, flood) koma bæði í sjó ok vötn (vatna-vöxtr), Rb. 104: mod. usage distinguishes between gróðr, growth, and gróði, gain, increase of wealth. gróða-maðr, m. a prosperous, wealthy man.

gróðr, m., gen. gróðrar, [Dan. afgröde; Swed. gröda = crop], growth, a crop; þá fundu þeir Góibeytla ok annan gróðr (vegetation), Landn. 226; hverr maðr á gróðr á sínu landi, Grág. ii. 291, cp. Jb. 248 C. (Ed. vöxt); en at miðjum vetri blóta til gróðrar, Hkr. i. 13; gróðrum ok grænum grösum, Stj. 276: metaph., andlegs gróðrar, Hom. 45: summer, Edda (Gl.)

gróðr-samr (gróðrsam-ligr, Barl. 10), adj. fertile, Sks. 40, Ver. 2.

gróðr-setja, tt, to plant; g. víngarð, Stj. 344, Greg. 10, Mar. 12.

gróðr-vænligr, adj. healable, Fas. iii. 139.

GRÓF, f. [grafa; Ulf. grôba; Germ. grube], a pit, Nj. 153, Grett. 94; eld-gróf, an ash-pit, Eb. 99 (v. l.) new Ed.; hnakka-gróf, the pit in the nape of the neck; hljóp hann síðan með reykinum í gróf (gröf?) nokkura ok hvíldi sik, ok er þat síðan köllut Kára-gróf, Nj. 202.

grófr, adj. [from Germ. grob], coarse, of clothes, linen, (mod. and rare.)

GRÓMR, m. (mod. gróm, n.), grime, dirt; metaph. a blot, dirty spot; þá er menn hugðu at eið þeim, þótti sem g. (blot) hefði í verit, Grett. 161 A. COMPDS: gróm-lauss, adj. spotless, single-hearted, Greg. 19; heyrit ér hvat karlinn segir, eigi er hann grómlauss, he suspects something, Nj. 143. gróm-tekinn, part. soiled with dirt, of linen or the like.

gróna, að, to become green, Bb. 1. 21.

gróp, f. a groove.

GRÓPA, að, to groove, a joiner’s term.

grópa-samlega, adv. [hence the mod. grobba, to vaunt, and grobbinn = boasting]:—boastingly; þótti gaman at reyna fráleik hans, svá g. sem hann sjálfr tók á, Mork. 40.

gróska, u, f. [Germ. grüsch], a kind of barley, Edda (Gl.)

grufl, n. grovelling.

GRUFLA, að, (grœfla, Mar.), to grovel on all fours; Jónathas gruflaði heldr en gékk, Stj. 452. 1 Sam. xiv. 13; gruflar hón af læknum, Ísl. ii. 340, Bs. i. 331, Pr. 412; Grímr gruflar eptir knettinum, Fas. iii. 530: ganga gruflandi að e-u, to go grovelling, groping after a thing.

grugg, n. mud, dregs. grugg-óttr, adj. muddy, Fas. i. 142.

GRUNA, að, to suspect; þá mun Hrútr hlæja, ok mun hann þá ekki gruna þik, Nj. 33; vera grunaðr um svik, Fms. i. 59; engi maðr frýr þér vits en meirr ertú grunaðr um græsku, Sturl. i. 105; grunaðr var hann um þat at hann mundi blóta mönnum, Fs. 28; Grettir grunaði hann, G. trusted him not, Grett. 138 A; ætla ek at þeir hafi grunat mik, Lv. 81; eigi skulu þér gruna oss, 656 C. 39; þá var móðir grunað, Hom. 56; nú grunar hann þat at þeir vili eigi heilar sáttir við hann, Grág. ii. 21; en eigi gruna ek þat, þótt …, Ísl. ii. 183; ætla ek at þeir hafi grunat mik, Lv. 81; sem þú skalt eigi g., as thou shall not doubt, Fb. i. 34; ekki grunum vér (we doubt not) íllvilja yðvarn, 412: en til þess at þú megir eigi gruna sögn mína hér um, Fms. i. 192; Þorkell trefill grunar nokkuð hvárt þannig mun farit hafa, Ld. 58. 2. impers., grunar mik enn sem fyrr, at …, Eg. 76; nú em ek at raun komin um þat er mik hefir lengi grunat, Nj. 17; en hann grunaði þó, at …, Ld. 306: with gen. of the thing, slíks grunaði mik, I suspected that, Lv. 81: with acc. of the thing, hvat grunar þik (what thinkest thou), hverr skóp Adam? Mirm.; grunar mik um (I doubt) hversu heilla-drjúgr hann verðr, Grett. 72 new Ed.

grunan, f. suspecting one, Lv. 21; (grununa, qs. grununina.)

grun-brusligr, adj. suspicious looking, ill-favoured, Finnb. 338 C.

GRUND, f. [prob. to be derived from gróa, qs. gróandi, and different in etymology from grunn and Engl. ground, etc.]:—a green field, grassy plain; á grundunni, Sd. 165; þar heitir Haugsnes er bardaginn var ofan frá á grundinni, Sturl. iii. 84, Clar. 134; nú setjask þeir niðr á grundina, Gísl. 107: poët. the earth, the green earth, grund gróin grænum lauki, Vsp. 4, Vþm. 16, Haustl. 15: the name of a farm, Grenfield, Sturl., Landn.

grunda, að, = gruna, to suspect, Gísl. 133. 2. [Germ. ergründen], to meditate, (rare and mod. in that sense.)

grundan, f. meditation. Fas. iii. 247.

grundr, n. = grunr; in the phrase, grafa grund at e-u, to enquire into a thing; því gref ek svá mikinn grund hverr þú ert, Konr. (Fr.); hann lét mjök grund at grafa (Ed. gefa) um eptirleitina, Fas. iii. 300.

grund-valla, að, to found, Fms. i. 139, Mar. 12, Stj. 26, Fb. i. 513.

grund-vallan, f. a foundation, ground-work, Bs. i. 889.

grund-völlr, m. [cp. Goth. grunduvaddjus = θεμέλιον; mid. H. G. gruntwal; Dan. grundvold]: 1. prop. ground marked out for a building, marka grundvöll til húss (kirkju), Ld. 298, Fms. i. 203, Korm. 8, Sks. 110, Orkn. 286, Stj. 134. 2. metaph. ground-plan, Mar. 12; setja grundvöll Kristni sinnar, Hom. 147; tólf postular eru grundvöllr undir várri trú, Mar. 12; er lítillæti sannr grundvöllr undir öllum mannkostum, id.; Kristiliga trú vera grundvöll ok upphaf góðra verka, Gþl. viii. (pref.); þann grundvöll, er upphaf er allrar speki, Sks. 4; af þessum grundvöllum timbrask enar mestu höfuð-úgæfur, 26; orð eðr erendi, er tekin eru af mannvits grundvelli, which are founded on good sense, 438; reisa hús af grundvelli, to raise a building from the ground, Fms. vi. 440. grundvallar-maðr, m. a founder, Anecd. 66.

grun-lauss, adj. unsuspecting; grunlaust æði, a guileless mind, Ad. 2; eigi er mér þat grunlaust, I am not without misgivings, Grett. 159 A, Fas. i. 129; trúa Guði grunlaust, to put one’s trust in God, Ó. T. 37; vera grunlauss af e-u, to be unsuspected, above suspicion, Mar.

GRUNN, n. [A. S. grund; Engl. ground; Germ. grund, whence mod. Swed.-Dan. grund]:—a shallow, shoal; á grunn, aground; en er þeir Erlendr vóru mjök svá komnir at landi, þá réru þeir á grunn, Fms. i. 212; skip Gregorii sveif upp á grunn; hann kom akkeri í skip þeirra ok dró þá af grunninu, vii. 264, 265; gengu skipin mikinn út yfir grunnit, Ó. H. 17; ok er þeir komu út yfir grunn öll, undu þeir segl, Grett. 94 A; standa grunn, to be aground, Stj. 59, Grág. ii. 358; ganga á grunn, to come to an end (metaph.), Fms. xi. 439; silfr þat gekk aldri á grunn, Fær.; fundning þessi reis af gömlu grunni villunnar, Karl. 548.

grunn-eygr, adj. goggle-eyed: mod. úteygðr, ‘out-eyed,’ opp. to inneygðr, ‘in-eyed,’ Fms. ii. 20.

grunn-fall, n. a breaker on a shoal, Nj. 267, Eg. 405, Bs. i. 453, ii. 50.

grunn-fastr, adj. fast aground, Bs. ii. 48.

grunn-firi, n. shoals left by the ebb tide, Nj. 124 (Lat. Ed.), v. l.

grunn-færi, n. pl. anchor-tackle, a cable; draga upp g., to weigh anchor, Fms. ii. 17; þurfti hit mikla skip góðra grunnfæra, vi. 310; skip þau er fest vóru með grunnfaerum, x. 68.

grunn-hygginn, adj. shallow-minded, silly, Fas. ii. 337.

grunn-hyggni, f. silliness, Fas. ii. 354.

grunn-lauss, adj. boundless; grunnlaust grepps æði, a boundless poetical mind, (or grunlaust, q. v.), Ad. 2.

grunn-lendi, n. a thin or shallow soil, Barl. 18.

grunn-mál, n. shallow soundings in the sea.

grunn-mið, n. pl. fish marks upon shoal places or near the shore.

GRUNNR, m. [the Goth. form would be grundus; Ulf. afgrundiþa = ἄβυσσος; akin to grunn, n.]:—the bottom of sea or water; draga e-n til grunns, to drag one to the bottom, Al. 174; fór öngullinn til grunns, Edda 36; langskipin sukku í grunn niðr, Anal. 203: plur., síðan fór hann niðr til grunna, then he sank down to the bottom, Bs. i. 355; en jafnskjótt er hann kom til grunna, id.; niðr á grunnum í sjálfu sjávar-djúpinu, Stj. 288; hann kafaði niðr til grunna, Eg. 142; sökkva til grunna (metaph.), to come to naught, Symb. 19; segja menn at hann lysti af honum höfuðit við grunninum, Edda (Arna-Magn.) i. 170, is a false reading instead of við hrönnunum (Ub.), cp. hlusta grunn við hrönnum, Hd. (Edda 54), of which poem the prose is a paraphrase.

grunnr, adj., compar. grynnri (gryðri), superl. grynnstr, [Swed.-Dan. grund], shallow; vaðil-sund nokkut grunnt, Eg. 362; sögðu hafit baeði grunnt ok myrkt, Al. 170; gryðra, shallower, Bs. i. 342; vatnföll tvau hvártki gryðra en tók í miðja síðu, 349: metaph., standa grunnt, to be shallow; vinátta okkur stendr grunnt, Eg. 520; grunuðu at vinátta þeirra mundi vera heldr grunn, Fms. xi. 108: in local names, Grunna-vík, f. whence Grunn-víkingr, m. a man from G., Landn.

grunn-sakka, u, f. a lead, plumb, (mod.)

grunn-slóðir, f. shoals.

grunn-stiglaðr, part. hard frozen, Fbr. 36: mod. botn-frosinn.

grunn-sæliga, adv. foolishly, Fms. vi. 295.

grunn-sæligr, adj. shallow-sighted, foolish, Hkr. iii. 112.

grunn-sær, adj. shallow-witted, foolish, Bjarn. 39; opp. to djúpsær.

grunn-sævi, n. shallow water, Fas. ii. 316, Nj. 124, Fb. i. 539, 541.

grunnungr, m. [Germ. gründling; Ivar Aasen grunnung; from grunnr]:—a groundling, a fish that lives in shoal water, Edda (Gl.); in mod. usage called þara-fiskr.

grunn-úðigr, adj. shallow-minded, Ísl. ii. 339.

grunn-úðligr, adj. thin-witted, Niðrst. 7.

grunn-ýðgi, f. shallowness, credulity, Fas. ii. 354, Am. 70.

GRUNR, m., pl. ir, [the forms grundr (q. v.) and grunda (q. v.) seem to indicate a double final, viz. grunnr and grunna; as to the sense, suspicion may be metaph. derived from a shoal or ground, and grunr may be akin to grunn, grunnr; else phrases such as grafa grun could scarcely be explained: no special word answering to grunr appears in the Saxon or Germ.]:—suspicion, Grág. i. 263, Ld. 262, Lv. 21, Fms. i. 58, ii. 87, x. 335, Hkr. ii. 267: the phrase, grafa grun á um e-t, to ‘dig the ground’ for a thing, to suspect, Bs. i. 871.

grun-samligr, adj. (-liga, adv.), suspicious looking, Fms. ii. 84, vii. 2; g. meðferð, Mar. 34.

grun-samr, adj. suspected; hafa e-n grunsaman, Fms. vi. 20.

grun-semð (-semi), f. suspicion, H. E. i. 506, Magn. 484, Orkn. 162, Bs. i. 871, Str. 8, 13. grunsemðar-lauss, adj. free from suspicion, H. E. ii. 111.

grúa, ð, to swarm; in the phrase, það úir af grúir af e-u, it swarms and crowds.

GRÚFA, ð, [Swed. grufva; Ivar Aasen gruva; and metaph. the Dan. gru = horror, cp. Germ. gräulich = shocking]:—to grovel, crouch or cower down, lie on one’s face; hann grúfði at eldinum, Fs. 100; hann grúfir niðr at Þorgrími, Háv. 56; látum oss ei sem gyltur grúfa, let us not grovel as swine, let us go upright, Bb. 3. 92; Dagon grúfði á góln frammi fyrir örkinni, Stj. 435. 1 Sam. v. 3: denoting fear, to crouch, cower, heiðingjar allir hrökkvask saman, ok grúfa í skjöldu sína and cowered beneath their shields, Karl. 246; grúfa þeir niðr undir hjálma sína ok brynjur, 188; tóku þeir at grúfa undir hjálmum ok skjöldum, 296.

grúfa, u, f., in the phrase, á grúfu, grovelling, face down, on one’s belly; symja á grúfu, to swim on one’s belly, Sks. 177, Eg. 107, Fms. vii. 250, Fas. iii. 573, N. G. L. i. 80, Stj. 435, v. l., Art. 73, opp. to opinn (mod. upp í lopt, face up); liggr á grúfu ok horfir upp nef, a riddle of a ‘ladle;’ opinn eða á grúfu, Karl. 259. 2. [cp. gruvesten = hearth-stone, gruva = the hearth, chimney, and gruve-hynna = the chimney-corner, Ivar Aasen]: whence ös-grúi, an ash-pit, Fas. i. (in a verse).

GRÚI, a, m. [grúa], a crowd, swarm, prob. akin to grúfa; metaph. from ants, insects, maggots, or the like: in compds, mann-grúi, a crowd of men.

grútr, m., gen. ar, thick gruel-like oil.

grybba, u, f. an ugly hag: grybbuligr, adj.

gryfja, u, f. a hole, pit, Sturl. i. 83 C, Þorst. Síðu H. 176.

grylla, t, to see dimly, as through a cloud, það gryllir til lands: impers. to recollect dimly, mig gryllir til pess.

grynna, t, [grunnr], impers. to become shallow; grynnir dalinn (acc.), the dale became shallow, less deep, in advancing higher up in a dale, Bárð. 173: reflex., id., Bs. i. 355; þá er grynntisk yfir at landinu, Fms. viii. 170: metaph., kostr okkarr grynnisk, Bs. ii. 133: in mod. usage freq. act. and absol., það grynnir, fer að grynna.

grynningar, f. pl. shoals, shallows, Sks. 224.

grýfa, ð, = grúfa, Fms. viii. 332.

grýfi-liga, adv. [grúfa; Germ. gräulich; Dan. gruelig; Swed. grulig; Ivar Aasen gruvaleg]:—prop. ‘grovellingly,’ metaph. shockingly, Fb. ii. 26.

grýja, ð, [Swed. grya; Dan. grye = to dawn], to dawn: in Icel. the verb grýja is not used, but can be supposed from the following grýjandi; cp. the Germ. der tag graut, Göthe’s Faust.

grýj-andi, f. [Dan. gry = dawn; Swed. gryning], dawn, the first grey of daylight; í grýjandina, in the grey of morning, an απ. λεγ., Fms. (Sverr. S.) pref. xxii. to p. 398.

GRÝLA, u, f. an ogre, answering to the Gr. μορμώ, Lat. lamia, used to frighten children with, represented as an old hag with a bag kidnapping and devouring naughty children—over the good she has no power: the songs Grýlu-kvæði, n. (vide Snót 286–298, 2nd Ed.), are great favourites in popular lore: in olden times grýla was sometimes described as a fox with many tails; the fox is in Edda (Gl.) called grýla; a giantess also in Edda (Gl.) is so called; cp. the rhymes in Sturl. ii. 59,—hér fer Grýla í garð ofan | ok hefir á sér hala fimtán; and the mod.,—Grýla reið fyrir ofan garð, hafði hala fimtán | en í hverjum hala hundrað belgi, en í hverjum belgi börn tuttugu, etc. II. a bugbear; ekki hirði ek um grýlur yðrar, Þórð. 26 new Ed.; þótti þeir hafa gört sér grýlur um sumarit, Sturl. iii. 244; hví mun ek eigi fara hina skemri leiðina ok hræðask ekki grýlur Bruna, Fas. ii. 118; kölluðu menn því enn fyrra hlut (of a book) grýlu, at margir töluðu at þá efnaðisk nokkurr ótti eðr hræðsla, … en mundi skjótt niðr falla ok at alls engu verða, Fb. ii. 534. For the mod. popular tales of Grýla see esp. Ísl. Þjóðs. i. 218–221.

GRÝTA, tt, [grjót], to stone; g. e-n, to stone one to death, Landn. 236, Fms. v. 222, vi. 408, Stj. 256; g. at e-m, á e-n, to pelt one with stones, Fs. 36, 37, Eg. 581, Fms. i. 218, vii. 82, Hðm. 26, Stj. 402.

grýta, u, f. [grjót; Dan. gryde; Swed. gryta], a pot (earthen), Stj. 317, Fms. vii. 232; the MS. Gloss. 1812 renders the Lat. olla by grýta. grytu-ker, n. = grýta, Greg. 34, Hom. 83.

grýting, f. a pelting with stones, stoning, 415. 13, Mar. 17.

grýttr, adj. stony, Hrafn. 4.

græð, f. [grár], malice, Sturl. ii. 178.

GRÆÐA, dd, [gróðr]: I. to make grow, to plant, Barl. 99; græða tönnina í hundinn, Bs. ii. 148: to produce, jörð sú er græddi þorna ok þistla, Eluc. 45; marga mjök góða hluti græðir heimr sjá til várra nytja, 677. 11. 2. to gain, make money; hann græddi þar brátt mikit fé, Ld. 100, 102, Band. 1, Grett. 61 new Ed.; þá græddi hann fé, Landn. 141. 3. reflex. to increase; Guð lét alla hans eigu mikilliga græðask, Stj. 198; græddisk heldr vindrinn, the wind increased, Grett. 113 new Ed.; hafði mikit á græðsk (the money had much increased) meðan hann var í brottu, Nj. 10, Fs. 131: in mod. usage also absol., græða, to make money: a dairy term, græða and græða sik, to give more milk; or adding the measure, hón (the cow) hefir grætt mörk. II. to heal; konungr lét g. menn sína er lífs var auðit, Eg. 34; g. sjúka, Post. 686 B. 1, Niðrst. 2; síðan græddi Þórðr Bersa, Korm. 132, Fms. viii. 120, x. 263: reflex. to be healed, Greg. 15: græðandi, part. healable, Fms. viii. 120.

græð-ari, a, m. a healer, saviour, Fms. iii. 166, x. 374, Hom. 36, 52, Mar. 2, Stj. 144, 241.

græðgi, f. greediness, gluttony, Stj. 161.

græði-fingr, m. the leech-finger, digitus medicus.

græði-ligr, adj. healable, Bs. ii. 182.

græðing, f. growth, Hom. 24: a healing, cure, Greg. 20, 45, H. E. i. 476; ný-græðingr, the green crop in the spring.

græði-súra, u, f., botan. the plantain, plantago.

græðsla, u, f. cure, healing, Grett. 73.

græfr, adj. [grafa], fit to be buried (according to the eccl. law), K. Á. 48; kirkju-græfr, having a right to burial at a church.

græna, d, to paint green, N. G. L. i. 104.

græn-fáinn, part. green-stained, Sks. 188 C.

græn-gola, að, to be yellow-green, of deep water; grængolandi hylr.

grænka, að, to make green, Lex. Poët.: to become green, freq.

græn-leikr, m. greenness, verdure, Orkn. 172.

Græn-lendskr, adj. of or belonging to Greenland; vide Grænn.

græn-ligr, adj. greenish, Sks. 499.

GRÆNN (i. e. grœnn), adj. [not recorded in Ulf., as Luke xxiii. 31 and Mark vi. 39 are lost; A. S. grêne; Engl. green; Hel. grôni; O. H. G. kruoni; Genn. grün; Swed.-Dan. grön; derived from gróa, to grow]:—green, of verdure; grænn laukr, a green leech, Vsp. 4; er haugr hans ávallt grænn vetr ok sumar, Landn. 86; græn jörð ok fögr, Edda 44; grænt sumar, a green summer, Anal. 217; grænir dalar, green dales, Karl. 266; grænt klæði, H. E. i. 492; grænn sem sjór, Rb. 354. 2. fresh; grænt kjöt, fresh meat, Stj. 493; grænn fiskr, fresh fish, Þiðr. 70, Bs. ii. 144. II. metaph. green, hopeful, good; þá er hóf at, ok væntum at nokkut grænt mun fyrir liggja, then it is well, and let us hope that some green spot may lie ahead, Fs. 24; sá mun nú grænstr (the most hopeful choice) at segja satt, Finnb. 226; flyt þú mik aptr til eyjar minnar, ok mun sá grænstr, and that will be the best thou canst do, 258; þeir leitaðu brott, síðan þeir sá engan annan grænna, Karl. 212. III. in local names, Græna-land, n. the green land, Greenland, Íb. ch. 6, whence Græn-lendingar, m. pl. Greenlanders, i. e. the Norse or Icel. settlers; but in mod. usage the Esquimaux, who only came into Greenland about the 14th century: Græn-lenzkr, adj. of Greenland; Atlamál hin Grænlenzku, Atlakviða hin Grænlenzka, the names of two poems, prob. from their being composed in Greenland; the name is not to be derived from the Norse county Grenland, as the old writers make a strict distinction, using the adjective Grenskr of the Norse county.

grænska, u, f. verdure, Stj. 29.

græn-tó, f. a green spot, Gísl. 158.

græn-tyrfa, ð, to cover with green turf, Þjal. 36.

græska, u, f. [grár], malice, Sturl. i. 105, v. l.; Sighvatr tók undir í gamni, ok með nokkurri svá græsku (mockingly), ii. 178. græsku-lauss, adj. without malice: in the phrase, græskulaust gaman, a sport without malice.

GRÆTA, tt, [grátr], to make one ‘greit’ or weep, distress one, Fas. ii. 174, Stj. 323; þú lézt grætta Gunnlöðu, Hm. 110; grættr, grieved, Sl. 26.

græti, n. pl. tears, sorrow, Hðm. 1, Skv. 3. 61, Gkv. 2. 10.

græti-liga, adv. sadly.

GRÖF, f., gen. grafar, [Ulf. graba = χάραξ, Luke xix. 43], a pit, hole dug; settr í gröf, put into a pit, Grág. ii. 131; þar var undir gröf djúp, Eg. 234; íllvirkja gröf, a den of thieves, Greg. 40. Matth. xxi. 13; ór hellum ok gröfum, 623. 58: in the saying, sér grefr gröf þó grafi, Sams. 19, Kveldv. ii. 193; ef blindr leiðir blindan þá falla þeir báðir í gröfina, Matth. xv. 14: a charcoal pit, Grág. ii. 297; kola-gröf, a coal pit, peat pit, Vm. 156; mó-gröf, torf-gröf; grafar-görð, burning charcoal, Grág. ii. 298, Jb. 239, Dipl. v. 3; grafar-menn, pitmen, Hkr. ii. 249: freq. as a local name, Gröf and Grafir, prob. from charcoal pits. grafar-lækr, m. a brook which has dug itself a deep bed, a hollow brook, Sturl. iii. 257. II. [Engl. grave; Germ. grabe; Dan. grav; Swed. graf], a grave, Ld. 286, and in numberless instances. grafar-bakki, a, m. and grafar-barmr, m. the verge of the grave: in the phrase, vera kominn á grafar-bakkann, to stand on the edge of the grave.

gröftr (and gröptr less correctly), m., gen. graftar, dat. grefti, the mod. with radical r in gen. and dat. graftrar, greftri, but acc. gröft (never gröftr); the ancients use both forms, graftrar, Eb. 176, Fms. vii. 174, viii. 236, x. 175, xi. 17; greftri, vi. 401; grefti, viii. 236, ix. 4; greftar, N. G. L. i. 345, 347, 368: [A. S. gräft]:—a digging; fauska-g., Landn. 303: engraving, Stj. 45. 2. burial, Hom. 97, K. Þ. K. 24, passim (vide above): a tomb, Fms. xi. 307. COMPDS: graftar-dagr, n. a burial day, 625. 194. graftar-kirkja, u, f. a church with a burying-ground, K. Þ. K. 24, Grág. i. 464, H. E. i. 474, N. G. L. i. 345. graftar-reitr, m. a burial-place, Stj. 134. graftar-staðr, m. id., Stj. 421, N. G. L. i. 368. graftar-tíð, f. burial time, 1812. 48. II. medic. matter (of a sore); whence graftar-kyli, n. a running sore; graftar-nagli, a, m. the core in a boil.

GRÖN, f., gen. granar, [mid. H. G. gran], the moustache; skegg heitir barð, grön eðr kanpar, Edda 109; líttú á ljúfan, legg þú munn við grön, Gkv. 1. 13; hann var ungligr maðr svá at honum var ekki grön sprottin, Ld. 272; láttu grön sía, sonr, sip, sift it through the beard, my son, Edda 148: in the phrase, e-m bregðr vá fyrir grön, a danger passes one’s beard, i. e. one is startled, alarmed, Fms. viii. 350, 417, Grett. 165 new Ed.; ek læt ýring skýra um grön, I sift the drink through my beard, Eg. (in a verse); ef maðr höggr nef af manni, … en ef svá er at grön fylgir, N. G. L. i. 171; kápu þeirri er gör var af grön jöfra, the cap which was made of kings’ beards, Fas. i. 284, cp. the tale in Tristr. S.; komað vín á grön mína, wine never wetted my beard, Þorf. Karls. 418: it is used in plur. denoting the beard of the upper and lower lips: in the saying, nú er eg svo gamall sem á grönum má sjá, in the nursery tale of the changeling, answering to the Germ. ‘nun bin ich so alt wie der Westerwald,’ see Grimm’s Märchen: the phrase, bregða grönum, to draw back the lips, grin, so as to shew the teeth, Nj. 199; cp. granbragð; fíla (or fýla) grön, to pout with the lips. 2. esp. in plur. the lips of a cow or bull; Egill hljóp þar til er blótneytið stóð, greip annarri hendi í granarnar en annarri í hornið, Eg. 508; Europa klappar um granar hans (of Jove in the shape of a bull), Bret. 12. grana-hár, n. the whiskers of cats and other beasts, Edda 73 (of an otter); in this sense still in use: of a beak, benmás granar, Höfuðl.

GRÖN, f., gen. granar, [Dan.-Swed. gran; Ivar Aasen gron], a pine-tree; hæri en grön er vex á hæsta fjalli, Hom. 152.

grön-sprettingr, m. = gransprettingr, Clem. 30, Róm. 308.

grösugr, adj. grassy, Hrafn. 27, Stj. 325.

gubba, að, (gubb, n.), to vomit.

GUÐ, m.; the plur. used to render the Lat. dii is guðir; [for etymology and changes of this word see p. 207]:—God.

A. Though the primitive form Goð rhymes with boð (bidding), stoð (help), and many other words, the second form Guð rhymes with no single word, so that in hymns the poets are wont to use incomplete rhymes, as brauð (bread), nauð (need); and exact rhymes can only be obtained by the last syllables of derivatives, e. g. Iðranin blíðkar aptur Guð | ei verður syndin tilreiknuð, Pass. 40. 4; or Upphaf alls mesta ófögnuðs | áklögun ströng og reiði Guðs, 3. 14; Svo er nú syndin innsigl | iðrandi sála kvitt við Guð, 50. 14; but these rhyme-syllables can only occur in trisyllabic words (Gramm. p. xv):—the following are examples of incomplete rhymes, Vinir þér enga veittu stoð | svo vinskap fengi eg við sannan Guð, Pass. 3. 7; Föðurlegt hjarta hefir Guð | við hvern sem líðr kross og nauð, 3. 16; Herra minn þú varst hulinn Guð | þá hæðni leiðst og krossins nauð, 40. 16; as also in the hymn, Til þín Heilagi Herra Guð | hef eg lypt sálu minni | af hug og hjarta í hverri neyð | hjástoð treystandi þinni, Hólabók 108, rendering of Ps. xxv; Luther’s hymn, Ein feste burg ist unser Gott, is in the Icel. rendering, Óvinnanlig borg er vor Guð | ágæta skjöldr og verja | hann frelsar oss af allri nauð, Hólabók 182; Fyrir valtan veraldar auð | set þína trú á sannan Guð | sem allt skapaði fyrir sitt boð, 208 (in Hans Sachs’ hymn); hugsjúkir eta harma brauð | hollari fæðu gefr Guð | sér ljúfum þá þeir sofa, 124, Ps. cxxvii. 2.

B. PHRASES:—Guðs ást, Guðs elska, the love of God; Guðs gata, the way of God, 625. 87; Guðs gæðska, Guðs náð, the grace, goodness of God; Guðs miskunn, Guðs mildi, the mercy of God; Guðs ótti, the fear of God; Guðs gjöf, God’s gift; Guði friðr, the peace of God; Guðs hús, the house of God; Guðs musteri, the temple of God; Guðs orð, the word of God; and in popular usage, Guðsorða-bók, ‘God’s word-book,’ i. e. a religious book, not only of the Bible, but generally of hymns, sermons, etc., opp. to historical or secular books, sögu-bækr; Guðs maðr, a man of God, Stj. passim; Guðs ríki, the kingdom of God; Guðs Kristni, the Church of God, 625. 82; Guðs vin, God’s friend, Fms. i. 139; Guðs þjónn, God’s servant; Guðs þræll, the thrall of God, Greg. 54, Bs. i. 638; Guðs Sonr, the Son of God; Guðs trú, faith in God; Guðs þjónusta, Divine service (in Papal times the mass), K. Á. 36; of the sacrament, Bs. i. 638; Guðs akr, Germ. Gottes acker, ‘God’s acre,’ a churchyard; Guðs kista, God’s chest, the temple-treasury, Mark xii. 41; Guðs líkami = Corpus Domini, K. Á. 38; Guðs móðir, God’s mother (the Virgin Mary):—in Papal times, Guðs eign, God’s property = church glebes; Guðs lög, God’s law, i. e. the ecclesiastical law, as opp. to lands lög, the law of the land, i. e. the secular or civil law, K. Á. ch. 9, (for an interesting note upon this subject vide H. E. i. 133, note b); Guðs réttr, God’s right, i. e. ecclesiastical right, Fms. vii. 305; Guðs þakkir, ‘God’s thanks,’ charity, Grág. i. 222, K. Þ. K. 142, Hom. 34; whence the popular contracted form gustuk, a charity, pittance, in such phrases as, það er ekki gustuk, ‘tis no charity, ‘tis a pity, e. g. of dealing harshly with the poor; gustuka-verk, a work of charity; göra e-t í gustuka skyni, to do a thing as a charity: in former times the phrases Guðs þakkir and sálu-gjafir (soul’s gifts) were synonymous, including not only gifts to churches, clergy, and the poor, but also the building of bridges, erecting hostelries, especially in desert places, and the like, whence the words, sælu-brú, soul’s bridge; sælu-hús, soul’s house. 2. in Icel. many sayings referring to the name of God are still household words, e. g. in entering a house, as a greeting, hér sé Guð, God be here! (from Luke x. 5): in returning thanks, Guðs ást, God’s love! Guð laun or Guð laun’ fyrir mig, God’s reward! Germ. vergelt’s Gott! or gefið þið í Guðs friði! to which the reply is, Guð blessi þig, God bless thee ! (which is also the answer to a greeting or to thanks); Guðs friði! or vertu í Guðs friði, be in God’s peace! is the usual farewell; and the answer is, Guð veri með þér, God be with thee! Guð hjálpi þér, God help thee! Germ. helf Gott! Engl. God bless you! (to one sneezing); Guð varðveiti þig, God ward thee! (to one playing with dangerous things); biddu Guð fyrir þér! (denoting wonder), pray God! gáðu að Guði, heed God! take heed! fyrir Guðs skuld, for God’s sake! ef Guð lofar, proncd. as one word (ef-guðlogar, changing f into g), God willing, a common phrase when speaking of plans for the future, eg skal koma á morgun, ef-guðlogar, I will come to-morrow, God willing (from James iv. 13–15), occurs in Skálda (Thorodd) 165, as also, ef Guð vill, if God will (less freq.); Guði sé lof, God be praised! Guð gæfi, God grant! Guðs mildi, by God’s grace; það var mesta Guðs mildi hann slasaði sig ekki; Guð gefi þér góðan dag, Guð gefi þér góðar nætr, whence abbreviated góðan dag, good day; góðar nætr, good night: the sayings, sá er ekki einn sem Guð er með; and þann má ekki kefja sem Guð vill hefja, Fb. iii. 408; eitthvað þeim til líknar legst, sem ljúfr Guð vill bjarga.

guða, að, to shout ‘God;’ in Icel. it is the custom for a stranger arriving at a house at night after ‘day-set’ (dagsetr, q. v.), instead of knocking at the door, to climb to the louvre and shout, hér sé Guð, God be here! this is called að guða; the dialogue is well given in a ditty of Stefán Ólafsson, Hott, hott og hæ! Hér sé Guð í bæ! sælt fólkið allt! mér er sárkalt.—Svöruðu heima-hjú, Hvað heitir þú?—Eg heiti Jón, Jóhanns þjón, etc.; or in another ditty, Her sé Guð á góðum bæ | gestr er á ljóra | andsvörin eg engin fæ | ekki vaknar Þóra; or Guðað er nú á glugga | góðvinr kominn er, Jónas 119.

guð-blíðr, adj. godlike, of the sun, Edda (in a verse): of Christ, Lb. 24.

guðdóm-liga, adv. divinely, Karl. 341, passim.

guðdóm-ligr, adj. godlike, divine, Sks. 601, passim.

Guð-dómr, m. Godhead, Divinity, Rb. 338, Gþl. 40, Fagrsk. 11, Clem. 54. COMPDS: Guðdóms-afl, n. godlike, divine power, Hom. 66. Guðdóms-kraptr, m., id., Ísl. i. 386, Mar. 5. Guðdóms-sól, f. the sun of the Godhead, Hom. 47. Guðdóms-veldi (-vald), n. the kingdom of God, Mar.

guð-dóttir, f. a god-daughter, K. Á. 216.

Guð-Dróttinn, m. God the Lord, Grág. ii. 167, Mar. 613, Sighvat.

guð-faðir, m. [A. S. godfæder], a godfather, Fs. 96, Hallfred.

guð-feðgin, n. pl. god-parents.

guð-fjón, f. ungodliness, Orkn. (in a verse).

guð-fræði, f. theology, divinity, guð-fræðingr, m. a theologian.

guð-gefinn, part. given by God, inspired, Bs. ii. 179.

guð-gjöf, f. a gift of God, Mar.

guð-hræddr, adj. God-fearing, Fbr. 89, Bs. i. passim, Fms. xi. 221, Barl. 32.

guð-hræðsla, u, f. fear of God, Fms. iii. 168, Rb. 80, Sks. 477, Mar. 484, passim. guðhræðslu-leysi, n. contempt of God, Mar. 472.

guð-lasta, að, [Germ. Gott lästern], to blaspheme, Bs. i. 16, Mar. 39, Stj. 320, Fb. i. 371.

guð-lastan, f. blasphemy, 625. 49, Bs. i. 10, 450, Stj. 14.

guð-latr, adj. ungodly, Bs. ii. 160.

guð-lauss, adj. godless, reckless, cruel.

guð-leiðr, adj. God-forsaken, Lex. Poët.

guð-leti, f. godlessness, impiety, Stj. 51.

guð-leysi, n. godlessness, recklessness, cruelty, Fms. ii. 162.

guð-liga, adv. after a godly sort, Stj. 250 passim: christian-like.

guð-ligr, adj. godlike, divine, Sks. 559, Stj. 45, 189, Bs. passim; ó-guðligr, ungodly.

guð-móðir, f. a godmother, K. Á. 216.

guð-mæli, n. Divine saying, word of God, Sl. 47.

guð-níðingr, m. a traitor to God, a renegade, Nj. 272, Fms. i. 84, viii. 308, xi. 41, 274, Fs. 173; e. g. Julian the Apostate is rendered by Julianus Guðníðingr. guðníðings-skapr, m. apostacy, Fms. iii. 89.

guð-reskja, u, f. blasphemy, Post. (Unger) 122, v. l.

guð-réttligr, adj. ‘God-right,’ righteous, Fms. v. 219, viii. 258, xi. 279.

guð-rifl, n. wickedness, Sks.

guð-rúnar, f. pl., poët. the doom of the gods, Gísl. (in a verse).

guðræki-liga, adv. recklessly, Mar. 561.

guðræki-ligr, adj. [reka], driving God away, ungodly, wicked; g. glæpr, Stj. 385. Judges xx. 13, Mar. 147.

guð-rækinn (qs. guð-rœkinn, from rœkja), adj. God-serving, pious.

guðrækni, f. piety, freq. in mod. usage. ☞ Neither of the two words is recorded in old writers; on the other hand, in mod. usage guðrækilegr = wicked is disused, to avoid a painful ambiguity.

guð-rækr, adj. wicked; guðrækir menn, 623. 30; g. glæpamaðr, Mar. 431: g. manndrápari, 434; enn kunngi ok enn goðræki, 623. 11.

guð-sefi, a, m. a gossip, godfather, N. G. L. i. 392, Str. 15.

guð-sifja, adj. god-relatives; guðsifja þrír eigu ór dómi at rísa, Grág. (Kb.) i. 47; but guðsifjar, 158.

guð-sifja, u, f. a female gossip, godmother, N. G. L. i. 16, 350.

guð-sifjar, f. pl. [A. S. godsebi, whence Engl. gossip; O. H. G. gotsip; eccl. Lat. cognatio spiritualis]:—sponsorship; veita e-m guðsifjar, eiga, göra g. við e-n, Grág. i. 50, N. G. L. i. 16, 350, Nj. 235, Fms. i. 130, Fs. 115, Hkr. i. 220. guðsifja-spell, n. incestuous connection of god-relatives, Fr.

guð-sifjask, að, dep. to enter into sponsorship with one, N. G. L. i. 426.

guð-skírsl, n. ordeal, N. G. L. i. 211.

guð-spjall, n., the form goðspill, Greg. 24; guðspillum, 656 A. i. 10: [A. S. godspell; Engl. gospel, i. e. gôð spell, a translation of the Gr. εὐ-αγγέλιον; Ormul. godd-spell—goddspell onn Ennglissh nemmnedd iss god (i. e. good) word and god tiþennde, god errnde … goddspell annd forrþi maȝȝ itt wel, god errnde ben ȝehatenn, Introd. 157 sqq.; (the form godd-spell, not godspell, shews that at the time of the Ormulum the root vowel had become short in Engl. pronunciation.) The word was in Icel. borrowed from English missionaries, and Icel. remains the only Scandin. country where the Evangel is called Gospel; Danes, Swedes, and Norsemen, as well as Germans, use the Greek word. The true etymological sense, however, was lost, probably because the root vowel had become short in Engl. by the time that the word was transplanted to Icel., so that guðspjall was understood to mean not good spell, but God’s spell]:—gospel; í þann tima er lokið var guðspjalli, Ó. H. 119 (the gospel in the service-book); pistlar ok guðspjöll, epistles and gospels, Vm. 1; með tíu laga boðorðum ok fjórum guðspjöllum, Mar. 13. COMPDS: guðspjalla-bók, f. [Ormul. goddspellboc], a ‘gospel-book,’ evangelistarium, Vm. 6, 7, Dipl. v. 18, K. Á. 88, Mar. 1 passim, Barl. 31. guðspjalls-kross, m. ‘gospel-cross,’ Vm. 66, 73, 109. guðspjalla-lektari, a, m. a ‘gospel-stand,’ lectern, Vm. 108. guðspjalla-maðr, m. a ‘gospel-man,’ an evangelist, Stj. 144, Barl. 49, Sks. 562; at frásögn Mathias (Johannes, Markus, Lukas) guðspjallamanns, Mar. 1; still used so in Icel. guðspjalla-saga, u, f. the gospel history. guðspjalls-historia, u, f. id., Pass. 11. guðspjalla-skáld, n. a ‘gospel-poet,’ evangelist, Clem. 52; Johannes Postuli guðspjallaskáld, Johann. 11; (this word is not used.)

guð-spjallari, a, m. a gospeller, evangelist, Játv. 18.

guðspjall-ligr, adj. evangelical, Hom. 39, 655 vii. 2, Bs. ii. 91; guðspjallig kenning, Skálda 210.

guð-vefr, m., old form goðvefr, [A. S. godweb; O. H. G. cotaweppi and gotoweppi]:—good or costly weaving, i. e. velvet; ok góðbornir smugu í goðvefi, Hðm. 17; gulli ok guðvefjum, Ghv. 16; purpura ok tvílitaðan guðvef, Stj. 307. Exod. xxv. 4 (purple and scarlet); eina festi af guðvef, funiculus coccineus, 351. Josh. ii. 15; kantara-kápa af guðvef, Vm. 68; tvö pells altaris-klæði ok hit þriðja hvers-dagligt með guðvef, 80; skikkju nýskorna af hinum dýrasta guðvef, Fms. vi. 52; silki ok pell ok guðvef, xi. 385; vefa guðvef, iii. 178; á dúni ok á guðvefi, x. 379; var kistan sveipð pelli ok tjaldat allt guðvefjum, Ó. H. 229; guðvefr. of a cloak lined with grey fur, Rekst. 30. COMPDS: guðvefjar-hökull, m. a cape of velvet, Vm. 93. guðvefjar-klæði, n. a suit of clothes of g., Ld. 28, Fas. ii. 528. guðvefjar-kyrtill, m. a kirtle of g., Fms. v. 160, Fas. ii. 97. guðvefjar-möttull, m. a mantle of g., Stj. 355. Josh. vii. 21 (a goodly garment). guðvefjar-pell, n. a pallet of g., Fms. v. 274, vi. 2, Fas. i. 274, Karl. 470. guðvefjar-poki, a, m. a bag of g., Ld. 188. guðvefjar-skikkja, u, f. a kirtle of g.; þá skal dóttir taka í arf móður sinnar ef bróðir lifir, klæði öll nema guðvefjar-skikkjur ok ó-skorin klæði öll, þat á bróðir, N. G. L. i. 210, Stj. 363, Fms. vi. 186. guðvefjar-taug, f. a cord of g., funiculus coccineus of the Vulgate, Stj. 377.

GUFA, u, f. [gov and gova, Ivar Aasen; Scot. gow], vapour, steam; þeir leggja eld í viðinn, en þeir vakna við gufuna er inni eru, Fas. i. 135; annarr reykr stóð í lopt upp við annan, ok svá mikil gufa varð af þeim ókyrrleik, að varla sá þá hæstu turna borgarinnar, Konr. 35: as a nickname, Landn.: in local names, Gufu-nes, Gufu-dalr, Gufu-skálar, prob. from the steam of hot wells; in mod. usage also, gufu-skip, -bátr, m. a steam-boat, -maskína, -vél, f. a steam-engine. 2. metaph. a slow fellow, a gow, creeping about like a mist, hann er mesta gufa.

gugginn, part. quailing.

gugna, að, to quail, Sturl. i. 2, Fas. ii. 59.

GULA, u, f. yellowness, medic. jaundice, and gulu-sótt, f. id., Fms. xi. 202.

gula (gola), u, f. a fair breeze, metaph. opportunity, Al. 99.

Gula, n. and Guley, f. a local name in central Norway (Sogn): Gula-þing, n. the parliament in Gula; Gulaþings-bók, f. the code of laws for Gula; Gulaþings-lög, n. pl. the law of Gula, N. G. L., Eg. ch. 57, Fms. passim; Gulaþings-menn, m. the men of Gula; Gulaþing-staðr, m. the place of G., Gþl. 6.

gul-brúnaðr, adj. yellow-brown, Þiðr. 181.

gul-grár, adj. yellow-grey, Ld. 272.

gul-grænn, adj. yellow-green, Ld. 272.

GULL, n., in the oldest MSS. spelt goll, Eluc., Hom., and this is the rhyming sound in old poets; hollan, golli, Sighvat; fingr-goll, trollum, Kormak; golls and þolli, id.: [Ulf. gulþ; A. S., Engl., Germ. gold; Dan. guld; Swed. and Norse gull]:—gold; var hár hans golli keypt, Eluc. 48; ór silfri eða ór golli, Hom. 138, Al. 116; it gjalla gull, Fm. 20, Vsp. 8: gold as payment, told by weight, Fms. i. 15, ii. 76, vii. 235, xi. 77; rautt gull, red gold; bleikt gull, yellow gold, v. 346; gull brennt, refined gold, Dipl. iii. 4; skírt gull, hreint gull, pure gold, Stj. 563: allit., gull ok gimsteina, Al. 170, Bs. i. 134; gull ok gersemar (freq.); in the saying, það er ekki allt gull sem glóir, ‘tis not all gold that glitters: gulls-litr, m. gold colour, Fms. vi. 143, Magn. 514:—as to the value or course of gold, átta merkr gangsilfrs er mörk gulls, þrem tigum sinna skal blásilfr vega móti gulli, tíu sinnum skírt silfr móti gulli, 732. 16, Fs. 8–10, passim: metaph., grípa gulli á við e-n (vide grípa): = fingr-gull, Ulf. fingra-golþ, a finger ring, Stj. 254, Bs. i. 877, Nj. 16, 146:—in plur. jewels, pretiosa, cp. gull-hús, a jewel chest, Sturl. ii. 108: barna-gull, playthings:—in metaph. phrases, mikit gull ertu, what a jewel thou art! sá grét ekki fyrir gull sem ekki átti, Vídal. i. 284. COMPDS: gull-aldr, m. the golden age, Edda 9. gull-ari, a, m. the banner of Charlemagne, Karl. passim. gull-auðigr, adj. rich in gold, Edda 49, Fms. vii. 145, 146, Fas. iii. 284, Clar. 130. gull-auðr, m. wealth in gold, Fms. vii. 145. gull-augu, n. pl. golden eyes, Fas. iii. 384 (in the tale of the giant, similar to the Greek tale of Polyphemus). gull-band, n. a golden head-band, Lv. 21, Edda 21, Ísl. ii. 206. gull-baugr, m. a gold ring, Edda 72, 75, Gullþ. 23, Fas. iii. 44. gull-beinar, m. pl. gold-legs, a nickname from wearing gold lace, Orkn. 418 old Ed. gull-berg, n. a gold mine, Stj. 85. gull-beri, a, m. gold-bearer, a nickname, Landn.; or perh. = goldkind in the German tales (?). gull-bitlaðr part. gold-bitted (a horse), Hkv. i. 41. gull-bitull, m. a bit of gold, Hkv. 2. 34. gull-bjartr, adj. bright as gold, Hbl. 30. gull-borði, a, m. gold lace, Vm. 21. gull-bóka, að, to embroider in gold, Gkv. 2. 14. gull-bóla, u, f. a gold boss, Konr. 57: golden bull, bulla aurea, Fms. viii. 301. gull-brá f. gold-brow, nickname of a lady-love. Gullbrár-skáld, n. the poet of Gullbrá, a nickname, Fms. gull-brynja, u, f. a golden coat of mail, Skv. 3. 45. gull-búinn, part. ornamented with gold, Eg. 180, 726, Karl. 226. gull-böllr, m. a golden ball, Karl. 474. gull-dálkr, m. a gold buckle, Gísl. 55. gull-dreifar, n. pl. a golden chain, MS. 4. 32. gull-dropi, a, m. drops of gold, Bret. 14. gull-epli, n. a golden apple, Bret. 30, 40. gull-falligr, adj. fair as gold, charming. gull-faxi, a, m. gold-mane (name of a horse), Edda. gull-fágaðr, part. stained with gold, Fas. ii. 370. gull-festr, f. a gold chain, El. 99. gull-fingr, m. = fingr-gull, D. N. gull-fjallaðr, part. golden, woven, dyed in gold, Nj. 46, Fas. ii. 239. gull-fjöðr, f. gold-quill, name of a code of laws, Fms. viii. 277. gull-fugl, m. a bird of gold, Karl. 441. gull-góðr, adj. of pure gold, Fas. i. 316, Fb. i. 347. gull-görð, f. a golden girth, Karl. 312, Bær. 2. gull-görr, part. made of gold, Str. 4. gull-hagr, adj. skilled in working gold, Bs. i. 325. gull-hamrar, n. pl., in the phrase, slá e-m gullhamra, to work one with golden hammers, i. e. to flatter one. gull-hálsar, m. pl. gold-necks, lordlings, Fms. vii. 127, viii. 230. gull-hárr, adj. golden-haired, Fas. i. 457. gull-heimr, m. the golden world, the golden age, Bret. 4. gull-hella, u, f. a bar of gold, Fas. iii. 10. gull-hirzla, u, f. a gold treasury, Hom. 58. gull-hjalt, n. a hilt of gold, Karl. 286. gull-hjálmr, m. a golden helmet, Edda 36, Fms. i. 44: a nickname, Gísl. gull-hlað or gull-lað, n. gold lace, esp. to tie up the hair with, Nj. 35, Ld. 272, Hkr. ii. 28, Orkn. 370; altara-klæði með gullhlöðum, Vm. 26; kross með gullhlað, altaris-dúkr ok er þar á g., höfuðlín með g., 36; altara-klæði fjögr ok á einu stórt g., 54. gull-hlaðinn, part. laced with gold, Nj. 169. gull-hnot, f. a golden nut, Fas. iii. 227. gull-hringr, m. a gold ring, Nj. 10, 35, Fms. i. 51, Boll. 356, passim. gull-hús, n. a treasure house, Fms. x. 172: a jewel chest, Sturl. ii. 108 (of a lady), Stj. 438. 1 Sam. vi. 15. gull-hyrndr, part. golden-horned, Hkv. Hjörv. 4. gull-höttr, m. gold-hat, a nickname. gull-kalekr (-kalikr), m. a golden chalice, Bs. i. 83, Vm. 52, Dipl. ii. 11, iii. 4. gull-kambr, m. a golden comb. Fas. iii. 480. gull-kálfr, m. the golden calf, Stj. Exod. xxxii. gull-ker, n. a golden vessel, Symb. 22, Karl. 323, Stj. 437. gull-kista, u, f. a gold chest, Fms. vii. 249, xi. 85: in peroration of popular tales, þar vóru gullkistur um gólf dregnar, Ísl. Þjóðs. gull-kitni, f., Bs. i. 818 (dubious). gull-knappr, m. a gold button, Eg. 516: a gold knob, Fms. iii. 136: a nickname, Harð. S. gull-knappaðr, part. gold buttoned, Eg. (in a verse). gull-knútr, m. a gold knot, Nj. 46. gull-knöttr, m. a gold ball, Fms. iii. 186. gull-kóróna, u, f. a golden crown, Fas. iii. 213, Stj. 206. gull-kranz, m. a golden garland, D. N. gull-kroppr, m. gold-body, a nickname, Fms. ix. 361. gull-kross, m. a golden cross, Nj. 256, Fms. x. 15. gull-leggja, lagði, to lace with gold, Fms. vii. 245, ix. 276, x. 120, Vm. 66, 139, Boll. 356. gull-ligr, adj. golden, Fms. i. 15, Sks. 39. gull-mál, n. pl. ornaments of gold, Þiðr. 110, cp. 30, 364. gull-málmr, m. gold ore, Bret. gull-men, n. a gold necklace, Hkr. i. 20, Fms. i. 216, vi. 271, Stj. 203. gull-merktr and gull-merkaðr, part. marked with gold, Karl. 415. gull-munnr (-muðr), m. gold-mouth, Chrysostom, Fas. iii. 592, Mar. 37. gull-nagli, a, m. a gold nail, Stj. 563. 1 Kings vi. 21. gull-nisti, n. a locket of gold, Al. 44. gull-ofinn, part. gold-woven, Stj. 206, Fms. ii. 254, iii. 194, v. 280, Karl. 288, Ld. 188. gull-ormr, m. a golden serpent, 655 ii. 7. gull-penningr, m. a gold penny, piece of money, Fms. i. 1, v. 319, Rb. 508, Grett. 203 new Ed., Bret. 4. gull-rekendi, n. a gold chain, El. gull-rekinn, part. inlaid with gold or gilded (of weapons, spear-heads, axes, etc.), Eg. 726, Nj. 103, Ld. 112, Fms. xi. 28, Fb. ii. 238. gull-rendr, part. id., Fas. i. 138. gull-reyfi, n. a golden fleece, Hb. 732. 17. gull-ritinn, part. written in gold, Symb. 56. gull-roðinn, qs. gull-hroðinn, part. [A. S. hreôdan = pingere], gilt (of helmets, shields, etc.), Eg. 726, Ld. 78, Fms. i. 43, vi. 194, Orkn. 74. gull-sandr, m. gold sand, Rb. 350. gull-saumaðr, part. embroidered with gold, Eg. 516, Fs. 7, Fms. x. 329, Vm. 83. gull-settr, part. laid with gold, gilded, Karl. 173 (impers. as in Icel., or else settr applies to gems). gull-skál, f. a gold basin, Bret. 59. gull-skeggr, m. gold-beard, a nickname, Fagrsk., Sturl. iii. 111 C. gull-skillingr, m. a gold shilling, Hkr. ii. 17. gull-skotinn, part. woven with gold, Fms. iii. 136, iv. 164, x. 16, Konr. 33, Mar. 458, Clar. 135. gull-skór, m. a gold shoe, Sturl. iii. 291: name of a ship, Ann. 1300. gull-skrift, f. a gilded tablet, Róm. 382. gull-skrín, m. a gold shrine, Lex. Poët. gull-smeittr, part. gold-enamelled (of a shield), Str., Karl. 226. gull-smeltr, part. id., Fas. iii. 610, Karl. 516, Mag. 7 (Ed.) gull-smiðr, m. (pl. gollsmiðar, 655 ii. 7), a goldsmith, Fms. ii. 129, xi. 427, Bs, i. 134: a gold-beetle, lady-bird (opp. to járnsmiðr, a black beetle). gull-smíð, f. the goldsmith’s art, working in gold, Bs. i. 483. gullsmíð-ligr, adj. belonging to the g., Karl. 286. gull-spánn, m. a gold ornament on ships, O. H. L. 67: a golden spoon, Mött. 3. gull-spori, a, m. a gold spur, Fas. i. 185, Karl. 334. gull-sproti, a, m. a gold sceptre, Karl. 395. gull-spuni, a, m. gold-spinning, Bret. 16. gull-spöng, f. a gold spangle, Rb. 384, Stj. 284. gull-stafaðr, part. gold-striped, woven with gold, Clar. gull-stafr, m. a golden letter, Greg. 75, Fms. vii. 156, viii. 448. gull-staup, n. a golden stoup or cup, Fas. i. 175. gull-steindr, part. gold-stained, Karl. 283. gull-stóll, m. a gold chair, Fas. i. 36, Karl. 471. gull-stúka, u, f. a golden sleeve, Karl. 405, Art. gull-stöng, f. a bar of gold, Bárð. 179. gull-sylgja, u, f. a gold brooch, Nj. 167, Sturl. iii. 122. gull-tafla, u, f. a gold brick (used in playing), Edda 44, Fas. ii. 267. gull-tanni, a, m. gold-tooth, a nickname, Fms. iii. 74. gull-teinn, m. a gold pole, Fas. iii. 213. gull-toppr, m. gold-tuft, name of a mythical horse, Edda 10, 17. gull-vafðr, part. wound with gold, Fms. x. 356. Gull-varta, u, f. a local name, the Golden Horn in Constantinople (?), Fms. vii. 94. gull-veggr, m. a golden wall, Fms. ix. 466. Gull-veig, f. a mythical proper name, Vsp., prop. ‘Gold-drink,’ Gold-thirst, cp. Lat. auri fames, gull-viðjur, f. pl. gold withies, Fas. iii. 49. gull-vippaðr, part. whipped or wrapped in gold, Dipl. iii. 4. gull-vægr, adj. ‘gold-weighty,’ precious, dear. gull-vöndr, m. a gold wand, Fms. viii. 193, 623. 23. gull-þráðr, m. gold thread, Dipl. iii. 4.

gullinn, adj. golden, hardly used save in poetry; gullnar töflur, Vsp. 60; gullin ker, Gm. 7; gullnum stóli á, seated in a golden chair, Hm. 105; of gullna sali, the golden halls, Fsm. 5; g. gunnfáni, Hkv. 2. 17; gullin simu, golden thrums, 1. 3 (the thrums of the Norns). COMPDS: gullin-bursti, a, m. gold-mane, name of the hog of Frey, Edda, Hdl. 7. gullin-horni, a, m. golden-horn, name of an ox, Edda; the ancients used to ornament the horns of the finest of their cattle (metfé), vide Sturl. i. 106; ganga hér at garði gullhyrndar kýr, yxn alsvartir, Þkv. 23, Hkv. Hjörv. 4. gullin-kambi, a, m. golden-comb, a mythol. cock, Vsp. gullin-stóla, u, f. rendering of the Gr. χρυσόθρονος, Od. gullin-tanni, a, m. gold-teeth, name of the god Heimdal, Edda. gullin-toppa, u, f., botan. gold-tuft, the sea-pink or thrift, statice armeria.

gul-maðra, u, f., botan. galium vernum.

GULR, adj. [A. S. geolu; Engl. yellow; Germ. gelb; Dan.-Swed. guul], yellow; gult silki, hár, Fms. vii. 69, 239, x. 381, Ld. 272, Orkn. (in a verse).

gul-önd, f. a kind of duck.

gum, n, exaggeration, fuss; gumari, a, m. a fop.

guma, að, in the phrase, guma yfir e-u, to make a great fuss about a thing, exaggerate. II. [geyma], guma at e-u, to take heed to a thing; eg hefi ekki gumað að því.

GUMI, a, m., pl. gumar and gumnar, Hm. 14, 17, 31, 130; [Ulf. guma = ἀνήρ, Luke xix. 2, Nehem. v. 17, and gumein, adj. = ἄρρην, Mark x. 6; A. S. guma; Hel. gomo; O. H. G. gumo; Germ. in bräuti-gam; Dan. brud-gom; Swed. brud-gumme; the r in Engl. groom is corrupt, vide brúðgumi. The quantity is doubtful; the A. S. guma was prob. long, cp. Engl. groom; the Ormul. spells bridgume as having a long vowel: but the short vowel is favoured by the mod. Icel. pronunciation, as also mod. Dan.-Swed.; so in Lat. we have hŏmo and hūmanus]:—a man; it scarcely occurs in prose: allit., Guðs hús ok guma, Grág. ii. 170; in the old Hm. it occurs about a dozen times as a common expression for man; heima glaðr gumi ok við gesti reifr, Hm. 102; því at færa veit, er fleira drekkr, síns til geðs gumi, 11; glaðr ok reifr skyli gumna hverr, 14; því er gengr um guma, what passes among men, 27, 93; eptir genginn guma, 71; gumna synir, the sons of men, 130; at sá gengr gumi ok mælir við mik, 158: the saying, lítil eru geð guma, little is the human mind, 52; goð ok guma, gods and men, Ls. 55: gumna-sættir, m. a peacemaker, Lex. Poët.: gumna-spjalli, a, m. a friend of men:—brúð-gumi, a bridegroom; hús-gumi, a ‘house-master,’ husband, Rm.

gumpr, m. the bottom, Lat. podex, Stj. 436, 437. 1 Sam. vi. 5; svartr g. sitr við eld ok ornar sér, a riddle of a pot.

gums, n. [cp. Swed. gumse = a ram], mockery, raillery, Nj. 220.

gumsa, að, to mock; g. ok spotta e-n. Glúm. 327; gapa þeir upp ok gumsa hart, ok geyma varla sín, Sörla R. i. 7.

gunga, u, f. [from gugna by way of metath.], a weakling. COMPDS: gungu-legr, adj. faint-hearted. gungu-skapr, m. cowardice.

gunn-fáni, a, m. a gonfalon, Hkv. 2. 16, Hbl. 38, Hkm. 2: in a church for processions, Am. 76, D. I. passim.

GUNNR, f., older form guðr, [A. S. gûd; O. H. G. gundia], war, battle, only used in poetry, Lex. Poët. passim. COMPDS: gunnar-fúss, -gjarn, -örr, -tamðr, adj. warlike, Lex. Poët. gunnar-haukr, m. a hawk. gunn-blíðr, -bráðr, -djarfr, -fíkinn, -hagr, -hvatr, -mildr, -rakkr, -reifr, -snarr, -sterkr, -tamiðr, -tamr, -þorinn, -öfligr, -örðigr, adj. all laudatory epithets = valiant, Lex. Poët.: of weapons and armour, the shield is called gunn-blik, -borð, -hörgr, -máni, -rann, -tjald, -veggr, n.; the sword and spear, gunn-logi, -seiðr, -sproti, -svell, -viti, n.; of the battle, gunn-el, -hríð, -þing, n.; the carrion crow, gunn-gjóðr, -már, -skári, -valr, n.; of the warrior, gunn-nórungr, -slöngvir, -stœrandi, -veitir, -viðurr, -þeysandi, n. etc., vide Lex. Poët. II. in pr. names; of men, Gunn-arr, Gunn-björn, Gunn-laugr, Gunn-ólfr, Gunn-steinn, etc.; of women, Gunn-hildr, Gunn-laug, Gunn-löð; and in the latter part. Þor-gunnr (-guðr), Hlað-gunnr, Hildi-gunnr, etc.

gurpr, m. a nickname, Dipl. ii. 5.

gusa, að, [gjósa], to gush, spirt out.

gusa, u, f. a spirt: blóð-gusa, a gush of blood; vatns-g., a spirt of water,

gussa, að, [gyss], to make a fuss and noise, Þorst. Síðu H.

gusta, að, to blow in gusts, Sks. 230.

gust-íllr, adj. gusty, chilly, metaph., Grett. 77 new Ed.

gust-kaldr, adj. gusty, cold, Fas. ii. 394.

gust-mikill, adj. making a great gust, gusty, Grett. 111.

gustr, m. a gust, blast, freq. in mod. usage, Edda 4, Sturl. i. 101, Sks. 212.

gustuk, n. a pittance, a charity, vide Guð.

gutla, að, [gutl], to gurgle, used of the noise made by a liquid when shaken in a bottle.

gúll, m. blown cheeks, puffing out cheeks. gúl-sopi, a, m. a gulp.

gúlpa, að, to be puffed up, blown up.

gúlpr, m. a puff: also of wind, norðan-gúlpr, a northern blast.

Gvendr or Gvöndr, m. a pet proper name from Guð-mundr: sanitary wells are in Icel. called Gvendar-brunnr, m., from bishop Gudmund’s consecrating wells, Bs. i. 450, Ísl. Þjóðs. ii. 27. Gvendar-ber, n., botan. equisetum arvense. Gvendar-grös, n., botan. a kind of weed.

Gyðingar, m. [Pál Vídal. in Skýr. truly observes that this word is formed, not from Guð, but from Lat. Judaei, through the A. S. form Gjudeas]:—the Jews, Stj., Sks., etc. passim, as also in mod. usage. COMPDS: Gyðinga-land, n. Jewry, Palestine. Gyðinga-lýðr, -þjóð, -fólk, n. etc. the Jewish people. Gyðinga-veldi, n. the Jewish empire, Stj., Sks. Gyðing-ligr, adj. Jewish.

Gyðja, u, f. 1. [goð], a goddess, Edda passim. 2. [goði], a priestess, Hdl. 12, Yngl. ch. 7; þá kreppi goð gyðju, Kristni S. (in a verse): in nicknames, Þuríðr gyðja, Th. the priestess, Landn.; Þorlaug gyðja, Landn. 64: in compds, blót-gyðja, hof-g., a temple priestess.

gyfingr, m. a kind of stone, Edda (Gl.)

GYGGJA or gyggva, prob. an old strong verb of the 1st class, but defect. to quail, lose the heart; ef vér nú gyggjum, in a verse written on a leaf of Cod. Ups. of Edda, prob. from the lost Skáld Helga S.: impers. in the saying, sjaldan hygg ek at gyggi vörum, the wary seldom quails, Mkv.; oss gyggvir geigvænliga, er vér erum áðr óvarir, Hom. (St.) 49: part. gugginn, quailing, fainting, is still used in Icel., as also gugna, q. v.; akin perhaps is geggjask, q. v.

gylðir, m., poët. a wolf, Lex. Poët.

Gylfi, a, m. the mythol. king. Gylfa-ginning, f. the Delusion of Gylfi, name of the mythol. tales of the Edda.

gylfinn, adj. a term of abuse, a dub. απ. λεγ., being a werewolf (?); kveðr hann vera konu níundu hverja nótt ok hefir barn borit ok kallar gylvin, þá er hann útlagr, N. G. L. i. 57; cp. gylfra.

gylfra, u, f. (gylfa), an ogre, a beast, a she-wolf (?); skal þá reyna hvárt meira má veita mér Pétr postuli ok hinn Helgi Hallvarðr, eðr hón gylfra in Gautska er þú trúir á, Fms. viii. 308, v. l. (the others read kýfla):—in the phrase, ganga gylfrum, to ‘go to the dogs,’ er þat helzt við orði, at gylfrum gangi vináttan, it is rumoured that your friendship is all gone to pieces, Band. (vellum MS.), where the Ed., ok er þat hætt við orði, at úmerkiliga þykki verða, 12 new Ed.

gyli-gjöf, f. [cp. Eng. gewgaw], gewgaws, showy gifts, Nj. (MS.) 142, (Ed. sæmiligum gjöfum.)

GYLLA, ð or t, [gull], to gild, Nj. 123, 125, Hkr. ii. 32, Fms. x. 320, xi. 128, Stj. 306; gylla hóli, to flatter, Finnb. 340, Fms. iv. 103; metaph. of the sun’s rays, Bb. 2. 30: part. gyldr, golden, Fs. 90, 122.

gylling, f. gilding, Vm. 47, Fb. i. 507: in pl. vain praise, Fær. 120.

gyllini-æð, f., medic. hemorrhoids, vena aurea, Fél.

GYLTR, f., mod. gylta, u, f., Bs. i. 417, [Old Engl. yelt]:—a young sow, Jb. 289, Grág. ii. 307, Landn. 206, Gullþ. 17, 27.

gymbill, m. [gymbr], a he-lamb; Guðs gymbill, agnus Dei, Hom. (St.); gymbill gúla þembir, Jónas 139.

gymbing, f. mocking, Sturl. iii. 171.

GYMBR, f., pl. gymbrar, [North. E. and Scot. gimmer], a ewe lamb of a year old; g. sú er lamb leiðir, Grág. (Kb.) ii. 147, Stj. 516, (one MS. spells gimbr, which is also the mod. spelling, but false); lamb-gymbr, Grág. i. 502. gymbr-lamb or gymbrar-lamb, n. a gimmer lamb, Gullþ. 19, Stj. 129.

GYRÐA, ð or t, [A. S. gyrðan; Engl. gird; Dan. gjorde: gerða (q. v.) and gyrða are kindred words, both formed from the Goth. gairdan, gard, gurdun; gerða, as also garðr (q. v.), from the pret.; gyrða from the participle]:—to gird oneself with a belt or the like; eptir þat gyrðir Klaufi hann svá fast (girded his belt so tight) at hélt við meiðsl, Sd. 143; síðan gyrði mærin sik með einu ríku belti, El.; hann gyrði sik með dúki, Fms. x. 314; gyrðr í brækr, with breeks girt up, vii. 143; gyrða sik, to fasten the breeks, as the ancients used belts instead of braces; gyrða lendir sínar, to gird up one’s loins, Hom. 84, Stj. passim; fésjóð er hann var gyrðr með, girt with a purse, from wearing the purse fastened to the girdle, Fms. vii. 142. β. to girth or saddle a horse; hann hefir ekki svá vel gyrt hest þinn, at þat muni duga, gyrtu þá betr, Ísl. ii. 340; þá setti hann söðul á hest sinn ok gyrði hann fast, Str. 47: to secure a cart load by girding it, með hlassi því er hann gyrðir eigi reipum, N. G. L. i. 379; g. hlass, taug eða reipi, 349; hann gyrði at utan, he girded it well, Fs. 66: Icel. say a horse is laus-gyrtr, fast-gyrtr, has its girths loose or tight: edged, bordered, bolli gyrðr með silfri, Hkr. iii. 81. γ. to gird oneself with a sword; konungr steypir brynju á sik ok gyrðir sik með sverðinu Kvernbít, Hkr. i. 155; hann gyrði sik með búnu sverði, Ó. H. 31. II. part. gyrðr, girt with a weapon; g. saxi, Nj. 54, Fms. ii. 83, Grett. 126; g. sverði, Eg. 285, 374, Fms. ii. 111, iv. 58, x. 201, 415, Ó. H. 116; g. skálmum, Gkv. 2. 19.

gyrðill, m. [A. S. gyrdels; Engl. girdle; O. H. G. kartil; Germ. gürtel]:—a girdle, purse, from being worn on the belt, Gísl. 149, Post. 656 C. 18. gyrðil-skeggi, a, m. ‘girdle-beard,’ a nickname, Landn.

gyrja, að (?), to gore; spjót þat er g. mun granir þínar, an απ. λεγ., Fas. ii. 29 (in a verse).

GYSS, m. mocking; gyss ok gabb, Fas. iii. 115; með mikinn gys, Bs. i. 437, ii. 147; göra gys at e-u, to mock at a thing, Sturl. i. 21, Fms. ix. 494; þungan gys, Mar.; cp. gussa.

gyzki, a, m. panic, Fas. i. 193; vide geiski.

GÝGR, f. gen. sing., and nom. pl. gýgjar, dat. and acc. sing. gýgi; [cp. Scot. gow; gjure in the Norse tales, Asbjörnsen]:—an ogress, witch, Vsp. 34, Vþm. 32, Helr. 13, Hým. 14, Fsm. 29, Sæm. 33, Edda 8, 37, 58, 60, Fas. i. 333: freq. in poetry, vide Lex. Poët.; mar-gýgr, a mermaid: of a weapon, Rímmu-gýgr, a ‘war-ogre’ i. e. axe, Nj.; gýgjar-sól, f. ‘a gow sun,’ a mock sun, Sl. 51: in local names, Gýgjar-fors, Gýgjar-hamarr, etc., referring to popular tales.

gýgr, m. an abyss; eld-gýgr, a crater of a volcano: to this perhaps belongs the saying, vinna fyrir gýg, to labour in vain, answering to the Lat. ‘oleum et operam perdere;’ hvað gagnar svo fyrir gýg ad vinna, Bb. 3. 98; og vann ei fyrir gýg, and got his reward, Snót 319 (Ed. 1866); or is gýg (qs. gýgi), to labour for an ogre or witch, the metaphor being taken from popular tales ?

GÝLL, m., or perhaps gíll, [gill, Ivar Aasen, akin to gjöll], a mock sun, parhelion, Scot. gow, conceived to be a wolf preceding the sun: when the sun is surrounded by mock suns he is said to be in ‘wolf-stress,’ úlfa-kreppa; the phenomenon is called gýla-ferð, f. ‘wolf-gang;’ cp. also the saying, sjaldan er gýll fyrir góðu nema úlfr eptir renni, a gill bodes no good unless followed by a wolf (a sign of weather), Ísl. Þjóðs. i. 658, 659.

Gýmir, m. name of a giant, answering to Gr. ̓Ωκεαξός, Edda.

GÆÐA, dd, [góðr], to bestow a boon upon, endow, enrich; gæða e-n fé ok virðingu, Hkr. i. 253, Fms. x. 192; þá er rétt at hann gæði þær (the daughters) sem hann vill, then he may endow them at pleasure, Grág. i. 204; gædda ek gulli ok guðvefjum, Gh. 16; gæðask bókligum listum, Mar. 469; hann gæddi gjöfum góða menn, Fms. iv. 111, Bs. i. 815; þá gæddi hann (endowed) frændr sína með auðæfum, 269; en Allsvaldandi Guð gæddi hann því meir at auðræðum ok mann-virðingum, 137; alla lenda menn gæddi hann bæði at veizlum ok lausa-fé, Ó. H. 179; þá skal ek g. yðr hvern eptir sínum verðleikum, 209; bauð Þrándr at gæða (to better) hluta Leifs með miklu fé, Fær. 180; en Allsvaldandi Guð gæddi svá hans virðing, at …, but God Almighty bettered his reputation so that …, Bs. i. 333. 2. in the phrases, gæða rás, ferð, reið, to quicken the pace; þá gæddi hann rásina, then he quickened his pace, Eg. 378; en þegar hann sá björninn, gæddi hann ferðina, Fms. ii. 101, v. 165; konungs-menn gæða róðrinn, they quickened the stroke, pulled quicker, 180. β. adding á, svá mikit gæddi þetta á, it increased so much, went to such a pitch, Konr.; ok var þá nokkuru heimskari en áðr, ef á mátti gæða, she was if possible sillier than before, i. e. though it could scarcely be worse, Gísl. 21; á mun nú gæða, Am. 71: in mod. usage, e-t á gæðisk, it increases, esp. in a bad sense, of sickness or the like.

gæði, n. pl. good things, boons; hann sló öllu við því er til gæða var (he spared no good things), at þeir mætti báðir göfastir af verða, Bs. i. 129, Fb. i. 434; þat eru mest gæði (blessings) þeim er eptir lifa, Bs. i. 140:—wealth, profits, in trade, mikil gæði víns, hunangs, Sturl. i. 127; þeir höfðu þaðan mörg gæði í vínviði ok berjum ok skinna-vöru, Fb. i. 546; kaupferða ok atflutninga þeirra gæða sem vér megum eigi missa, Fms. i. 284; hann fann þar stórar kistur ok mart til gæða, Fs. 5: emoluments, mörg gæði önnur lagði Gizurr biskup til þeirrar kirkju bæði í löndum ok lausa-fé, Bs. i. 67; var hann (the brook) fullr af fiskum, … ráku þeir hann á brott, ok vildu eigi at hann nyti gæða þessa, Landn. 52; á kirkjan fugla, fiska ok allt þat er gæða er, í jörðu ok á, í þessu takmarki, Jm. 14; hafði hann þar mikinn ávöxt af sterkum trjám ok öðrum gæðum, Stj. 134; taka erfðir, ok þau gæði er því fylgja, Grág. i. 226; konungr vill þar veita í mót þau gæði af sínu landi, er menn kunna honum til at segja, Ó. H. 126; nema hann hafi keypt með öllum gæðum rekann af landinu, Grág. ii. 383; bað Skota-konungr hann fá þau gæði öll á Katanesi, er hann hafði áðr haft, Orkn. 388: so in the phrase, to buy a thing, með öllum gögnum ok gæðum, with scot and lot. gæða-lauss, adj. void of good things; of a country, barren, Fb. i. 539.

gæðindi, n. pl. good things, H. E. i. 526.

gæðingr, m., prop. a man of property; among the Norsemen in Orkney and Shetland gæðingr was used synonymously with lendir menn in Norway, landlords, barons, nobles, chiefs; góð gæðings ætt, the nobleman’s fair daughter, Jd. (an Orkney poem); gæðinga-skip, a ship with Orkney chiefs on board, Ann. 232; þetta eru allt Jarla ættir ok gæðinga í Orkneyjum, Orkn. ch. 39; hurfu gæðingar mjök í tvá staði, 178, 380; adding the name of the liege-lord, þeir vóru allir gæðingar Páls jarls, 186; þeir vóru vitrir menn, ok mörgum öðrum gæðingum stefndi hann til sín, 232, 242, 262, 330; stallarar konungs ok aðrir gæðingar, Fms. vi. 442; á konungs borð ok hans gaeðinga, x. 303: ríkisborinna manna ok gæðinga Jezraels-borgar, Stj. 600. 1 Kings xxi. 8 (‘to the elders and nobles’); gæðingar af Galaad, 405. Judges xi. 5 sqq. (‘the elders of Gilead’); gæðingar Gaze-borgar, 418, cp. ‘the lords of the Philistines,’ Judges xvi. 23; eigi gæðingar heldr undirmenn hans ok andligir synir, Mar. 203, passim. II. mod. a racehorse.

gæðir, m. an endower, Lex. Poët.

gæðska and gæzka, u, f. goodness, kindness, mercy, Am. 100, Stj. 34, Fms. x. 280; engi frýr þér vits en meir ertú grunaðr um gæsku (better græzku, q. v.), Sturl. i. 105: grace, holiness, Bs. i. 63; tign ok gæzku, 65, Karl. 452; í réttlæti ok g., Stj. 54; esp. Guðs gæzka, the grace, mercy of God, eccl.: good things = gæði, Fms. vii. 285, x. 18, 418, Stj. 202, 203, 205, Sks. 181. COMPDS: gæzku-fullr, adj. full of goodness, gracious, merciful, Fms. x. 232. gæzku-lauss, adj. (-leysi, n.), merciless, cruel, Stj. 462, 464. gæzku-samligr, adj. good, Bs. i. 75. gæzku-semi, f. grace, goodness.

GÆFA, u, f. [from gefa, as gipt], luck; þar görði gæfu-muninn, Nj. 141: the sayings, annað er gæfa ok görvileiki; and gefr sér engi gæfu | gildr þó feginn vildi; bera gæfu til e-s, to have luck in a thing; ok bar hann enga gæfu til at þjóna þér, Eg. 112; sagði, at þat var hans hugboð, at vér feðgar munum ekki bera gæfu til þessa konungs, 17; en þó þú sért vel búinn at hreysti ok atgörvi, þú hefir þú eigi til þess gæfu, at halda til jafns við Harald konung, 82; gipt ok gaefa, Bs. i. 132; reyndr at viti ok gæfu, Anal. 57; ef gæfa vill til, Fs. 131; eigi ertú nú einn at, því at konungs-gæfan fylgir þér, Fms. ii. 60; gæfumaðr ertú mikill, Sighvatr, er þat eigi undarlegt at gæfa fylgi vizku, hitt er kynligt sem stundum kann verða, at sú gaefa fylgir úvizkum manni, at úvitrlig ráð snúask til gæfu, Ó. H. 123; því at ek treystumk minni hamingju bezt ok svá gæfunni, Fms. vi. 165. COMPDS: gæfu-drjúgr, adj. lucky, Fms. vi. 116. gæfu-fátt, n. adj. unlucky, Fms. v. 170, Korm. 76. gæfu-ferð, f. a lucky journey, Fbr. 234. gæfu-fullr, adj. full of luck, Str. gæfu-hlutr, m. a lucky lot, share of good luck, Bs. i. 137. gæfu-lauss, adj. luckless, Ísl. ii. 97. gæfu-leysi, n. lucklessness, Grett. 128, Hrafn. 30. gæfu-lítill, adj. having little luck. gæfu-maðr, m. a lucky man, Nj. 129, Fms. ii. 73, Bs. i. 60, Fs. 7, 115, Ó. H. 123, passim; (ógæfu-maðr, a luckless man.) gæfumann-ligr, adj. (-liga, adv.), as a lucky man, Fms. xi. 232. gæfu-mikill, adj. having great luck, Fms. vi. 328. gæfu-munr, m. a turn or shift of luck, Nj. 141. gæfu-raun, f. a trial of luck, Grett. 113 A, Ó. H. 74. gæfu-samliga, adv. luckily, Fms. iii. 53, xi. 32, Grett. 85 A. gæfu-samligr, adj. lucky, Grett. 119 A. gæfu-skipti, n. a turn or change of luck, Fms. x. 213. gæfu-skortr, m. want of luck, Fas. iii. 563. gæfu-vant, n. adj. wanting in luck, Valla L. 222.

gæfast, ð, dep. to become quiet and calm, Bb. 2. 35.

gæfð, f. meekness.

gæfi-ligr, adj., gramm. rendering of Lat. dativus, Skálda.

gæfr, adj. meek, quiet, Sturl. iii. 71, Hrafn. 24, Grett. 107 A; þat er mér ok gæfast, that is pleasant to me, Fms. ii. 261.

gæftir, f. pl. [gefa B], weather fit for fishing, fine weather.

gægjask, ð, dep. [gügsle, De Professor; Germ. gucken], to be all agog, to bend eagerly forward and peep, Eb. 272, Bárð. 171, Grett. 114, 148; g. yfir herðar e-m, Konr.: ok þá hann gægðisk þar inn, John xx. 5.

gægjur, f. pl., in the phrase, standa á gægjum, to stand agog, a tiptoe.

gæi-maðr, m. a gude-man or good-man, franklin, perh. derived from gó- in góligr, Edda i. 536 (a απ. λεγ.); it is evidently the same as Engl. yeoman, gæi-brúðr, f. a good-wife, also a απ. λεγ. in a verse, Eb.

gæl, n. enticement; gæl of margt mun ek nú mælt hafa, MSS. 4. 9.

GÆLA (gœla), d, [gala, gól; Ulf. gôljan = χαίρειν], to comfort, soothe, appease; verð ek mik gæla af grimmum hug, Skv. 3. 9; þat gælir mik, Band.; gæla gjöfum ok fagrmæli, MSS. 4. 6; eigi mun hann gæla mega með sáttar-boðum, Fms. x. 221; gæla grættan, Sl. 26, (better than gala.)

gæla, u, f. enticement, soothing; esp. in pl. gælur, lullaby songs; barna-gælur, nursery songs; hefir brag þenna ok barngælur, ort ófimliga Einar Fóstri, a ditty; frið-gælur, q. v.:—a breeze = gol, Edda (Gl.)

gæling, f. fondling, Barl. 55, 150; gaelingar-orð, Fms. viii. 23.

GÆR, adv., also spelt gör and gjar, esp. in Norse MSS., but also freq. in Fb., Stj., D. N. passim; [A. S. gestran, gestran dag; Engl. yesterday; O. H. G. gestar; Germ. gestern; Dan. gaar; Swed. går; Lat. heri, hesternus; Gr. χθές; cp. also Engl. yore, answering to the form gör]:—yesterday; only with the prep. í, í gær, Fms. vii, 168, passim. II. [Ulf. renders αὔριον, Matth. vi. 30, by gestradagis, and that this is no mistake or corruption in the Gothic text is shewn by the fact that in the old Icel. or Scandin. poems gör occurs two or three times in the very same sense]:—to-morrow; in the phrases, nú eða í gör, now or by to-morrow; í dag eðr gör, to-day or to-morrow: hvárt skolum nú eða í gör deyja, whether we are to die now or to-morrow, Hðm. 31; and varat mér ráðinn dauði í dag eða gör, I was not fated to die to-day or to-morrow, Landn. (in a verse composed in Icel. about the middle of the 10th century). Uppström, the learned Swedish editor of Ulfilas, has duly noticed the passage in Hðm. as corroborative of the Gothic text.

GÆRA, u, f. a sheepskin with the fleece on, K. Þ. K. 148, Stj. 306, Sturl. iii. 189 C, Bs. i. 606, Rd. 240, Pr. 78, 625. 22. gæru-skinn, n. = gæra.

gær-dagr, m. (gjár-dagr, Þiðr. 10), yesterday, Ísl. ii. 413, Hkr. ii. 137; gærdags, Ó. H. 87: mod. only with the prep., í gærdag.

gær-kveld, n. (gjár-kveld, Str. 4. 30, Fb. ii. 150), yesterday evening; í gaerkveld, Ld. 44, Fms. vii. 168, Fas. ii. 284, Fbr. 63.

gær-morgin, m. yesterday morning.

gær-na, adv. = gær, Fms. vi. 254.

gæslingr, m. [gás], a gosling, Fms. viii. 42, D. N. i. 7.

gæsni, proncd. gæxni, f. [gás], silliness, Edda 110: mod., neut. a lean, spectral person. gæsnis-ligr, adj. spectre-like.

GÆTA, tt, (gjáta, Hom. 34, 156, esp. in Norse MSS.), [gæte = to find sheep, Ivar Aasen]:—to watch, tend, take care of, with gen.; at gæta eigna sinna, Fms. i. 245; gætum vandliga þessa burðar, viii. 8; Guð gæti mín, God protect me! ix. 482; gæta skipa sinna, 484; þá látum en hafit gæta vár, Orkn. 108; þeir létu myrkrit gæta sín, Fs. 85; Þórir bað sína menn hlífa sér ok gæta sín sem bezt, Gullþ. 24; ok báðu hann gæta lífs síns, Orkn. 164; gjáta laga ok landsréttar, Hom. 34; þá er at gæta ráðsins, then take heed to the advice, Nj. 61; gæta dóma, to observe justice, Sks. 658:—to tend [cp. Norse gæte], gæta kúa, to tend cows, Fms. vi. 366, Ld. 98; gæta hesta, to tend horses, Fb. ii. 340, Fs. 88; hón gaetir dura í Valhöllu, Edda 21; Móðguðr er nefnd mær sú er gætir brúarinnar, 38; hann sitr þar við himins-enda at gæta brúarinnar fyrir bergrisum, 17; gæta segls, to take care of the sail, Fms. vii. 340 (in a verse); gæta skips, Anal. 191:—absol., stofan gætti (guarded) at baki þeim, Eg. 91; því at rekendrnir gættu fyrir utan, Fms. vii. 184; gættu (take care) ok vinn eigi á Kálfi, Fb. ii. 360; gæta sín, to be on one’s guard. β. with prep., gæta til, to take care of, mind; var eigi betr til gætt en svá, at …, Orkn. 210; svá gættu þeir til, at ekki varð at, Nj. 57; gætið hér til Önundar húsbónda yðvars, at eigi slíti dýr né fuglar hræ þeirra, Eg. 380; hann skyldi til gæta at eigi slægisk aptr liðit, Ó. H. 215; sá er til saka gætir, Sks. 28, Rb. 396; ef þú kannt til at gæta, if thou behave well, Eg. 96; mun ek þá ekki taka af þér eignir þínar, ef þu kannt til gæta, id., Fms. ii. 178: in mod. usage also, gæta að e-u, to observe a thing: to heed, Guðs vegna að þér gæt min sál, Pass. 8. 16. II. reflex., Þorleikr kvaðsk ekki mundu hafa mikit fé, því at úsýnt er hversu mér gætisk til, because it is uncertain how I may keep it, Ld. 300: cp. geta A. IV. III. [cp. geta with gen., signif. B], getask um e-t, to deliberate or take counsel about …; ok um þat gættusk, hvárt …, and took counsel together, whether …, Vsp. 6, 9, 27, 29; gætask e-s, to tell of, mention a thing; gættisk ok Glaumvör, at væri grand svefna, G. told that she had dreary dreams, Am. 20; gættisk þess Högni, at árna ánauðgum, H. spoke of interceding for the bondsman, 60. IV. part. gætandi, a keeper, Edda 94.

gæti-liga, adv. heedfully, Al. 147, Fms. viii. 201.

gætinn, adj. heedful, Hm. 6; ó-gætinn, heedless; að-gætinn, heedful.

gætir, m. a keeper, warder, Lex. Poët.

gætni, f. heedfulness; að-gætni, circumspection; nær-gætni, equity.

gætr, adj. good, Sks. 633 B; á-gætr, good; fá-gaetr, rare; nær-gætr.

gætr, f. pl. [from gát, q. v.], in the phrase, gefa gætr at e-u, to mind a thing, heed, Ld. 204, Hkr. iii. 203.

gætti, n. pl. [gátt], door-posts, Rm. 2, Fms. ii. 161, Ó. H. 154, Fas. iii. 20; dyri-g., q. v. gætti-tré, f. a door-sill, N. G. L. i. 38.

gæzka, vide gæðska.

gæzla, u, f. watch, keeping, Grág. i. 147, Fms. xi. 246; svína-g., tending swine, Fs. 71: metaph., Fms. vii. 187, Sks. 675. COMPDS: gæzlu-engill, m. a guardian angel, Nj. 157. gæzlu-kerling, f. an old maid-servant, Str. 75. gæzlu-lauss, adj. unguarded, Fas. ii. 467. gæzlu-leysi, n. carelessness. gæzlu-maðr, m. a keeper, Grág. i. 443, Fms. x. 469, xi. 402, Sks. 273, 473. gæzlu-sótt, f. sickness that requires guarding, lunacy, Grág. i. 287; að-gæzla, attention.

GÖFGA, að, [göfigr; cp. Ulf. gabigjan = πλουτίζειν], to honour: 1. of God (or gods), to worship; þau guð er þú göfgar, Fms. i. 97; eigi eru goð mannlíkun þau er þér göfgit, Blas. 44; hann göfgaði hof þau, er …, 623. 11; nú skulum vér fyrir því g. einn Guð, Sks. 308; engum guði skal ek blót færa þeim ef nú g. menn, Fagrsk. 11; Guð at g. ok Jesum Krist, Barl. 1; hann er síðan göfgaðr í kirkju heilags Laurentii, Rb. 368; honum var göfgat skurgoð þat er Bal heitir, 400. 2. to honour, bless; svá hefir Drottinn göfgað hann, at hann görði hann höfðingja Kristni sinnar, 655 iii. 4; honum þótti því betr er fleiri tignuðusk ok göfguðusk af honum, Bs. i. 141.

göfgan, f. worshipping, 677. 9, 655 ix. 2, 623. 12, Fb. i. 408.

göfgi, f. nobility; ætt-g., noble extraction.

göfug-kvendi, n. a noble woman, lady, Eb. 18, Ld. 334.

göfug-látr, adj. worshipful, generous, Fms. viii. 2, Fas. ii. 105: as the name of a king (= great), Ýt. 25.

göfug-leikr (-ki), m. worshipfulness, Fms. i. 295, x. 280: highness, 310.

göfug-ligr, adj. worshipful, glorious; fagr ok g. álitum, Hkr. i. 10, 223, Fms. vii. 63, x. 234, 289, 294, Th. 23: magnificent, Edda 12; kirkja g., Bs. i. 645; g. veizla, a grand banquet, Þíðr. 220; g. sigr, a glorious victory, Stjörnu-Odd. 16.

göfug-menni, n. a noble, worshipful man, Fms. vi. 269, viii. 136, x. 323, Landn. 278, Eb. 14, Fs. 20, Þorf. Karl. 364.

göfug-mennr, adj. with many worshipful men, Mirm.

GÖFUGR, adj. [Ulf. gabigs = πλούσιος], worshipful, noble; göfugr maðr, a worshipful man, by birth, etc.; til göfugs manns er Skeggi hét, Nj. 270; g. maðr ok stórættaðr, Eg. 16, 97, freq. in Landn.; Herrauðr Hvíta-ský var g. maðr, 156; Hrafn enn Heimski hét g. maðr, 59, 213, 244, 277, 283; þessir landnáms-menn eru göfgastir í Vestfirðinga-fjórðungi, 167; at Erlingr Skjálgsson hafi verit maðr ríkastr ok göfgastr í Noregi, Ó. H. 184, Fms. i. 61; ríkr maðr ok g., Hkr. i. 136; sjau prestar ok allir göfgir, Bs. i. 79; enum göfgasta konungi, Post. 656 C. 33; g. maðr ok ágaetr, Eg. 98; vóru þeir Björgólfr í gildinu göfgastir menn, the foremost men, 22; Hrafn var göfgastr sona Hængs, 102; því heldr er göfgari vóru, Bs. i. 129; góðir menn ok göfgir, Grág. ii. 168; Ingólfr var göfgastr allra landnáms-manna, Fms. i. 241, (Landn. 36 l. c. frægastr); at þeir mætti báðir sem göfgastir af verða, Bs. i. 129:—of things, göfugr bær, Eg. 477; g. sýsla, Hom. 4.

göll, f. a shriek, Edda (Gl.) 110.

GÖLTR, m., gen. galtar, dat. gelti, [Swed. and Dan. galt]:—a boar, hog, Grág. i. 427, Landn. 177, Sks. 113, Fas. i. 87, 88, iii. 405; sónar-göltr, a sacrificial hog, i. 331, 332. 2. an old dat. gjalti only occurs in the old metaph. phrase, verða at gjalti, to be turned into a hog, i. e. to turn mad with terror, esp. in a fight; stundum æpir hón svá hátt at menn verða nær at gjalti, Fms. iv. 56; sá kraptr ok fjölkyngi fylgði þeim Nor, at úvinir þeirra urðu at gjalti þegar þeir heyrðu heróp ok sá vápnum brugðit, ok lögðu Lappir á flótta, Orkn. 4; en er hann sá at þeir ofruðu vápnunum glúpnaði hann, ok hljóp um fram ok í fjallit upp ok varð at gjalti, Eb. 60; urðu göngu-menn næsta at gjalti, Gísl. 56; en þér ærðisk allir ok yrðit at gjalti, Fs. 43,—cp. Yngl. S. ch. 6, where this power is attributed to Odin; gjalti glíkir verða gumna synir, Hm. 130; Nero hljóp burt frá ríki ok varð at gjalti, Post. 656 C. 39; at konungr mundi ganga af vitinu ok at gjalti verða, Rb. 394 (of king Nebuchadnezzar); þeir menn er geltir eru kallaðir, Sks. 113 sqq. II. metaph. a hog’s back or ridge between two dales; in local names, Galtar-dalr, Galtardals-tunga, n., of farms situated at the foot of such a ridge.

göltra, að, to rove about in cold and blast, from göltr (2).

göndull, m. a clue; það er komið í göndul, of entangled things.

göng, n. pl. [gangr], a passage, lobby; en ór kastala vóru göng upp í kirkju, Fms. ix. 523: freq. in mod. usage, of a narrow passage, baðstofu-göng, esp. when leading from the door to the sitting-room: metaph., gefa e-m göng, to give one free passage, xi. 283; kunna göng at orostu, to know the ways of fighting, vi. 387.

göngull, adj. strolling; mér verðr göngult, Lv. 33; nær-göngull, near-going, exacting; hús-göngull, strolling from house to house.

gönur, f. pl. [gana], wild wanderings, eccentricities; in the phrase, hlaupa út í gönur, to rove wildly about.

GÖR and ger, n. a flock of birds of prey; þar var hrafna gör, Höfuðl. 9; hræva gör, carrion crows, Merl. 2. 68, (in both passages rhyming with a word having ø for root vowel); opt er fiskr í fugla geri, there are often fish where gulls gather, Hallgr. in Snót 212 2nd Ed. (for the gulls guide the fishermen to the shoals of fish); þá fylgir því gör mikit ok áta, Sks. 140.

GÖR- (also spelt gjör-, ger-, geyr-); the complete old form is görv-, which remains in görv-allr, q. v. [cp. görva below; mid. H. G. gar, garwe; O. H. G. garo; N. H. G. gar]:—as adverb. prefix, quite, altogether: gör-auðr, adj. quite empty: gör-bænn, adj. begging hard, importunate, Sighvat, Fb. ii. 80: gör-eyða, dd, to lay quite waste: gör-farinn, part. quite gone, quite lost, of a game, Fms. vii. 219: gör-hugall, adj. very heedful, mindful, Eg. 14: gör-kólfr, m. = for-kólfr, q. v.: gör-slokinn, part. quite slaked, Hólabók 103: gör-spiltr, part. quite corrupt.

GÖRA, ð, also spelt görva, giörva, geyra, giora, gera: prop. gøra, not gra (the ø was sounded nearly as y or ey), so that the g is to be sounded as an aspirate, however the word is spelt; and the insertion of i or j (giöra, gjöra), which is usual in mod. writing, and often occurs in old, is phonetic, not radical, and göra and gjöra represent the same sound. The word in the oldest form had a characteristic v, and is spelt so on the Runic stones in the frequent Runic phrase, gaurva kubl, Baut., and Danske Runemind. passim; but also now and then in old Icel. MSS., e. g. the Kb. of Sæm. (cited from Bugge’s Edit.), gorva, Am. 75, Skv. 1. 34, 3. 20, Hm. 123, Og. 29; gerva, Am. 64, Bkv. 3; giorva, Rm. 9; giorfa, 28; gorvir, Hkv. Hjörv. 41; gørvom, Hým. 6; gorviz, Am. 35; gerviz, Merl. 2. 89:—this characteristic v has since been dropped, and it is usually spelt without it in MSS., gora, Hým. 1, Og. 23, Ls. 65; gera, Am. 85; gorir, Hm. 114: the pret. always drops the v, gorþi, Hym. 21; gorðo or gorþo, fecerunt, Hm. 142, Am. 9; gorðumz, Hðm. 28; gerþi, Am. 74; gerþit, 26:—with i inserted, Rm. 9, 22; giordu, 11; in the Mork. freq. giavra. The ö is still sounded in the east of Icel., whereas gera is the common form in speech, gjöra in writing:—the old pres. indic. used by the poets and in the laws is monosyllabic görr, with suffixed negative, görr-a, Hkr. i. (in a verse); mod. bisyllabic görir, which form is also the usual one in the Sagas:—the old part. pass. was görr or gerr, geyrr, Fms. ix. 498, x. 75, where the v was kept before a vowel, and is often spelt with f, gorvan, gorvir, and gorfan, gorfir: dat. so-goro or so-guru adverbially = sic facto: the mod. part. gjörðr, gerðr, görðr, as a regular part. of the 2nd weak conjugation, which form occurs in MSS. of the 15th century, e. g. Bs. i. 877, l. 21. [This is a Scandin. word; Dan. gjöre; Swed. göra; Old Engl. and Scot. gar, which is no doubt of Scandin. origin, the Saxon word being do, the Germ. thun, neither of which is used in the Scandin.; the word however is not unknown to the Teut., though used in a different sense; A. S. gervan and gearvjan = parare; O. H. G. karwan; Germ. gerben, garben, but esp. the adj. and adv. gar, vide above s. v. gör-.] To make, to do; the Icel. includes both these senses.

A. To make: I. to build, work, make, etc.; göra himin ok jörð, 623. 36, Hom. 100; göra hús, to build a house, Fms. xi. 4, Rb. 384; göra kirkju, Bjarn. 39; göra skip, N. G. L. i. 198; göra langskip, Eg. 44; göra stólpa, Al. 116; göra tól (= smíða), Vsp. 7; göra (fingr)-gull, Bs. i. 877; göra haug, to build a cairn, Eg. 399; göra lokhvílu, Dropl. 27; göra dys, Ld. 152; göra kistu (coffin), Eg. 127; göra naust, N. G. L. i. 198; göra jarðhús, Dropl. 34; göra veggi, Eg. 724: also, göra bók, to write a book, Íb. 1, Rb. 384; göra kviðling, to make a song, Nj. 50; göra bréf, to draw up a deed (letter), Fms. ix. 22; göra nýmæli, to frame a law, Íb. 17. 2. adding prep.; göra upp, to repair, rebuild, restore, Fb. ii. 370; göra upp Jórsala-borg, Ver. 43; göra upp skála, Ld. 298; göra upp leiði, to build up a grave. II. to make, prepare, get ready; göra veizlu, drykkju, brúðkaup, erfi, and poët. öl, öldr, to make a feast, brew bridal ale, Fs. 23, Fms. xi. 156, Dropl. 6, Am. 86; göra seið, blót, to perform a sacrifice, Ld. 152; göra bú, to set up a house, Grág. i. 185, Ld. 68; göra eld, to make a fire, Fs. 100, K. Þ. K. 88; göra rekkju, to make one’s bed, Eg. 236; göra upp hvílur, Sturl. ii. 124; göra graut, to make porridge, Eg. 196, N. G. L. i. 349; göra drykk, to make a drink, Fms. i. 8; göra kol, or göra til kola, to make charcoal, Ölk. 35. III. in somewhat metaph. phrases; göra ferð, to make a journey, Fms. x. 281; görði heiman för sína, he made a journey from home, Eg. 23; göra sinn veg, to make one’s way, travel, Mar.; göra uppreisn, to make an uprising, to rebel, Rb. 384, Fms. ix. 416; göra úfrið, to make war, 656 C. 15; göra sátt, göra frið, to make peace, Hom. 153, Bs. i. 24; göra féskipti, Nj. 118; göra tilskipan, to make an arrangement, Eg. 67; göra ráð sitt, to make up one’s mind, Nj. 267, Fms. ix. 21; göra hluti, to cast lots, Fms. x. 348. 2. to make, give, pay, yield; göra tíund, to pay tithes, Hom. 180; hann skal göra Guði tíunda hlut verðsins, id.; göra ölmusu, to give alms, 64; göra ávöxt, to yield fruit, Greg. 48; gefa né göra ávöxt, Stj. 43; göra konungi skatt eða skyld, Fms. xi. 225. 3. to contract; göra vináttu, félagskap, to contract friendship, Nj. 103, Eg. 29; göra skuld, to contract a debt, Grág. i. 126: göra ráð með e-m, to take counsel with, advise one, Eg. 12; göra ráð fyrir, to suppose, Nj. 103, Fms. ix. 10; göra mun e-s, to make a difference, i. 255, Eb. 106. 4. to make, make up, Lat. efficere; sex tigir penninga göra eyri, sixty pence make an ounce, Grág. i. 500, Rb. 458. 5. to grant, render; göra kost, to make a choice, to grant, Nj. 130, Dropl. 6, Fms. xi. 72, (usually ellipt., kostr being understood); vil ek at þér gerit kostinn, Nj. 3; ok megit þér fyrir því göra (grant) honum kostinn, 49, 51; göra e-m lög, to grant the law to one, 237; göra guðsifjar, to make ‘gossip’ with one, to be one’s godfather, Fms. ii. 130. 6. special usages; göra spott, háð, gabb, … at e-u, to make sport, gibes, etc. at or over a thing, Fms. x. 124; göra iðran, to do penance, Greg. 22; göra þakkir, to give thanks, Hom. 55; göra róm at máli e-s, to cheer another’s speech, shout hear, hear! var görr at máli hans mikill rómr ok góðr, his speech was much cheered, Nj. 250,—a parliamentary term; the Teutons cheered, the Romans applauded (with the hands), cp. Tacit. Germ. 7. with prepp.; gera til, to make ready or dress meat; láta af (to kill) ok göra til (and dress), K. Þ. K. 80, Ísl. ii. 83, 331, Fs. 146, 149, Bjarn. 31, Finnb. 228; göra til nyt, to churn milk, K. Þ. K. 78; göra til sverð, to wash and clean the sword, Dropl. 19; máttu þeir eigi sjá, hversu Þorvaldr var til gerr, how Th. got a dressing, Nj. 19. β. göra at e-u, to mend, make good, put right (at-görð), ek skal at því gera, Fms. xi. 153, Eg. 566, Nj. 130: to heal, Bárð. 171, Eg. 579, Grág. i. 220; göra at hesti, K. Þ. K. 54, Nj. 74: göra við e-u, vide B. II. 8. adding acc. of an adj., part., or the like; göra mun þat margan höfuðlausan, Nj. 203; göra mikit um sik, to make a great noise, great havoc, Fb. i. 545, Grett. 133, Fms. x. 329; göra e-n sáttan, to reconcile one, Grág. i. 336; göra sér e-n kæran, to make one dear to oneself, Hkr. i. 209; göra sik líkan e-m, to make oneself like to another, imitate one, Nj. 258; göra sik góðan, to make oneself good or useful, 74, 78; göra sik reiðan, to take offence, 216; göra sér dælt, to make oneself at home, take liberties, Ld. 134, Nj. 216; göra langmælt, to make a long speech, Sks. 316; göra skjót-kjörit, to make a quick choice, Fms. ii. 79; göra hólpinn, to ‘make holpen,’ to help, x. 314; göra lögtekit, to make a law, issue a law, xi. 213, Bs. i. 37; hann gerði hann hálshöggvinn, he had him beheaded, Fms. ix. 488, v. l.; ok görðu þá handtekna alla at minsta kosti, Sturl. i. 40; várir vöskustu ok beztu menn era görfir handteknir, 41. β. göra sér mikit um e-t, to make much of, admire, Eg. 5, Fms. x. 254, 364; göra e-t at ágætum, to make famous, extol a thing, vii. 147; göra at orðum, to notice as remarkable, Fas. i. 123; göra at álitum, to take into consideration, Nj. 3; göra sér úgetið at e-u, to be displeased with, Ld. 134; göra vart við sik, to make one’s presence noticed, Eg. 79; göra sér mikit, lítið fyrir, to make great, small efforts, Finnb. 234; göra sér í hug, to brood over; hann gerði sér í hug at drepa jarl, Fs. 112; göra sér í hugar lund, to fancy, think: göra af sér, to exert oneself, ef þú gerir eigi meira af þér um aðra leika, Edda 32; hvárt hann var með Eiríki jarli, eðr görði hann annat af sér, or what else he was making of himself, Fms. xi. 157. 9. phrases, gera fáleika á sik, to feign, make oneself look sad, Nj. 14; esp. adding upp, gera sér upp veyki, to feign sickness, (upp-gerð, dissimulation); göra sér til, to make a fuss, (hence, til-gerð, foppishness.)

B. To do: I. to do, act; allt þat er hann gerir síðan (whatever he does), þat á eigandi at ábyrgjask, Gþl. 190; þér munut fátt mæla eðr gera, áðr yðr munu vandræði af standa, i. e. whatsoever you say or do will bring you into trouble, Nj. 91; göra e-t með harðfengi ok kappi, 98; ger svá vel, ‘do so well,’ be so kind! 111; gerit nú svá, góði herra (please, dear lord!), þiggit mitt heilræði, Fms. vii. 157: and in mod. usage, gerið þér svo vel, gerðu svo vel, = Engl. please, do! sagði, at hann hafði með trúleik gört, done faithfully, Eg. 65; göra gott, to do good; göra íllt, to do evil, (góð-görð, íll-görð); ok þat var vel gört, well done, 64; geyrða ek hotvetna íllt, I did evil in all things, Niðrst. 109; hefir hann marga hluti gört stór-vel til mín, he has done many things well towards me, I have received many great benefits at his hands, Eg. 60: with dat., svá mikit gott sem jarl hefir mér gert, Nj. 133; þér vilda ek sízt íllt göra, I would least do harm to thee, 84: göra fúlmennsku, to do a mean act, 185; göra vel við e-n, to do well to one, Fs. 22; göra stygð við e-n, to offend one, Fms. x. 98; göra sæmiliga til e-s, to do well to one, Ld. 62, Nj. 71; göra sóma e-s, to do honour to one, Fms. vii. 155; göra e-m gagn, to give help to one, Nj. 262; göra e-m sæmd, skomm, to do (shew) honour, dishonour, to one, 5, Fms. x. 43; göra háðung, xi. 152; göra styrk, to strengthen one, ix. 343; göra e-m skapraun, to tease one; göra ósóma, Vápn. 19; göra skaða (scathe), Eg. 426; göra óvina-fagnað, to give joy to one’s enemies, i. e. to do just what they want one to do, Nj. 112; göra til skaps e-m, to conform to one’s wishes, 80; gerum vér sem faðir vár vill, let us do as our father wishes, 198; vel má ek gera þat til skaps föður míns at brenna inni með honum, id.; göra at skapi e-s, id., 3; var þat mjök gert móti mínu skapi, Fms. viii. 300; gera til saka við e-n, to offend, sin against one, Nj. 80; gera á hluta e-s, to wrong one, Vígl. 25; göra ílla fyrir sér, to behave badly, Fms. vii. 103. II. adding prep.; göra til e-s, to deserve a thing (cp. til-görð, desert, behaviour); hvat hafðir þú til gört, what hast thou done to deserve it? Nj. 130; framarr en ek hefi til gört, more than I have deserved, Fms. viii. 300; ok hafit þér Danir heldr til annars gört, ye Danes have rather deserved the reverse, xi. 192, Hom. 159:—göra eptir, to do after, imitate, Nj. 90:—göra við e-u (cp. við-görð, amendment), to provide for, amend, ok mun úhægt vera at göra við forlögum þeirra, Ld. 190; er úhægt at göra við (to resist) atkvæðum, Fs. 22; ok mun ekki mega við því gera, Nj. 198:—göra af við e-n (cp. af-görð, evil doing), to transgress against one, ek hefi engan hlut af gört við þik, Fms. vii. 104, viii. 241; ok iðrask nú þess er hann hefir af gert, 300; göra af við Guð, to sin against God, Hom. 44. 2. special usages; göra … at, to do so and so; spurði, hvat hann vildi þá láta at gera, he asked what he would have done, Nj. 100; hann gerði þat eina at, er hann átti, he did only what be ought, 220; þeir Flosi sátu um at rengja, ok gátu ekki at gert, F. tried, and could do nothing, 115, 242; þér munut ekki fá at gert, fyrr en …, 139; Flosi ok hans menn fengu ekki at gert, 199; mikit hefir þú nú at gert, much hast thou now done (it is a serious matter), 85; er nú ok mikit at gert um manndráp siðan, 256; hann vildi taka vöru at láni, ok göra mikit at, and do great things, Ld. 70; Svartr hafði höggit skóg ok gert mikit at, Nj. 53; slíkt gerir at er sölin etr, so it happens with those who eat seaweed, i. e. that (viz. thirst) comes of eating seaweed, Eg. 605. β. göra af e-u, to do so and so with a thing; hvat hafið ér gert af Gunnari, Njarð. 376; ráð þú draumana, vera má at vér gerim af nokkut, may be that we may make something out of it, Ld. 126; gör af drauminum slíkt er þér þykkir líkligast, do with the dream (read it) as seems to thee likeliest, Ísl. ii. 196: göra við e-n, to do with one; þá var um rætt, hvað við þá skyldi göra, what was to be done with them? Eg. 232; ærnar eru sakir til við Egil, hvat sem eg læt göra við hann, 426; eigi veit ek hvat þeir hafa síðan við gört, 574: göra fyrir e-t, to provide; Jón var vel fjáreigandi, ok at öllu vel fyrir gört, a wealthy and well-to-do man, Sturl. iii. 195; þótt Björn sé vel vígr maðr, þá er þar fyrir gört, því at …, but that is made up, because …: fyrir göra (q. v.), to forfeit.

C. METAPH. AND SPECIAL USAGES: I. to do, help, avail; nú skulum vér ganga allir á vald jarlsins, því at oss gerir eigi annat, nothing else will do for us, Nj. 267; þat mun ekki gera, that wont do, 84; en ek kann ekki ráð til at leggja ef þetta gerir ekki, Fms. ii. 326; konungr vill þat eigi, þvi at mér gerir þat eigi (it will not do for me) at þér gangit hér upp, x. 357; þat gerir mér ekki, at þér gangit á Orminn, … en hitt má vera at mér komi at gagni, ii. 227; þóttisk þá vita, at honum mundi ekki gera (it would do nothing) at biðja fyrir honum, Fb. i. 565; engum gerði við hann at keppa, 571; ekki gerði þeim um at brjótask, Bárð. 10 new Ed.; sagða ek yðr eigi, at ekki mundi gera at leita hans, Sks. 625; hvat gerir mér nú at spyrja, Stj. 518; ekki gerir at dylja, no use hiding it, Fbr. 101 new Ed.; ætla þat at fáir þori, enda geri engum, Band. 7; bæði var leitað til annarra ok heima, ok gerði ekki, but did no good, 4; hét hann þeim afarkostum, ok gerði þat ekki, but it did no good, Fms. ii. 143. II. to send, despatch, cp. the Engl. to ‘do’ a message; hann gerði þegar menn frá sér, Eg. 270; hann hafði gört menn sex á skóginn fyrir þá, 568; þá gerði Karl lið móti þeim, Fms. i. 108; jarl gerði Eirík at leita Ribbunga, ix. 314; hann gerði fram fyrir sik Álf á njósn, 488; hann gerði menn fyrir sér at segja konunginum kvámu sína, x. 10; hleypi-skúta var gör norðr til Þrándheims, vii. 206; jafnan gerði jarl til Ribbunga ok drap menn af þeim, ix. 312; vilja Ósvífrs-synir þegar gera til þeirra Kotkels, despatch them to slay K., Ld. 144; skulu vér nú göra í mót honum, ok láta hann engri njósn koma, 242:—göra eptir e-m, to send after one, Nero bað göra eptir postulunum ok leiða þangat, 656 C. 26; nú verðr eigi eptir gört at miðjum vetri, Grág. i. 421; frændr Bjarnar létu göra eptir (Germ. abholen) líki hans, Bjarn. 69; síðan gerðu þeir til klaustrs þess er jómfrúin var í, Fms. x. 102:—gera e-m orð, njósn, to do a message to one; hann gerði orð jörlum sínum, Eg. 270; ætluðu þeir at göra Önundi njósn um ferðir Egils, 386, 582; vóru þangat orð gör, word was sent thither, Hkr. ii. 228. III. with infin. as an auxiliary verb, only in poetry and old prose (laws); ef hón gerði koma, if she did come, Völ. 5; gerðit vatn vægja, Am. 25; gramr gørr-at sér hlífa, he does not spare himself, Hkr. i. (in a verse); gerðut vægjask, id., Fs. (in a verse); hann gerðisk at höggva, Jb. 41; görðir at segja, Bkv. 15; görðisk at deyja, Gkv. 1. 1: in prose, eigi gerir hugr minn hlægja við honum, Fas. i. 122; góðir menn göra skýra sitt mál með sannsögli, 677. 12; Aristodemus görði eigi enn at trúa, Post.: esp. in the laws, ef þeir göra eigi ganga í rúm sín, Grág. i. 8; ef goðinn gerr eigi segja, 32; ef hann gerr eigi í ganga, 33; ef þeir göra eigi hluta meðr sér, 63; ef dómendr göra eigi dæma, 67; ef dómendr göra eigi við at taka, id.; ef goðinn gerr eigi (does not) nefna féráns-dóm, 94; nú göra þeir menn eigi úmaga færa, 86; ef þeir göra eigi nefna kvöðina af búanum, Kb. ii. 163; ef þeir göra eigi segja, hvárt …, Sb. ii. 52; nú gerr sá eigi til fara, Kb. ii. 96; göra eigi koma, 150; ef hann gerr eigi kjósa, § 113. IV. a law term, göra um, or gera only, to judge or arbitrate in a case; fékksk þat af, at tólf menn skyldu göra um málit, Nj. 111; villt þú göra um málit, 21; bjóða mun ek at göra um, ok lúka upp þegar görðinni, 77; mun sá mála-hluti várr beztr, at góðir menn geri um, 88; málin vóru lagið í gerð, skyldu gera um tólf menn, var þá gert um málin á þingi, var þat gert, at … (follows the verdict), 88; vil ek at þú sættisk skjótt ok látir góða menn gera um …, at hann geri um ok enir beztu menn af hvárra liði lögliga til nefndir, 188; Njáll kvaðsk eigi gera mundu nema á þingi, 105; þeir kváðusk þat halda mundu, er hann gerði, id.; skaltú gera sjálfr, 58; fyrr en gert var áðr um hitt málit, 120; ek vil bjóðask til at göra milli ykkar Þórðar um mál yðar, Bjarn. 55; Þorsteinn kvað þat þó mundi mál manna, at þeir hefði góða nefnd um sættir þótt hann görði, 56; nú er þegar slegit í sætt málinu með því móti, at Áskell skal göra um þeirra í milli, Rd. 248; er nú leitað um sættir milli þeirra, ok kom svá at þeir skulu göra um málin Þorgeirr goði frá Ljósa-vatni ok Arnórr ór Reykjahlíð, sú var görð þeirra at …, 288; svá kemr at Ljótr vill at Skapti görði af hans hendi, en Guðmundr vill sjálfr göra fyrir sína hönd, skyldi Skapti gerð upp segja, Valla L. 225; eigi hæfir þat, leitum heldr um sættir ok geri Þorgeirr um mál þessi, Lv. 12; var jafnt gört sár Þórðar ok sár Þórodds, Eb. 246; þær urðu mála-lyktir at Þórðr skyldi göra um …, 24; ok vóru þá görvar miklar fésektir, 128; var leitað um sættir, ok varð þat at sætt, at þeir Snorri ok Steindórr skyldi göra um, 212; þit erut gerfir héraðs-sekir sem íllræðis-menn, Fs. 58: göra görð, Sturl. i. 63, 105: adding the fine, to fix the amount, þat er gerð mín, at ek geri verð húss ok matar, I fix the amount of the value of the house and (stolen) stores, Nj. 80; gerði Njáll hundrað silfrs, N. put it at a hundred silver pieces, 58; margir mæltu, at mikit vaeri gert, that the amount was high, id.; slíkt fégjald sem gert var, 120; vilit ér nokkut héraðs-sektir göra eða utanferðir, 189; hann dæmdi þegar, ok görði hundrað silfrs, 6l; síðan bauð Bjarni Þorkatli sætt ok sjálfdæmi, görði Bjarni hundrað silfrs, Vápn. 31; ek göri á hönd Þóri hundrað silfrs, Lv. 55; ek göri á hönd þér hundrað silfrs, id.; vilit þér, at ek göra millum ykkar? síðan görði konungr konuna til handa Þórði ok öll fé hennar, Bjarn. 17; Rafn kvað hann mikit fé annat af sér hafa gört, at eigi þætti honum þat betra, Fs. 30; Gellir görði átta hundrað silfrs, Lv. 97; fyrir þat gerði Börkr hinn digri af honum eyjarnar, B. took the isles from him as a fine, Landn. 123: adding the case as object, Gunnarr gerði gerðina, G. gave judgment in the case, Nj. 80; fyrr en gert var áðr um hitt málit, till the other case was decided, 120; þá sætt er hann görði Haraldi jarli, that settlement which he made for earl Harold, Fms. viii. 300: Flosi var görr utan ok allir brennu-menn, F. was put out (banished) and all the burners, Nj. 251: metaph., nema þau vili annat mál á gera, unless they choose to settle it otherwise, Grág. i. 336. 2. in the phrase, göra sekð, to make a case of outlawry, Grág. i. 118; eigi um görir sekð manns ella, else the outlawry takes no effect; en hann um görir eigi ella sekðina, else he cannot condemn him, 119. 3. to perform; eptir-gerðar þeirrar sem hverr nennti framast at gera eptir sinn náung, Fms. viii. 103; en þat grunaði konung, at hann mundi ætla at göra eptir sumar sættir, i. e. that he had some back door to escape by, Orkn. 58 (cp. Ó. H.); allt þat er þér gerit nú fyrir þeirra sálum, id. V. special usages, to make allowance for; gera fóðr til fjár, to make an arbitrary allowance for, Ísl. ii. 138; hence, to suppose, en ef ek skal göra til fyrir fram (suggest) hvat er hón (the code) segir mér, þá segi ek svá, at …, Fms. ix. 331; gera sér í hug, Fs. 112; göra sér í hugar-lund, to fancy; göra e-m getsakir, to impute to one; gera orð á e-u, to report a thing; þat er ekki orð á því geranda, ‘tis not worth talking about; eigi þarf orð at göra hjá því (‘tis not to be denied), sjálfan stólkonunginn blindaði hann, Mork. 14 (cp. Fms. vi. 168, l. c.); gera sér létt, to take a thing lightly, Am. 70; göra sér far um, to take pains; göra sér í hug, hugar-lund, to suppose.

D. IMPERS. it makes one so and so, one becomes; hann görði fölvan í andliti, he turned pale, Glúm. 342; leysti ísinn ok görði varmt vatnið, the water became warm, 623. 34; veðr görði hvast, a gale arose, Eg. 128; hríð mikla gerði at þeim, they were overtaken by a storm, 267; þá gerði ok á hríð (acc.) veðrs, 281; féll veðrit ok gerði logn (acc.), and became calm, 372; görði þá stórt á firðinum, the sea rose high, 600; til þess er veðr lægði ok ljóst gerði, and till it cleared up, 129; um nóttina gerði á æði-veðr ok útsynning, 195; görir á fyrir þeim hafvillur, they lost their course (of sailors), Finnb. 242; mér gerir svefnhöfugt, I grow sleepy, Nj. 264; þá görði vetr mikinn þar eptir hinn næsta, Rd. 248.

E. REFLEX, to become, grow, arise, and the like; þá görðisk hlátr, then arose laughter, Nj. 15; görðisk bardagi, it came to a fight, 62, 108; sá atburðr görðisk, it came to pass, Fms. x. 279; þau tíðendi er þar höfðu görzt, Ld. 152; gerðisk með þeim félagskapr, they entered into fellowship, Eg. 29; gerðisk svá fallit kaup, Dipl. ii. 10; Sigurðr konungr gerðisk (grew up to be) ofstopa-maðr …, görðisk mikill maðr ok sterkr, Fms. vii. 238; hann görðisk brátt ríkr maðr ok stjórnsamr, xi. 223; Unnr görðisk þá mjök elli-móð, U. became worn with age, Ld. 12; sár þat er at ben görðisk, a law term, a wound which amounted to a bleeding wound, Nj. passim:—to be made, to become, görask konungr, to become king, Eg. 12; ok görðisk skáld hans, and became his skáld, 13; görðisk konungs hirðmaðr, 27; görask hans eigin-kona, to become his wedded wife, Fms. i. 3; at hann skyldi görask hálf-konungr yfir Dana-veldi, 83; vill Hrútr görask mágr þinn, Nj. 3; hann gerðisk síðan óvarari, he became less cautious, Fms. x. 414. 2. with the prep. svá, to happen, come to pass so and so; svá görðisk, at …, it so happened, that …, Nj. 167; görðisk svá til, at …, Fms. x. 391; þá görðisk svá til um síðir, at…, at last it came to pass. that …, 392; enda vissi hann eigi, at þingför mundi af görask, in case he knew not that it would entail a journey to parliament, Grág. i. 46: with at added, to increase, þá görðisk þat mjök at um jarl (it grew even worse with the earl) at hann var úsiðugr um kvenna-far, görðisk þat svá mikit, at …, it grew to such a pitch, that …, Hkr. i. 245; hence the mod. phrase, e-ð á-görist, it increases, gains, advances, esp. of illness, bad habits, and the like, never in a good sense. 3. impers. with dat., honum gerðisk ekki mjök vært, he felt restless, Ld. 152; næsta gerisk mér kynlegt, I feel uneasy, Finnb. 236. 4. to behave, bear oneself; Páll görðisk hraustliga í nafni Jesu, Post. 656 C. 13. 5. to set about doing, be about; fám vetrum síðan görðisk hann vestr til Íslands, Fms. x. 415; maðr kom at honum ok spurði, hvat hann gerðisk, what he was about, Ó. H. 244; görðisk jarl til Ribbunga, Fms. ix. 312, v. l.; tveir menn görðusk ferðar sinnar, two men set out for a journey, x. 279; görðusk menn ok eigi til þess at sitja yfir hlut hans, Eg. 512; at þessir menn hafa görzk til svá mikils stórræðis, Fms. xi. 261; eigi treystusk menn at görask til við hann, Bárð. 160. 6. (mod.) to be; in such phrases as, eins og menn nú gerast, such as people now are; eins og flestir menn gerast.

F. PART. PASS. görr, geyrr (Fms. ix. 498, x. 75), gjörr, gerr, as adj., compar. görvari, superl. görvastr; [A. S. gearu; gare, Chaucer, Percy’s Ballads; O. H. G. garwe; Germ. gar]:—skilled, accomplished; vaskligr, at sér görr, Ld. 134; vel at sér görr, Ísl. ii. 326, Gísl. 14; gerr at sér um allt, Nj. 51; hraustir ok vel at sér görvir, Eg. 86; at engi maðr hafi gervari at sér verit en Sigurðr, Mork. 221; allra manna snjallastr í máli ok görvastr at sér, Hkr. iii. 360: the phrase, leggja görva hönd á e-t, to set a skilled hand to work, to be an adept, a master in a thing; svá hagr, at hann lagði allt á görva hönd, Fas. i. 391, (á allt görva hönd, iii. 195.) 2. ready made, at hand; in the saying, gott er til geyrs (i. e. görs, not geirs) at taka, ‘tis good to have a thing at hand, Hkm. 17; ganga til görs, to have it ready made for one, Ld. 96; gör gjöld, prompt punishment, Lex. Poët.:—with infin., gerr at bjóða, ready to offer, Gh. 17; gervir at eiskra, in wild spirits, Hom. 11; görvar at ríða, Vsp. 24: with gen. of the thing, gerr ílls hugar, prone to evil, Hým. 9; gerr galdrs, prone to sorcery, Þd. 3; skulut þess görvir, be ready for that! Am. 55. II. [cp. görvi, Engl. gear], done, dressed; svá görvir, so ‘geared,’ so trussed, Am. 40. III. adverb. phrases, so-gurt, at soguru, so done; verða menn þat þó so-gurt at hafa, i. e. there is no redress to be had, Hrafn. 9; hafi hann so-gurt, N. G. L. i. 35, Nj. 141; kvað eigi so-gort duga, 123, v. l.; at (með) so-guru, this done, quo facto, Skv. 1. 24, 40; freq. with a notion of being left undone, re infecta. Germ. unverrichteter sache, Eg. 155, Glúm. 332, Ó. H. 202; enda siti um so-gort, and now let it stand, Skálda 166; við so-gurt, id., 655 vii. 4; á so-gurt ofan, into the bargain, Bs. i. 178, Ölk. 36, Fas. i. 85.

görandi, a, m., part. doer, Rb. 4: gramm. nominative, Skálda.

GÖRÐ, gjörð, gerð, f. [göra]: 1. used of making, building, workmanship; görð ok gylling, Vm. 47; kirkju-görð, church-building; húsa-g., house-building; skipa-g., ship-building; garð-g., fence-making:—of performance, vígslu-g., inauguration; messu-g., saying of mass, divine service; þjónustu-g., embættis-g., id.; þakkar-g., thanksgiving; bænar-g., prayer; lof-g., praise; ölmusu-g., alms-giving; frið-g., peace-making; sættar-g., settlement, agreement, arbitration:—of working, akr-g., tillage; ú-gerð, bad workmanship, patchwork; við-gerð, mending:—of yielding (of duties), tíundar-görð, tithe; leiðangrs-g., paying levy:—of cookery and the like, öl-görð, ale-making, brewing; matar-g., cooking; brauð-g., baking: sundr-gerð, show: til-gerð, whims: upp-gerð, dissimulation: eptir-görð, q. v.: í-görð, suppuration. 2. a doing, act, deed; the phrase, orð ok görðir, words and deeds, Fms. iii. 148; ef þú launar svá mína görð, Ísl. ii. 141, Stj. 250, 252, Dipl. i. 7: so in the phrase, söm þín gerð, as good as the deed (in declining a kind offer); góð-görð, vel-görð, a good deed, benefit; íll-görðir (pl.), evil doings; mein-görðir, transgressions: in gramm. the active voice, Skálda 180. II. a law term, arbitration; the settlement was called sætt or sættar-görð, the umpires görðar-menn, m., Grág., Nj. passim; and the verdict gerð or görð, cp. göra C. IV:—the technical phrases were, leggja mál í görð, to submit a case to arbitration, passim; vóru málin í gerð lagin með umgangi ok sættarboðum góðgjarna manna, Eb. 128; or slá málum í sætt, Rd. 248, Eb. ch. 56; leggja mál undir e-n, Lv. ch. 27: nefna menn til görðar (ch. 4), or taka menn til görðar, to choose umpires; vóru menn til gerðar teknir ok lagðr til fundr, Nj. 146: skilja undir gerð (sátt), or skilja undan, to stipulate, of one of the party making a stipulation to be binding on the umpire (as e. g. the award shall not be outlawry but payment), en þó at vandliga væri skilit undir görðina, þá játaði Þórðr at göra, Eb. 24, cp. Ld. 308, Sturl. ii. 63; göra fé slíkt sem hann vildi, at undan-skildum hérað-sektum ok utanferðum, var þá handsalat niðrfall af sökum, Fs. 74; lúka upp gerð (to deliver the arbitration), or segja upp gerð, to pronounce or to give verdict as umpire; skyldi Skapti gerð upp segja, Valla L. 225; hann lauk upp gerðum á Þórsness-þingi ok hafði við hina vitrustu menn er þar vóru komnir, Eb. 246; þeir skyldi upp lúka görðinni áðr en þeir færi af þingi, Bjarn. (fine); Þorsteinn kvaðsk ekki mundu görð upp lúka fyr en á nokkuru lögþingi, Fs. 49:—as to the number of umpires,—one only, a trustworthy man, was usually appointed, Eb. ch. 10 (Thord Gellir umpire), ch. 46, Lv. ch. 27 (Gellir), Valla L. ch. 6 (Skapti the speaker), Rd. ch. 6 (Áskell Goði), Sturl. 2. ch. 103 (Jón Loptsson), Sturl. 4. ch. 27 (Thorvald Gizurarson), Bjarn. 17 (the king of Norway), Flóam. S. ch. 3, Hallfr. S. ch. 10, Bjarn. 55: two umpires, Rd. ch. 10, 16, 18, 24, Valla L. ch. 10 (partly a case of sjálfdæmi), Bjarn. (fine): twelve umpires, Nj. ch. 75, 123, 124 (six named by each party): the number and other particulars not recorded, Vd. ch. 39, 40, Nj. ch. 94, Rd. ch. 11, 13, Eb. ch. 27, 56, Lv. ch. 4, 12, 30, Glúm. ch. 9, 23, 27, etc.:—even the sjálfdæmi (q. v.), self-judging, was a kind of arbitration, cp. Vápn. 31, Vd. ch. 29, 34, 44, Lv. ch. 17, Band. pp. 11–13, Ölk. ch. 2–4: curious is the passage, ek vil at vit takim menn til görðar með okkr, Hrafnkell svarar, þá þykisk þú jafn-menntr mér, Hrafn. 10:—görð is properly distinguished from dómr, but is sometimes confounded with it, vóru handsöluð mál í dóm ok menn til görðar nefndir, Lv. 13; málin kómu í dóm Vermundar, en hann lauk gerðum upp á Þórsness-þingi, Eb. 246; as also Nj. (beginning), where lögligir dómar no doubt refers to görð. A section of law about görð is contained in the Grág. at the end of Kaupa-þáttr, ch. 69–81 (i. 485–497), where even the curious case is provided for of one or all the umpires dying, or becoming dumb or mad, before pronouncing their verdict. ☞ This was a favourite way of settlement at the time of the Commonwealth, and suited well the sagacious and law-abiding spirit of the men of old: nor did the institution of the Fifth Court make any change in this; the görð was even resorted to in public matters, such as the introduction of Christianity in A. D. 1000. Good and leading men acted the part of public peacemakers (e. g. Njál in the 10th, Jón Loptsson in the 12th century); until at last, in the 13th century, the king of Norway was resorted to, but he misused the confidence put in him.

görla (gerla, gjörla), adv. quite, altogether, clearly, Nj. 5, 104, passim.

görliga, adv. = görla, Skv. 1. 36.

GÖRN, f., old pl. garnar, Grág. ii. 361, 371, usually and mod. garnir, [akin to garn, yarn], the guts, Landn. 217, Grág. ii. 361, Jb. 320, Ls. 50.

GÖRNING (gjörning, gerning), f. (in mod. usage masc. -ingr, Sturl. i. 217):—a doing, deed, act, Sturl. l. c., Hom. 106; góð-g., well-doing, a good deed; mis-g., a mis-deed: a written deed, freq.: in plur., Postulanna Görningar or Gjörninga bók, the book of the Acts of the Apostles, freq.; kirkja á messu-bók ok görninga, Ám. 4. II. only in plur. sorceries, witchcraft, Fs. 37, Fms. ii. 134, v. 326, x. 136, Hom. 53, 86, N. G. L. i. 351, passim; esp. in the allit. phrase, galdrar ok g. COMPDS: görninga-hríð, f., -veðr, n. a witch storm, Fs. 56, Fas. iii. 279. görninga-maðr, m. a sorcerer, Js. 22. görninga-sótt, f. sickness caused by sorcery, Fas. i. 324. görninga-stakkr, m. an enchanted jacket, Fs. 33. görninga-vættr, f. a witch, Grett. 151 B, Fs. 166.

gör-óttr, adj. empoisoned, Sæm. 118.

görr, vide gær.

gör-ráðr, adj. arbitrary.

gör-ræði, n. a law term, an arbitrary act; taka skip manns at görræði sínu, Grág. ii. 396.

gör-samliga, adv. altogether, quite, Bs. i. 322, Fms. vii. 11, Magn. 466, Fas. i. 287, Hom. 44, Sks. 327, 347, passim.

gör-samligr, adj. all together.

gör-semi, gör-symi, giavr-simi, f., Mork. 61, 64; but usually ger-semi, f. indecl. sing., but þessarar gersemar (gen.), Fms. vi. 73; [old Dan. görsum; gersuma in A. S. laws is a Scandin. or Dan. word, from gör- and sama, what beseems; or perhaps better from gör- and sima, costly wire, coils of wire being used as money]:—a costly thing, jewel; gersemi ertú (what a treasure thou art!), hversu þú ert mér eptirlátr, Nj. 68; skjöld, ok var hann en mesta gersemi, Eg. 698; gullhring ok nokkrar gersimar, Bs. i. 130; gaf keisarinn honum margar gersimar, Fms. xi. 328; einn digran gullhring ok var þat g. sem mest, Fær. 6; með stórum gersemum ok fjár-hlutum, Fms. x. 417: of a living thing, þeir hafa drepit yxn (oxen) mitt er mest gersemi var, Sd. 158; var þat dýr en mesta gersemi þess-kyns, Fms. vi. 298 sqq.; konungs-gersemi, a ‘king’s jewel,’ of a dwarf,—such a man being the ‘king’s plaything:’ allit., gull ok gersimar, passim:—Hnoss and Gersemi were the daughters of Freyja, Edda.

gör-simligr, adj. costly, Edda 21, 151.

gör-tœki, n. a law term, any unlawful seizure or holding of another man’s property without positive intention of stealing, therefore not felony: it is thus defined, ef maðr tekr þat er annarr maðr á, ólofat, ok á maðr at færa þat til görtœkis er pennings er vert eðr meira, Grág. ii. 188; þjófsök and görtœkis-sök are distinguished in 190; the penalty was the payment of twice its value, as fixed by the neighbours, and a fine of three marks, i. 401, ii. 188, 396: pilfering could be prosecuted either as theft or as görtœki, i. 430, ii. 295, and passim.

görva, gjörva, gerva, geyrva, adv.; compar. görr, gjörr, gerr; superl. görst, gerst: [A. S. gearve, gearu; O. H. G. garwe; Germ. gar]:—quite, clearly; ef þú görva kannar, if thou searchest closely, Hm. 101, Ls. 52; muna g., to remember clearly, Am. 78; reyna g., 77; vita g., to know exactly, Ó. H. 62, Sturl. iii. 220 C: compar., seg enn görr, tell it plainer, speak out! Nj. 13; þvíat nú vita menn görr en fyrr hvat göra skal, Bjarn. 58; um þá hluti er ek hann görr at sjá en þér, Ld. 186; þó veiztu görr ef þú ræðir þetta mál fyrir konungi, Fms. i. 82: more, farther, ok skilja þeir þat eigi görr en svá, Grág. i. 136; þá á hann eigi görr at neyta, en fjögurra missera björg sé eptir, not beyond that point, 235; lögsögu-maðr skal svá görla (so far, so minutely) alla þáttu upp segja, at engi viti einna miklogi görr, 2; görr meir, still more, H. E. i. 48: superl., ek veit görst (I know best) at þér þurfit brýningina, Ld. 240: sá veit görst er reynir, a saying; sauða-maðr fór ok sagði Gunnari sem görst (he told G. minutely) frá öllu, Nj. 104; er þat bæði, at ek þykkjumk svá görst vita hverr þú ert, Fms. ii. 269; þóttisk hón þá görst vita, hvernig honum mun farask, Rd. 246.

görv-allr, adj. whole, entire, quite all, = Gr. απας, Hm. 147, Grág. i. 262, Fms. vi. 444, viii. 261, xi. 67, 186, Ld. 202, Sks. passim, both in old and mod. usage.

görvi, giörvi, gervi, f. indecl. sing., pl. görvar, [A. S. gearwe; Engl. gear, garb; Hel. gerui; Germ. garb]:—gear, apparel; kraptr er görvi hugar, ‘virtus est animi habitus,’ Hom. 27; fóru hendr hvítar hennar um þessar gervar, Fas. i. (in a verse); brautingja-gervi, a beggar’s gear, Hbl. 6; kaupmanna-g., a merchant’s gear, Fms. v. 285; far-görvi, luggage; handa-gervi, ‘hands’ gear,’ gloves, Sd. 143, 177, Fbr. 139; eykja-görvi, horse harness, Ýt. 10; at-görvi (q. v.), accomplishment. görvi-búr, n. a store-house, Ld. 134, Þorst. Síðu H. 7, Fs. 40.

görvi-leikr (-leiki), m. accomplishments, Grett. 113, Fms. iv. 178.

görvi-ligr, adj. accomplished, doughty, able, Eg. 3, 98, Nj. 72, Fms. i. 4, 61, Fas. i. 58, Bs. i. 130, passim.

görvir, m., poët. a doer, maker, Lex. Poët.

götóttr, adj. [gat], full of holes.

GÖTVA, að, [akin to gata, a way dug or bored through; the characteristic v is preserved in Goth. gatvo = platea]:—to dig, bury; götvaðr (part.), buried (in a cairn), Ísl. ii. 280; götva þeir hann þar í grjótinu, they cast stones over him, Gísl. 72, Gkv. 18: in mod. usage, upp-götva, to discover, (freq.)

götvaðr, m. one who buries, i. e. a slayer, Bkv. 10, (dub.)

götvan, f., in upp-götvan, discovery, (freq. in mod. usage.)

götvar, f. pl. [A. S. gealwe, Grein], a hoard (?); geirrótu götvar, the treasure of Bellona, armour, weapons, Edda (in a verse), Ýt. 21: götvar seems prop. to mean hidden treasures, hoard.

© Tim Stridmann