O

obbeldi = ofbeldi, Thom. 405.

obláta or oblát, f. [Lat. word], a sacramental wafer, oblát, acc., 625. 192; oblátu buðkr, Vm. 6.

odd-hagr, adj. skilled in wood-carving, Bs. i. 143, Fas. i. 292.

odd-hending, f. a metrical term, when the first rhyming syllable stands at the head of a verse; thus in haf-löður skeflir the syllable ‘haf’ is an oddhending, Edda (Ht.) 121: in mod. usage, in Ballads (Rímur), it means two rhyming syllables in the first, and one in the second line, three being an odd number of rhyme syllables—thus, sveipaðr mundd | á silki hrund | sat eg undir kvendi is an oddhending.

odd-hendr, adj. written in the metre oddhending, Edda 139.

odd-hvass, adj. sharp-pointed, Bs. ii. 172.

oddi, a, m. a triangle, a point or tongue of land, Landn. 294, v. l.; vaxinn með þremr oddum, Fms. x. 272. II. metaph. from the triangle, an odd number, opp. to even; ein er bæn, eða þrjár, fimm, eða sjau, því er bæna tal í odda, en eigi í jafna tölu, at sú tala er í odda er, merkir eining, ok má eigi deila í tvá hluti jafna, 625. 187: hence the metaph. phrase, standask í odda, to be at odds (Shakesp.), quarrelling; stóðsk allt í odda með þeim Þormóði ok Gesti, Fb. ii. 204 (skarsk í odda, Fbr. 81 new Ed. less correct); hefir nú ok í odda staðizk með oss um hríð, Ísl. ii. 180. III. freq. in local names, of a tongue of land; Oddi, Odda-staðr, whence Odda-verjar, m. pl. the men from Oddi:—as a pr. name, Oddi, Stjörnu-Oddi = star-Oddi, Oddi the astronomer, an Icelander of the 12th century skilled in astronomy, from whom proceeded the computation called Odda-tal, n. the calculus of Oddi, Rb. 6. COMPDS: odda-maðr, m. [Dan. op-mand, qs. ‘odd-mand’]:—the third man, who gives the casting vote, the odd man (third, fifth …): as in the saying, oddamaðr er opt inn þriði, | jafntrúr skal sá beggja liði, Mkv.; hvart sem tveir megu eða fleiri göra sátt, enda verða þeir eigi ásáttir, þá er rétt at þeir taki sér oddamann, Grág. i. 485; þeir skyldi sjálfir semja sættir sínar, en Rafn vera oddamaðr, ef þá skildi á Sturl. iii. 179. odda-tala, u, f. an odd number.

ODDR, m. [A. S. ord; Germ. ort = ‘point’ of land, spot, place, but in early Germ. = Lat. cuspis; Dan.-Swed. od, odd]:—a point of a weapon Am. 59, Karl. 506, K. Þ. K. 96, and in countless instances, knífs-oddr, nálar-o., als-o., spjóts-o. (but blóðrefill of a sword): the allit. phrase, oddr ok egg, Hom. 33; með oddi ok eggju, with point and edge, at the sword’s point, by force, Nj. 149, Grág. ii. 13; ætla ek at sækja oddi ok eggju frændleifð mína, Ó. H. 32; brjóta odd af oflæti sínu, to break the point of one’s pride, to humble oneself, Nj. 94: poët. a point, spear, fölvar oddar, Hkv. 1. 52; seðja ara oddum, 2. 7; oddar görva jarli megin, see jarl. 2. a spur, which in olden times had a single point, see Worsaae, No. 356. II. metaph. the front; hann hafði yxnum skipat í odd á liði sínu, Fms. x. 404. 2. a leader; hann var oddr ok æsir fyrir þessum úfriði, Fms. viii. 57, v. l. III. a pr. name, Oddr as well as Oddi: in compds, of men, Odd-björn, Odd-geirr, Odd-leifr, Odd-marr; of women, Odd-björg, Odd-fríðr, Odd-katla, Odd-laug, Odd-leif, Odd-ný, and in the latter part Þór-oddr, Arn-oddr, Landn.

odd-viti, a, m. a leader, chief, who marches ahead, Hkv. Hjörv. 10, Hkv. 2. 10, Ó. H. 61, 214, Niðrst. 108.

OF, prep. with dat. and acc., the form varies; umb is an obsolete and rare form, hence um, sounded umm, which is far the most common form in old writers, and has altogether superseded both umb and of: [the ‘of’ answers nearest to Ulf. uf; O. H. G. oba; Germ. ob; Gr. ὑπό; Lat. sub; Sansk. upa.] Most of the oldest vellums, as also the poets, prefer to use ‘of,’ yet not all, for the Cod. Reg. of Sæm. Edda in nine cases out of ten writes um, so also did the Cod. Acad. primus (the Kringla) of the Hkr.; and this is important, for these two vellums are our chief sources for old poetry; on the other hand, the Cod. Reg. of the Snorra Edda prefers ‘of.’ Among other vellums the old fragment of the Orkn. S. (Arna-Magn. No. 325) mostly uses ‘of’ as of nóttina, Orkn. 110; of hans daga, 178; of Jól, 180; of daga þeirra bræðra, 182; but also ‘um’ e. g. ofan um sik, ofan um hann, id. The word will be given in full under letter U, so that a few references may suffice here: I. in the sense over, Lat. super, with dat. and acc., α. jörð grær of ágætum barma, Eg. (in a verse); brann of fylki, Ýt.; of svírum, Hornklofi; dík flæði of líkum, Fms. xi. 191; sjár þýtr of árum, vi. (in a verse); of bý breiðum, Lex. Poët. β. with acc., of nýt regin, Vþm. 13; of dróttmögu, 11; of liðu, Sdm. 9; of sumar, Vsp. 40; of garð risa, Gs.; of lopt ok lög, Hkv.; úlfr gengr of ýnglings börn, Eg. (in a verse); vestr fór ek of ver, Höfuðl. 1; liggja of ungan Mörukára, Fms. vi. (in a verse). II. in a causal sense = Lat. ob; of sanna sök, for a just sake, justly, Fms. ii. 322 (in a verse); of minna, for a less cause, Glúm, (in a verse); of litla sök, Lex. Poët.; of sannar deildir, id.; of minni sorgir, Korm. (in a verse).

OF and um, an enclytic particle, chiefly placed before verbs or participles, seldom before nouns; it is obsolete, and occurs only in old poetry and now and then in the oldest prose; the spelling varies, for here too the Cod. Reg. of Sæm. Edda, as also the Kringla, mostly prefer um, so as to take examples from the poem Hm., um skoðask, um skygnask, 1; um getr, 8; um á (owns), 9; þylsk hann um, um getr, 17; um farit, 18; síns um máls, 21; um gelr, 29; um þörf, 38; um getr, 58, 65; um dvelr, 59; um viðrir, 74; um lagit, 84; um vakin, 100; um komin, um sofin, 101; um kominn, 104; um gaf, 105; um geta, 123; um heilli, 129; um reist, 145; um stendr, 154; um kann, 163: of gat, 140; of alinn, 72; of kom, 145; of vitaðr, 100; of blótið, 145: vf, vf boðit, 67; vf heimtir, 14: thus in this single poem ‘um’ occurs about twenty-four times, ‘of’ five times, and ‘vf’ twice: for the other poems see Bugge’s Edition: on the other hand, of traddi, Gh. 2; of þrumir, Gm. 8; of hyggi, 34; at ek öllum öl yðr of heita, Hým. 3; of geta, 4; of teknir, 14; of heitt, 32:—in prose, ef maðr má eigi of koma, Grág. ii. 209; of förlar, Kb. 14; of telrat, 178; er héðan of sér, Ísl. (Heiðarv. S.) ii. 387; en ér of sét eigi ljós, but you see not the light, 645. 81; at eigi of sá á miðli, Íb. 11; má of rannsaka, 677. 6; þó at báðum of göri, 2; ok af því of eykr eigi atkvæði, Skálda (Thorodd) 165; sem menn of bera megu, Hom. (St.); at hann megi jafnfúss of vera, id., and passim in that old vellum, see Fritzner’s Dict. s. v.; ef því um náir, Grág. (Kb.) 209; ef þeir um sitja, 74; um ves, 76; um taki, 89; um göra (twice), 109; um telrat, 194; urn býðr, 230; um komi, 234; ef sól um sæi, if the sun was to be seen, ch. 29. II. seldom before nouns; síns um máls, Hm. (see above); um þörf, 38; as hans of dólgr, Skv.; Baldrs of barmi, Haustl.; öll of rök, Alm. 9; of sköpt, kinsmen, Edda (Gl.), Lex. Poët.; of tregi, Gkv. 1. 3 (thus Bugge in two words); Þórs of rúni, Haustl.; of kúgi, an oppressor, Fms. vii. (in a verse); with adjectives, of reiðr, Skm.: it remains in some old sayings or phrases, án er íllt um gengi; um seinan, Nj. 91.

OF, adv. [this particle is closely akin to the prep. of; the extended form ofr- (q. v.) is mostly used in compds, not singly, and answers to Gr. ὑπέρ, Lat. super, Engl. above]: 1. as subst. excess, pride, conceit; því at hón verðr eigi svá mikil, at þar muni of þitt allt í liggja, Ld. 318; við of, to excess, Ísl. ii. 154; þótti hirðmönnum hans við of, hversu mikit, they thought it was beyond measure, Vígl. 17; um of, to excess: the phrase, of sem van, too much or too little; það er of sem van. 2. with gen., of fjár, immensity of wealth, Nj. 9, 27, Eg. 68, Ó. H. 198; of liðs, a vast host of men, Hkr. ii. 265; of manna, Fms. vi. 146.

B. Adv. too, Lat. nimis, and may be used with any adjective; when with adjectives it is better written separately, of gamall, too old; of ungr, too young, Ld. 262; of langr, of stuttr, Art. 96; of stórr, of lítill, Eg. 50; of harðr, of linr, of góðr, of vándr, of kaldr, of heitr, of magr, of feitr, of digr, of breiðr, of mjór, of hár, of lágr, of víðr, of þröngr, of margr, of fár, of mart, Njarð. 372; of þögull, of heimskr, of máligr, Art. 30, 82. 2. with adverbs; of mjök, too much, Eg. 226, Ísl. ii. 391; of fjarri, Fms. ii. 181; of lengi, too long, x. 379; of seint, too late. Art. 96; of snemma, of árla, too early; cp. um of viða, of sjaldan, of opt, etc. II. with the neut. of a past part., overmuch, too much, with the notion of having overdone or sometimes wishing not to have done it; hafa of drukkit, to have drunk too much, Gm. 51; hafa of aukit, Eg. 202, Hkr. ii. 209; hafa of gefit, to have given more than one likes, Ld. 318; hafa of gört, to have transgressed, Nj. 221, Fms. xi. 333; eigi of hefnt, Grett. 124; hafa of keypt, bought too dear, Jb. 372; hafa of mælt, Fms. i. 163; þykjast hafa of talað, wish one had not said it; sé mér þetta of mælt, Mar.; hafa of tekið við e-n, to have gone too far, Fms. viii. 258; hafa of seinat, too late, Ld. 144, Fas. i. 196; um seinat, Fms. viii. 162:—‘of’ is opp. to ‘van-,’ too much, too little, hafa van-dæmt, of-dæmt, of-mælt, Gþl. 378; van-refst of-refst, 272; of-talt van-talt, 477; of-alnir, van-alnir, Grág. i. 455. III. rarely with verbs; of-tala, to talk too much.

ofa, u, f. overbearing (= of 1); frétt hefir öld ofu þá, (pride, pomp?), Am. 1; létt sésk Atli ofu þína, A. little heeds thy overbearing, Skv. 3. 31.

ofa-, in compds, = of, vastness: ofa-fé, mikit ofafé, a vast amount of money, Fær. 11; ofafé mikit, Fms. vii. 232: ofa-mikill, adj.; ofamikit fé, Hkr. i. 182, 284; ofamikit herfang, Orkn. 378.

of-allt or of-vallt, adv. always, Orkn. 90, etc.; see ávalt or ávallt.

ofan, adv., the mod. Faroe dialect has oman, [Goth. obana; A. S. ofan; Germ. oben]:—from above, down, downwards.; falla ofan, to fall down, 623. 24, Eg. 240: taka ofan hús, to pull down, 100; fóru ofan þangat, Nj. 68; hann klauf ofan allan skjöldinn … reist ofan allan fótum, from top to bottom, 246; hann hjó frá ofan höndina, separated, cut off the hand, 160: metaph., telja e-t ofan, to ‘talk down,’ dissuade, Fms. xi. 11; taka ofan, to uncover the head. II. with prepp. denoting motion from above; ofan af landi, Eg. 32; ofan af himnum, down from heaven; ofan til skipa, 244; ofan eptir dal, ofan eptir eyrum; hann féll ofan fyrir klettinn, he fell down over the rock, Fær. 31; ofan fyrir bjargið, ganga ofan í fen, to sink, plunge into the fen, Nj. 21; veit þá heldr fyrir ofan, it sloped downwards, Fær. 40.; detta ofan í, to sink down into the mire, of cattle; þeir riðu ofan í Skaptártungu, Nj. 261; ofan í fjöru, ofan í dalinn, ofan í gröfina, etc.; ofan á herðar, mitt læri, ofan á belti, 2; ór himni ofan, down from heaven, Clem. 21; ofan frá merkjá, Eg. 100; hann lét (the garment) falla ofan um sik … sem klæðit hrundi ofan um hann, Orkn. 182; ofan um ís, down through the ice. 2. without motion; ofan á, upon, Lat. super; stendr hann þar á ofan, Ó. H. 108; liggja ofan á, leggjask ofan á, setja, láta ofan á e-t, etc.; ríða ofan á milli, to sit between the packs of a pack-horse; leggja ofan yfir, to cover over, Fas. i. 377. III. the uppermost part; viðr ofan, large at the top, Fær. 29. IV. adverbial, á ofan, over and above, to boot, into the bargain, Grett. 94, Fms. ii. 42: á þat ofan, Bs. i. 71; fyrir þat ofan, besides, Grág. i. 428: fyrir ofan, with acc.; fyrir ofan hús, Nj. 199; fyrir ofan kné, 28; fyrir ofan sjó, Fms. iv. 354; steinveggr var fyrir ofan, above, higher up, Orkn. 310; fyrir ofan ok neðan. V. with gen. above the surface of; ofan jarðar, above earth, alive; ofan sjóar, afloat.

ofan-fall, n. a downfall, Fms. ii. 276. Fbr. 88: a down-pour, of rain, Sturl. i. 163, Ann. 1391, Fas. i. 64, Karl. 527.

ofan-för, f. a descending, Ísl. ii. 339.

ofan-ganga, u, f. a descent, Sturl. i. 180, Eb. 218, Eg. 229, Stj. 365.

ofan-högg, n. a cutting down, Pr. 414.

ofan-í-gjöf, f. payment into the bargain:—rebuke.

ofan-reið, f. a riding downwards, Sturl. iii. 245.

ofan-verðr, adj., opp. to neðanverðr (q. v.), the upper, uppermost; í ofanvert bjargit, Hkr. i. 290; komnir í ofanvert riðit, Fms. ii. 5; skegg á ofanverðu barðinu, 310; breiðr at ofanverðu, Ísl. ii. 345; á ofanverðu fjalli, Str. 54; á ofanverðri Heiðmörk, Fb. ii. 292; frá öndverðu til ofanverðs, from top to bottom, Hom. 118; frá ofanverðu allr prjónaðr, John xix. 23. 2. temp. in the later part of a period, opp. to öndverðr; ofanverða nótt, towards the end of the night, late in the night, Fms. iv. 54, Gullþ. 27; öndurða … ofanverða æfi sína, Ver. 25, Rb. 410; á ofanverðum dögum Haralds, Fh. ii. 182, Gísl. 3.

ofarla, adv. = ofarliga, in a temp. sense, towards the end of a certain length of time; á hans dögum ofarla, 623. 11, Fms. iv. 24, xi. 201; o. á Langa-föstu, v. 168:—metaph., the phrase, bíta e-m ofarla, to bite sharply, Hm. 119.

ofar-liga, adv. high up, in the upper part, opp. to neðarliga, q. v.; o. í dalnum, o. í skálanum, o. á fjöllum, Grett. 111, Fms. v. 197, K. Á. 70, N. G. L. i. 14. 2. metaph., þeim mun í brún bregða ok ofarliga klæja, their upper part will itch, i. e. in the vital parts of their body, = sorely, Nj. 239, cp. Hm. 119; at faðir þinn tæki o. til launanna, thy father was made to smart for it, Ölk. 37; o. mun liggja újafnaðr í þér, of bare-faced impudence, Grett. 134. 3. temp., ofarliga á Jólum, Fms. vii. 272; ofarliga á hans dögum, Orkn. 136; o. á æfi Sigurðar konungs, Fms. vii. 162.

ofarr, adv., compar. answering to of, upp, yfir, opp. to neðarr, q. v.; superl. ofarst, but better efst, q. v.:—above, higher up; sumir ofarr sumir neðarr, Hkr. i. 71; annat augat mun ofarr en annat, Fms. vi. 206; ofarr á legsteininum, Al. 65; ofarr í ánni, Edda 75; o. en nú gangi flóð, Grág. ii. 354; draga segl ofarr, Hkv. 1. 29. 2. temp. later, more advanced in time; því meirr er ofarr var, Bs. i. 137. 3. metaph., hættú, hættú! ok lát eigi ofarr koma þessa fólsku, stop, stop! and let not this nonsense go farther, Bs. i. 810. 4. with a compar., ofar meir, ‘upper-more,’ higher up, Fms. ix. 406: temp. later, 499; sem ofar meirr (below, in a book) mun heyrask mega, Stj. 13; sem ofar meirr mun sagt vera, 44. II. superl. ofarst, uppermost, = efst (q. v.), Edda 2, Fms. vii. 64, N. G. L. i. 59, Hkr. i. 146, Grág. ii. 402.

of-át, n. (afát, Hom. 31, 53, 71), over-eating, gluttony, Skálda 208, Greg. 25, Barl. 42.

of-beldi, proncd. obbeldi, n. [qs. ofveldi], violence, overbearing, Fms. i. 221, vii. 20, Al. 10, N. G. L. i. 458, H. E. i. 470. COMPDS: ofbeldis-fullr, adj. overbearing, Stj. 8. ofbeldis-maðr, m. an overbearing man, Stj. 85.

of-bjóða, bauð, only impers. mér ofbýðr, it amazes, shocks, me.

of-bleyði, f. cowardice, Sks. 75.

of-boð, n. a shock, terror; í ofboði, in amazement:—ofboðs, adv. shockingly, very, ofboðs-legr, adj. shocking.

of-bræði, f. passion, impatience, Hom. 85.

of-dan, n. too much honour; það er o. fyrir mig, (conversational.)

of-deildir, f. pl. quarrelsomeness, Hom. 85.

of-dirfð, f. foolhardiness, K. Á. 232, Fms. iii. 68, vii. 18, 161, H. E. i. 504, Str. 50. ofdirfðar-fullr, adj. foolhardy, H. E. i. 473.

of-dirfska, u. f. = ofdirfð, passim in mod. usage.

of-dramb, n. arrogance, conceit, Edda 7, Ó. H. 88, Sks. 462. ofdrambs-fullr, adj. conceited, Fms. v. 217, Hom. 123.

of-drykkja, u, f. (af-drykkja, Hom. 31, 53), indulgence in drink, Fms. viii. 251, ix. 424, Barl. 42, Gþl. 276, Skálda 208. ofdrykkju-maðr, m. a drunkard, 623. 15, Fms. viii. 252, Barl. 137.

of-dul, f. great conceit, Finnb. 300.

of-dyri, n. (umdyri, Hom. 82 thrice), the ‘over-door,’ the lintel, Ver. 21, Stj. 279, Gþl. 345.

of-dælska, u, f. pertness, Sks. 519, v. l.

of-fari adj. having gone too far, doing wrong; verða offari, Fms. iii. 21, viii. 237, xi. 436, Bs. i. 296, 837.

of-fita, u, f. too much stoutness.

of-fors, n. insolence, Grett. 110 A, Fms. v. 181. offors-fullr, adj. insolent, Grett. 70 new Ed.

OFFR, n., also spelt ofr, [Lat. offertum; Germ. opfer], an offering, Fms. ix. 277, Sks. 699, 781, Hkr. iii. 66, Bs. i. 820, Anecd. 8; fórnir ok heilög offr, id.; einskis þeirra offr skal taka til heilags altaris, K. Á. 208; til prests offrs, 102; prestinum til offrs, Vm. 118; at hann hefði sukkat gózi ok offri hins heilaga Ólafs konungs, þá hann hafði með at taka offrinu, Bs. i. 820.

offra, að, [Germ. opfern; Engl. offer], to make an offering, sacrifice; offra e-m e-t, Mar.: o. sik Guði, K. Á. 58. 2. to make a gift, to present, in an eccl. sense, Al. 17: with dat. of the thing, hann offraði miklu fé til grafar Dróttins, Fms. vii. 92; offraði frú Kristín borðkeri miklu, x. 87; hann lét göra kirkju ok offraði þar til gullhring, 153; þeir vóru leiddir til altaris at offra, ix. 277: reflex., H. E. i. 405.

of-framsækni, f. intruding oneself, Sks. 295.

offran, f. an offering, Stj. 109.

of-freistni, f. over-temptation, Barl. 158.

offrend, f. an offering, Hom. 113, Str. 80.

of-fylli, f. surfeit, Al. 153, Hom. 31: medic. dropsy.

of-gangr, m. ‘over-going’ excess, Fms. iii. 39; ganga ofgöngum, Gísl, 79, N. G. L. i. 169; ganga ofgangi, Fms. vii. 269: o. sjóvar, Barl. 19; elds o., D. N. ii. 95; o. frosts ok jökla, Sks. 12 new Ed.

of-gangsi, adj. over-prevailing, Sks. 339.

of-geigr, m. a great shock, Hom. (St.)

of-geytlan, f. bragging, Hom. 85.

of-gjafir, f. pl. paying into the bargain, Nj. 18, v. l.

of-glæpr, m. a crime, Art. 20.

of-gæði, n. pl. great advantages, Hkr. iii. 285.

of-göngli, f. prevalence, Sks. 339, v. l.

of-harmr, m. affliction, Fms. iii. 166.

of-heyrn, f., medic. a tingling in the head, Fél. x.

of-hiti, a, m. excessive heat, Hom. 87.

of-hlaða, hlóð, to overload: of-hleðsla, u, f. overloading,

of-hlátr, m. immoderate laughter, Hom. 85.

of-hlýr, m. a calm, poët., Alm. 23.

of-hyldgan, f. ‘over-flesh,’ proud flesh, of a wound, Fél. x.

of-inndæli, f. over-comfort, easy life, Hom. 86.

of-jarl, m. an ‘over-earl,’ an over-match; verða mér sumir ofjarlar hér í héraðinu, Valla L. 206; Jóab, er mér verðr ofjarl fyrir stórleika sakir, Stj. 537: in a play of words, Einarr þambar-skelfir sá þetta ok mælti, ofjarl, ofjarl, fóstri!—Kann ek ekki við því, at yðr þykki sumt ofjarl en sum ekki at manna, Fms. vi. 53.

of-kapp, n. stubbornness, Gþl. 199, Bret. 38, Sturl. ii. 15, Finnb. 332.

of-kátr, adj. exulting, Fms. vi. 110, vii. 23, Fagrsk. 128.

of-kerski, f. petulance, Nj. 129, Fms. ix. 404, v. l.

of-kvæni, n. uxoriousness, Fms. iv. 21.

of-kæti, f. wantonness, Fms. ix. 352, 404, 445, Hom. 86.

oflát, f. = obláta, q. v.

of-láti, a, m. a gaudy person, Landn. 273, Ld. 20, Nj. 142, Sturl. i. 19, Fms. ii. 6, Gísl. 14.

of-látinn, part. much lamented, Sighvat.

of-látligr, adj. showy, Sturl. iii. 156, Fbr. 56.

of-látungr, m. = ofláti.

of-leyfingr, m. a person made too much of, Grett. 121 A.

of-léttleikr, m. alertness, Sks. 19.

of-léttliga, adv. willingly, promptly, Ld. 182, Fms. iii. 91.

of-léttr, adj. prompt, easy, ready, Fms. ii. 99; o. til góðra verka, Hom. (St.); skulu vér nú vera þér auðveldir ok ofléttir til allra hluta er þú vilt at vér görim, Stj., Fms. iv. 134 (spelt afléttr).

of-lið, n. an overwhelming force; vera ofliði borinn, Nj. 180; ef menn bera þá ofliði, ok láta þá eigi ganga til dóms, Grág. i. 111. 2. over-zeal; því þér hafit mér veitt fullt lið, ef eigi oflið, Fms. vii. 143.

of-ljóst, n. adj. a metrical term, a pun, equivocation in poetry; þessi orðtök hafa menn til at yrkja fólgit, ok er þat kallat ofljóst, Edda 110, Skálda 183, 189.

of-ljótr, adj. very hideous. Hým. 23.

of-lægja, ð, to humble. Post. 209.

of-læti, n. self-assumption, Hom. 152.

of-löskr, adj. very slovenly, Lex. Poët.

of-maðr, m. = ofjarl; vera e-m o., Orkn. 426.

of-magn, n. = oflið; in bera e-n ofmagni, to overpower, Fas. iii. 175.

of-megri, f. starvation, N. G. L. i. 25, Gþl. 502.

of-metnaðr, m. over-pride, over-assumption, Nj. 17, Ó. H. 69, Sks. 461, Stj. 8, 144, 145, Hom. 86, 107, Ver. 10, Greg., Mar., Bs., passim in old and mod. usage. COMPDS: ofmetnaðar-fullr, adj. full of pride, 625. 90. ofmetnaðar-maðr, m. an over-proud man, Vígl. 17, MS. 677. 11, Stj. 36. ofmetnaðar-samr, adj. arrogant, Bs. i. 854.

of-metnask, að, to pride oneself, Karl. 197.

of-mikill, adj. ‘over-muckle,’ excessive, Gm. 21.

of-munuð, f. sensuality, Hom. (St.)

of-mælgi, f. loquacity, Stj. 155.

OFN, m., spelt omn, Blas. 46; an older form ogn, Boldt 48, answering to Goth. and Swed.: [Ulf. auhns = κλίβανος; Engl. oven; Swed. ugn; Dan. ovn, kakkel-ovn; Germ. ofen; cp. Gr. ἴπν-ος]:—an oven, furnace, esp. in Norway, where there are no hot springs for bathing, Rb. 386, Ver. 29, Stj. 273, Fms. vii. 245, Bs. i. 223, Eb. 47 new Ed.; stein-ofn, a furnace of bricks (?), referring to the year 1316, Bs. i. 830, where the passage may refer to warming the apartments. 2. an oven for baking; gékk hón til nauðig ok bakaði í ofninum, Hom. 113; in olden times, as at the present day, baking and dairy work were in the women’s charge. COMPDS: ofns-eldr, m. an oven-fire, Stj. 112. ofn-grjót, n. pl. oven-stones, bricks (?), Fms. vii. 323, viii. 166 (referring to the latter part of the 12th century). ofn-reykr, m. smoke from an oven, Stj. 124. ofn-stofa, u, f. an ‘oven-closet,’ close stove, bath-room, Fms. vi. 440, where it is stated that king Olave the Quiet (1066–1093) was the first who introduced ovens or stoves (ofn-stofa) into the hall instead of the old open fires, see eldr (II); these stoves served for bathing and for heating the rooms; hann lét ok fyrst göra ofnstofur ok steingólf vetr sem sumar. The account of the death of the Berserkers in Eb. ch. 28, referring to the 10th century, may therefore be an anachronism and not an historical fact, for it is reported as extraordinary for Iceland that a bishop of Hólar (a Norseman) in the year 1316 built a ‘stone-oven’ (brick-oven) in his house, Laur. S. l. c.

of-neyzla, u, f. intemperance, Stj. 143, H. E. i. 519, Jb. 404.

ofnir, m. the name of a serpent, Gm., Edda (Gl.)

of-prúðleikr, m. great pomp, Str. 82.

of-prúðliga, adv. with great pomp, Str. 81.

of-prýði, f. pomp, show, Hom. 85.

OFR, adv. [cp. Goth. ufar; Engl. over; O. H. G. upar; Germ. über; Lat. super; Gr. ὑπέρ]:—over-greatly, exceedingly: with gen. but rarely, ofr fjár is perh. only a misprint for of fjár, Lv. 103 (paper MS.); otherwise as a prefix chiefly to substantives and adjectives. COMPDS: ofr-afl, n. = ofrefli, Grág. ii. 192. ofr-ást, f. passionate love, Fms. vii. 357. ofr-borð, n. overboard; in the metaph. phrase, detta fyrir ofrborð, to fall overboard, lose heart and courage. ofr-dýrr, adj. over-dear, Þórð. 65. ofr-efli, n. overwhelming force, odds, Eg. 351, Fms. i. 199, viii. 90, Ísl. ii. 363: beyond one’s strength, Oddr kvað sér þat ekki ofrefli Korm. 38, Eb. 112, Fms. i. 203; með ofrefli, Al. 134: excess, immensity o. frosts, Sks. 36 new Ed.; mikit o. gulls, Mar.: gen., ofreflis fjöldi, immensity, Stj. 95. ofreflis-menn, m. pl. powerful men, bearing all down, Nj. 75, Eg. 425, 520. ofr-fjöldi, a, m. an immense host, Karl. 506. ofr-gangr, m. = ofgangr, Sks. 18, 33 new Ed. ofr-garpr, m. an overdaring man, Grett. 156 new Ed. ofr-gjöld, n. pl. fearful, dire retribution, Skv. 2. 4. ofr-harmr, m. an overwhelming sorrow, Fb. i. 512, Fas. i. 181. ofr-hefnd, f. a fearful vengeance. Am. 72. ofr-hiti, a, m. an overwhelming heat, Hrafn. 15, Mar. ofr-hugi, a, m. a fearless, daring man, Nj. 220, Fms. i. 155, ii. 66, vi. 324, Fs. 54, Korm. 90: = ofrhugr, ákefð ok o., Fms. ii. 319. ofr-hugr, m. dauntless courage, Edda (pref.) ofr-kapp, n. fierceness, stubbornness, Ld. 178, Sturl. i. 45, Fms. vi. 146, 417, Eb. 98, Fb. ii. 51. ofrkapps-maðr, m. a fierce, stubborn man, Fs. 52, Glúm. 373, Ísl. ii. 369, Fas. i. 119. ofr-kuldi, a, m. excessive cold, Sks. 87. ofr-lengi, adv. very long, Hkr. i. 102. ofr-lið, n. overwhelming force; bera e-n ofrliði, to overpower, Fms. i. 154, Hkr. ii. 371, Barl. 190. ofr-ligr, adj. excessive; ofrligt er um örleik þinn, Skíða R. 26. ofr-máta, adv. beyond measure, Fas. iii. 424. ofr-menni, n. a mighty champion, Eb. 248. ofr-mikill, adj. very great, Sks. 141, Hkr. iii. 65. ofr-mælgi, f. high words, vaunting, Vþm. 10. ofr-mæli, n. big talk, Edda 57. ofr-skjótt, n. adj. very soon, Hkr. ii. 190. ofr-vald, n. = ofrefli. ofr-verkr, m. a violent ache or pain, Bs. ii. 29. ofr-yrða, t, to address in big words, Þiðr. 256. ofr-yrði, n. pl. high words, Edda 57, Karl. 509. ofr-þraut, f. a great trial, Konr. ofr-þungi, a, m. a crushing weight, Bs. ii. 81. ofr-ölvi, adj. the worse for drink, Hm. 13.

ofra, að, to brandish, wave in the air, with dat. of the thing brandished; þegar er Birkibeinar ofruðu vápnum sínum, Fms. viii. 43, Eb. 60; ofra vröngum ægi, to pull the oar backwards, Bragi. 2. to raise; ofra lofi e-s, to put forth one’s praise, Edda (in a verse); þegar er sólu var ofrat, when the sun had risen, Ld. 216; ofra sér, to raise the head, appear, Bs. ii. 80, 132; bið ek at eigi ofrir þú reiði þinni, Stj. 392: acc., ofra sinn hug, Bs. ii. 112. II. reflex., Guðmundr vildi þat eigi heyra né ofrask láta, G. would not let it be known, Sturl. i. 141; þat ráð sem nú var ofrat (put forth, proposed), Sturl. iv. 104, (Bs. i. 770 efnat): to pride oneself, Hom. 49, Bs. ii. 24.

ofra, að, see offra and offr.

ofraðr, m. [Ulf. ufarassus = abundance]: in the phrase, bera e-t á ofroð, to shew up, divulge, Stj. 619. II. gen. ofraðar, adv. exceedingly; ofraðar lengi, for a long time to come, Korm. (in a verse); ofraðar þrekmaðr er sjá, an exceeding strong man is he, Niðrst. 6; ofraðar maðr er sjá, a mighty hero is he, 645. 107; ofraðar rangt, exceeding wrong, 677. 5; ofraðar vel, exceedingly well, Fms. xi. 47; ofraðar synd, pride, presumption, = ofmetnaðr, Mar.

ofran, f. pride, insolence, Bs. ii. 44: savageness, N. G. L. i. 80.

of-raun, f. too great a trial, too strong a test, Nj. 220, Fas. ii. 465.

of-rausn, f. ‘over-boldness,’ presumption, Fms. vii. 290; er öllum þat o., at halda því fyrir mér er konungr vill at ek hafa, ix. 445, v. l.; þann dóm lét hann hvern hafa, sem honum þótti þeir sakir til hafa, hvárt sem hann var ríkr eða fátækr, en þat þótti þeim o., xi. 250; hann lét jafna refsing hafa ríkan ok úríkan, en þat þótti landsmönnum o., Ó. H. 190.

ofrá, adv. = offrá, from, off, Vþm. 7; whence the contr. form áfrá, Fms. x. 395, 404.

of-ráð, n. too great a task, Fms. iv. 29; oss mundi þat ílla sækjask ok o. vera við þá Eyfirðinga, Valla L. 224; Sturla frændi hans segir honum slíkt ofráð, Sturl. ii. 91: too high an aspiration, ekki var þetta vel þokkat af sveitar-mönnum fyrir Þóri, ok þótti honum þetta o. ráð vera, iii. 144: too high a match, Þorsteinn kvað sér þat o., er hón stóð ein til alls arfs eptir Kraka, Þorst. hv. 38.

of-refsan, f. too great severity in punishing, Fb. ii. 316.

of-rembingr, m. arrogance, Bs. i. 634.

of-reyna, d, to put too strong a test, Mar.; ofreyna sik, to overstrain one’s strength.

of-reynsla, u, f. an overstraining.

ofringi, a, m. a rambler, Grág. i. 192; see lands-ofringi.

of-ríki, n. overbearing, sheer force, tyranny; at þeir þerði eigi heim at ganga fyrir o. búandans, K. Þ. K.; ofvald eðr o., Stj. 154, Boll. 336; afli ok o., Fms. i. 34; o. ok újafnaðr, viii. 84; bera e-n ofríki, N. G. L. ii. 150. ofríkis-maðr, m. an overbearing man, Gþl. 488.

ofsa, að, to overdo, do to excess; hinum bótum er þeir ofsa eðr vansa er í dómum sitja, N. G. L. i. 184; opt eru íll vitni ofsuð fyrir skaps sakir, 247:—ofsa sik, to puff oneself up, be haughty, arrogant; ef þú ofsar þik eigi þér til vansa, Hrafn. 29. II. reflex. to grow unruly; Jupiter þótti fólkit ofsask, Bret. 6; opt verðr ofsat til vansa, a saying = pride goes before a fall, Al. 138. 2. hence mod. afsast, dep. to rave, rage.

of-saka, að, = á-saka, to accuse, Hom. 155.

of-senna, u, f. a quarrel, row, Hom. 85.

ofsi, a, m. overbearing, tyranny; fyrir o. Haralds konungs, Fs. 123; biskup kvaðsk vænta at menn munu þessum ofsa af sér hrinda, Fb. iii. 450; ofsi ok löglausa, Ó. H. 238, Eb. 116; ofsa ok yfirgang, Fms. vi. 26; ofsi ok újafnaðr, Eg. 8; ofsa ok údáðir, Fms. i. 208; at eigi mætti ofsi steypa lögunum, Hkr. i. 72; at sjatna mundi þeirra o., Ísl. ii. 386: extravagance, meir með ofsa en fyrirhyggju, Ld. 186; Þorsteini þótti nokkut svá vita ofsa þarvist þeirra ok eigi með fullri forsjá, Fs. 13; til ofsa ok frásagnar, Gþl. 275. II. gen. prefixed, excessively; ofsa hörð veðr, vehement gales, Bs. i. 893; ofsa kláði, a sore itch. Fél. x; ofsa þrútuligr, Hkr. 642 new Ed. COMPDS: ofsa-legr, adj. excessive. ofsa-maðr, m. an overbearing, violent man, Eg. 174, Nj. 89, Fms. vi. 155, vii. 113. ofsa-veðr, n. a violent gale.

of-sinka, u, f. over-stinginess, Hom. 85.

of-sinni, a, m. a follower; allir inir æztu Aðils ofsinnar, Bm.; Sathan og hans ofsinnum, Vídal. ii. 25.

of-sjónir, f. pl.; in the phrase, sjá ofsjónum yfir e-u, to look down upon, despise; brott ætlar hann ok görir hann þat ílla … þurfti hann ekki ofsjónum yfir þessu landi at sjá, Sturl. i. 225; ef hann hefði eigi séð ofsjónum yfir mannlegu eðli, Al. 160:—in mod. usage, to grudge one a thing. 2. mod. the seeing of phantoms.

ofskaps-maðr, read ofrkappsmaðr, Bjarn. 34.

of-skemtan, f. over-pleasure, Fms. ii. 271.

of-skvaldr, n. over-swaggering, great noise, Fms. vi. 287.

of-skynja, adj. overlooking, looking down upon; þeir þykkjask sér ærnir, en mér nokkut o., Fms. v. 226; sýnisk mér sem flestir menn sé honum o. vestr þar. Sturl. iii. 168.

of-sköpun, f., medic. monstrosity, Fél. x.

of-snjár, m. vast masses of snow, N. G. L. i. 392.

of-sókn, f. persecution, Fær. 134, Fms. i. 224, Stj. 497, Ver. 29, Th. 79, Bs. ii. 142, passim.

of-stark, n. ‘over-strength,’ showiness, pride, Str. 82 (twice).

of-stopi, a, m. overbearing, arrogance, insolence; fara með ofstopa, Nj. 222; vildi Guð nú enda láta á verða þeirra ofstopa, Fms. vii. 18, Hom. 76; ofmetnaðr ok o., Rb. 394. ofstopa-maðr, m. an overbearing man, Eb. 14, Fms. i. 6, vii. 238, Nj. 215, Orkn. 8; íllt er at eggja ofstopa-mennina, Fb. i. 522.

of-stríðleikr, m. over-strength, violence, Sks. 156.

of-styrmi, n. = ofviðri, Fr.

of-stýri, n. an ‘over-steering,’ unmanageable thing; ætla ek at þú verðir oss skjótt ofstýri, Fas. i. 365 (Skjöld. S.); yðr mun o. verða at leggja mik við velli, Boll. 344: hence the mod. ó-stýrilátr, unruly, qs. ofstýrilátr.

of-stæki, n. ferocity, Ld. 252; grunar mik at ei komir þú því við fyrir þeirra o., Ísl. ii. 347, Mag. 164; ofstækis-maðr, a fierce man, Mag.

of-stækr, adj. hot, fierce, vehement.

of-stærð, f. = ofstæri, Thom. 411.

of-stæri, n. [stórr], pride, haughtiness, Thom. 182.

of-stöður, f. pl. priapismus, Fél. x.

of-svefni, n. over-sleep, lethargy, N. G. L. ii. 418 (v. l.), Bb. 3. 81.

of-svæsi, n. temerity. H. E. i. 261, N. G. L. i. 458.

of-svæsinn, adj. in over-high spirits.

of-sækja, sótti, to persecute, Magn. 482, Stj. 402, 448, 478, passim. ofsækjandi, part. a persecutor, Stj 376.

of-sögn, f. ‘over-saying.’ exaggeration, Fas. i. 25.

of-sögur, f. pl. exaggeration; ekki hefir hann ofsögur frá þér sagt, Fms. vi. 206; hafa eigi o. verit frá sagðar þeirra garpskap ok herði, xi. 151; eigi má ofs gum segja frá vitsmunum þínum, it cannot be too highly praised, Ld. 132, Fas. i. 84, Ísl. ii. 36, Mag. 99, 113.

oft, see opt.

of-tala, u, f. an ‘over-number,’ surplus, N. G. L. i. 182.

of-tekja, u, f. a taking too much, wronging, Bs. i. 115.

of-tign, f. a too great honour, Fas. ii. 489.

of-traust, n. ‘over-trust,’ a too great confidence.

of-treysta, t, to trust too much, Hsm.

of-tæki, n. = ofstæki (?), Njarð. 368 v. l.

of-vald, n. = ofrvald, H. E. ii. 83, Stj. 121, 154, Art. 64.

of-vallt, see ofallt.

of-veðri, n. = ofviðri, Hom. 97, Fas. ii. 78.

of-verkr, m. a violent pain, Bs. i. 343, 456, Stj. 435.

of-viðri, n. a violent gale, Fms. viii. 256. K. Þ. K. 78, Fas. ii. 37.

of-vilnan, f. conceit, presumption, Stj. 144, Hom. (St.)

of-virðing, f. over great an honour, Fms. vi. 17.

of-viti, a, m. an over-wise person = Germ. sonderling, one who behaves in a strange manner; hann er o., a popular phrase.

of-vægi, n. an enormity, an enormous weight.

of-vægilegr, adj. ‘over-weighing,’ overwhelming, immense, Bs. ii. 5.

of-vægr, adj. overwhelming: o. herr, Ó. H. 242.

of-væni, f. ‘over-weening’ spirits, Vikv. 7.

of-þrá, immoderate lust, Hom. 85.

of-þröngva, ð, to force, ravish, Stj. 384.

of-þögli, f. stubborn silence. Art. 30.

of-þögull, adj. over-silent. Art. 30.

of-ætlan, f. an ‘over-task,’ too great a task.

of-öltiliga, adv. = úfelmtliga (?). Sturl. iii. 185 C.

OK, copulative conj.; the mod. form is og, which appears in the 15th century MSS., but the word is usually in the MSS. written thus ⁊. The Runic inscriptions mostly have auk, which diphthongal form has in the conj. been changed into ok, but is retained in the adverbial auk = etiam. As neither the stone in Tune nor the Golden horn happens to have the word, we are in the dark as to its earliest Scandinavian form. The particle ok is characteristic of the Scandinavian languages, as distinguished from the Germ. und, Engl. and; although this is more apparent than real, for the identity of ok with the Goth. copulative particle jah and uh. Hel. jac, has been conclusively demonstrated by Grimm, who also makes out an identity between Goth. uh, standing for hu, and Gr. καί, Lat. -que; the metathesis of uh for hu is analogous to Lat. ac = Gr. καί. Grimm farther supports this etymology by comparing the Teutonic compounds ne-hu, Icel. contr. né, with Lat. ne-c = ne-que, which proves the identity of both the suffixed particles, the Lat. c or que and the Teut. uh. The Goth. jah is a compound = jâ-uh = ‘immo-que;’ the Norse ok, too, is prob. a compound particle, the j being dropped, and then jâ-uh contracted into auh = auk; the final guttural h (sounded as χ), instead of being absorbed by the preceding vowel, was hardened into the tenuis k. The negative verbal suffix -a and -að, the nominal suffix -gi, and the copula ok will thus all be derived from one root,—one of the many instances of the Protean transformations of particles, even the negative and positive being interwoven into the same word.

A. And, a copula between two or more nouns; í upphafi skapaði Guð himinn ok jörð, Edda (pref., Gen. i. 1); ríki ok konungdóm, Fms. i. 23; mikill ok sterkr, Nj. 2; væn kona ok kurteis ok vel at sér, 1; dætr þrjár ok sonu þrá, 30. If the nouns are many the usage may vary:—the nouns may be paired off, eldr ok vatn, járn ok málmr, Edda 36; or the copula is only put to the last, eldr, vatn, járn ok málmr; or, if emphatic, it may be reiterated, eldr ok vatn ok járn ok málmr; or ok may be left out altogether, málmr. steinar, jörðin, viðirnir, sóttirnar, dýrin, fuglarnir, eitrormar, Edda l. c. 2. bæði ok, bæði er hann vitr ok framgjarn, Nj. 6. 3. in comparison, as, and, = Lat. ac, atque; með jöfnum skildaga ok Hrólfr Kraki görði, Fb. ii. 137; samr maðr ek áðr, the same man as before, i. 364; hafa með sér sín epli, ok bera saman ok hin, and compare them and the others, Edda 46; hón var þá úlík ok fyrr, Fms. i. 185; þat er mjök sundrleitt ok Kristnir menn göra, it differs much from what Christians do, x. 171; á sömu leið ok fyrr, i. 253; samsumars ok Steingerðr gékk frá Bersa, Korm. 160; jamvandhæfr ok flörbaugsmaðr, Grág. i. 89. 4. of an adversative character, and yet, but; mörgum sárum ok engum stórum, Fms. x. 370; þetta eru áheyrilig boð, ok újafnlig. Nj. 77; úsællig kona ertú, ok (but yet) ekki svá at eigi megi sæma við slíkt, Fms. vii. 167. 5. the particle ok connects together the parts of the sentence; þá mælti Frigg, ok spurði, then spoke Frigg, and asked, Edda 37; at þú bættir ráð þitt, ok bæðir þér konu, thou shouldst mend thy condition, and take thee a wife, Nj. 2:—it is used to mark the progress of a speech or sentence, féllusk Ásum orðtök ok svá hendr, ok sá hverr til annars, ok vóru allir með einum hug til þess er unnit hafði verkit; Loki tók. Mistiltein, ok sleit upp, ok gékk til þings …; Höðr tók Mistiltein, ok skaut at Baldri; Æsir tóku lík Baldrs, ok fluttu til sjávar, Edda 37; sendu þeir Ívar til hans, ok skyldi hann vita, Fms. x. 27. II. in the old law (the Grág.) the apodosis or conclusion is headed by ok, then, as in the standing phrase, ok verðr hann útlagr, ok varðar þat … marka útlegð, and he shall pay, i. e. then he shall …; þeir menn er sakir eigu, ok skulu þeir ganga til dóms …, and so in every page of the Grágás. III. in some ancient epic poems the ok is as an historical particle put at the head of sentences or verses in a manner which closely resembles the use of the Hebrew ו; the old Ýt. is in this respect remarkable,—ok sikling, I; ok salbjartr, 2; ok sá brann, 3; ok Visburs, ok allvald, 4; ok landherr, 5: ok ek þess opt fregit hafðak, 6; ok allvald, 7; ok þat orð, 8; ok hnakkmars, 10; ok varð hinn, 11; ok Hagbarðs, 12; ok þrálífr … ok sveiðuðs. 13; ok lofsæll, 14; ok Austmarr, ok við aur, ok dáðgjarn, 16; ok ljóshömum, 18; ok ofveg, ok sá frömuðr, 19; ok Ingjald, ok sjá urðr, 20; ok Skæreið, 22; ok nú liggr, 23: ok launsigr, ok buðlung, 24; ok um ráð, ok launsigr, 25; ok niðkvisl, 26; — so used about thirty times in this single poem; in other poems less freq., but yet it occurs, e. g. in the fragments of Vellekla, see also the references given s. v. auk (III). IV. the placing the copula before both the parts to be joined is curious; this only occurs in a few instances in old poetry; ok einnar átta, ‘and’ one eight, i. e. one plus eight = nine, Hd. (composed about 986 A. D.); ok hárar hamljót, ‘and hoary scraggy’ = hoary and scraggy, Haustl.; ok Sörli þeir Hamðir, ‘and Sorli Hamdir’ = S. and H., Bragi; ok átta enni-tungl fjögur höfuð, ‘and eight eyes four heads’ i. e. four heads and eight eyes, id.; ok hörga blóthús, Rekst.; ok svá jarlar Óláfar, = jarlar ok svá Óláfar, Sighvat; ok hringa hlínar óþurft mína, the woe of her and myself, Kormak; ok há grasi viði = há grasi ok viði, Gm. 17; ok Elfar Gandvikr miðli, Edda (Ht.) 1. V. used as an interjection; þú skalt fara í Kirkjubæ—Ok, hvat skal ek þangat? Nj. 74; ok skaltú enn þora at mæla jöfnum orðum við mik, 656 B. 10: akin to this is the mod. usage in exclamations, wrath, wonder, indignation, og, hvað er nú að tarna! og, hvernig ætli þú látir! og, ekki nema það! VI. the following are prob. ellipt.; segðú mér þat …, ok ek vilja vita, tell thou me that, and I wish to know = that which I want to know, Skm. 3; ætlar jarl at höggva þessa menn alla, ok þeir hofðu nú höndum á komit, all those, and (whom) they had got hold of, Fms. xi. 14.

B. Adverb; older form auk, q. v., [Germ. auch; Old Engl. eke]:—also; þat er ok, at, Grág. i. 36; hér eru ok tignar-klæði, Nj. 6; hann vaknar ok sem aðrir, Fms. xi. 117; svá mun ok, Hom. 142, and in countless instances old and mod., see auk; eigi ok, neither, Fms. x. 324; það er og, so so!

OK, n. [Goth. juk; A. S. geoc; Engl. yoke; O. H. G. joh; Germ. joch; cp. Lat. jugum, Gr. ζυγόν; in the Northern languages the j is dropped, ok, Dan. aag]:—a yoke, Fb. ii. 72, Rb. 398, Al. 6, 19, Sks. 136 new Ed.: metaph., ok vóru svá Norðmenn undir því oki, Ó.T. 15; ok-björn, ok-hreinn, poët. = a ‘yoke-bear,’ an ox, Ýt., Lex. Poët.

oka, að, to ‘yoke,’ subjugate; margar þjóðir okaði hann undir ríki Valdamars konungs, Fms. x. 231; at ek geta þik undir okat hans þjónustu, ii. 122; Guð okaði undir hann alla hans undirmenn, Bs. i. 167; hann mun oka yðr undir þröngvan þrældóm, Stj. 441, Karl. 134. 2. to join by a cross-piece; ker mikit ok okat með stórum timbr-stokkum, Hkr. i. 17: undir-oka, to ‘under-yoke,’ subjugate.

oki, a, m. a cross-piece fastening boards or deals together; þar skulu vera fjórar rimar í ok okar á endum, Gþl. 381; hann hljóp upp á okann ok stóð þar, the cross-piece on the inside of a door, Háv. 39 (= hurðar-oki, Eb. 182); jafn-oki, an equal match.

OKKARR, adj. pron., f. okkur, n. okkat and okkort, gen. pl. okkarra; contr. forms okkrir, okkrar, okkrum: [a Goth. uggqvar is supposed, answering to iggqvis; A. S. uncer = Gr. νωϊτερος]:—our, in dual; okkarr mestr vinr, Fms. ii. 221; tal okkat, Sks. 12 B; okkat viðtal, Fs. 8; vætti okkat, Nj. 233; okkart félag, Fms. v. 254; vápn okkur, Al. 138; okkarri sameign, Fs. 7; feðra, hesta, búa okkarra, Ld. 40, Fms. ii. 8, 105, Eg. 95; vættis-burð okkrum, Nj. 233; okkru liði, Eg. 283; skyldleika okkra, Ld. 40; fund okkarn, Nj. 8; okkarn glæp, Fms. x. 261; dauda okkars, i. 216, and passim:—adding a genitive; skip okkat Özurar, the ship of O. and myself, Nj. 8; frændsemi okkra Magnúss, Fms. vi. 178:—used as a subst., hvára-tveggi okkar, both of us, Nj. 55; hvárrgi okkarr, Eg. 195; sér hvárt okkart, each of us separately, Fms. vi. 104; hvártki okkat, neither of us, Nj. 10; hvárs tveggja okkars, Fms. i. 216, x. 270; hvárrgi okkarr Geirs, neither of us, G. nor I, Nj. 80. ☞ In mod. usage the possessive okkarr is superseded by an indeclinable okkar (gen.)

okkr, dat. and acc. dual, [Uif. ugk, ugkis = ἡμας, ἡμιν]:—us, of two, in countless instances; the old writers make a strict distinction between dual and plur. (okkr oss, ykkr yðr, vit vér), whereas mod. Icel. in the spoken language has exclusively adopted the dual; thus Icel. say, hann sagði okkr, hann bað okkr; this use of the dual for the plur. is prop. a familiar way of speaking, regarding the speaker himself as the one, and ‘the rest’ as the other person; in writing the old distinction is still often observed.

OKR, n. [Ulf. wokrs = τόκος, Luke xix. 23; A. S. wocor; O. H. G. wuochar; Germ. wucher; Dan. aager; Swed. ocker]:—usury, K. Á. 204, 218, Bs. i. 684; the word occurs in old writers only in eccl. writers.

okra, að, to practise usury; okra e-u or okra með e-t.

okr-karl, m. a usurer, K. Á. 206, = Dan. aager karl.

oktava or oktava-dagr, m. [Lat. word], the octave after a feast day, Bs. i. 144, H. E. i. 310.

ol-bogi, a, m. the elbow; see ölnbogi.

olea and olía, u, f. [Lat. oleum], oil, Pr. 470, 471.

olea, að, to anoint, of extreme unction, N. G. L. i. 14, 347, Fms. viii. 445, x. 148, Bs. i. 144.

olean, f. extreme unction, Fms. viii. 445, Bs. i. 469, N. G. L. i. 14, 347, H. E. i. 224, 473.

olifant, m. [for. word; Gr. ἐλέφας; Old Engl. olifaunt], the unicorn, Karl. 386:—the name of a trumpet, Karl., l. c.; skaptið var af olifant-horni, ivory? Karl. 369.

oliva, u, f., olivu-tré, n., -viðr, m. [for. word], the olive-tree, Stj. 256, 403, 413, 441, Karl. 199, Þiðr. 116. olifa-kvistr, m., Karl. 226, 334.

olla, olli, ollat, to cause; see valda.

ol-ugi, ol-hugat, ol-hugliga, oluð, = ölhugi, etc., q. v.; see alhugi.

oman, n. the boss on a sword, Þiðr. 104, N. G. L. ii. 439.

oman, adv. = ofan, Þiðr. passim.

op, n. an opening, mouth, of a bag or the like; binda fyrir opið (poka-op), freq. in mod. usage, but does not occur in old writers.

OPA, að, to retreat, go back, akin to opinn; this is the older form, whence comes hopa the common form, under which see the references.

opin-bera, að, [Germ. offenbaren], to manifest, reveal, Bs. i. 275, 869, passim, H. E. i. 526.

opin-beran, f. revelation. Opinberunar-bók, f. the Book of Revelation.

opin-berliga, adv. openly, in public, Nj. 165, Fms. i. 142, ii. 184, ix. 452, K. Á. 108, Dipl. i. 7, Sks. 577.

opin-berligr, adj. manifest, Stj. 250: public, o. skript, Fas. ii. 174.

opin-berr, adj. [Germ. offenbar], manifest, Sks. 714; göra opinbert, Fms. ii. 104: open, o. víðátta, Sks. 504; notorious, o. mál, K. Á. 152; o. ránsmaðr, 62; o. okrkarl, 62, 208.

opin-eygr, adj. open-eyed, Bs. i. 66, Fms. ii. 20, v. 238, vii. 101, Grett. 76 (new Ed.)

opin-mynntr, adj. open-mouthed, Sd. 147.

OPINN, opin, opit, adj., [A. S. and Engl. open; O. H. G. offan; Germ. offen; Dan. aaben]:—open, prop. = resupinus, on the back, face uppermost; opp. to á grúfu (grovelling) opnu-selar eru fyrir því kallaðir at þeir svimma eigi á grúfu heldr opnir, Sks. 177; hann lét binda hann opinn á slá eina, Fms. ii. 179; féll sá opinn á bak aptr, vii. 191; ef maðr liggr opinn á sléttum velli, Symb. 31; opit ok öndvert, Bs. i. 746: the phrase, koma í opna skjöldu, to take one in the back (i. e. the hollow) of the shield, to take one in the rear, Eg. 295, Stj. 365. II. open; loptið var opit, Eg. 236; opnar búðir, Grág. i. 261; haugrinn opinn, Nj. 118; hann lét snúa fjöl fyrir ljórann svá at lítið var opit á, so that little was left open, Fms. vii. 191; var hurðin opin, Edda 30, Fms. vii. 314; opið bréf, an open deed, letters patent, Dipl. ii. 1; opin jörð, open, thawed N. G. L. i. 43; opin á, an open river, not icebound, Vm., Fs. 52; at mál stæði opin, open, undecided, Sturl. iii. 136; sjá banann opinn fyrir sér, Fb. i. 197; kominn í opinn dauða.

opin-sjóðr, m. open-purse, a nickname, Sturl.

opin-skár, adj. lying open, manifest, as also metaph. out-spoken, frank.

opin-spjallr, adj. out-spoken, Ad. 1, Fb. ii. 701.

opna, að, [A. S. openjan, Germ. öffnen, etc.], to open; hann létt opna hauginn, Eg. 601; opna jörð til þess at grafa niðr lík, K. Þ. K.; þeir opnuðu merina, cut it up, Fs. 56: impers., sýndisk himinn opna, Hom. 57: reflex. to open, be opened, Grág. ii. 262; opnask haugrinn, Fb. i. 215; sárit opnaðisk, Fms. ix. 276; fjallit opnaðisk, Nj. 211; himinn opnaðisk, Niðrst. 3; jörð opnaðisk, 645. 64.

opna, u, f. an opening; hvíta-salt svá mikit umhverfis opnuna (the crater), at klyfja mátti hesta af, Ann. 1341:—the two pages of an open book, erkibiskup leit skjótt á þá opnu sem upp flettisk, Safn i. 677; það stendr á þessari opnu. opnu-selr, m. a kind of seal, the mod. vöðu-selr, so called because it swims on its back (see opinn), Sks. 177.

oppruðar, gen. = ofraðar; prýðiliga til oppruðar, exceedingly grand, Fms. x. 387.

OPT, adv., better oft, compar. optarr, superl. optast, [Ulf. ufta = πολλάκις, and common to all Teut. languages]:—oft, often; þá varð þat sem opt kann henda, Fms. i. 99, and in countless instances, old and mod.; e. g. opt is freq. the first word in a host of proverbs, opt sparir leiðum þats hefir ljúfum hugat, Hm.; opt kemr æði-regn ór dúsi, oft comes a shower after a lull, Eb. (in a verse): opt er flagð í fögru skinni, etc. 2. with part. pass., opt-reyndr, oft-tried, Fms. vi. 104; opt-nemndr, opt-greindr, oft-named, etc. II. compar. optarr, oftener; eigi optarr en of sinn, not more than once, Js. 2; þá mundi hann optarr sigr fá, Fms. vi. 225; en ef hann stell optarr, Js. 129; eigi optarr, no more, id.; æ því sterkari sem hann féll optarr, Al. 52; því meira sem þat var optarr hvatt, Korm. 94, passim. III. superl. optast, oftenest, usually, mostly; hann var optast um mitt landit, Fms. i. 6; hann sat optast í Túnsbergi, 11; hann átti þar margar orrostur ok hafði optast sigr, 193, passim.

optarri, compar. adj. more frequent, Þiðr. 161.

opt-leiki, a, m. frequency, Fms. v. 241.

opt-liga, adv. often, frequently, Eg. 60, Fms. i. 13, 23, 52, Nj. 32, Hkr. i. 199; mjök optliga, very often, Fms. vii. 150, passim.

opt-ligr, adj. frequent, Stj., Mar., Skálda, Fms. x. 315.

opt-samliga, adv. = optliga, Barl. 137.

opt-samligr, adj. frequent, Barl. 94, Str. 8, 36.

opt-semi, f. frequency, MS. 4. 8.

opt-sinnis, adv. many times, Fms. iv. 176, Art.

opt-sinnum, adv. = optsinnis, Sks. 255, Al. 86, Barl. 63, 70.

ORÐ, n. [Ulf. waurd = λόγος, ρημα; a word common to all Teut. languages, old and mod.; cp. also Lat. verbum]:—a word. In the earliest usage, as in Old Engl., every sentence, clause, or saw is called a word, cp. Germ. sprüch-wort; an address or a reply is ‘a word,’ cp. Germ. ant-wort; the grammatical notion (Lat. vox, verbum) is later and derived; hann skyldi hafa þau þrjú orð í framburði sínum, þat it fyrsta orð, ‘at allir menn skyldu Kristnir vera;’ þat annat ‘at úheilög skyldi vera hof öll ok skurðgoð;’ þat var it þriðja orð, ‘at fjörbaugsgarð skyldi varða blót öll, ef váttnæm yrði,’ Fms. ii. 237; þau eru orð þrjú er skóggang varða öll, ef maðr kallar mann ragan eðr stroðinn eðr sorðinn, enda á maðr vígt í gegn þeim orðum þremr, Grág. ii. 147; orð mér af orði orðs leitaði verk mér af verki verks leitaði, Hm. 142: the saw, ferr orð ef um munn líðr, Þorst. Síðu H., Vápn. 15; ef maðr mælir nokkuru orði í mót, if he says a word against it, Nj. 216; trúa öngu orði því er ek segi, 265; vil eg eiga leiðrétting orða minna, 132; cp. the saying, allir eiga leiðrétting orða sinna: satt orð, Fms. vii. (in a verse); sinna þrimr orðum við e-n, to exchange three words with a person, Hm. 126; mæla mörgum orðum, 104; skilin orð, 135; spyrja einu orði, Fms. vi. (in a verse); fá orð, a few words; góð orð good words; íll orð, bad language; hálft orð, in the phrase, eg vildi tala hálft orð við þig (half a word, i. e. a few words), lofa e-n í hverju orði; lasta hann í hverju orði; í einu orði, in one word; segja í sínu orði hvárt, to say one thing in one breath and another in the next, Nj. 261; auka tekið orð; orð eptir orð, word for word, Dipl. iii. 11; taka til orða orðs, to begin to speak, Nj. 122, 230; kveða at orði, to say, utter, 233, 238; hafa við orð, to hint at, 160; hafa þat orð á, to give out, Fms. vii. 285; göra orð á e-u, to notice, Nj. 197; vel orði farinn, well spoken, eloquent, Fms. xi. 193, Ld. 122; varð þeim mjök at orðum, they came to high words, Nj. 27 (sundr-orða, and-orða):—allit., orð ok verk (orig. vord ok verk), words and work, Grág. i. 162, ii. 336; fullréttis-orð, 147; fornkveðit orð, an old saw, Eg. 520; Heilög orð, holy words, Grág. i. 76; fá sér e-ð til orða, to notice, to resent; eg vil ekki fá mér það til orða, Vídal. ii. 41. 2. vísu-orð, a verse line, the eighth part of a strophe, Edda (Ht.); átta menn yrki alla vísu, ok yrki eitt orð hverr þeirra, if eight persons make a strophe, each of them making a ‘word,’ of a libel, Grág. ii. 152; ef maðr yrkir tvau orð en annarr önnur tvau ok ráða þeir báðir samt um ok varðar skóggang hvárum-tveggja, 148 (of a libel); síðan kváðu þær vísu þessa, ok kvað sitt orð hver, Sturl. ii. 9. 3. gramm. a word, verb; sögn er inn minnsti hluti samansetts máls, sú sögn er af alþyðu kölluð orð, Skálda 180; nafn ok orð, noun and verb, id.; viðr-orð, adverb, id.; þóat þat orð sé í tvau samstöfur deilt, 164. II. metaph. and special usages: 1. word, fame, report; gott orð, good report, Fs. 17, Nj. 16; þar féll hann fyrir Barða, ok hafði gott orð, Ísl. ii. 366; íllt orð, evil report, Fms. vii. 59; lék hit sama orð á, Fs. 75; er þat hætt við orði, it will give rise to evil report. Band. 12 new Ed.; fyrir orðs sakir, for report’s sake, because of what people say, Nj. 6; þótt okkr sé þat til orðs lagit, although we are blamed for it, 246; þat lagði Skamkell mér til orðs, 85; aðrir leggja þeim þetta til orðs, Gísl. 84; en mér er þat lítt at skapi at hón hljóti af þér nökkut orð, Fbr. 30 new Ed. 2. a message; senda, göra e-m orð, Eg. 19, 26, 742, Nj. 163: a word, reply, sendimaðr sagði honum orð Úlfs, 160: a request, entreaty, ef þú vill ekki göra fyrir mín orð, 88; hann hefr upp orð sin ok biðr hennar, Eg. 26 (bónorð). 3. as a law phrase, an indictment, summons; enda á hann orði at ráða við hinn er við tekr, the receiver has the right of indictment or summoning, Grág. i. 334; hann á kost at sækja þann er hann vill um ok ráða sjálfr orði, 401; ok á sá orði um at ráða er eggver á, ii. 307; ok á þá hinn orði at ráða um við hann er fé þat átti, 309: orð ok særi, words and oaths, Vsp. 30:—a word, verdict, vote, or the like, kveðja búa allra þeirra orða, er hann skylda lög til um at skilja, Grág. i. 369, Nj. 238; sækja orð (vote) lögréttumanns til búðar, Grág. 1. 9; þá skal sækjandi bera fram vætti þat er nefnt var at orðum biskups, þá er hann lofaði fjár-heimting, 377. III. bón-orð, wooing; heit-orð, lof-orð, a promise; dóms-orð, a sentence; vátt-orð, testimony; urðar-orð, the ‘weird’s word,’ fate, Fsm. May there not be some etymological connection between ‘word’ and ‘weird,’ Icel. orð and urðr, qs. word, wurðr? the notion of weird, doom prevails in compds, as ban-orð, dauða-orð, = death-weird, fate; other compds denote state, condition, as in leg-orð, vit-orð, = Ulf. wit-ods; goð-orð, priesthood; met-orð, rank; gjaf-orð, marriage, being given away.

B. COMPDS: orða-atvik, n. pl. ‘word-details’ wording. orða-ákast, n. altercation, Fas. ii. 205. orða-belgr, m. a ‘word-bag,’ a great talker; cp. tala í belg, and the tale of talking a bag full, Ísl. Þjóðs. ii. 479. orða-bók, f. a word-book, dictionary, (mod., from the Dan. and Germ.) orða-dráttr, m. drawling, Edda (pref.) orða-far, n. a course of words, language. orða-fjöldi, a, m. a vocabulary, Edda (Ht.) 123. orða-framburðr, m. utterance, Th. 75. orða-framkast, n. the throwing out a word, a chance proposal, Eb. 130, Fas. iii. 66. orða-fullting, n. speaking good for one, Fms. ii. 63, vii. 182. orð-fyndni, f. facetiousness. orða-glæsur, f. pl. showy words, Thom. 68. orða-gnótt, f. = orðgnótt, MS. 15. 1. orða-grein, f. a phrase, Bs. i. 847, Stj. 3. orða-hagr, adj. skilled, expert in words, wordy, Fbr. 133. orða-hald, n. the keeping one’s word, Fms. viii. 413. orða-hendingar, f. pl. a bandying words, Sturl. ii. 58. orð-heppinn, adj. hitting. orða-hjaldr, m. sounding verbiage, Odd. 20. orða-hnippingar, f. pl. altercations, Eg. 258, Fms. i. 75. orð-hof, n. the word-sanctuary, i. e. the mouth, Stor. orðs-kviðr, m. a phrase, Skálda 178, Mar.: fame, Sks. 447 B; but esp. a saw, proverb, Fms. ii. 39, vi. 220, 328, Hrafn. 6, Skálda 196, passim. orðskviða-háttr, m. a verse having old saws for burden, Edda (Ht.) orða-kvöð, f. = orðalag, Sks. 565. orða-lag, n. manner of words, language, Fms. ii. 18, Sks. 8, Gísl. 139, Sturl. i. 157. orð-lagðr, part. famous. orða-lauss, adj. wordless: neut., láta e-t orðalaust, to leave it, to speak not of it, Sturl. i. 140 C, Valla L. 209. orða-leiðing, f. pronunciation (referring to long and short vowels, see leiða), Skálda 171. orða-lengd, f. the length of a verse, Edda (Ht.) 125. orð-lengja, d, to dilate upon; eg vil ekki o. þetta, I will cut it short. orða-maðr, m. a man of words, eloquent man, Bs. i. 273, Grett. 146. orð-reyrr, m. the word-reed, i. e. the tongue, Sighvat. orða-rómr, m. = orðrómr, Clem. 50. orð-ræmðr, part. notorious. orða-safn, n. a collection of words. orða-samr, adj. wordy, long-winded, Fb. i. 167. orða-semi, f. verbiage, Ld. 100. orða-skak or orða-skvak, n. a ‘word-squeak,’ scolding, Ó. H. 157, Eg. 287. orða-skil, n. pl. distinction of words; ekki mátti heyra o., Stj. 428; en ekki nam orðaskil, Fms. vi. 372; ok er hann hlýddi ef hann næmi nokkur o., Eb. 28; heyrðu þeir manna-mál inn í húsit en námu þeygi orðaskil, Mart. 124. orða-skipan, f. the position or order of words, wording, Skálda 197. orða-skipti, n. pl. exchange of words, Edda 45. orða-skortr, m. lack of words. orða-skrap, n. = orðaskrum, Fas. iii. 99. orða-skrum, n. bragging. Fas. iii. 98. orða-staðr, m.; görðu Svíar kurr mikinn ok mælti hverr í orðastað annars, one spoke like the other, they harped on the same word, Fms. iv. 368:—tala í annars orðastað, to speak as the mouth-piece of another. orð-stafir, m. pl. ‘word-staves’ phrases, Am. 9. orða-sveimr, m. a rumour, Sturl. i. 80. orð-svif, n. pl. rumours, Post. 92. orða-tiltekja, u, f. (mod. orða-tiltektir), utterance, language, Sturl. i. 109. orða-tiltæki, n. a phrase, Stj. 3. orðs-tírr, m. fame, glory, good report, Hm. 75, Eg. 35, Fms. iv. 61; falla með góðan orðstír, Ísl. ii. 394, Fs. 8; við lítinn orðstír, Fms. vii. 217, ix. 274, Fs. 34; fá mikinn orðstír, Ld. 200.

orða, að, to talk, talk of; var þetta brátt orðat, Háv. 39; cp. þau eru orðuð saman, it is talked of that they are to be married; vera orðaðr við e-ð, to be talked of in connection with a thing (in a bad sense); sem hann heyrði at menn um orðuðu ok at töldu, as he heard that people talked and gossipped, Str. 54; þá orðaði konungr (the king declared) at hér skyldi laga-skipti á vera, Fms. ix. 336, v. l.; sem þeir áðr hafa orðat nökkut, as they had spoken of, discussed, 472, v. l. 2. to word a letter or the like; orða bréf, það er vel orðað, ílla orðað, well, badly worded.

orða, u, f. [Lat. word], ordinance (the book of), Vm. 52, 119, 123, 128: mod. order, orðu-bók, f. a book of ordinance, Vm. 90, 91, 139.

orð-bæginn, adj. taunting, Hým.

orð-djarfr, adj. out-spoken, Fms. iv. 174.

orð-fall, n.; e-m verðr o., to be struck dumb (from confusion), Nj. 225, Fas. iii. 451, Bs. ii. 93.

orð-farinn, adj.; vel … orðfarinn, well … spoken, Fms. iv. 180.

orð-fár, adj. using few words, silent, Eg. 107.

orð-ferð, f. utterance; hafa o. á e-u, to utter, Fms. ix. 336, v. l.

orð-ferli, n. expression, Bs. i. 826, ii. 165.

orð-fimi, f. ‘word-skill,’ Edda (Ht.) 123.

orð-fimliga, adv. fluently, MS. 15. 1.

orð-fimr, adj. of easy, flowing speech, Ó. H. 140.

orð-fjöldi, a, m. a ‘word-store,’ vocabulary, Skálda 154.

orð-flaug, n. a floating rumour, Bs. ii. 66.

orð-fleygr, adj. rumoured, Stj. 463.

orð-fleyting, f. rumour, Bs. ii. 106.

orð-fleyttr, part. rumoured, Ann. 1359, Bs. ii. 153.

orð-fullr, adj. fully worded, Jb. 231.

orð-færð, f. a flow of words, Clar.

orð-færi, n. style, of a composition; þú skalt vanda bæði hátt ok o., Fb. i. 215: flow of words, eloquence, þeir hófu sitt eyrendi með mikilli snild ok o., Fms. ii. 235; skorti hann hvárki til vit né o., xi. 106; o. hennar ok vitrleikr, vi. 57.

orð-færliga, adv. with great elocution, glibly, Fms. i. 148, xi. 37, Orkn. 268, Fas. iii. 363.

orð-færr, adj. well spoken, Eg. 111, Fær. 200.

orð-gífr, f. a ‘word-hag,’ a sharp-tongued woman, Nj. 49.

orð-gnótt, f. a flow of words, Barl. 157, Hom. 108, Fb. ii. 175.

orð-góðr, adj. speaking well of everybody, Nj. 147, v. l.

orð-gæði, n. good words, Sks. 438, v. l.

orð-gætinn, adj. wary in one’s words, reserved, Fms. vi. 304.

orð-hagr, adj. word-skilled, a master in words, Bjarn. 70.

orð-hákr, m. a ‘word-shark,’ an abusive person, Fms. vi. 372.

orð-hegi, f. skill in words, Stj. 438 B, Fr.

orð-heill, f. a good omen; at hann stæði úti ok sæi för hans ok hefði o. fyrir, Ld. 96; Björn gékk í skálann inn ok leitaði orðheilla við menn, Glúm. 337:—report, eigi hafa þau góða orðheill, they have no good report, Fs. 34.

orð-heldinn, adj. (orð-heldni, f.), true to one’s word.

orð-hittinn, adj. facetious, Fms. vi. 193.

orð-hvass, adj. sharp-tongued, Fms. vi. 367, Nj. 185.

orð-hvatr, adj. = orðhvass.

orðigr, adj. wordy, plausible, Ld. 124, Sturl. iii. 123.

orð-íllr, adj. speaking evil of others, Nj. 66, Sturl. ii. 39.

orð-kólfr, m., gramm. a ‘club-word,’ an apostrophe, as mey for meyu, Skálda 186.

orð-kringi, f. glibness of tongue, facetiousness, Hbl.

orð-krókr, m. ‘crooked words,’ sophistry, Fms. ii. 185.

orð-lag, n. a way of speaking, language, Sks. 454, Bs. i. 766, Fms. x. 404: talk, language, görðisk brátt mikit o. ok stórar frásagnir, vii. 293, Bs. i. 652, 665: frægðar ok góðs orðlags, good report, Fms. x. 392.

orð-lauss, adj. speechless; láta orðlaust, to be silent about, Bs. i. 621.

orð-lengd, f. using many words, Clar.

orð-lof, n. praise; vinsæld ok orðlof, Fms. vii. 175; falla með orðlofi miklu, 245.

orð-lokarr, m. a nickname, Landn.

orð-margr, adj. long-winded, Fms. vi. 32. orð-fleiri, compar., Nj. 187.

orð-næfr, adj. witty, Edda 108.

-orðr, adj., in compds, spoken: fá-orðr, marg-o., góð-o., íll-o., harð-o.

orð-rammr, adj. powerful in words, Niðrst. 2.

orð-rómr, m. report, public opinion; sá o. lagðisk á, Bs. i. 133; lagðisk þungr o. á, Ó. H. 141; mun sá o. á leggjask, at …, people will say, that …, Nj. 32; mikill o., Fs. 47; fyrir orðs sakir ok orðróms, Lv. 15; góðs orðróms, Fs. 15; ok sneri orðróm of konung, the public opinion of the king changed, Ó. H. 228.

orð-ræða, u, f. discussion; fór öll o. með þeim á sömu leið, Fms. xi. 429; var lítil o. á fyrst, Nj. 82: var mikil o., Fs. 46; bar saman orðræðu þeirra jarls ok Finnboga, the earl and F. had an interview, Finnb. 268; bað Sighvatr konung eigi reiðask þótt hann talaði bert ok segði orðræðu bónda, Fms. vi. 41; at engi o. væri á gör at þit lifit, 345.

orð-rætt, n. part. reported, rumoured, Rd. 286.

orð-sending, f. a message, Eg. 9, 35, 37, 97, Fms. i. 53, ii. 90, 324, Nj. 217, Ld. 64, Ó. H. 141, 228, passim.

orð-sjúkr, adj. ‘word-sick,’ touchy, Ísl. ii. 141, Nj. 83.

orð-skaup, n. scurrilous language, Hkr. iii. 433, v. l.

orð-skár, adj. saucy, Fas. i. 392.

orð-skrípi, n. scurrility; mælti hann hin mestu o. (foul language) áðr hann væri hengdr, Fms. vii. 303; en hafa eigi hvert o. (every bad phrase) þat sem fornskáldin nýttu, Skálda 160.

orð-skræmi, n. = orðskrípi, Hkr. iii. 130.

orð-skrök, n. = orðskrípi, Mork. 81.

orð-slunginn, part. cunning in word, Þórð. (1860) 99.

orð-slægr, adj. = orðslunginn, Sks. 508.

orð-snild or orð-snilli, f. eloquence, Fms. iii. 80, Fb. ii. 147, Edda.

orð-snjallr, adj. eloquent, Fms. i. 17, ii. 22, Eg. 107.

orð-spakr, adj. wise-spoken, Fms. ii. 138, vii. 102.

orð-speki, f. wisdom in words, Edda 110, Vþm. 5.

orð-stef, n. notice; hann var hafðr í orðstefi þá er um biskupa skyldu kosningar vera í Vestfirðinga-fjórðungi, i. e. he was one on the list for election, Sturl. i. 63, v. l.

orð-stilltr, adj. moderate in one’s words, Nj. 219, Sturl. i. 92.

orð-stórr, adj. using big words, Fms. xi. 256, 267, Flóv. 26.

orð-svinnr, adj. = orðspakr, Fms. v. 332.

orð-sæll, adj. enjoying a good reputation, Bs. i. 58, 704, Hd.

orð-tak, n. a phrase, expression; þat er o. at sá er tý-hraustr, Edda 16; þvílík orðtök hafa menn mjök til þess at yrkja fólgit, 110; vér skulum hafa allir eitt orðtak (watchword), framm fram Krists-menn! Ó. H. 204, Fms. ix. 510. 2. speech, words, a way of speaking, language; þá féllusk öllum Ásum orðtök, words failed them, they were sfruck dumb, Edda 37; þat þykkjumk ek skilja á orðtaki þínu, at …, Fms. xi. 56; at guðlasta með þínu heiðingligu orðtæki, ii. 130; o. vándra manna, Nj. 83; Gunnarr heyrði öll orðtökin, G. heard all the words they said, 68; um orðtæki manna, Gþl. 192; en þat er yðr er sagt frá orðtökum várum Þrænda, Ó. H. 103; þat var eitt orðtak allra, all said the same, Eg. 282; eiga orðtak við e-n, to have a talk with one, Sturl. ii. 163; var skirt orðtakið ok rómrinn mikill yfir málinu, Fms. viii. 447.

orð-tæki, n. = orðtak, Fb. ii. 130, Gþl. 192.

orð-vandr, adj. sensitive as to others’ words; þarftú eigi svá o. at vera, Glúm. 354: careful as to one’s words.

orð-varp, n. in orðvarps-maðr, m. a spokesman (in a bad sense), Sks. 436.

orð-varr, adj. ‘word-wary,’ watchful of one’s tongue, Fms. vi. 208.

orð-víss, adj. ‘word-wise,’ witty, clever, Eg. 147.

ORF, n., also spelt orb, the stock or pole of a scythe, Fms. iii. 206, Fs. 106 (in a verse); orf-hæll, m. the peg or handle by which the orf is held, Safn i. 108; see a drawing in Eggert Itin., tab. viii, fig. 1: poët. orba-stríðir and orf-þægir, m. a mower: freq. in mod. usage, lang-orf, stutt-orf, a long, short stock.

ORG, n. a howling, screaming; this word, which is very popular in mod. usage, is not found in old writers; it was prob. in the 14th or 15th century derived from the ‘organ’ used in churches,—a dismal testimony to the character of the instrumental music of Icel. at that time.

orga, að, to howl, scream; orga og hljóða, freq. in mod. usage.

organ, n. [Gr.], an organ; allskonar söngfæri, organ, symphon …, Fms. vii. 97; eða þá er o. gengr upp ok niðr aptr ok fram um alla gamma, Skálda 172; strengleikum ok organs-söng, 655 xxiv. 2; organ-söng, id. 2. it even occurs in the old poem,—at leikurum ok trúðum hefi ek þik lítt fregit, hverr er organ (orgari Cod. A, œrgati Cod. B) þeirra Andaðar at húsum Haralds? Fagrsk. 6; and, Bjúgvör ok Listvör sitja í Herðis-dyrum organs stóli á, Sól. 76; for the word in both these references can only be derived from the Greek. COMPDS: organs-list, n. organ-playing, Bs. i. 868. organs-meistari, n. an ‘organ-master,’ organist, Bs. i. 866. organs-smíð, f. the making an organ, Bs. i. 908.

orir, m. an alder, MS. 4. 17.

ORKA, að, [qs. vorka, akin to verk, cp. also yrkja; Ulf. waurkjan = ποιειν, ἐργάζεσθαι; and the pret. worahto on the Runic stone in Tune; A. S. weorcjan; Engl. work]:—to work, but only used in a limited sense, for vinna (q. v.) is the general word: to work, perform, be able to do, manage, önnur vann allt þat er hón orkaði, the other worked (vann) all that she could (orkaði), Dropl. 4; ek mun hjálpa þér allt slíkt sem ek orka, Fms. i. 213; ek þarf eigi meira forvirki en þetta lið orkar, Hrafn. 5; móður sína á maðr fyrst fram at færa, en ef hann orkar betr …, Grág. i. 232; treysta ek á sem ek orkaða, Fms. v. 301; ek orka tólf punda þunga (I can carry twelve pounds weight), en hestr minn berr fjögurra lesta byrði, Bær. 18; svá skal gerða þann garð sem búar sjá at hann má orka á þrem sumrum, Grág. ii. 331. 2. with dat.; þó hyggsk hann einn munu öllu orka, Fms. xi. 267; þótti öllum undr, hverju hann gat orkat, Grett. 125 A; allt þat lið er vápnum mátti orka, Fagrsk. 176; líkneskjum þeim, er ek veit eigi hverju orkat hafa, Fms. ii. 265; skal hann á einum degi kveðja alla, ef því má orka (if he can), Grág. (Kb.) i. 162; hann mátti engu á orka, he could do nothing, Fms. vii. 270; sá er ölverki orkar Ásar, Kormak; orka þrek, Orkn. (in a verse); orkaði hón vel þeim langa veg, she proceeded well on her long journey, Mar. 3. with gen. of the thing; o. e-m e-s, to cause, effect; mér orkar þat margra vandræða, Fs. 21; á skip skal skriðar orka, en skjöld til hlifa, mæki höggs, en mey til kosta, a ship shall be worked for sailing …, a maid for giving away, Hm. 81; orka e-m frægðar, to give glory to one, Edda (in a verse); hvar skal ek þess orka, Fas. iii. 72; orka e-m til þarfa, to work for one’s good, Eg. (in a verse): in the saw, jafnan orkar tvímælis þó hefnt sé, revenge works dissent, Nj. 68; allt orkar tvímælis þá gört er, 139; þetta mun orka tíðinda, this will make a story, Fb. ii. 270:—to summon, call upon, orka orða á e-n, to make one speak, accost; þá er menn orkuðu orða á hann, Fms. iv. 165 (ortu orða á hann, from yrkja, Ó. H. l. c.); ef menn tveir eigu land, ok vill annarr-tveggi orka lands-deildar á annan, Grág. ii. 253; en hverr er átt hefir skal orka heimildar á seljanda sinn, shall call on the seller to shew his title, 216; hann orkar á Óla til atkvæðis ok órræða um þetta mál, Fms. xi. 33. II. with prepp.; orkum ekki á þá fyrri, let us not be the first to use force, attack them, Grett. 119 A; þó hann orkaði á jörðina, though he tilled the earth, Ver. 5; var þat þó lengi at eigi orkaði eldr á Þórólf, that the fire could not work, had no effect on Th.’s body, Eb. 316: orka at e-u, to act, proceed with, execute; svá skal þar orka at kaupi ok at sölu sem annars staðar var tínt, Grág. ii. 246; þeir ræða nú um með sér, hversu at skal orka, what is to be done? Ld. 242; orkuðum (aurkoðom Cd.) at auðnu, we tried our fortune, Am. 96; orka til e-s, to prepare, = afla til e-s, orka til veizlu, to give a banquet. Fas. iii. 66:—to stride, walk proudly, þeir á jökla orka austr, they strode eastwards on the ice, Skiða R. 53: from the pret. orkaði (ꜹrkaði) was afterwards formed another verb arka, to stride (prop. to strive) on one’s journey. III. reflex., ekki orkaðisk á, no work was done, Fms. iv. 328, v. l.; honum þótti seint á orkask, vi. 77:—at orkask = orka at e-u, hversu hann skyldi at orkask at segja föður sínum þessi tíðendi, xi. 15:—fyrir þá skuld, at þau hefði sjálf orkask hugar á (made up their minds) at bæta meinbugi sína, Grett. 162 A; láttu þeygi orkask at vistarinnar, 677. 12; hann orkaðisk (he strove) at forðask rangar hugrenningar, Hom. (St.) 2. part. as subst.; orkandi, the worker, mighty; Guð er alls orkandi, all-powerful, 645. 50; Satan alls ílls orkandi, Niðrst. 7.

orka, u, f. work, employment; þá skal hann orku gefa honum sem þrælum sínum, N. G. L. i. 36; ef þræll á orku, 30, Stj. 263; eiga saman verk ok orku, N. G. L. i. 34; móðr af orku, Stj. 160; orka ok erfiði, farit aptr til orku yðvarrar ok byrða, 263; hús eðr smiðju þar sem hann flytr fram orku sína, 22. 2. strength, power for work; orkan þvarr þvíat elli sótti á hendr honum, Ld. 54; fyrir orku sakir, Fas. iii. 223, and so in mod. usage. COMPDS: orku-fátt, n. adj. failing in strength, Fms. iii. 168. orku-lauss, adj. out of work, N. G. L. i. 31: powerless, mod. orku-maðr, m. a working-man, Stj. 232, 273: a strong man. orku-vana, adj. bereft of strength, Fas. iii. 387.

Orka-dalr, m. Orkdale, a county in Norway, Fms.: Ork-dælir, m. pl. the men of O.

orkn, n., and orkn-selr, m. a kind of seal; see örkn.

Orkneyjar, f. pl. the Orkneys, Lat. Orcades, of Gael. origin, for it occurs in Lat. writers before the Scandinavian occupation, Tacitus (Agric.), Pliny, and Juvenal; hence Orkneyingar, m. pl. the men of the Orkneys: Orkneyskr, adj. passim.

or-lof, n., orð-lof is a false spelling, [Germ. urlaub; Dan. orlov; Engl. f-urlough]:—leave; beiða orlofs, Bs. i. 799; hann biðr sér orlofs konung at fara, Eg. 29; ek vil beiðask, herra, at þér gefit mér orlof til Íslands, Nj. 10; utan hans orlofs, without his leave, Landn 149; síðan tekr hann o. af konunginum til brottferðar, Fms. xi. 430, Fas. iii. 586; með orlofi at spyrja, Barl. 14, Sks. 52; hvárt skal ek mæla í orlofi, Eg. 46; með bezta orlofi, Fms. i. 15, passim. 2. in mod. usage, a visit to a friend or relative; thus a person boarded out when visiting his parents is said ‘fara í orlof sitt.’ COMPDS: orlofs-bréf, n. a writ of permission, authorisation, Bs. i. 799; o. biskups, Dipl. iii. 4. orlofs-laust, adj. without leave, Fms. x. 105, Fas. iii. 579, Bs. i. 631.

orlofa, að, to allow, H. E. ii. 75, Bs. ii. 93, 94.

orm-fránn, adj. flashing like a snake, of the eye, Sighvat, Jd.

orm-garðr, m. a ‘snake-pit,’ in tales of throwing men into pits full of snakes, Og. 28, Fas. (Ragn. S. ch. 15).

orm-gætir, m. rendering of ophiuchus, Rb. (1812) 18.

ORMR, m. [Ulf. waurms = ὄφις; A. S. wyrm; Engl. worm: O. H. G. and Germ. wurm; Dan.-Swed. orm; Lat. vermis; cp. Orms-head in Wales]:—a snake, serpent, also including ‘worms’ (cp. maðkr), and even dragons, Hm. 85, Vsp. 44, 50, Gm. 34, Skm. 27, Akv. 31, Am. 22, 55. Fms. vi. 143, Hkr. i. 103, and passim; högg-ormr, a viper; eitr-ormr, the bane of snakes, i. e. the winter time. The abode of the wicked after death was a pit full of snakes (Hver-gelmir, Ná-strönd), Edda, Vsp. 44, which calls to mind the Gehenna in Mark ix. 43, 44, and one of the Bolgos in Dante’s Inferno, Canto 24. Serpents gnawed at the root of the world-tree Yggdrasil, Gm. 34. Pits of snakes were a place of punishment, Ragn. S. l. c., Am., Akv.; but only in mythological, not in historical records. Serpents brooded over gold and treasures, cp. the serpent Fafnir, Edda, Fm., Gullþ. ch. 4, Ragn. S. (begin.); whence in poetry gold is called orm-bekkr, -beðr, -ból, -garðr, -land, -látr, -láð, -reitr, -setr, -stallr, -torg, -vangr, -vengr, the bank, bed, abode, garden, land, litter, earth, etc. of snakes, Lex. Poët. For the world-serpent, see miðgarðr. orm-fellir, m. the snake-killer = the winter, Fms. vi. (in a verse): a sword is called a snake, blóð-ormr, rand-ormr, see Lex. Poët.; ketil-ormr, a sausage, Korm.: of ships of war with dragons’ heads, Ormr inn Langi, Ormr inn Skammi, Ó.T. II. pr. names, Ormr and Ormarr; and in compds, Hall-ormr, Ráð-ormr, Þór-ormr, Goð-ormr, Veðr-ormr. = the holy Serpent, a name which indicates serpent worship, although no record of such worship is found in the Sagas. COMPDS: orms-bit, n. a snake-bite, Pr. 470. orma-bæli, n. a den of snakes, Fms. vi. 143. orms-tunga, u, f. a snake’s tongue cast in silver, Dipl. iii. 4, v. 18, Bs. i. 690: as a nickname, Landn. orma-turn, m. = ormagarðr, Þiðr. 334.

orm-snáldr, n. snakes’ noses, Konr.

ORNA, að, [perh. akin to ofn or from varmr?], to get warm; þá tók Pétr at lifna ok ornuðu liðir hans, es hann vas kaldr allr orðinn, Greg. 77; svá tekr brunnrinn at orna, sem sól gengr til viðar, Al. 51; ornandi geislar, Sks. 40; orna ok hitna, Barl. 93; með ornandum tárum, 90: impers., e-m ornar, it gets warm for one, one gets warm; taki menn glímur stórar ok viti ef mönnum ornar, Sturl. iii. 20; þegar er honum ornaði, 623. 33 . hleypr hann til ára ok vill láta orna sér, Fms. xi. 141; veðr var á geysi-kallt, ok höfðusk margir á fótum ok létu orna sér, viii. 306:—orna sér, to warm oneself; nú lát hann orna sér ok fari síðan til sels várs, Lv. 60, and so in mod. usage. II. reflex. pass., flestir ornuðusk af ásjón hennar, Str. 73.

or-óf and or-æfl, n., see örof, öræfi.

orra-beinn, adj., better örra-beinn, q. v.

ORRI, a, m. (wrongly spelt horri in Ó. H. 78, l. 8), [Dan. aarfugl]:—the heathcock, moor-fowl, tetrao tetrix, Stj. 77, Ó. H. 78; þiðra eðr orra, Gþl. 449. II. a nickname, Ó. H., Fms. vi: whence Orra-hríð, f. the name for the last onslaught in the battle at Stanford-bridge led by Eystein Orri, Fms. vi; hence, as an appellative, any fierce onslaught is in Icel. called orrahrið. orra-skáld, n. a nickname, Landn.

orrosta, u, f., mod. orosta or orusta, with a single r; in rhymes orrostur þorrinn, Sighvat, shewing that the assimilation had even then taken place: [this word is identical with A. S. eornest = duellum; O. H. G. ernust = pugna: whence Fngl. earnest. Germ. ernst, of which orrosta is an assimilated form, qs. ornosta, see Grimm’s Dict. s. v. ernst]:—a battle, Hm., Nj. 8, Fms. v. 71, vi. 69, in countless instances, for orrosta and bardagi (q. v.) are used indiscriminately. 2. in local names, Orrostu-hólmr, -hváll, -tangi, Battle-hill, etc., Korm., Eg. COMPDS: orrostu-laust, n. adj. without battle, Fms. ix. 323, Hkr. ii. 300. orrostu-ligr, adj. warlike, Fms. x. 230. orrostu-maðr, m. a warrior, Nj. 40, Fms. i. 52. orrostu-slög, n. pl. battles, Fms. xi 200. orrostu-staðr and orrostu-völlr, m. a battle-place, Korm. 4, Fas. i. 501, Fms. i. 95.

orrostligr, adj. belonging to war, Róm. 309.

or-sök, f. [Germ. ursache; Dan. aarsag], a cause, freq. in mod. usage. orsaka-laust, n. adj. without a cause.

Os-ló or Ós-ló, f. the name of a town in Norway, which stood where the mod. Christiania is, Fms. passim.

oss, acc. and dat. pl. from vér; see ek (C. 2. γ).

ossir, adj. pl. ours, = várir, Germ. unser; ossa ván, Geisli 4; at vilja ossum, Am. 30; hendr ossar, 52; ossum rönnum i, Skm. 14; ossum niðjum, Hkv. 2. 9; liði ossu, Sighvat: in prose, ok ætlaði at láta meiða eðr drepa ossa landa fyrir, Íb. 10.

ostenta, u, f. the mid. Lat. ostentum, Rb.

OSTR, m. [prob. identical with jastr, the Engl. yeast, dropping the initial j; ostr is a word common to all the Scandin. languages (Dan.-Swed. ost), instead of the Saxon and Germ. cheese, cese (käse), which were no doubt borrowed from the Lat. caseus]:—cheese; slátr, skreið ok ostar, Háv. 53; smjör ok ost, Nj. 74; þeir höfðu skyr ok ost (of a supper) … hann bargsk lítt við ostinn, he went slowly on with the cheese, Eb. 244; þar vóru tveir diskar fram settir, þar var eitt skamrifs-stykki á diski hverjum ok forn ostr til gnægta, Fbr. 37; Geysu dætr skáru akkeri af osti, ok sögðu at þau mundi fullvel halda herskipum Haralds konungs …, Fms. vi. 253; konan hafði einn ostinn í brott, one cheese, Bs. i. 247; ef þeir selja ær til osts, Grág. ii. 309. COMPDS: ost-fjórðungr, m. a weight of cheese, Vm. 28. ost-gjald, n. a tax payable in cheese, D.I. i. 248. ost-hleifr, m. a cheese, Ísl. ii. 351, Fs. 146, Vm. 28. ost-hlutr, m. a slice of cheese, Fbr. 38. ost-kista, u, f. a cheese-press, Nj. 76 (in which cheese was made). ost-tíund, f. a tithe paid in cheese, D. N. iii. 30. ost-tollr, m. = ostgjald; þangat liggr osttollr millum Botnsár ok Hvítskeggs-hvamms af skatt-mönnum ok búprestum, Vm. 59; for a duty payable in cheese see Vm. 28 (each farm having to pay a cheese), D.I. i. 248.

ostra, u, f. [for. word; Lat. ostrea], an oyster, Stj. 88, N. G. L. ii. 263.

ost-vægr, adj. equivalent to cheese; gjalda fjórðung ostvægs matar, Vm. 105.

OTA, að, [see etja I. 3, and not akin to hóta, as is suggested under that word]:—to push forth, with dat.; ota sér fram, to push oneself forward, intrude oneself; Þórir otar sér fram milli manna, Ísl. ii. 150: the word is very freq. in mod. usage, ota e-u fram, to hold forth; cp. ok etr hann fram berum skallanum, Fb. i. 190.

OTR, m., gen. otrs, pl. otrar, [Engl. and Germ. otter; O. H. G. otar]:—an otter; otr einn, otrinum, otrinn, otr ok lax, Edda 72; þar lá opt otr í urðinni … veiða otr er lá í urðinni, Orkn. 274, 276; otrs líki, Fas. i. 151: poët., hafs otr, vánar otr, a ‘sea-otter,’ i. e. a ship, Lex. Poët.: in local names, Otra-dalr, in western Iceland, Landn., Gísl. COMPDS: otr-belgr, m. an otter-skin, Edda 73, Fas. i. 153. otr-gjöld and otrs-gjöld, n. pl., poët. ‘otter’s-gild,’ i. e. gold, Fas: i. 154, Bm., see the tale in Edda 72, 73. otr-hundr, m. an otter-hound, Karl. 10. otra-skinn, n. an otter-skin, Rétt. 47.

oxi, a, m. an ox; see uxi: Oxi, a pr. name, Bs. i.

© Tim Stridmann