J

J is really the tenth letter of the alphabet, but since it is usually regarded as another form of I, K is commonly reckoned as the tenth letter.

jaðar-flár, adj. loose in the edge, of stuff, Grág. i. 498.

JAÐARR, m., dat. jaðri, pl. jaðrar; a form jöðurr (as vaðall and vöðull) occurs in Vsp. 5: [A. S. and Hel. edor = septum; provinc. Bavarian ettor, Schmeller]:—the edge, selvage, of cloth, Grág. i. 408, Nj. 176, v. l.; of a tent, Stj. 307, Str. 40: of a sail, Mag.: of the limb of the moon, Rb. 34: the edge-beam or rail of a paling, sá garðr er gildr, er öln er á meðal staurs hvers, en hjástaurr enn þriði, ok jaðarr er yfir, N. G. L. i. 246: poët., himin-jöður, the ‘sky-border,’ horizon, Vsp.; ský-jaðarr, ‘cloud-border,’ the heaven, Geisli 2; sólar-jaðarr, id.: the edge of the hand (handar-jaðarr), Edda 110: the border along the shore, með Blálands jaðri, Lex. Poët.; fróns jaðarr, id.; Eylands jaðarr = ora maritima, Merl. 2. 5: whence a local name of the Norse district, Jaðarr, m. Jæderen; also Jaðar-byggð, f., and Jaðar-byggjar, m. pl. the men of the country J., Fb., Fms. passim. II. metaph. [A. S. eodor, Beow.], the foremost, best, with gen.; Ása jaðarr, the best of all the Ases, Ls. 35: fólks jaðarr, the best of men, Hkv. 2. 40; goðs jaðarr, the highest god—Odin, Stor. 22; hers jaðarr, Fm. 36, Merl.

jaðar-skegg, n. whiskers, Sks. 288, (recorded as a German fashion.)

jaðra, að, to brim, border; jaðraðr, part. bordered, Gþl. 308.

jaðrakan, n. a kind of Icel. bird, numenius: mod. jarðreka, Edda (Gl.)

JAFN, adj., also spelt jamn, f. jöfn, neut. jafnt, often spelt as well as proncd. jamt; compar. jafnari, superl. jafnastr: [Ulf. ibns, Luke vi. 17; A. S. efen; Engl. and Dutch even; old Fr. ivin; O. H. G. eban; mod. Germ. eben; Dan. jevn; Swed. jemn; akin to Lat. aequus by interchange of palatal and labial, see Grimm’s Dict. s. v. eben]:—even, equal, but, like Lat. aequus, mostly in a metaph. sense, for sléttr (q. v.) answers to Lat. planus; often followed by a dat., jafn e-u, equal to a thing, in comparison: I. equal, equal to; jöfn eyri (dat.) gulls, K. Þ. K. 72; jafn Guði, equal to God; jafn mér, passim. 2. equal, the same; enda er jöfn helgi hans meðan hann ferr svá með sér, Grág. i. 93; ella er jöfn sök við hann fram á leið, 322; at ek verða jafn drengr í hvert sinn, Sd. 188; þínar verða flestar jafnastar, thy acts are mostly the same, i. e. all bad, Fms. viii. 409. 3. fixed, unchanged; með jafnri leigu, jöfnum kaupum, jöfnum skildaga, Rétt. 2. 7, Stat. 264, Fb. ii. 137; hann var ellefu vetra eðr tíu, ok sterkr at jöfnum aldri, and strong for his age, Eg. 188, 592; eiga þeir jöfnum höndum (see hönd) allt þat er þeir taka, Grág. ii. 66. 4. even, even-tempered; jafn ok úmíslyndr, Mar.: of numbers, jöfn tala, even in tale, equal, opp. to odda-tala, Alg. 356. II. neut. jafnt or jamt, almost adverbially, equally, just; jafnt utan sem innan, Grág. i. 392: as, just as, ok hafa eitt atferli báðar jamt, both together, both alike, Fms. xi. 137; jafnt er sem þér sýnisk (‘tis as it appears, indeed), af er fótrinn, Nj. 97; jafnt þrælar sem frjálsir menn, Fms. i. 113: jamt sem, just as, equally as; jafnt sem í fjórðungs-dómi, jamt skal eiga féránsdóm eptir fjörbaugs-mann sem eptir skógar-mann, Grág. i. 87; skal hann láta virða fé þat jamt sem úmaga-eyri, 189; menn skulu svá sakir hluta, jamt sem á alþingi, 122; jafnt hefir komit er þú spáðir, it has happened just as thou didst foretel, Niðrst. 8: ellipt., ok skal hann þá jamt (sem þeir) allri bót upp halda, Grág. ii. 182. 2. temp. at the same time, just; ek skíri þik, ok nefna barn, í nafni Föður, ok drepa barninu í vatn um sinn jafnt fram fyrir sik, and dip the bairn each time info the water, K. Þ. K. 10: just, precisely, in the very moment, þat var jamt Jóla-aptan sjálfan er þeir börðusk, Fms. xi. 15; jamt í því hann stakaði. 133. 3. adverb., at jöfnu, equally, in equal shares, Fms. xi. 131. 4. til jafns, vóru þeir engir at né eina íþrótt hefði til jafns við hann, Nj. 46; halda til jafns við e-n, Ld. 40; komask til jafns við e-n, Fb. i. 261.

B. COMPDS: I. such a, so … a; Karvel jafn-frægum dreng, so fine a fellow as K., Karl. 103; er þat skömm jafn-mörgum mönnum, ‘tis a shame for so many men, Gísl. 51: with the particle sem, jafn-ungr sem hann var, young as he was, i. e. so young as he was for his age, Vápn. 5; vel hafi þér mínu máli komit, jafn-úvænt sem var, Þiðr. 136; kvað þat ekki hæfa á jafn-mikilli hátið sem (in such a feast as) í hönd ferr, Fb. i. 376; at eigi skyldi Hugon keisari yfir þá stíga jafn-reiðr sem hann varð þeim, Karl. 478; undraðisk hón hversu fríðr ok fagr hann var jafn-gamall maðr (for his age), Stj. 225; mikill maðr ertú þó Þórir, jafn-gamall, Ó. H. 176; Þórir Oddsson var sterkastr jafn-gamall, Gullþ. 4. II. mod. phrases such as, það er jafngott fyrir hann, it serves him right; hann er jafngóðr fyrir því, it won’t hurt him; or honum er það jafn-gott, it will do him good, serve him right; vera jafn-nær, to be equally near, i. e. none the better; hann fór jafnnær, it was all of no use. III. in countless COMPDS (esp. adjectives) with almost any participle or adverb, rarely with verbs and nouns, and denoting equal, as, the same, as seen from the context often followed by a dat., e. g. jafn-gamall e-m, of the same age as another person:—of these compds only some can be noticed: jafn-aldri, a, m. one of the same age, Fms. i. 13, vii. 199, Bs. i. 179, Eg. 25, 84. jafn-auðigr, adj. equally wealthy, Band. 2: equally happy, hann setr hund sinn jafnaudigan okkr undir borði, Bjarn. 27. jafn-auðsær, adj. as perspicuous, Eluc. 41. jafn-auðveldr, adj. as easy, Ld. 78. jafn-ágætr, adj. as good, as noble, Nj. 129. jafn-ákafr, adj. as impetuous, Fms. xi. 137. jafn-beinn, adj. as straight, Sturl. i. 196. jafn-berr, adj. equally bare, Fas. i. 67. jafn-bitinn, part. evenly bitten or grazed, of a field, Gþl. 407. jafn-bitr, jafn-beittr, adj. as sharp, keen. jafn-bjartr, adj. as bright, Nj. 208: neut., Sks. 69. jafn-bjóða, bauð; j. e-m, to be a match for one, Finnb. 260: to be equal to, contest on equal terms with one, Fms. ii. 27, vii. 22; gripr betri en þeim peningum jafnbjóði, 655 xxx. 10. jafn-blíðr, adj. equally mild, Fær. 154. jafn-borinn, part. of equal birth, Ld. 332, Fms. x. 79 (v. l.), Gþl. 133; j. til e-s, having equal birthright to, Fms. vii. 8, x. 407. jafn-brattr, adj. as steep. jafn-brátt, n. adj. as soon, at the same moment, Hom. 114. jafn-breiðr, adj. equally broad, Edda 28, Gþl. 355. jafn-búinn, part. equally ‘boun’ or armed, Fms. ii. 165: ready, prepared, Stj. jafn-deildr, part. equally shared, Hom. 148. jafn-digr, adj. as stout, Sturl. iii. 63. jafn-djúpr, adj. as deep. jafn-djúpvitr, adj. as deep-scheming, Orkn. 214, Hkr. iii. 95. jafn-drengilegr, adj. as gallant, Ísl. ii. 446. jafn-drjúgdeildr, part. going as far, of stores, Sturl. i. 166. jafn-drjúgr, adj. keeping as long, Sturl. i. 216, Rb. 18. jafn-dýrligr, adj. equally splendid, Bs. i. 454. jafn-dýrr, adj. as costly, glorious, of the same price, K. Þ. K. 28, Nj. 56, Grett. 104 A, N. G. L. i. 150, 348. jafn-dægri, n. (mod. jafndægr), the equinox, both dægr (q. v.) being equally long, Edda 103, Rb. 454, 456, 472, and passim: equal length, of day and night, Fb. i. 539; see eykt. jafn-dæmi, n. equal judgment, justice, Fms. vi. 431, Pr. 413. jafn-dæmr, adj. just, giving equal judgment, Rb. 364. jafn-einfaldr, adj. as simple, guileless, Hom. 50. jafn-fagr, adj. as fair, Nj. 112. jafn-fallegr, adj. as handsome. jafn-fastr, adj. equally firm, Grág. i. 7, K. Þ. K. 166: as adv., Fms. x. 270, Finnb. 338. jafn-fáir, adj. as few. jafn-feigr, adj. as fey. jafn-feitr, adj. as fat. jafn-fimlega, adv. (-ligr, adj.), as alert, Fms. ii. 273. jafn-fimr, adj. as alert, Fær. 272, Hkr. i. 291, v. l. jafn-fjær, adv. as far. jafn-fjölmennr, adj. with as many men, Nj. 222. jafn-flatt, n. adj.; fara j., to fare so ill, Fms. vi. 379; see flatr. jafn-fljótr, adj. as swift. jafn-fram, adv. equally forward, side by side: with dat., jafnfram skipi Rúts, Nj. 8: locally, of places, over against, (= gegnt and gagn-vart, q. v.); with dat., er hann kom jafnfram Borgund, Hkr. ii. 309; j. Eiðsvelli, Vermá, Fms. ix. 408; j. gagntaki konungs sonar, j. boðanum, vii. 170, ix. 387 (v. l.): as adv., standa jafnfram, to stand evenly, in a straight line; standa allir j. fyrir konungs borðinu, i. 16, Eg. 581, Nj. 140, Rb. 466, Sturl. iii. 244: temp. at the same moment, of two things happening together, Fms. vi. 24; þeir riðu til þings jafnfram Skeggja, Þórð. 18 new Ed.; hann ferr ávalt jafnfram í frásogn æfi Guðs-sonar, follows parallel in the story, 625. 83: in equal share, taka arf j., Gþl. 248; at the same time, also, hugsa þat j., at the same time consider, Stj. 156; jafnfram sem, jafnfram ok, as soon as, Karl. 158, Pr. 413. jafn-framarla, -framar, -liga, adv. as forward, as far, just as well, Ld. 254, Bs. i. 778. jafn-frammi, adv. = jafnframt, Sks. 364, Sturl. i. 32: temp., Fms. iii. 218. jafn-framt, adv. = jafnfram, Háv. 42: temp., Sturl. i. 1: along with, with dat., Pass. viii. 9: equally, in the same degree, Ld. 62. jafn-fríðr, adj. as fair, Fms. i. 8: as valuable, K. Þ. K. 172. jafn-frjáls, adj. equally free, Fas. iii. 8. jafn-frjálsliga, adv. (-ligr, adj.), as freely, as liberally, Hkr. i. 78. jafn-fróðr, adj. as wise, as knowing, Sks. 544. jafn-frægr, adj. as famous, Fas. i. 277. jafn-frækn, adj. equally gallant, Edda. jafn-fullr, adj. as full, Grág. i. 20, 68, Gþl. 477. jafn-fúinn, adj. equally rotten, jafn-fúss, adj. equally willing, Sturl. i. 190. jafn-færr, adj. as able, Nj. 97. jafn-fætis, adv. on equal footing; standa j. e-m, Sturl. ii. 134, Hkr. ii. 153. jafn-gamall, adj. of the same age, Ld. 108, Fms. i. 60, xi. 96. jafn-geði, n. evenness of temper, Sks. 435. jafn-gefinn, part. equally given to, Fas. i. 268. jafn-gegnt, adv. just opposite to, Sks. 63, Fms. ix. 463; see gegnt. jafn-girnd, f. and jafn-girni, f. fairness, equity, Sks. 273, 639, Hom. 17. jafn-gjarn, adj. as eager, Hom. 19: as equitable, Sks. 355, Hom. 135, Karl. 495. jafn-gjarna (-gjarnliga), adv. as willingly, as readily, Fms. iii. 45 (v. l.), ix. 508, Stj. jafn-glaðr, adj. as glad, as cheerful, Eb. 88: neut., mér er ekki jafnglatt sem áðr, Fas. i. 106. jafn-glöggt, n. adj. as clearly, Bs. i. 352. jafn-góðr, adj. equally good, as good, Nj. 18, Eg. 54, Gþl. 233, N. G. L. i. 347, Dipl. v. 16: unhurt, none the worse, see (II) above. jafn-góðviljaðr, adj. with equally good will, Stj. 629. jafn-grannr, adj. equally thin. jafn-grimmliga, adv. (-ligr, adj.), as fiercely, Th. jafn-grimmr, adj. as fierce, Sks. 79. jafn-grunnr, adj. as shallow. jafn-gæfr, adj. as meek, Rb. 397. jafn-göfigr, adj. as good, as famous, Sturl. iii. 11, Bs. i. 133. jafn-görla, adv. as clearly, Grág. i. 299, Fms. ii. 171, Fas. i. 271. jafn-hafðr, part. equally used, N. G. L. i. 249. jafn-hagliga, adv. as skilfully, Krók. 53. jafn-hagr, adj. as skilful in handiwork, Nj. 147. jafn-harðr, adj. as hard, as severe, Nj. 79: neut. jafn-hart, as fast, Fas. iii. 488: jafn-harðan, adv. instantly. jafn-harðsnúinn, part. as hard-twisted, as tight, Nj. 79. jafn-hár, adj. as high, as tall, as loud, Rb. 112, 474, Fas. ii. 79: of metre, see hár (I. 3), Fms. vi. 386, Skálda 182, 190: neut., Stj. 79. jafnhátta-góðr, adj. as well-mannered, Ld. 174. jafn-heilagr, adj. as holy, as inviolable, Sks. 674, Grág. i. 90. jafn-heill, adj. as hale, as whole, Eg. 425, v. l. jafn-heimoll, adj. equally open to use, Eg. 47, Ld. 70, Gþl. 214, 353: equally bound, 57. jafn-heimskr, adj. equally stupid, Fms. ii. 156, Sd. 178. jafn-heitr, adj. as hot, Sks. 540. jafn-hentr, adj. as well fitted, Sturl. i. 196. jafn-hlær, adj. equally snug, Rb. 440. jafn-hollr, adj. equally sincere, Orkn. 166. jafn-hógværliga, adv. (-ligr, adj.), as meekly, Krók. 36. jafn-hógværr, adj. as gentle. jafn-hraustr, adj. as valiant, Fms. ii. 356, Krók. 51. jafn-hryggr, adj. as distressed, Hkr. iii. 269. jafn-hugaðr, adj. even-tempered, Sks. 24: of one mind, 300: as daring. jafn-hvass, adj. as sharp, Ld. 306: blowing as hard. jafn-hvatr, adj. as bold, as quick, Sturl. i. 112, v. l. jafn-hvítr, adj. equally white. jafn-hæðiligr, adj. (-liga, adv.), as ridiculous, Fas. iii. 91. jafn-hægr, adj. equally easy, ready, meek, Fms. ii. 106, Fær. 69, Grág. i. 264, ii. 257. jafn-hættr, adj. as dangerous, Sks. 540. jafn-höfigr, adj. as heavy, Rb. 102, Edda 38. jafn-ílla, adv. as badly, Fms. viii. 140 (v. l.), Ísl. ii. 181. jafn-ílliligr, adj. (-liga, adv.) as ill-looking, Fas. ii. 207. jafn-íllr, adj. equally bad, Grág. ii. 145, Fas. ii. 513. jafn-kaldr, adj. as cold, Sks. 215. jafn-keypi, n. an equal bargain, Fs. 25. jafn-kominn, part. on even terms, Sks. 455: neut. an even match, jafnkomit er á með ykkr, ye are well-matched, Nj. 59; hann kvað jafnkomit með þeim fyrir aldrs sakir, Fms. iii. 76; jafnkomnir til erfðar, with equal title to, Grág. i. 304; jafnkomnir til fyrir ættar sakir, Fms. i. 220; jafnkomnir at frændsemi, Ísl. ii. 315. jafn-kosta, adj. well-matched, good enough, of wedlock, Stj. 204. jafn-kostgæfinn, adj. equally painstaking, Bs. i. 681. jafn-krappr, adj. as straight, narrow; í jafnkrappan stað, in such a strait, Ld. 168. jafn-kringr, adj. equally dexterous, Sks. 381. jafn-kristinn, adj. a fellow Christian, Jb. 92, Barl. 44. jafn-kunnigr, adj. as well known, Grett. 162 A: knowing as well. jafn-kunnr, adj. as well known, Hom. 90. jafn-kurteis, adj. as courteous, Sturl. i. 165. jafn-kyrr, adj. as quiet. jafn-kýta, t, with dat. = jafnyrða. jafn-kænn, adj. as ‘cunning,’ as well versed, Stj. 561. jafn-kærr, adj. as dear, as beloved, Fms. i. 215, xi. 319. jafn-langr, adj. as long, equally long, Fms. xi. 376, Gþl. 350, 355, Ísl. ii. 219, Grág. i. 406, Edda 138 (of the same length): neut., en ef þær segja jafnlangt, if they say both the same, Grág. i. 7. jafn-lágr, adj. equally low. jafn-leiðr, adj. equally loathed, Fms. viii. 240. jafn-leiki, n. = jafnleikit. jafn-leikit, n. part. an equal game, Fms. xi. 131. jafn-lendi, n. a level, even piece of ground, Eg. 584. jafn-lengd, f. ‘even-length,’ the return to the same time in the next day, week, month, year, etc.: of a day, til jafnlengdar annars dags, Grág. ii. 16, Stj. 49; þann sama dag tók Gormr konungr sótt, ok andaðisk annan dag at jafnlengdinni, Fms. i. 119, Fas. ii. 30, 37: of a year, anniversary, skal eigi brullaup vera fyrr en at jafnlengd, Grág. i. 311; tíu aurar sé leigðir eyri til jafnlengdar (a year’s rent), 390; at jafnlengd it síðasta, 487; eigi síðarr en fyrir jafnlengd, Fms. xi. 397; halda hátíð at jafnlengdum, Greg. 13, Hom. 98; jafnlengdar-dagr, 129, Fms. v. 214, Dipl. v. 8; jafnlengdar hátíð, an anniversary, Greg. 13. jafn-lengi, adv. as long, Grág. i. 423, Fms. iii. 9, MS. 732. 7. jafn-léttmæltr, adj. equally easy, just as pleasant in one’s speech, Fms. vii. 227. jafn-léttr, adj. as light, as easy, Sturl. iii. 90: neut. (adverb.), Kjartani var ekki annat jafn-létthjalat, K. liked not to speak of anything so much, Ld. 214. jafn-léttvígr, adj. as ready in wielding arms, Sturl. iii. 90. jafn-liða, adj. with an equal number of men, Eb. 144. jafn-liga, adv. equally, fairly; sýnisk mér eigi j. á komit, Bs. i. 531, Vm. 169; skipta j., Fb. ii. 300: perpetually, all along, always, usually, Fms. i. 191, x. 88, 89, Dipl. v. 8, Rb. 348, 472, Stj. 77. jafn-ligr, adj. equal, fair, Hkr. ii. 149, Háv. 57, Eg. 488; er þat miklu jafnligra, a more equal match, Fms. vii. 115. jafn-líkligr, adj. as likely, Sturl. iii. 7, Lv. 77. jafn-líkr, adj. as like, Lv. 58, Fas. ii. 478: equal, alike, j. sem hornspónar efni, Bs. i. 59. jafn-lítill, adj. as little, Fas. iii. 487. jafn-ljóss, adj. as bright, Bret. 62. jafn-ljótr, adj. as ugly, Fms. iv. 175. jafn-ljúfr, adj. as willing. jafn-lygn, adj. as ‘loun,’ as calm, of the wind. jafn-lyndi, n., fem. in Mar. 848; evenness of temper, Stj., Fagrsk. 132, Bs. i. 141, Mar. passim. jafn-lyndr, adj. even-tempered, Fms. vi. 287, viii. 447 (v. l.) jafn-lýðskyldr, adj. equally bound, as liegemen, Sks. 270. jafn-lærðr, adj. as learned. jafn-magr, adj. equally meagre. jafn-maki, a, m. an equal, a match, Sks. 22, 255. jafn-mannvænn, adj. equally promising, Þorf. Karl. 382. jafn-margr, adj. as many, Nj. 104, Grág. ii. 210, 403, Fms. i. 152, ii. 34. jafn-máttugr, adj. as mighty, Fms. ii. 157, Eluc. 6. jafn-máttuligr, adj. equally possible, 655 xxii. B. jafn-menni, n. an equal, a match, Ld. 132, Ísl. ii. 358, Fms. vi. 345, vii. 103. jafn-menntr, adj. of equal rank, Hrafn. 10. jafn-merkiligr, adj. equally dignified, Bs. i. 148. jafn-mikill, adj. as great, Grág. ii. 264, 403, Fms. i. 1, Gþl. 363: equally big, tall, Fms. x. 202, Nj. 11: neut. as much, Fms. vii. 240, Skálda 168. jafn-mildr, adj. as mild, as gracious, Rb. 366. jafn-minnigr, adj. having as good a memory, Bs. i. 681. jafn-mjúkliga, adv. as meekly, as gently, Lv. 50. jafn-mjúkr, adj. equally soft. jafn-mjök, adv. as much, as strongly, Grág. ii. 140, Skálda 168. jafn-myrkr, adj. equally dark, Skálda 209. jafn-mæli, n. fair play, equality, Fb. i. 407, Fms. vi. 206, Grág. i. 88, 200, Ld. 258, H. E. i. 247, Karl. 99. jafn-naumr, adj. as close. jafn-náinn, adj.; j. at frændsemi, equally near akin, Grág. i. 171, ii. 67, Eb. 124, Ísl. ii. 315, (jafnan, Ed.) jafn-nær, mod. jafn-nærri, adv. equally near: loc., er Ólafs mark j. báðum, Fms. vii. 64, 268, Sks. 63, 216: as near, at honum væri úvarligt at láta jafnmarga heiðna menn vera j. sér, Fms. ii. 34: equally near (by birth), i. 123: metaph., eigi hefir honum jafnnærri gengit újafnaðr þeirra sem mér, Sturl. iii. 238: also jafn-nær, adj. equally nigh, not a whit the better, see (II) above. jafn-nætti, n. the equinox, 673. 54, Stj. 15. jafn-oki, a, m. = jafnmaki, an equal, a match for one, Sks. 22: a play-fellow, Stj. 497, Þiðr. 213. jafn-opt, adv. as often, Nj. 211, Rb. 566, Grág. i. 186. jafn-ótt, adj., neut. as adv., at the same, time, immediately. Pass. 20. 2: one after another, taka e-ð jafnótt og það kemr. jafn-rakkr, adj. as strong, as straight, Ld. 168. jafn-ramr, adj. as mighty, as great a wizard, Vþm. 2. jafn-rangr; adj. as wrong. jafn-ráðinn, part. equally determined, Grett. 149. jafn-reiðr, adj. equally angry, Háv. 52. jafn-rétti, n. an equal right. jafnréttis-maðr, m. a man with equal right, N. G. L. i. 31. jafn-réttr, adj. as right, as lawful, Edda 93, Grág. i. 18: of equal authority, Hkr. iii. 79. jafn-réttvíss, adj. equally just, Sks. 670. jafn-rífligr, adj. (-liga, adv.), as large, Lv. 75. jafn-ríkr, adj. as rich, equally mighty. jafn-rjóðr, adj. as ruddy, Hkr. i. 102. jafn-rúmr, adj. equally large, Bjarn. jafn-ræði, n. an equal match, Fms. ii. 22, Glúm. 350, Nj. 49, Gþl. 215. jafn-röskr, adj. as brisk, as quick, Fms. iii. 225, vi. 96. jafn-saman, adv.; fyrir þessa hugsan alla jafnsaman, all at once, all together, Fms. i. 185, Ld. 326, Ó. H. 46, Stj. 86, 121, Barl. 191. jafn-sannr, adj. equally true, 671. 1, Edda 19, Stj. 471. jafn-sárr, adj. as sore, as smarting, Mar. jafn-seinn, adj. as slow. jafn-sekr, adj. just as guilty, Grág. ii. 64, 89. jafn-síðis, adv. along with. jafn-síðr, adj. as long, of a garment (síðr), Stj. 563. jafn-sjúkr, adj. as sick, Fms. v. 324. jafn-skammr, adj. as short, Al. 129. jafn-skarpliga, adv. (-ligr, adj.), as briskly, Nj. 199, v. l. jafn-skarpr, adj. as sharp, as keen. jafn-skipti, n. equal, fair dealing. jafn-skiptiliga, adv. (-ligr, adj.), equally, mutually, Stj. 159. jafn-skiptr, part. equally shared. jafn-skjótr, adj. as swift, Fms. vii. 169, Rb. 454:—jafn-skjótt, neut. as adv. immediately, at once, Eg. 87, 291, 492, Fms. ii. 10; jafnskjótt sem, as soon as, Nj. 5, Barl. 176, Karl. 409, 441. jafn-skygn, adj. as clear-sighted, 655 xiii. A, Bjarn. 59. jafn-skyldliga, adv. (-ligr, adj.), as dutifully, Ver. 3. jafn-skyldr, adj. equally bound or obliged, Grág. ii. 362, 403, Gþl. 70, 477, Fms. vii. 274. jafn-sköruliga, adv. (-ligr, adj.), equally bold, Nj. 199. jafn-slétta, u, f. even, level ground. jafn-sléttr, adj. equally level, Stj. 79: as easily, Fas. ii. 48. jafn-slægr, adj. as cunning, Fær. 99. jafn-snarpr, adj. (-snarpligr, adj., -liga, adv.), as sharp, Fms. vi. 156. jafn-snarr, adj. as alert. jafn-snart, adj., neut. as adv., as soon, instantly, Fas. iii. 434, Matth. xxvii. 48. jafn-snauðr, adj. as poor. jafn-snemma, adv. at the very same moment, of a coincidence, Eg. 425, Nj. 253, Fms. vi. 221; allir j., all at once, ix. 506, xi. 368 (both together); vóru þessir atburðir margir jafnsnemma, en sumir litlu fyrr eðr síðar, Hkr. ii. 368. jafn-snjallr, adj. equal, Glúm., Bjarn. (in a verse). jafn-spakr, adj. equally wise, Hm. 53. jafn-sparr, adj. as saving, as close, Grág. i. 197, 222. jafn-sterkr, adj. as strong, Fms. i. 43. jafn-stirðr, adj. as stiff. jafn-stórlátr, adj. as proud, Ld. 116. jafn-stórliga, adv. (-ligr, adj.), as proudly, Ölk. 34. jafn-stórr, adj. as big, as great. jafn-stórættaðr, adj. of equally high birth, Fms. iv. 26. jafn-stríðr, adj. as hard, severe, Sks. 639. jafn-stuttr, adj. equally short, brief. jafn-syndligr, adj. as sinful, Sks. 674. jafn-sætr, adj. as sweet, Fb. i. 539. jafn-sætti, n. an agreement on equal terms, Nj. 21, Sturl. iii 253, Fb. i. 126. jafn-tamr, adj. equally alert. jafn-tefli, n. an equal, drawn game, Vígl. 32. jafn-tengdr, part. in equal degrees of affinity, Grág. ii. 183. jafn-tíðhjalat, n. part. as much talked about, Nj. 100. jafn-tíðrætt, n. adj. = jafntíðhjalat, Nj. 100. jafn-tíguliga, adv. (-ligr, adj.), equally lordly, Fms. x. 109. jafn-títt, n. adj. as often, as frequent, Niðrst. 10. jafn-torogætr, adj. as rarely to be got, choice, Bs. i. 143. jafn-torsótligr, adj. as hard to get at, Fms. x. 358. jafn-trauðr, adj. as unwilling. jafn-traustr, adj. as much to be trusted, Fms. vi. 244. jafn-trúr, jafn-tryggr, adj. as faithful. jafn-undarligr, adj. (-liga, adv.), as strange, Sks. 80. jafn-ungr, adj. as young, Fms. iii. 60, iv. 383. jafn-úbeint, n. adj. as far from the mark, of a bad shot, Fms. viii. 140. jafn-úfærr, adj. as unpassable, Sturl. iii. 163. jafn-úhefnisamr, adj. as tame, Rb. 366. jafn-úráðinn, part. as irresolute, Grett. 153. jafn-úspakr, adj. as unruly, Sturl. ii. 63. jafn-útlagr, adj. having to lay out the same fine, N. G. L. i. 158. jafn-vandhæfr, adj. as dangerous to keep, treat, Grág. i. 89. jafn-vandliga, adv. as carefully, Grág. ii. 249. jafn-varliga, adv. (-ligr, adj.), as warily, Fms. vii. 127. jafn-varmr, adj. as warm, Sks. 217. jafn-varr, adj. as well aware, as much on one’s guard, Dropl. 28. jafn-vaskliga, adv. as gallantly, Fms. vii. 127, Ld. 272. jafn-vaskligr, adj. as gallant. jafn-vaskr, adj. as bold, Str. 3. jafn-vátr, adj. equally wet. jafn-veginn, part. of full weight, Stj. 216. jafn-vegit, n. a law phrase, used when an equal number has been slain on both sides, in which case there were no further proceedings, Glúm. 383, Fas. ii. 208. jafn-vel, adv. as well, equally well, Nj. 48, Eg. 111, Gþl. 354: likewise, hafa fyrirgört fé ok friði ok jafnvel óðals-jörðum sínum, 142; en þenna eið skulu jafnvel biskupar ábyrgjask við Guð …, jafnvel sem (as well as) hinir úlærðu, 57; jafnvel af sænum sem af landinu, Al. 2; ok jamvel sendir jarl þeim mönnum orð, sem …, Fms. xi. 120: even, dögföll um nætr jafnvel at heiðskírum veðrum, Stj. 17; jafnvel eptir þat er þau misgörðu, 40; jafnvel sýniliga, j. oss önduðum, 9, Bs. i. 549, Barl. 170, 176, Gísl. 83; this last sense is very freq. in mod. usage. jafn-velviljaðr, part. as well wishing, Sks. 312. jafn-vesall, adj. as wretched, Krók. 54. jafn-virði, n. equal wirth, Bs. i. 9, Al. 48. jafn-vægi, n. equal weight, equilibrium, Hkr. ii. 250, Fas. i. 121; bóandi ok húsfreyja j. sitt, i. e. both of them equally, N. G. L. i. 6. jafn-vægja, ð, to weigh the same as another, Fms. iii. 120. jafn-vægr, adj. of equal weight, Sks. 644. jafn-vænn, adj. equally fine, handsome, promising, Fms. x. 429, Sturl. iii. 67. jafn-vætta, t, to weigh against, counterbalance, Stj. 13, Þorst. Síðu H. 14. jafn-yrða, ð, with dat. to altercate, bandy words, Sturl. iii. 213. jafn-þarfr, adj. as useful, Arnor. jafn-þéttr, adj. pressed as closely together. jafn-þjófgefinn, adj. as thievish. jafn-þolinmóðr, adj. as patient, Rb. 366. jafn-þolinn, adj. as enduring. jafn-þreyttr, part. as weary. jafn-þrifinn, adj. as cleanly. jafn-þröngr, adj. as tight. jafn-þungr, adj. as heavy, pressing, Fms. v. 264, Stj. 278. jafn-þurr, adj. equally dry. jafn-þykkr, adj. as thick, Hkr. iii. 159. jafn-þyrstr, part. as thirsty. jafn-æfr, adj. as impetuous. jafn-æstr, part. equally excited, Band. 34 new Ed. jafn-örr, adj. as eager, as liberal. jafn-öruggr, adj. as firm, steadfast.

JAFNA, að, jamna, [Ulf. ga-ibnjan: cp. jafn], to make even, but seldom in its original sense, see slétta: to cut even, Katla lék at hafri sínum ok jafnaði topp hans ok skegg, Eb. 94; mörum sínum mön jafnaði, Þkv. 6. II. metaph. to make equal; svá sem skálir jafna (make to balance) tvær vágir, 732. 18; en í arfinum megi jafna hlut þeirra, Grág. i. 173; búar skulu j. hlut manna, ii. 343. 2. with dat. and with a prep.; jafna e-u saman, to compare, to set off one against the other; var þá jafnat saman vígum, Nj. 250; búar skulu jamna þar nesjum saman, Grág. ii. 262: jafna e-u við e-t, to compare one thing with another; en hvat of jafni öðrum mönnum við hana, Mar.; er hinum fornum lögum jafnat við blót, Eluc. 39; jamnit ér auðæfum yðrum við sönn auðæfi, Greg. 27: jafna e-u til e-s, to liken one thing to another; því hefi ek jafnat þessu til hornspónsins, at …, Bs. i. 59; Gunnhildi þótti hyggjuleysi til ganga, eðr öfund, ef nokkurum manni var til Hrúts jafnat, Ld. 60; svá má ek helzt til jafna þessum konungum, Fas. iii. 60: absol., svo til að jafna, sem …, so for example, as if … III. reflex. to compare oneself, to be equal to, call oneself a match for another; nú veit ek eigi hvárt ek mætta þá við þik jafnask, Glúm. 337; segir at þeir hafa of dregit fram þræla, er slíkir skulu honum jafnask, when such fellows presume to be his equals, Fms. x. 421; jafnask til við e-n um e-t, to compare oneself with another in a thing, Fb. i. 261: with dat., hann rak engilinn frá sér er honum vildi jafnask, Fms. viii. 240: jafnask í orðum við e-n, to bandy words with one, 308, v. l. 2. pass. to become equal; kvað þá jafnask með þeim, then would all be made straight among them, Sturl. i. 77.

jafna, u, f. [O. H. G. epani; Germ. ebene], level ground, a plain, Lat. planities; hann flýði af hálsinum ofan á jöfnu, Hkr. i. 151; er þar þriggja mílna för af jöfnu til þorpsins, Greg. 80; koma niðr á jöfnu, Stj. 380, Róm. 272.

jafnaðr, m. and jöfnuðr, gen. ar, [Ulf. ibnassus = ισότης], an equal share; en þaðan af höfum vit jafnað af báðir, Hrafn, 17; slíkt sem honum sýndisk jöfnuðr milli þeirra, Fms. xi. 87; skyldi fimm tigir hundraða í jafnað Sigríðar, Dipl. v. 3; í jafnað við þat góz, sem …, id.; at jafnaði, in equal proportion; eiga e-t at jafnaði, Grág. ii. 72; skipta e-u at jafnaði, i. 442, Fms. xi. 401, Fb. ii. 55, 256: in temp. sense, usually, ekki að jafnaði, Fas. iii. 226, Mar.; með jafnaði, id., Mar. 2. the dat. plur. jafnöðum (in mod. pronunciation jafnóðum) is used in adv. sense; hann mæðir sik í föstum ok vökum ok á bænum at liggja, ok jafnöðum svá talandi, Th. 7: in mod. usage, bit by bit, one by one, each in its turn …, eg vil spyrja þá jafnóðum ok þeir koma, I will ask them one by one as they come in; as also jafnótt, see jafn B. II. metaph. equity, fairness, justice, Karl. 554, freq. esp. in mod. usage. COMPDS: jafnaðar-boð, n. a fair offer, Fas. ii. 444. jafnaðar-dómr, m. a law term, arbitrium; leggja mál til jafnaðardóms, to put a case for an umpire, Nj. 101; tvennir kostir …, bjóða Þórgilsi jafnaðardóm, ok mundi hann svara fégjöldum eptir því sem dómr félli á, sá annarr at unna Þorgils sjálfdæmis, Sturl. iii. 170 (where jafnaðardómr is opp. to sjálfdæmi), Sks. 736. jafnaðar-eiðr, m. a law term, Gþl. 199; for this word see eiðr. jafnaðar-fundr, m. a meeting for making an agreement, Sturl. ii. 134. jafnaðar-geð, n. an even temper, Sks. 448. jafnaðar-gjöf, f. a law term, an equal gift, equal portion; gaf hann henni tuttugu hundruð af sínu gózi, ok reiknaði þat j. við Halldóru dóttur sína, Dipl. iv. 7. jafnaðar-hlutskipti, n. an equal share, equal portion, Dipl. v. 3. jafnaðar-hönd, f.; leggja e-t undir jafnaðarhönd, to share a thing in common, N. G. L. i. 220. jafnaðar-kaup, n. an equal bargain, Ld. 96. jafnaðar-leiga, u, f. a fair rent, Jb. 392. jafnaðar-maðr, m. an equal match; taka sér jafnaðarmenn, Fms. vii. 119, Band. 37 new Ed.: as a law term, an umpire, Fms. ix. 327: a fair, forbearing man, vizkumaðr mikill ok jafnaðarmaðr, x. 170; ofsa-maðr mikill ok ekki j. (overbearing), Sturl. ii. 143; lítill j., Fb. i. 520; jarl þótti engi j., Orkn. 44. jafnaðar-máli, a, m. a law term, an agreement, Dipl. iv. 2. jafnaðar-samr, adj. (-semi, f.), fair, Sturl. ii. 143. jafnaðar-skipti, n. fair dealing, Grett. 105 A. jafnaðar-þokki, a, m. mutual affection; j. er á með ykkr, ye love one another, Korm. 26, Grett. 162 A, Fas. i. 176.

jafnan and jamnan, adv. constantly, always, Fms. ii. 37, Barl. 78; sem þú sagðir jafnan, as thou didst say always, Nj. 17; næsta jafnan, Sks. 18; æ jamnan, ever and ever, Sks. 193 B, passim.

JAFNI, a, m. an equal, a match for one: of a thing, mæl til jafna (= til jafna) við e-n, Fb. i. 250: mathem. an even number, í odda en eigi í jafna, Hom. (St.)

JAFNI, a, m., botan. lycopodium clavatum, a herb used by dyers, Hjalt., mentioned in Sd.; jafna-baggi, jafna-belgr, a bag full of jafni, Landn. 208. COMPDS: jafna-bróðir, m. = jafni, Hjalt. jafna-kollr, m. a nickname, from hair as dyed (?), Landn.

jafnindr (jamyndir menn), prop. a part. pl., a law term, ‘day’s men,’ umpires; in Norse law, these day’s men served as a kind of neighbours or jurors in matter of compensation; bæta … sem jamyndir menn (as adj.) meta, N. G. L. i. 75; en ef hins verðr lóð, er lög festi fyrir, þá skolu jamnyndir menn meta, hve mikit hann neytti til laga stefnu, 248; bæta munda-baugi, sem jafnendr unno, þeir er okkr vilja sætta, Hbl. 42, analogous to the Icel. law phrases, sem búar meta, of the Grágás.

jafningi, a, m. an equal, a match, Nj. 29, Fms. vi. 104, xi. 76: the saying, æ kemr maðr manns í stað, en ei jafningi jafnan, passim: in Þiðr. and Karl. the peers of Charlemagne are called jafningjar.

jag, n. a quarrel, squabble, Lat. rixa.

JAGA, að, [O. H. G. jagon; mid. H. G. jage; Germ. jagen; whence mod. Dan. jagen, pret. jog = to drive, whence to hunt, but in Icel. only in a particular sense]:—to move to and fro, e. g. as a door on its hinges. 2. metaph. to harp on one string; hvat þarf ek um slíkt at jaga, Mkv.; jaga ávallt á enni sömn sök, to be harping all along on the same case, Mork. 183. 3. reflex. jagast, to altercate, Lat. rixari; cp. jag. II. to hunt; jaga dýr, Fas. iii. 273; in this sense however the word can hardly be said to be Icelandic.

jagt or jakt, n. [jaga], a yacht, (mod.)

JAKI, a, m. [cp. A. S. gicel], a piece of ice, broken ice, Fas. i. 472, Eb. 236–240, Grett. 140, passim. COMPDS: jaka-för, f. and jaka-hlaup, n. broken ice in a river, Grett. l. c.; see jökull: bel-jaki, a bulging piece of ice, metaph. a rough strong man; hann er mesti beljaki.

Jakob, m. James: Jakobs-land, n. St. James’ land, Compostella in Spain: Jakobs-messa, -vaka, St. James’ mass, vigil, Fms.: botan., Jakobs-fífill, m. erigeron Alpinus, Alpine flea-bane, Hjalt.

JALDA, u, f. [provinc. Swed. jälda], a mare, only in poetry, gömul jalda í stóði, Kormak (twice); í jöldu líki, Fms. xi. 42 (in a verse); ríða jöldu, Grett. (in a verse). Jöldu-hlaup, n. Mare’s-leap, a local name in the north of Ireland, Landn.

jam- and jamn-, see jafn-.

jamla, að, to grumble, (slang.)

Jamtr, m. pl. men from Jamtaland in Sweden, Fms.

japla, að, to mumble, as with a toothless mouth.

jappa, ad, to harp on the same thing.

JAPR, m. [Norse jever], poët. a kind of snake, Edda (Gl.)

japra, u, f. = japr, Edda (Gl.)

JARA, u, f., poët. a fight, battle, Edda (Gl.), Ísl. ii. 353 (in a verse); jöru skript, a ‘war-tablet,’ i. e. a shield; jöru-þollr, a warrior, Lex. Poët. II. in pr. names; of women, Jar-þrúðr (mod. Jarð-þrúðr), Fms. vii; of men, Jör-undr, Landn.

jarða, að, [Engl. to earth], to earth, bury, Bjarn. 69, Nj. 99, Eg. 130, Ísl. ii. 19, Mar.: reflex., H. E. i. 510.

jarðan, f. earthing, H. E. i. 493.

jarðar-, see jörð.

jarð-bann, n. ‘earth-ban,’ when, from the earth being frozen or covered with snow, there is no feed for cattle, Eb. 290, Fb. i. 522, Bs. i. 873.

jarð-borg, f. earth-works, an earth stronghold, Hkr. ii. 69.

jarð-bugr, m. the earth’s convexity, Rb. 474.

jarð-búi, a, m. an earth-dweller, a dweller in underground caves, Fms. iii. 119.

jarð-byggjandi, part. a tenant, Gísl. 83.

jarð-byggvir, m. = jarðbyggjandi, Vellekla.

jarð-díki, n. an earth-dyke, Stj. 194, v. l.

jarð-eigandi, part. a landowner, Gþl. 348.

jarð-eign, f. landed property.

jarð-eldr, m. ‘earth-fire,’ volcanic fire, Landn. 78, Symb. 27, Bret. 8, Stj. 89, Grett. 141 new Ed.

jarð-epli, n. pl. [Germ. erd-apfeln, Fr. pommes de terre], potatoes, (mod.)

jarðeskr, adj. = jarðneskr, Barl. 36.

jarð-fall, n. an earth-slip, Gísl. 33, Glúm. 341, Sks. 50, Pr. 381, Ísl. ii. 10.

jarð-fastr, adj. earth-fast, fixed in the earth; j. steinn, Fms. xi. 442, Fas. ii. 256, Finnb. 324; j. hæll, Stj. 417, v. l.

jarð-fé, n. treasure hidden in the earth, Grág. ii. 403, Hkr. i. 12.

jarð-fjúk, n. a snow-drift, Valla L. 218: mod. skafrenningr.

jarð-fólginn, part. hidden in the earth, Gþl. 310, Barl. 199.

jarð-gjá, f. an earth-pit, Stj. 193.

jarð-gróinn, part. = jarðfastr, Eg. (in a verse).

jarð-göfigr, adj. ‘lord of earth,’ epithet of a king, Eg. (in a verse).

jarð-hellir, m. an underground cave, Stj. 89.

jarð-hita, u, f. = jarðhiti, Stj. 82, Bs. i. 306.

jarð-hiti, a, m. subterranean, volcanic heat, Bs. i. 118, Grett. 136.

jarð-hlutr, m. a land-allotter, liege-lord, Kormak.

jarð-hola, u, f. an earth-hole, Eg. 767, Edda (pref.), Al. 166, Stj. 89.

jarð-humall, m. wild hops, Hjalt.

jarð-hús, n. an earth-house, underground home, Landn. 32 (in Ireland), Fms. vi. 149 (in besieging), Eg. 234, Fær. 169; or an underground passage opening into a dwelling house, and used for hiding or as a means of escape, freq. mentioned in the Sagas, Dropl. 28, Gísl. 44, Háv. 49, Fms. i. 15. jarðhús-nautr, m. a sword taken from a j., Fs.

jarð-kerald, n. a large vat fixed in the floor, for keeping butter or the like, Pm. 91; mod. birða.

jarð-kol, n. pl. fossil coal or saltpetre (?), Sks. 392; jarðkol ok brennusteinn = saltpetre (?) and brimstone.

jarð-kostr, m. a choice of land, land to be had, Stj. 190.

jarð-kross, m. a cross-shaped sod, cut so as to serve for a mark or boundary, K. Þ. K. 90, Valla L. 208, Dipl. i. 7.

jarð-kykvendi (-kvikendi), n. a land animal, Ver. 2.

jarð-laug, f. a bath in a warm spring from the earth, Ísl. ii. 412.

jarð-laust, n. adj. furnishing no grazing; cp. jarðbann.

jarð-leiga, u, f. land-rent, Js. 83.

jarð-leysi, n. = jarðbann.

jarð-ligr, adj. earthly, Lat. terrestris, Edda (pref.), Fb. iii. 465, Fms. x. 317, Niðrst. 6, Greg. 44, Hom. 38, Hem. 33. 2.

jarð-litr, m. earth colour, dark colour, MS. 544. 39.

jarð-lús, f. an ‘earth-louse,’ pediculus calcareus (Mohr), or rather a kind of beetle, cp. A. S. earðwicge, Engl. earwig: used in contempt, munu jarðlýsnar, synir Gríms, verða mér at bana? Landn. 146.

jarð-lægr, adj. lying on the ground, of a keel, Fms. x. 319.

jarð-munr, m. [Dan. jords-mon], a strip of land, portion, D. N.

jarð-neskr, adj. earthly, esp. in an eccl. sense, Fms. x. 342, Stj. 14. 20, O. H. L. 11, Játv. ch. 3, N. T., Vídal., Pass.

jarð-næði, n. a home, tenancy. jarðnæðis-lauss, adj. homeless, of a tenant.

jarð-plógr, m. ploughing, Stj.

jarð-ríki, n. the earth, the world, Edda (pref.), Sks. 491, Fms. i. 225, Barl. 84, etc.: esp. the kingdom of earth, eccl., opp. to himinríki, N. T., Vídal.

jarð-setja, t, to bury, Pr. 413.

jarð-skjálfti, a, m. an earthquake, Sks. 143, Hom. 139, Mar., freq. in mod. usage; cp. landskjálpti.

jarð-stofa, u, f. = jarðhús, Fms. vii. 32: the floor = Germ. erdgeschoss, D. N. i. 350, iv. 395, (Fr.)

jarð-varp, n. the act of throwing to the earth.

jarð-varpa, að, to throw one to the earth, a law term.

jarð-vegr, m. the earth, Mag.: in mod. usage a soil, góðr j., íllr j., sendinn j., etc., good, bad, sandy soil.

jarð-yrkja, u, f. agriculture, (mod.)

jarganlega, adv. querulously, (mod. and slang.)

JARKI, a, m. [akin to jaðarr, qs. jaðrki], the outside of the foot, Edda 110, freq. in mod. usage; hoppa út á jörkum, to walk on the jarki: in the Færoic dialect jarki is used of the hand = handar-jaðar.

jarkna-steinn, m. [prob. a for. word derived from the A. S. eorcnan-stân]:—a gem, it occurs only in the following poems, Vkv. 23, 33, Gkv. 1. 18, 3. 9, which may all have been composed by one man, who borrowed the word from the A. S.

JARL, m., older form earl, [Hel. erl; A. S. eorl; Engl. earl]: this word had a double sense, one old and common to the Saxons as well as the earliest Scandinavians, one later and specifically Norse, which afterwards became English through the Norse and Danish invasion, and was finally established by the Norman Conquest.

A. A gentle, noble man, a warrior, and collect. gentlefolk, as opp. to the churl folk or common people (karlar, búendr); thus the old poem Rígsmál distinguishes three classes, earls, churls, and thralls (jarla-ætt, karla-ætt, þræla-ætt); so also in A. S. eorl and ceorl are almost proverbially opposed; in the old Saxon poem Heliand, ‘erl’ is used about a hundred times = a man. Prof. Munch suggested that the name of the Teutonic people Eruli or Heruli simply represents an appellative (warriors), which the Roman writers took to be a proper name. In the Scandin. countries this use of jarl is rare and obsolete, but remains in poët. phrases, in old saws, and in law phrases; oddar görva jarli megin, spears make the earl’s might, Mkv.; rudda ek sem jarlar forðum mér til landa, I won me lands like the earls of yore, Glúm, (in a verse): jarls yndi, an earl’s delight = a man’s delight, Hm. 96; jörlum öllum óðal batni, Gh. 21; hlaðit ér, earlar, eikiköstinn, 20; ítrar jarla-brúðir, ‘earl’s-brides,’ ladies, Gkv. 1. 3; alsnotrir jarlar, the gentle earls, 2; eggja ek yðr, jarlar, Am. 54; jarla einbani, ‘earl-slayer’ = ανδροκτόνος, Em., Hkm.; karl-fólk ok jarla, churlfolk and earl folk, Sighvat; eitt mein sækir hvern jarl, every earl (man) has his ill luck, Fb. ii. (in a verse): in the law, jarls jörð, an earl’s estate, is opp. to konungs jörð, a king’s estate, in the phrase, hálfan rétt skal hann taka er hann kömr á jarls jörð, en þá allan ok fullan er hann kömr á konungs jörð, Grág. (Kb.) i. 192, for this is undoubtedly the bearing of this disputed passage; jarlmaðr is opp. to búkarl, Fms. vii. (in a verse); so also karlmaðr (q. v.) in its oldest sense is opp. to jarlmaðr, = churl-man and earl-man; hirð-jarl = hirðmaðr, Fms. xi. 302, v. l.; berg-jarl, poët. a ‘crag-earl’ = a giant, Edda (in a verse); bak-jarl, a ‘back-earl,’ an enemy in one’s rear; of-jarl (q. v.), an ‘over-earl,’ an overbearing man.

B. A chief, as a title, specially Norse and Danish. The Landnáma, which is almost our only source for the political and personal history of Norway before king Harald Fairhair and the settlement of Iceland, records several chiefs of the 8th and 9th centuries who bore an earl’s name as a family dignity; Ívarr Upplendinga-jarl (Upplönd, a Norse county), Asbjörn jarl Skerja-blesi, Eyvindr jarl, 317; Atli jarl Mjóvi af Gaulum (a Norse county), Þorkell Naumdæla-jarl (earl in Naumdale, a Norse county), 281; Grjótgarðr jarl í Sölva (a county), 297: and as a family title, the famous Háleygja-jarlar (the earls of the Norse county Hálogaland, whose pedigree from Odin was drawn out in the old poem Háleygja-tal; Hákon jarl Grjótgarðsson, etc.): so also the Mæra-jarlar, the earls of Mæri (a Norse county), the foremost of whom was Rögnvaldr Mæra-jarl, the forefather of the earls of the Orkneys (Orkneyja-jarlar) and the earls of Rouen (Rúðu-jarlar = the dukes of Normandy). II. along with the Danish and Norse invasion the name appears in England, Bjartmár jarl in Ireland, Landn.; Hunda-Steinarr, an earl in England, id.; see also the Saxon Chronicle passim, where the very name indicates a Danish or Norse connexion. It is very likely that many of the earls of the Landnáma were sovereign chiefs, differing from kings only in title, for in old poetry a king and an earl were addressed in the same way. III. about the time of Harald Fairhair all the petty chiefs became liegemen under one king, the earl being in dignity nearest the king, answering to comes in mid. Lat. and graf in Germ. In Scandinavia both name and office became extinct about the 13th century: in Iceland, being a commonwealth, it never took root; see however Gizur jarl (died A. D. 1268) in the Sturlunga.—For references see the Sagas passim, esp. Har. S. Harf. ch. 6. IV. in eccl. translation the Roman procurator provinciae is often rendered by jarl, e. g. Pílatus jarl, earl Pilate, Ver. 67, Pass. 20. 2. COMPDS: jarla-kappi, a, m. champion of earls (of Orkney), a nickname, Landn. jarla-skáld, n. poet of earls, a nickname of the poet Arnor for his poems on the earls of Orkney. Jarla-sögur, f. pl. Earls’ Sagas (earls of Orkney), the old name of the present Orkneyinga Saga, Fb. ii. 347, Ó. H. 100. jarls-efni, n. a young earl, earl’s heir, N. G. L. jarls-maðr, m. an earl’s man, follower, Nj. 127. jarls-níð, n. earl’s libel, name of a poem, Fb. i. jarls-ríki, n. an earldom, Hkr. i. 101, Fms. xi. 179. jarls-sæti, n. an earl’s seat, Hkr. i. 81.

jarl-borinn, part. earl-born, Fs. 125.

jarl-dómr or jarls-dómr, m. an earldom, Landn. 260, Fms. i. 6, vii. 315, Hkr. i. 263.

jarl-dæmi, n. = jarldómr, Fms.

jarl-maðr, m. an earl. 2. freq. as a pr. name on Swed. Runic stones, Baut. passim. II. an earl’s man, Lex. Poët.

jarma, að, to bleat, of sheep and goats, Grett. 137 A, Greg. 50 passim.

JARMR, m. [prob. identical with A. S. geomor; Hel. jamar; North. E. yammer; O. H. G. jamar; Germ. jammer, which words are else alien to the Scandin.]:—a bleating, Gullþ. 19; sauða-jarmr, the bleating of sheep, Hrafn. 7; fugls-jarmr, the ‘bleating,’ crying of birds, as the giantess calls the birds’ song, poët., Edda (in a verse), passim.

jarpi, a, m. a kind of bird, tetrao bonasia (?), Norse jerpe, Edda (Gl.)

JARPR, adj., fem. jörp, brown, of the hair; jarpr á hár, jarpt hár, Fms. vii. 112, 238, x. 397, Nj. 39; jarpa skör, Hðm. 21; skarar jarpar, Gkv. 2. 19: as epithet of a lady, Fms. vii. 62 (in a verse); hvít-j., id.: of horses, jarpr hestr, Flov. 33; in mod. usage, of horses only, Jarpr of a stallion, Jörp of a mare.

jarp-skamr, Hðm. (doubtful.)

jarp-skjóttr, adj. skew-ball, i. e. bay piebald, Sturl. ii. 177.

jartegn or jartein, later form jarteikn or even jarðteikn, but not so in good MSS.; in Thom. S. even spelt hjartegn; jargtegn (badly), Fms. xi. 38: that the syllable tein was sounded guttural is also shewn by the rhyme, slíks eru jarteignir, Eb. (in a verse); and fregnar jartegnir, Leiðarv. 6; but also hrein … jarteinir, 36: in the Rekst. the former syllable jart is rhymed on bjart: [Hel. word-têkan, O. H. G. and mid. H. G. wort-zeichen shew the true etymology to be word-token, whence, by a false etymology, arose the mid. H. G. and mod. Germ. war-zeichen; in the Scandin. the w was changed into j, Dan. jertegn, Grimm’s Gramm. ii. 481, note; the word is however scarcely genuine Scandinavian, although it occurs in poems of the former part of the 11th century, e. g. the Rekst., as also in Eb. in the Hrafnsmál; but it is freq. used in the Sagas]: I. a token, a ring, knife, belt, sword, or the like; properly, ‘a word’s token,’ which a messenger had to produce in proof that his word was true; orð ok jartegnir, orðsending ok jartegnir, Fms. i. 21. Eg. 36. 167, 467, 477; erendi ok j., 472; bréf ok j., Fms. vii. 47, (see bréf); með skilríkum vitnum ok jartegnum, Gþl. 60; senda menn með jartegnum, Eg. 67; fá e-m jartegnir sínar, bera fram jartegnir e-s, 96; bera upp örendi sín ok sýna jartegnir, Ó. H. 53; fingrgull þetta fær þú Rögnvaldi jarli, þær jartegnir mun hann kenna, id.; bar hann fram orðsendingar konungs ok sýndi þat með jartegnum, Eg. 38; þeim er taka vilja við vináttu minni ok jartegnum, Ó. H. 75; vera til jartegna, to be a token or proof of a thing, Eg. 49, 768; hafa e-t til jartegna, use as a token, proof, Sks. 725 B, Fms. viii. 197, Gísl. 97; nú tak hér gullit ok haf til jartegna, Fs. 8; nú er hér gull er þú skalt bera til jarteigna, at ek sendi þik, 7; fluttu sendimenn hér með konungi berar jarteignir af jarli at þeir fóru með sönnum hans eyrendum, Hkr. i. 327; sannar jartegnir, til sannra jartegna at þú segir satt, þá fær þú honum, Fms. iii. 61, Eg. 28, 476; þat eru miklar jartegnir, hve hlyðnir …, it is a great token, how …, Íb. 16; þat vóru jarteinir, at herr var í landi, it served as a token, that …, Fms. i. 167. II. in sing. as well as plur. a miracle, esp. as a token or proof of the holiness of a saint, Nj. 162, Clem. 47, 59, Fms. vii. 351, xi. 38, Rb. 374, 418, Hkr. ii. 393; þat mun þér þykkja jartein—Þat kalla ek atburð, segir hann, en eigi jartein, Sturl ii. 54; báru jarteinir vitni heilagleik hans, Greg. 57; Guðs jarteinir, Fms. i. 133. 2. a mystery; vita jartegnir ríkis Guðs, Hom. 67 (Mark iv. 11): in mod. usage, N. T., Pass., Vídal., krapta-verk, and not jarteikn. III. gramm. token, value, of a letter; hafa eitt hljóð ok jartein, Skálda 166 (Thorodd); þeirra stafa má þarnask ef vill í váru máli, þvíat engi er einka jartein þeirra, 167; líkneski, nafn ok j., id. COMPDS: jarteina-bók, f. a miracle-book, Bs., Orkn. 174, v. l. jarteina-görð, f. the working of miracles, Stj., Hkr. ii. 328, Fms. xi. 207, Orkn. 174. jarteina-kraptr, m. the power of working miracles, Greg. 54. jarteina-maðr, m. a worker of miracles, Greg. 55. jarteinar-samliga, adv. (-ligr, adj.), wonderfully, Stj.

jarteina, d, earteina, Skálda 166; jartegna, jargtengna, Bret. 59, Cod. B. (badly); mod. jarteikna:—to betoken; mun sá siðr j. þau en fögru epli, Fms. xi. 12; jarteindu þat þau in miklu slátrin, er Barði lét þangat færa, Ísl. ii. 342; þat jartegndi blóma ríkis hans, Hkr. i. 123; Davíð konungr jartegnir Krist, Rb. 390: gramm. to represent, of a letter, hann (the character) læt ek jarteina jafnt sem hina tvá, Skálda 166; sá stafr jarteinir tuttugu, id.; ok skolu tvá stafi earteina, id.

JASTR or jast, n. [Engl. yeast; mid. H. G. jest and gest; Germ. gischt; Ivar Aasen jest and jestr; akin to ostr (q. v.) = a cheese]:—yeast, leaven; jastri, dat., Nikd.: jast-ostr, m. a kind of cheese, Fms. vi. (in a verse): jast-rín, f., poët. the ‘yeasting-stream’ = poetry, song, Kormak: in mod. usage jastr means the skin on curdled milk, whence jastr-súr, adj. curdled, acid, of milk, Lex. Poët.; hence the mod. hjastr, n. a frothy, light work; það er mesta hjastr.

jata, u, f. a manger (mod. = eta, q. v.), Gísl. 131, Luke ii. 7, 12, 17, passim in mod. usage. jötu-band, n. a manger rail.

JAUR, adv., also spelt júr, Skálda 163 (Thorodd), Art. 126: in mod. usage proncd. double, jur-jór or jir-jór (sounded yer-yor), which word was at the end of the last century still used in the north of Iceland (Thingeyjar-sýsla): [it is a compd particle, from = yea and r, which may be a pers. pron., analogous to the early Gmn. jâ ich! jâ dû! jâ sî! jâ ir! Grimm’s Gramm. iii. 765; other Teutonic languages have preserved this particle, although in a somewhat different sense, mid. H. G. jâra or jâr-ia, jâra-ja]:—yea, yes! with emphasis, yea, in sooth, yes indeed, yes certainly, as a reply to an expression of doubt or denial. Of this interesting particle only six instances are found in old writers:—three in O. H. L., biskup leit útar í kirkjuna ok sá hvar Ólafr stóð ok mælti, nú er konungr út kominn, þeir sögðu at hann var eigi út kominn.—Answer, Jaur, sagði biskup, sá er sannr konungr, er nú er út kominn, 10; hvat er nú um félag þat er konungrinn á með yðr? þeir drápu niðr höfði ok kváðusk ekki haus félag hafa.—Jaur, sagði hann, þér sögðusk víst vera hans félagar, 45; Maðr svarar, hvá mælir þú þat ?—Jaur, segir hann, þat var mér þá í hug, etc., 69; one in Thorn, (the Norse Recension), ekki var ek þar nærri, ok því sá ek enga þessa hluti, ekki heyrða ek ok þat er þú segir í frá.—Jaur, segir hann, Guð þat veit, at ek em uruggr um þat at ek sá þik þar, 246; one in Art. 126 (spelt júr); and lastly, one in Thorodd, austr, eárn, eir, júr, eyrir, vín, Skálda 163. Gudmund Andreae mentions this particle as in use in his time, and as sounded jör-jur, e. g. er ekki dagr?—answer, jör-jur! viltú ekki þetta?—answer, jör-jur! but his derivation from Lat. jure is erroneous.

JAXL, m. [Shetl. yackle], a jaw-tooth, grinder, Lat. dens molaris, Am. 79, Eb. 60, Nj. 144, 203, Fas. i. 331, Stj. 414, N. G. L. i. 80; tennr ok jaxlar, Edda 5, Háv. 43, 49; jaxla verkr, tooth-ache, Bs. i. 195.

jaxl-bróðir, m. = jaxl, Eg. (in a verse).

jaxl-garðr, m. the jaw-bone, Fas. i. 331.

JÁ, adv. [Ulf. jâi and jâ; O. H. G., Germ., Dutch, Swed., and Dan. jâ; Old Engl. and North. E. aye; A. S. gea; Old Engl. yea: the Saxons and Germans however prefer a compd; thus the A. S. ge-se, from gea = yea, and the subj. se (= Lat. sit), whence Engl. yes (qs. ye-s = yea be it); the Germans say ja wohl! ja freilich! in preference to ja singly; as also Dan. ja-vist; analogous is the A. S. ne-se = no (Grimm’s Gramm. iii. 764); as also jaur above]:—yea, yes; já, sagði Kári, Nj. 263, passim: even, höfðingja, minni menn, já, hverja herkerlingu, Sturl. i. 36: as subst., já sem já er, nei sem nei er, K. Á. 200: fá já e-s, to get a person’s ‘yes,’ his assent, N. G. L. i. 33; með jám (dat. pl.) ok handsölum, D. N. ii. 101. II. as interj., aye! yes! já, segir hann (hón), Ísl. ii. 144, 348, 353, Band. passim, esp. in Cod. Reg.: doubled, aye, aye! yes, yes! já, já! segir Hermundr, Band. 33 new Ed., Trist. 12; já, já? vel, vel! Bs. i. 421; já, já! sagði hann, kaupmaðr víst, O. H. L. 16.

já, ð, part. jáð, to say yes, assent, consent, Lat. aio, with dat.; eptir sem honum þótti biskup sér jáð hafa, Fms. ix. 378; frekara en þeir jáðu, 52; hann jáði því, Finnb. 224; ok hann jár (pres.) honum at halda, Bs. i. 281; þann kost er mér var jáð, Fms. vi. 160; gengu allir bændr undir Þorgils, ok jáðu honum (confessed him) til yfirmanns, Sturl. iii. 270: with prep., já e-u undan sér, to yield up, Bs. i. 281; já e-u upp, to yield up, Fms. vi. 194; alla þá hluti sem nú eru upp jáðir, H. E. i. 398.

já-eiðr, m. = jáorð, H. E. i. 465.

já-kvæða, ð, to say yes, with dat., Sks. 772, Fms. vii. 280.

já-kvæði, n. assent, consent, Orkn. 50, Fms. iv. 87, Anecd. 74.

já-kvæðr, adj. assenting, consenting, 623. 24.

jálfaðr, m. a name of Odin, from jálmr.

JÁLKR, m. [Norse jelk: Dan. vallak], a gelding; ef graðr hestr bítr jálk, Gþl. 392: in mod. usage a hackney, freq. II. a pr. name of Odin, Gm., Lex. Poët.

jálma, að, to clatter, Lat. stridere, Fb. i. 405 (in a verse).

JÁLMR, m. a noise, bustle, poët., Landn. 162 (in a verse); j. málma, a clash of weapons, Fms. v. (in a verse); geira j., the clash or ring of spears, Orkn. 76 (in a verse).

jánka, að, to say yes; hann jánkaði því, (convers.)

já-orð, n. a ‘yea-word,’ assent, consent, Fms. vii. 305, Sturl. i. 141.

JÁRN, n., in older spelling earn, Thorodd; járn is a contracted form; the older poët. form is ísarn, which occurs only five times in old poetry, Eb. 26 new Ed. (in a verse of A. D. 981); ísarn gullu, Hornklofi: ísarn-leikr, m. iron play, Haustl.: ísarn-meiðr, m. a blacksmith, Eg. (in a verse); Edda (Gl.) distinguishes between ísarn and járn. The contracted form jarn or earn however occurs even in the oldest poems, (járnviðr, Vsp.), and is dissyllabic in such verses as gunnþings earn-hringar (a verse of the beginning of the 11th century), Skálda (in a verse); but monosyllabic in járn, rhyming with orna, Fms. vii. 35 (in a verse); féksk arnar matr jörnum, Skálda: [Goth. eisarn; A. S. îsen; Engl. iron, still often pronounced iern; O. H. G. îsen; Hel. îsarn; mod. Germ. eisen; Dan. jern; Swed. järn]:—iron; þú ritaðir earn þar sem ek munda járn ríta, Skálda 164; hagr maðr á tré ok járn, Eg. 4; ór járni, of iron, Nj. 272, passim. 2. in the phrase, bera járn (as an ordeal), to bear iron; sitja til járns, etc., Fms. ix. 280; for references see bera A. III. 1, p. 58. II. in plur. irons, fetters; setja í járn, Fms. ii. 143, xi. 246, 285; sitja í járnum, 287, passim: iron spikes, þar vóru járn á trjám fyrir, vii. 266: iron chains, irons, hann hafði járnum komit fyrir Stokksund, Hkr. ii. 5; iron hinges, lék þar grind á járnum, Fms. v. 331: horse-shoes, either járn or hesta-járn, (mod.): arms, weapons, Edda (Gl.) passim: also in sing., Nj. 193. III. in pr. names, Járn-gerðr, Landn., and Eld-járn, id. COMPDS: járna-far, n. an iron-print, a mark of weapons, Fas. ii. 400: iron-plating on a ship, Orkn. 362. járna-gangr, m. the clash of arms, Fms. xi. 288. járna-lauss, adj. without hinges (a chest), Pm. 6: unshod, of a horse. járna-staðr, m. a mark, print of irons, Hkr. iii. 290. járns-litr, m. iron colour, Stj.

B. In endless COMPDS: járn-auga, n. ‘iron-eye,’ a nickname, Sturl. iii. 68. járn-band, n. an iron borer, Barl. 179. Járn-barði, a, m. ‘Iron-boarder,’ name of a battering ram, Ó. T. járn-benda, d, to band, gird, hoop with iron. járn-borg, f. an ‘iron castle,’ used of a ring of iron-clad ships, Hkv. Hjörv. járn-brandr, m. an iron bar, Niðrst. 106. járn-broddr, m. an iron prod or spike, járn-bundinn, part. iron-bound, of a shield, Karl. 240, 262, 349. járn-burðr, m. iron-bearing, the ordeal of carrying hot iron, mid. Lat. ferrum candens, for references see bera A. III. 1. járn-bútr, m. an iron stump, Þorst, Síðu H. 10: a nickname, Sturl. iii. 217. járn-dragi, a, m. an ‘iron-drawer,’ magnet, Konr. 33. járn-drepsleggja, u, f. an iron sledge-hammer, Eb. 272. járn-faldinn, part. hooded in mail, Eb. (in a verse). járn-festr, f. an iron bond, Vm. 70, 165, Greg. 54, Fas. iii. 213. járn-fjöturr, m. an iron fetter, Edda 20. járn-fleinn, m. an iron bar, Fas. iii. 125. járn-gaddr, m. an iron goad, Landn. 212, Fb. iii. 300, Bs. i. 820. járn-gerð, f. an iron girdle, Fms. v. 345. járn-glófi, a, m. an iron glove, Edda 15 (of Thor). Járn-glumra, u, f. name of an ogress, Edda (Gl.) járn-góðr, adj. of good iron, Fas. ii. 466. járn-grár, adj. iron-gray, Dipl. iii. 14 (of stuff); in Edda (Ht.) of a coat of mail. járn-greipr, f. pl. = járnglófi, Edda 60, 61. járn-grind, f. an iron grate, Niðrst. 106, Symb. 58. járn-görð, f. iron-forging. járngörðar-maðr, m. a blacksmith, Grett. 129 A. járn-hanki, a, m. an iron hoop, Sd. 191. járn-hattr, m. an iron hat, a kind of helmet, Ann. 1394, D. N. i. 321. Járn-hauss, m. Iron-skull, a nickname, Fær. járn-hespa, u, f. an iron hasp, Fas. iii. 383. járn-hlekkr, m. an iron link, chain. járn-hlið, n. an iron gate, Lil. 61. járn-hosa, u, f. = brynhosa, Þiðr. 169. járn-hólkr, m. an iron tube, Þjal. 8. járn-hringr, m. an iron ring, Hkr. ii. 12 (in a verse), iii. 266, Þiðr. 187: spelt earnhringar, Skálda 164. Járn-hryggr, m. Iron-back, a nickname, Fas. járn-hurð, f. an iron hurdle, door, Fms. i. 104, xi. 74, Þiðr. 169. járn-hvalr, m. a whale found with a harpoon in it, Jb. 108, 312, Js. járn-kambr, m. an iron comb, Fas. iii. 612, Blas. 46. járn-karl, m. an iron hoe, Vm. 177, passim in mod. usage. járn-kertistika, u, f. an iron candlestick, Vm. 34. járn-ketill, m. an iron kettle, Grág. i. 501. járn-kló, f. an iron claw or fang, Ísl. ii. 195. járn-klukka, u, f. an iron bell, Landn. 42. járn-klæddr, part. iron-clad, Hkr. iii. 201. járn-kola, u, f. a small iron lamp, Jm. 31, Vm. 177. járn-krókr, m. an iron crook, Fms. v. 157. járn-kylfa, u, f. an iron club, Fas. iii. 324. járn-lampr, m. an iron lamp, Pm. 126. járn-leikr, m. an iron game, poët. a battle, Höfuðl. 8. járn-ligr, adj. of iron, Lat. ferreus, Stj. 345. járn-litr, m. iron colour. járn-loka, u, f. an iron lock, Fas. iii. 380. járn-lurkr, m. an iron cudgel, Hbl. járn-lykkja, u, f. an iron clasp, Gísl. 88. járn-meiss, m. an iron basket: name of a ship. Nj. 163. járn-mél, n. pl. the iron mouth-piece of a bridle. járn-mikill, adj. of solid iron, Fb. i. 524. járn-milti, n. an iron bar. járn-munnr, m. an iron mouth, poët. of a beak, Lex. Poët. járn-nagli, a, m. an iron nail, Bs. i. 860, passim. járn-nef, n. an iron neb or beak, Fas. iii. 507. járn-nökkvi, a, m. an iron boat, used of a giant seen rowing in a boat of iron, Landn. 78. járn-ofinn, part. iron woven, of a coat of mail, Fas. i. (in a verse). járn-port, n. an iron gate, Stj. 205, járn-rekendr, part. pl. iron chains, barring a strait, Fms. vii. 183, xi. 322: shackles, Sks. 416; þá svaf Petrus bundinn tvennum járnrekendum, Post. 656 C. 11. járn-rending, f. [rönd], an iron brim, Korm. 120. járn-rendr, part. bordered with iron, Korm. 68, Grett. 119 A. járn-saumr, m. iron nails, N. G. L. i. 101. járn-sax, n. an iron cutlass, Lex. Poët. Járn-saxa, u, f. Iron-chopper, name of an ogress, Edda: a nickname, Nj. járn-serkr, m. an iron sark, coat of mail, Lex. Poët. járn-sía, u, f. a red-hot iron bar, Edda 61. Járn-síða, u, f. Ironside, nickname of a mythical warrior king, Ragn. S.; cp. the A. S. king Edmund Ironside: name of an Icel. code of laws (1271–1280), prob. from being cased in iron, Ann. Resen. 1271. járn-skip, n. a ship’s model in iron, Pm. 51, 79. Járn-skjöldr, m. Iron-shield, a pr. name, Fb.: as also a nickname, Hdl. járn-skór, m. an iron shoe, Bárð. 179, Edda 56, (of the mythol. shoe of the god Vidar.) jára-slá, f. an iron bar, Fms. i. 129, Gísl. 88, Sks. 631, Fas. i. 415. járn-sleggja, u, f. an iron sledge-hammer, Bs. i. 120, Karl. 338. járn-sleginn, part. mounted with iron. járn-smiðr, m. a blacksmith, Eg. 141, Landn. 118, Fms. vi. 361, Stj. 451: metaph. a black insect, so called as opp. to gullsmiðr, q. v. járn-smíð, f. the forging of iron, Fms. xi. 427. járn-smíði, n. smith’s work, Sturl. i. 47. járn-spjót, n. an iron spear, Karl. 365. járn-spöng, f. an iron clasp, Gþl. 105: iron-plating, Fms. ii. 310. járn-stafr, m. an iron staff, Nj. 211, Hkr. i. 229, Landn. (in a verse), járn-stika, u, f. an iron candlestick, Vm. 2, 6, Dipl. iii. 4. járn-stóll, m. an iron chair, Dipl. v. 18, D. N. járn-stólpi, a, m. an iron post, Sks. 631. járn-stúka, u, f. the sleeves of a coat of mail, Sighvat. járn-stöng, f. an iron bar, Bárð. 164. járn-súla, u, f. an iron column, Edda 61, Fb. i. 527. járn-svipa, u, f. an iron lash, Clem. 57, 656 C. 36. járn-teinn, m. an iron prong, Eg. 285, Bs. i. 854: iron wire, Fms. ii. 129, v. l.: an iron fork, Fas. iii. 123. járn-tíund, f. a tax on iron, N. G. L. i. 462. járn-vafinn, part. wound round with iron, Eg. 285, Sturl. i. 63, Krók. járn-varðr, part. mounted with iron, Darr. 2, Stj. 387, Fms. vi. 145. járn-vápn, n. an iron weapon, Fas. ii. 178. járn-viðjar, f. pl. iron withes, iron wire, Fas. iii. 211, Symb. 57, Gullþ. 52. Járn-viðr, m. the Iron Wood, a mythical wood with iron leaves (Vsp. 32), peopled by ogresses, called Járn-viðjur, f. pl., Edda, Eyvind (Yngl. S. ch. 9): also the local name of a wood in Holsten,—den stora Holstenska skov Isarnhow, der af de Danske oversættes Jarnwith, Nord. Tidskr. for Oldk. i. 272. járn-völr, m. an iron bar, Bev. járn-æðr, f. iron vein, ore, 544. 39. járn-ör, f. an iron shaft, N. G. L. i. 102: also = herör, q. v. (sub herr B, at end).

járna, að, to mount with iron; járnaðir vagnar, wains mounted with iron, Stj.; járnuð kerra, 386; járnaðr skjöldr, Valla L. 213; járnuð hurð, Bær. 15; róðrgöltr með járnuðum múla, Sks. 395: with hinges, járnaðr kistill, kista, D. N. iii. 421, Pr. 413; járna kistu, Rétt. 2. 10, Pm. 120, Vm. 121. II. spec, usages, to put in irons, Fms. xi. 445: to be mailed, 365. 2. to shoe a horse; járna hest, Boll. 346, Fms. viii. 182; hann léði honum hest járnaðan öllum fótum, Sturl. ii. 145; hánn lét sér til ferðarinnar járna tvau hross, Bs. ii. 184; al-járnaðr, shod on all the feet; ílla, vel járnaðr; blóð-járna, to ‘blood-shoe,’ shoe to the quick: the ancients usually said skúa (to shoe) hest, but járna is the mod. term.

JÁTA, að, or játta, t: it varies between the 1st and 2nd conjugation, the older forms being, pres. játi, játir, as still used in the north of Icel., pret. játti, part. játt; the later, pres. játa, játar, pret. játaði, part. játað: [mid. H. G. jaze]:—to say yes: I. with dat. or absol. to say yes, assent; allir játtuðu því, Fms. vii. 281; þessu játtar Þrándr, vi. 190; þessu játir hann, Glúm. 360, 361: to acknowledge, confess; játta ek því, at ek hefi …, Fms. vii. 305; sagði at Erkibiskup hafði því játtað (v. l. jáð), viii. 258; nú játar ek Dróttni, Stj. 174; ef þeir göra iðran játandi þínu nafni, 567; játa Guði, Greg. 20; hann neitaði Guðs nafni en játaði guðuni sínum, Fms. x. 324: to consent, þóat játtat hafi verit, Sks. 776 B; eptir lögum ok því sem þá var játtat, Gþl. 47; játuðu ok samþyktu allir, at …, id.; ek mun jata (consent) at görask hans eiginkona, Fms. i. 3; þeir beiða þess at Sturla játaði í dóm Jóns Loptssonar um málit, Sturl. i. 105; Dana-konungr játtaði gjöfinni, Fms. x. 84; nú játti jarlinn hváru-tveggja, Kristninni ok vingan konungs, 277; játta e-u undan sér, to yield up, Orkn. 52; játaði biskup upp (yielded up) öllum stöðum, Bs. i. 730: to promise, þann Finninn er hann hafði játt (ját), at …, Fms. x. 379; mun ek þessu játa fyrir mik ok heimamenn mína, Nj. 162; játtir þú ferðinni, didst thou promise to go? Fms. iii. 72; játa skuldar-stöðum, Ld. 212. II. with acc. of the thing, to acknowledge, confess; játa syndir, Fb. ii. 434, Sks. 129 new Ed., Th. 23, 625. 92: to grant, játtuðu allir þér konungdóm, Fms. vii. 153; Jesús Christr sá er ek trúi á, ok játi með munni, Blas. 41: to yield, give, játa konungi þat alt er hann beiddi, Fms. xi. 224; konungr bað bændr játa sér reiðskjóta, 223; játa sik, to confess one’s sins, Bs. i. 121; þann tíma er herra Gyrðr hafði sik til játtat (promised), H. E. i. 528; játta sik undir e-t, to engage oneself, Dipl. ii. 11, Fms. ii. 238. III. reflex., játask undir e-t, to engage oneself to, accept, profess, Nj. 122, Fms. x. 24, xi. 38: to promise, hvárt-tveggja játask öðru til hjúskapar, H. E. i. 247.

játan and játtan, f. confession, Edda ii. 192, H. E. i. 484.

játari, a, m. a confessor, Hom. 147, Bs. i. 48.

játing, f. = játning, Hom. 4.

játning, f. confession, esp. in an eccl. sense; játning heilagrar trúar, Fms. i. 142; Trúar-játning. the Creed, confession of faith; Augsborgar-trúarjatning = the Augsburg Confession, Confessio Augustana, Vídal. passim: synda-játning, confession of sins, H. E. i. 476, Bs. i. 746, 846, passim.

játsi, adj. indecl. saying yes, confessing; konungr varð honum þess játsi, Fms. x. 379.

já-yrði, n. = jáorð, Fms. ii. 291, vii. 359, xi. 218, Sturl. iii. 315, K. Á. 112.

JÓÐ, n. [this interesting word is prob. akin to óðal, auðr, eðli, referring to an old lost strong verb, jóða, auð, throwing light upon the sense of these words]:—a baby, Edda 108, Rm. 38; jóð ól Edda, jósu vatni, Rm. 7; ól ek mér jóð, Gh. 14, Skv. 3. 60 (Bugge); eiga jóð, Vkv. 31; fæða jóð, Am. 103; jóðs aðal, a baby’s nature, poët. of one sucking like a baby, Ýt. 13: poët., arnar-jóð, úlfs, gyldis, örnis jóð, an eagle’s, wolf’s, giant’s kin, Lex. Poët.; hauk-jóð, a hawk’s offspring, Rekst.; hún (the fox) á sér í holu jóð, hvað eiga þau að eta? Snót.

jóð-dís or jó-dís, f. a sister, poët., Edda 109, Ýt. 7: as a pr. name, of women, Jó-dís, Jó-fríðr, Jó-reiðr, Jó-runn; of men, Jó-steinn, see the remarks under dís.

jóðla, að, [jóð], to drawl like a baby.

jóð-ligr, adj. blooming like a baby; hón mun barn fæða ok mun þat sveinn vera bæði mikill ok jóðligr, Fb. ii. 9; hón fæddi meybarn bæði mikit ok jóðligt, Ísl. ii. 19.

jóð-móðir, f. [Dan. corrupt jorde-moder], a midwife.

jóð-sjúk, f. adj. ‘baby-sick,’ in labour, Ann. 1371.

jóð-sótt, f. the pains of childbirth, travail-pains, Fms. iv. 32, Mar. passim.

jóð-ungr, adj. ‘baby-young,’ infantile, Skv. 3. 37.

jóð-verkr, m. = jóðsótt, Mag. 95.

JÓL, n. pl., in rhymes, gólig, Jóla, Ó. H. (in a verse); [A. S. geôl, sometimes used of the whole month of December, whereas December is also called æra geola = fore Yule, and January æftera geola = after Yule; the plur. in Icel. perhaps refers to this double month. The origin and etymology of the word Yule is much contested, and has been treated at length by Grimm (Gesch. der Deutschen Sprache), who tries to make out a relation between the Lat. Jūlus or Jūlius and the Teut. Yule, the one being a midsummer month, the other a midwinter month; like former etymologists, he also derives the word from hjól, a wheel, as referring to the sun’s wheeling round at midwinter and midsummer time. The resemblance of the words is striking, as also the old northern celebration of the midsummer feast Jónsvaka (see below), which was in fact a kind of midsummer Yule.]

B. Yule, a great feast in the heathen time, afterwards applied to Christmas (as still in North. E.) In Icel. popular usage Yule-eve is a kind of landmark by which the year is reckoned, so that a man is as many years old as he has passed Yule nights, hafa lifað (so and so) margar Jóla-nætr; for the year counts from Yule night, whence the phrase, vera ílla or vel á ár kominn, to become well or ill in the year; thus a person born shortly before Yule is ‘ílla á ár kominn,’ for at next Yule he will be reckoned one year old, whereas one born just after it is ‘vel á ár kominn.’ The heathen Yule lasted thirteen days, whence are derived the names Þrettándi, the thirteenth = Epiphany, i. e. the 6th of January, as also the Engl. ‘Twelfth-night;’ it is however probable that the heathen feast was held a little later than the Christian (see hökunótt). The heathen Yule was a great merry-making, and tales of ghosts, ogres, and satyrs were attached to it, esp. the Jóla-sveinar or ‘Yule-lads,’ a kind of goblins or monster satyrs, thirteen in number, one to each day of the feast, sons of the kidnapping hag Grýla (q. v.), whose names were used to frighten children with, see Ísl. Þjóðs. i. 219, 220. As the night lengthens and the day shortens, the ghosts gain strength, and reach their highest at Yule time, see Grett. ch. 34–37, 67–70, Eb. ch. 34, Flóam. S. ch. 22. The day next before Yule is called atfanga-dagr (q. v.) Jóla, when stores were provided and fresh ale brewed, Jóla-öl. Passages in the Sagas referring to Yule are numerous, e.g. Hervar. S. ch. 4, Hálfd. S. Svarta ch. 8, Har. S. Hárf. ch. 16 (in a verse), Hák. S. Góða ch. 12, 15, 19, Ó. H. ch. 151, Eb. ch. 31, Landn. 3. ch. 15 (in the Hb.), Bjarn. 51 sqq., Sturl. iii. 127. As for Yule games cp. the Norse and Danish Jule-buk, Jola-geit (Ivar Aasen) = a Yule goat, Dan. Jule-leg = a Yule game. II. in poetry a feast (generally); hugins jól, a raven’s feast, Fms. vi. 255 (in a verse), cp. Bjarn. 36. COMPDS: Jóla-aptan, m. Yule-eve, Landn. 215, Fms. vii. 183, ix. 480, xi. 15. Jóla-bál, n. a ‘Yule-bale,’ Yule-fire, a bright blazing fire, Skýr. 265. Jóla-boð, n. a Yule banquet, Eg. 516, Fms. ii. 39, Hkr. ii. 70. Jóla-bók, f. a Yule book, lessons for Christmas Day, Am. 30, Pm. 14. Jóla-dagr, m. a Yule day (first, second, etc.), K. Þ. K., Nj. 165, 270, Rb. 44, 436. Jóla-drykkja, u, f. Yule drinking, Landn. 216, Fbr. 138, Bjarn. 51, Fms. vii. 274. Jóla-fasta, u, f. Yule-fast, the preparation for Christmas = Advent, K. Þ. K., Rb., Eb. 272. Jóla-friðr, m. Yule-peace, sanctity, Sturl. iii. 127. Jólaföstu-bók, f. lessons for Advent, Pm. 79. Jólaföstu-tíð, f. (-tími, a, m.), Advent time, K. Á. 188. Jóla-gjöf, f. a Yule gift, Christmas box, Eg. 516, Hkr. ii. 70: a tax paid to the king, N. G. L. i. 58, Fms. vii. 1, x. 410. Jóla-grið, n. pl. = Jólafriðr. Jóla-hald, n. a keeping of Yule, Fms. i. 31. Jóla-helgi, f. Yule holiday, K. Þ. K. Jóla-höll, f. a hall where Yule is held, Fms. ix. 372. Jóla-kveld, n. Yule-eve, Fms. i. 76, iv. 82, vii. 161. Jóla-les, n. a Yule lesson, Pm. 31. Jóla-morgin, m. Yule morning, Fs. 143. Jóla-nótt, f., see above, Fms. i. 31, x. 296, K. Þ. K. 126. Jóla-skrá, f. a Yule scroll, see Ísl. Þjóðs. ii. 561, a kind of almanack with weather prophecies. Jóla-sveinar, m. pl., see above. Jóla-tíð, f. Yule-tide, N. G. L. i. 350: in plur., Jóla-tíðir, Christmas service, Fms. ii. 37. Jólatíða-bók, f. lessons for Christmas, Am. 72. Jóla-tungl, n. the Yule moon. Jóla-veizla, u, f. a Yule banquet, Fms. i. 31, x. 178. Jóla-vist, f. holding, staying the Yule, Eb. 236, Hkr. i. 72, Fms. ix. 290, x. 410, Sturl. i. 216. Jóla-öl, n. Yule ale, Eb. 274.

Jólfuðr, m. a name of Odin, Edda; as also Jólfr, a pr. name, Fas. ii.

JÓLL, m.; the mod. form njóli is no doubt a corruption from hvannjóli (q. v.), by dropping the former part of the compd, but retaining the final n, which was transferred to the latter part of the compd, just as in Dan. paa = opp-aa: [jol = angelica sylvestris, Ivar Aasen]:—wild angelica; the word is recorded in the Edda Lauf., and occurs in Ls. 3,—jól (acc.) ok áfu færi ek Ása sonum ok blend ek þeim svá meini mjöð, denoting that Loki threatened to poison their ale with ill-flavoured herbs (the passage must certainly be so taken, and not as suggested s. v. áfr, p. 40).

Jól-mánuðr, m. the Yule month, Rb. 556, Fms. x. 222.

Jólnir, m. a name of Odin: in plur., jólnar, the gods, Edda (Gl.), Ht.

JÓM, n. a county in Pomerania, where the Danes had an ancient colony and stronghold called Jóms-borg, f. and Jóms-víkingar, m. pl. the Vikings of Jom: Jómvíkinga-bardagi, a, m. the battle of J. (in the year 994), Fms. passim: Jómvíkinga-saga, u, f. the Saga of J.

Jómali, a, m. [a Tchudic word], the idol of the Finns at the White Sea, Ó. H. ch. 122.

jóm-frú, f. a maid, miss; see jungfrú.

JÓN, m. (Jónn, Fb.), a pr. name, contraction of the older dissyllabic Jóann, John, Johannes, see Íb. 17: of the same origin are Jóhann, Jóhannes, Jens, which have come into use since the Reformation, whereas Jón or Jóan appears in Icel. at the middle of the 11th century, and soon afterwards became so popular that in the K. Á. (of 1276) it is made to serve for M. M. (N. or M.) in the baptismal formula, as also in the law formula, yfir höfði Jóni, against M. M., see Njála. Jóns-bók, f. John’s book, the code of laws of 1281, named after John the lawyer (lögmaðr), who brought the book from Norway to Icel., Ann. 1281, Árna S. II. St. John Baptist’s Day (June 24) is in the northern countries a kind of midsummer Yule, and was in Norway and Sweden celebrated with bonfires, dances, and merriment; and tales of fairies and goblins of every kind are connected with St. John’s eve in summer as well as with Yule-eve in winter. The name of the feast varies,—Jóns-dagr, m., Jóns-messa, u, f., Jónsvöku-dagr, m. the day, mass of St. John = the 24th of June; Jóns-nótt, f., Jóns-vaka, u, f., St. John’s eve, ‘John’s-wake,’ Rb. 530, Sturl. iii. 59, N. G. L. i. 340, 343, Fms. viii. 357, ix. 7: Jónsvöku-skeið, Fms. x. 49: Jónsvöku-leyti, id. In Norway the feast is at present called Jonsoka = Jónsvaka, and the fires Jonsoku-brising (cp. the Brisinga-men of the Edda). The origin of this feast is no doubt heathen, being a worship of light and the sun, which has since been adapted to a Christian name and the Christian calendar. For the fairy tales connected with this feast, see Ísl. Þjóðs., which tales again call to mind Shakspeare’s Midsummer Night’s Dream: Jónsmessu-öl, n. ale brewed for St. John’s day, N. G. L. i. 137; þá var sumar-tíð ok hátíð mikil Jónsvöku-nótt, Bær. 17. 2. Jóns-dagr, Jóns-messa are also used to signify the day or mass of the Icel. bishop John (died A. D. 1121), April 23 and March 3, see Bs.: Jóns-höfuð, Jóns-skript, f. the head, tablet of St. John, B. K., Vm., etc.: Jóns-stúka, u, f. chapel of St. John, Sturl. i. 125.

JÓR, m., gen. jós, Ls. 13; dat. jó, Hm. 89; acc. jó, Hkv. 2. 47, Skm. 15, Kormak: plur. jóar, dat. jóm, Gm. 30, Hðm. 3; acc. plur. jóa, Hkv. 2. 38, but jói, 39; gen. plur. jóa, Gm. 43: [O. H. G. and Hel. ehu; in Goth. prob. aihvus; but as the Acts, Apocalypse, and Epistle of St. James are lost in the version of Ulf., we do not know the exact Goth. word for a horse: the Gr. ιππος (ικκος) and Lat. equus represent the uncontracted, the Teut. ehu, eô- (jó-r) the contracted form]:—a stallion, but only used in poetry; in mod. poets the r is wrongly kept as radical in plur. jórar, dat. plur. jórum: poët. also, borð-jór, siglu-jór, ‘board-steed,’ ‘sail-steed,’ = a ship.

jór-bjúg or rather jór-bjúga, n. [from jöfur, a boar, and bjúga, q. v.]:—a kind of sausage (?), a απ. λεγ., Gkv. 2. 24, referring to iðrar blótnar and svíns-lifr soðin in the preceding verse.

jó-reið, f. horsemen (?), Hkv. 1. 47.

jó-reykr, m. the cloud of dust seen afar off above a body of horsemen, Fms. vi. 411, vii. 68, Al. 31, Fas. i. 497.

Jór-salir, m. pl. Jerusalem. COMPDS: Jórsala-borg, f. Jerusalem . Jórsala-fari, a, m. Jerusalem-traveller: as an appellative, Sigurðr J., Fms. vii; Björn J., Ann. Jórsala-fé, -gjöf, -tíund, f. a Jerusalem fee, penny, tithe (referring to the Crusades), Fms., Ann., Sks., Bs., Rb., Hom. passim. Jórsala-ferð, -för, f. a journey to J. Jórsala-haf, n. the sea of J. = the Mediterranean. Jórsala-heimr, m., -land, -ríki, n. the land of J. = Palestine. Jórsala-konungr, m. the king of J. Jórsala-menn, -lýðr, m. the people of J.

jórtr, m. rumination, of animals: jórtr-dýr, -kvikendi, n. ruminating animals.

JÓRTRA, að, prob. qs. jótra, from jótr (q. v.), to ruminate, Stj. 316:—jórtruð húð, a rugged hide, rough as an animal’s maw, Fas. iii. (in a verse).

Jór-vík, also in later writers Jórk, contr. from A. S. Eoforwic, York (Lat. Eborăcum), Fms.

Jótar, m. pl. the Jutes, a Dan. tribe. Jótland, n. Jutland: Jótlands-haf, n. the Cattegat: Jótlands-síða, u, f. the west coast of Jutland, Fms., Eg.

JÓTR, m., gen. jótrs, Þd. 17, a canine tooth, Edda (Gl.): medic., andlits mein (face disease) þat er menn kalla jótr, similar to gaddr (q. v.) in sheep, Bs. i. 611.

Jótskr, adj. Jutish, from Jutland, Fms.

juð, n. a maundering.

juða, að, to maunder; vertu ekki að juða! (slang.)

jukk, n. a mess, medley; allt í jukki, all in a mess.

jula, u, f. a yawl, (mod.)

jung-frú, f., junk-frú, Fms. x. 86, v. l.; jung-frúva, Mork. 14; whence the mod. jóm-frú, Dan. jomfru; both words are foreign and derived from Germ. jungfrau, as is shewn by the initial j; the word however appears in the 13th century, mostly in the sense of a princess, esp. those of foreign birth, as in Fms. vi. 59, 132, of a Saxon and Russian princess; but also jungfrú Margrét, of a daughter of Skúli hertogi, ix. 292, 412; jungfrú Kristín, 220, of an earl’s daughter; but esp. in the Hák. S. Gamla (Fms. ix, x), passim: of the Virgin Mary, Dipl. ii. 14, B. K. 83. jungfrú-aldr, m. maiden age, time of maidenhood, Stj.

jungfrú-dómr, mod. jómfrúr-dómr, m. maidenhood, Clar.

jungfrú-ligr, adj. maiden-like, Mar.

jung-herra, m., or junkeri, a, m., the Germ. jungherr, junker, prop. a young lord, in old writers esp. used of a prince, Fms. vi. 51, Magn. 462, Ann., Fms. ix. passim, Fas. iii. 358.

jung-ligr, adj. = ungligr, Fb. ii. 538.

jung-menni, n. a young man, Barl. 112, 156.

jungr, adj. young (= ungr); this Germanized form is freq. in some MSS. of the 14th and 15th centuries (see Fb. pref. xxii), as also in ballads (rímur) of that time (Skíða R. 199, Þrymlur 7), but was afterwards disused, and never took root in the spoken language.

jur-jór = jaur, yes, is quoted in Run. Gramm.

JURT, f., later urt, which forms also occur in old writers, Al. 85, Hom. 53, no doubt a borrowed word from the Germ. or Saxon; the j being a substitute for the Germ. w, which cannot be sounded in Icel. before the letter u; [A. S. wyrt; Engl. wort; O. H. G. wurz; Germ. würze; Dan. urt]:—aromatic herbs, used to season wine, dishes, ointment; in old writers only in that sense, whereas in mod. usage = a herb; smyrsl ok jurtir, Magn. 430; smyrja með dýrustum jurtum, Al. 30; skaltú laugask ok smyrja þik ágætum jurtum, Stj. 423; dýrligra urta, Eluc. 53; dýrar jurtir, Fas. iii. 359; allar þær urtir er bezt ilma, Al. 85; ágætar jurtir, Bs. i. 258; krydd ok jurtir, Stj. 194; ilmandi urtir, Hom. 53. II. mod. a herb; grösin og jurtir grænar, Hallgr. COMPDS: jurta-garðr, m. [Dan. urtegaard], a garden of herbs, a kitchen-garden. jurta-klefi, a, m. a room for spices, Stj. 205. jurtar-legr, adj. spicy, Stj. 74. jurta-teinungr, m. a stick of spice, Stj. 74: but, mat-jurtir, herbs, garden stuff (mod.); matjurta-bók, a book about herbs.

justa, u, f. [for. word; justa, Du Gauge], a kind of measure for liquids, four justur making a bolli (q. v.), Gþl. 525, MS. 732. 16 (of a vessel), Nj. 43.

justis, m. [for. word], justice, H. E. i. 503, Thom.

jú, adv. [cp. Dan. jo; O. H. G. jû; Germ. je], yes; jú jú, yea yea; ó-jú, id. (convers.)

Júdi, a, m. a Jew, Lat. Judaeus, (rare); cp. Gyðingr.

JÚGR, n. [Engl. udder; North. E. yure or yower; Germ. euter; Dan. yver; Swed. jur; Gr. ουθαρ; Lat. uber]:—an udder, Bs. i. 194, Fb. ii. 165, freq. in mod. usage; þvíað stálmi var farinn að koma í júgrin, Od. ix. 440. júgr-bólga, u, f., júgr-mein, n. an udder disease.

júg-tanni, a, m., qs. jótr-tanni (?), ‘tusk-tooth,’ poët. for a bear, Korm., Lex. Poët.

júr, yes, Skálda 163, Art. 126; see jaur.

júr = jaur, yes; júr kvað hann, ifast ekki um, Art. 68, cp. Skálda (Thorodd) 163.

júristi, a, m. [for. word], a lawyer, Bs. i. Laur. S.

jæ-ja, interj. aye aye! yes! denoting hesitation, Piltr og Stúlka 8.

jöfnuðr, m. equity; see jafnaðr.

JÖFURR, m., dat. jöfri, pl. jöfrar: I. [A. S. eofor; O. H. G. epar; Germ. eber; Lat. aper]:—a wild boar; but it occurs in this sense only twice or thrice in poetry, Merl. 1. 39, Gkv. 2. 24. II. metaph. a king, warrior, prob. from the custom of wearing boar’s heads as helmets, cp. A. S. eofor-cumbol and Hildigöltr; jöfurr in this sense is not used in prose, but is freq. in old poetry, even in poems as old as the Ýt., see Lex. Poët. Sense I. is unknown to the Scandin., and sense II. to the Teut. languages.

jögun, f. a harping on the same quarrel.

jöklaðr, part. covered with icicles, Sks. 229, of the beard.

jökul-barinn, part. storm-beaten, stiffened with ice, Lv. 86.

jökul-hlaup, n. an ‘ice-leap,’ ravine.

jökul-hljóð, n. sounds heard in glaciers, Eggert Itin. 770.

jökul-kaldr, adj. ice-cold, Flóv.

JÖKULL, m., dat. jökli, pl. jöklar, prop. a dimin. from jaki, q. v.; [A. S. gicel, i. e. îs-gicel, whence Engl. icicle; Low Germ. jokel]:—an icicle; gékk inn í sal, glumdu jöklar, var karls er kom kinnskógr frörinn, Hým. 10, of the icicles in the giant’s beard; síðan tóku þeir jöklana ok bræddu, Fms. ix. 155: so also in poët. phrases, where silver is called jökull handar or mund-jökull, the icicle of the hand, Hallfred, Lex. Poët.: as also böðvar-j., the war-icicle = the sword, or sár-j., the wound-icicle, see Lex. Poët. II. a metaph. sense, ice, gener.; vatnið snýsk í jökul, Sks. 196; settu þeir þat upp með öllum sjánum sem í var ok jöklinum, en þat var mjök sýlt, i. e. they launched the ship with all the ice in it, Grett. 125: snjór ok jökull, Sks. jökla-gangr, m. an ice-drift, Grett. 132 new Ed. 2. in specific Icel. sense, a glacier; this sense the Icelanders probably derived from the Norse county Hardanger, which is the only county of Norway in which Jökul appears as a local name, see Munch’s Norg. Beskr.; in Icel. it is used all over the country both as an appellative and in local names, whereas the primitive sense (icicle) is quite lost, Fs., Fb., Eg. 133, Nj. 208, passim. 3. in local names, Ball-jökull, Eyjafjalla-j., Snæfells-j., Vatna-j., Mýrdals-j., Öræfa-j., Dranga-j., Langi-j., Eireks-j., etc., see the map of Icel.; the glaciers of the Icel. colony in Greenland are also called jökuls: of rivers, Jökuls-á, f. Ice-water; Jökuls-dalr, m. Ice-water-dale; Jökla-menn, m. pl. the men from the county Jökul (i. e. Snæfells-jökull), Sturl. ii. 158; Jöklamanna-búð and goðorð, see búð and goðorð.

jökul-sprunga, u, f. a crevasse.

jökul-vatn, n. ice-water from a glacier, Fas. iii. 570, Mar.

jökul-vetr, n. an icy, hard winter, Ann. 1233.

jölstr, m. [Swed. jolster], salix pentandra, a kind of willow, Gkv. 1. 19 (Bugge 419).

JÖRÐ, f., gen. jarðar; dat. jörðu, mod. also jörð; pl. jarðir; in old writers dat. and acc. are carefully distinguished; in mod. prose and conversation the apocopated dative is mostly used, whereas the poets use either form, as is most convenient for the flow of the verse and the metre, as in the Passion hymns, α. the full form; og hindra gjörðu, | Guðs dýrðarljós svo lýsi mér á lifandi manna jörðu, 9. 9; merk að úr jörðu mátti ei neinn, 46. 10; hróp og háreysti gjörðu … | kringum krossinn á jörðu, 39. 7; nakinn Jesum á jörðu … | með heiptar sinni hörðu, 33. 4; Lausnarinn niðr á jörðu, 34. 1; blóðsveitinn þinn eg bið mér sé, | blessan og vernd á jörðunni, 3. 12; eins hér á jörðu upp frá því, 21. 10; þó leggist lík í jörðu … | hún mætir aldrei hörðu, Hallgr. β. the apocopated form; en Jesú hlýðni aptr hér, allri jörð blessan færir, Pass. 24. 6; heiðr, lof, dýrð á himni og jörð | hjártanleg ástar þakkar-gjörð, 3. 18; þó heiðarleg sé hér á jörð | holdi útvaldra líkför gjörð, 49. 14; ef hér á jörð er hróp og háð, 14. 16; hvað göra þeir sem hér á jörð | hafa að spotti Drottins orð, 10: [Goth. airþa; A. S. eorde; Hel. ertha; old Scot. yearthe; Engl. earth: O. H. G. erda; Germ. erde; Dutch aarde; Fris. irth; Swed.-Dan. jord.]

A. The earth; jörð ok himin, Nj. 194; jörð ok upphimin, Vsp. 3; jörð iðja-græna, 58; íllt er á jörð of orðit, Glúm. (in a verse), Hm. 138, and prose passim; jarðar yfirbragð er böllótt, Rb. 460, 465; jarðar bugr, böllr, hringr, hvel, mynd, endi, bygð, the earth’s bight, ball, ring, wheel, shape, end, habitation, 440, 466, 472: for the mythol. genesis of the earth see Vsp. l. c., Vþm. 20, 21, Gm. 40: as a mythical goddess, the Earth was daughter of Ónar (Ónars-dóttir) and Nótt (the night), and sister of Day on the mother’s side, Edda 7: Thor was the Earth’s son, Jarðar-sonr, m., Haustl. II. the surface of the earth, earth; falla til jarðar, Nj. 64; koma til jarðar, to throw down, Fms. v. 348; falla frjáls á jörð, N. G. L. i. 32, Grág. ii. 192; á jörðu ok í jörðu, Finnb. 290; bíta gras af jörðunni, Fms. xi. 7; skeðja jörðu, K. Þ. K. 22; jörð eða stein, Sks. 88; erja jörð, to ‘ear’ the earth, plough, Rb. 100; flestir menn séru jarðir sínar, Fms. i. 92: jarðar aldin, ávöxtr, blómi, dupt, dust, dýr, kvikendi, skriðdýr, etc., the earth’s fruit, produce, blossom, dust, deer, beasts, reptiles, etc., H. E. ii. 188, Grág. ii. 347, Ver. 17, Fas. iii. 669, Sks. 527, 628, Stj. 18, 77. 2. pasture; görði kulda mikla með snjóum ok íllt til jarðar, Grett. 91 A; taka til jarðar, to graze, Skm. 15: freq. in mod. usage, góð jörð, lítil jörð, jarð-leysi, jarð-laust, jarð-bann, q. v. 3. mould, Lat. humus; jörð sú er á innsigli er lögð, Lækn. 472: soil, sand-jörð, sandy soil; leir-jörð, clayey soil, etc. COMPDS: jarðar-ber, n. pl., Germ. erd-beeren, strawberries. jarðar-för, f. burial. jarðar-megin, n. ‘earth-main,’ power, in a mythol. sense, Hm. 138, Hdl. 37, Gkv. 2. 21. jarðar-men, n. [Dan. jordsmon], a sod, turf, Lat. caespes, Landn. 293 (in a verse), Eb. (in a verse); ganga undir jarðarmen: for the heathen rite of creeping under a sod partially detached from the earth and letting the blood mix with the mould, see Gísl. 11, Fbr. 6 new Ed.: as an ordeal, Ld. ch. 18: as a disgrace, similar to the Lat. jugum subire, Nj. 181, Vd. ch. 33.

B. Land, an estate, very freq. in Icel., answering to Norse bol, Dan. gaard; thus, túlf, tuttugu, sextíu, … hundraða jörð, land of twelve, twenty, sixty, … hundreds value; byggja jörð, to lease a farm; búa á jörð, to live on a farm; leigja jörð, to hold land as a tenant (leigu-liði); góð bú-jörð, good land for farming; harðbala-jörð, barren, bad land; plógs-jörð, land yielding rare produce, eider-down or the like; land-jörð, an inland estate, opp. to sjóvar-jörð, land by the sea side; Benedikt gaf sira Þórði jarðir út á Skaga hverjar svá heita …, Dipl. v. 27. COMPDS: jarðar-, sing. or jarða-, pl.: jarðar-brigð, f. reclamation of land, N. G. L. i. 238, Jb. 190. jarðar-bygging, f. a leasing of land. jarðar-eigandi, part. a landowner, Gþl. 337. jarðar-eign, f. possession of land, Pm. 45: an estate, Dipl. iii. 10, iv. 9. jarðar-hefð, f. a holding of land, tenure, Jb. 261. jarðar-helmingr, m. the half of a land or farm, Dipl. iv. 2, v. 24. jarðar-hundrað, n. a hundrað (q. v.) in an estate. jarðar-höfn, f. = jarðarhefð, Gþl. 91. jarðar-flag, n. mortgaged land. Dipl. v. 9. jarðar-kaup or jarða-kaup, n. the purchase of land, Dipl. iii. 8. jarðar-leiga, u, f. rent of land, Gþl. 260. jarðar-lýsing, f. the publication of a conveyance of land, Gþl. 307. jarðar-mark, n. a landmark, march or boundary of land, Dipl. v. 7. jarða-mat, n. a survey of land for making a terrier: jarðamats-bók, the terrier of an estate:—so also jarða-máldagi, a, m. jarðar-máli, a, m. a lease, MS. 346, 167. jarðar-megin, n. a certain portion of land; þá skulu þeir svá halda garði upp sem þeir hafa j. til, N. G. L. i. 40; halda kirkju-góðs eptir jarðarmagni, H. E. i. 459; sá leiðangr er görisk af jarðarmagni, Gþl. 91. jarðar-partr, m. a portion of land, Dipl. iv. 13. jarðar-rán, f. seizure (unlawful) of land, Gþl. 357. jarðar-reitr, m. a parcel of land, Jm. 8, Pm. 52. jarða-skeyting, f. escheatage of land, N. G. L. i. 96. jarðar-skipti, n. a parcelling of land, Gþl. 286, 287: mod. jarða-skipti, n. pl. = exchange of lands, Dipl. i. 12. jarðar-spell, n. damage of land, Rd. 274, Gþl. 311. jarða-tal, n. a ‘land-tale,’ a register of farms. jarðar-teigr, m. = jarðarreitr, Dipl. iii. 12. jarðar-usli, a, m. = jarðarspell. jarðar-verð, n. the price of land, Dipl. v. 17, 22. jarðar-vígsla, u, f. consecration of land by sprinkling holy water, N. G. L. i. 352. jarðar-þjófr, m. a ‘land-thief,’ a law term of a person who removes the mark-stones, N. G. L. i. 44.

JÖRFI, a, m. gravel; hann jós á þá jörfa ok moldu, Stj. 529. 2 Sam. xvi. 13, ‘lapides terramque spargens’ of the Vulgate:—gravel, gravelly soil; þar var þá víða blásit ok jörvi, er þá vóru hlíðir fagrar, Fas. ii. 558; Þorsteinn gékk frá at jörva nökkurum, Þorst. Síðu H. 183: in local names, Jörfi (Eb.) in the west, and in the south Klifs-jörfi, also called Klifs-sandr, Bjarn. (in a verse). Jörva-sund, n., Hkv. 1. 24 (Bugge), Vídal., Skýr. 302.

JÖRMUN-, a prefix in a few old mythical words, implying something huge, vast, superhuman: [cp. the A. S. eormen- in eormcn-cyn, -grund, -lâf, -strind, -þeôð; and Hel. irmin- in irmin-got = the great god, irmin-man = the great man, irmin-sul = a sacred column or idol, irmin-thiod = mankind, see Schmeller]:—great; the compds. of this word, which occur in old Scandin. poets only, are, Jörmun-gandr, m. the Great Monster, a name of the northern Leviathan, the Midgard Serpent, Vsp. 50, Bragi (Edda i. 254): Jörmund-grund, f. = A. S. eormen-grund (Beowulf), = the earth, Gm. 20: Jörmun-rekr, m. a pr. name, A. S. Eormenric (the Goth. form would be Airmanariks), Edda, Bragi: Jörmun-þrjótr, m. the Great Evil One, of a giant, Haustl.

jörmunr, m. a name of Odin, Edda (Gl.): name of an ox, id.

jöstr, m., gen. jastar, [ister, Ivar Aasen], a kind of willow, Bragi (Edda) twice.

Jösurr, m. a pr. name, Hdl.; perhaps derived from Norse jase = a hare, Ivar Aasen.

jötun-bygðr, part. peopled by giants, Ýt.

Jötun-heimar, m. pl. Giants’-land, Edda, Haustl., Vsp., Stor., Sæm. 70.

jötun-kuml, n. the giant-badge, the stamp of the giant, Fas. iii. (in a verse).

jötun-móðr, m. giant’s mood, giant’s fury, a kind of berserksgangr, Vsp. 50; færask í jötunmóð, Edda 136, Fms. iii. 194.; opp. to Ás-móðr.

JÖTUNN, m., dat. jötni, pl. jötnar; [this word, so popular in Icel. and still preserved in the form jutel of the Norse legends, hardly occurs in Germ. or Saxon, except that A. S. eoten, ent, and entisc occur perhaps ten or a dozen times, see Grein]:—a giant, Vþm. passim, Vsp. 2; jötuns brúðr, a giant’s bride, Hdl. 4; jötna synir, the giants’ sons, opp. to ‘sons of men,’ Vþm. 16; jötna vegir, the giants’ ways, the mountains, Hm. 106; jötna rúnar, the giants’ mysteries, the mysteries of the world, Vþm. 42, 43; jötna garðar, the giants’ yard or home, Skm. 30; jötna mjöðr, the giant’s mead, poetry, see Edda 47, 48; jötuns hauss, the giant’s skull = the heaven (cp. Vþm. 21), Arnór; jötuns und, the giants’ wound = the sea, Stor. 2; gold is called the speech of giants (orð, munntal jötna), Lex. Poët.; Thor is the bane of giants, jötna-bani, -dólgr, Lex. Poët. For the genesis of the Jötnar see Edda. Famous giants of whom the Edda records tales were, Ýmir, Hýmir, Hrungnir, Þjazi, Örvandill, Gýmir, Skrýmir, Vafþrúðnir, Dofri, see Edda (Gl.): for appearances of giants in the Sagas see Nj. ch. 134, Hkr. i. 229, Landn. 84, Fb. i. ch. 453–455.

jötun-uxi, a, m. ‘giant-ox,’ a kind of beetle, scarabaeus; medic. a cancer; hann fékk mein í fótinn, var þat kallað j. eðr átumein, Bs. ii. 269.

По всем вопросам пишите в раздел форума Valhalla: Эпоха викингов