Ó

Ó- or ú-, the negative prefix before nouns and verbs, [Goth., Engl., and Germ. un-; Dan. and Swed. û-, the nasal being absorbed. The Icel. at a very early date changed this ú into ó, for the very oldest and best vellums use ó, not only the Greg., Eluc., Íb., the Miracle-book (Bs. i. 333 sqq.), but also the Grág., the Cod. Reg. of the Sæm. Edda, etc.; in later vellums of the better kind ú and ó are used promiscuously; till about the union with Norway the ú prevailed, and is chiefly used in vellums of the 14th century; but in the 15th the ó again took its old place, and has been retained ever since, agreeably with the usual pronunciation. The ó is therefore the proper Icel. form, e. g. ó-vitr = Engl. un-wise; that it was sounded thus even in the 12th century is also shewn by the treatise of the second grammarian (Gramm. p. i, col. 1),—ó eðr ú þat skiptir orðum, svá sem er satt eðr ó-satt (ú-satt), Skálda 171. This change of spelling in the MSS. about (or a little before) the union with Norway cannot have been owing to any change in pronunciation, but was simply a Norwegianism, as were many other cases, e. g. the dropping the h before liquids, contrary to the Icel. pronunciation. On the other hand, as for the rest of Scandinavia, the ú has been retained in Denmark and in the east of Norway; but ó in the west and north of Norway (see Ivar Aasen’s Dict.), as also in mod, Swed. (e. g. o-möjlig = Germ. un-möglich). In early Swed. (in the laws) u and o are used indifferently. The Orkneys seem to have followed the Icel., to judge from a rhyme in the poem Jd. composed by bishop Bjarni (died A. D. 1222), a native of the Orkneys,—ó-teitan mik sútar, the metre of which requires a half rhyme, a rule followed strictly throughout that poem.

B. Of the compds with ú- or ó-, all but a few words are from un-; these exceptional words appear to be contractions, either, α. from ör-, where we have such double forms as ör-sekr and ó-sekr, N. G. L. i. 379; ör-viti and ó-viti, ó-verðr and ör-verðr, ó-vænn and ör-vænn, ör-hæfi and ú-hæfa, ör-keypis and ó-keypis, ú-dæmi qs. ör-dæmi (?), ó-bóta qs. ör-bóta (?), ó-birgr and ör-birgr; perh. also ú-helgi qs. ör-helgi, ú-heilagr qs. ör-heilagr; cp. also such words as ú-megin and ör-megna, ú-synja qs. ör-synja (?). β. from of-, esp. before a labial or dental; thus, of-vægr and ó-vægr, ó-frýnn qs. of-frýnn, ó-sköp = of-sköp (?), ó-freskr qs. of-freskr, ó-fyrirsynju qs. of-fyrirsynju (?), ó-hljóð or ú-hljóð qs. of-hljóð (?), of-dæll and ó-dæll, of-ljóss and ó-ljóss. In some of these instances doubt may arise, for a double set of compds might have sprung up. On the other hand, the great number of compds with ur-, er- in German and Saxon, and the scarcity of such words in the Norse tongue, lead to the conclusion that many of these compds in the course of time have been lost or replaced by ú-; cp. also of-allt and á-valt, (of-saka and á-saka, of-brýði and á-brýði, of-munir and á-munr, af-vöxtr and á-vöxtr, af-burðr and of-burðr?). Since in most Editions the spelling with ú- has been adopted in these classes of words, they must be sought for under that head.

Ó, interj. oh, oh! Hom. 112, 119, Stj. 155; ó hoson, 623. 16: freq. in mod. eccl. usage, cp. hó. 2. as a noun; in the phrase, e-m er um og ó, to hesitate, waver; mér er um og ó, eg á sex börn í sjó en sex börn á landi, a ditty, Ísl. Þjóðs.: ó-já, oh yes! ó-nei, oh no! ó-ekki! id.

ÓA, að, [a contr. form from óg, ógur- ógn]:—in act. in the mod. impers. phrase, e-n óar við e-u, it shocks one, one feels shocked; mig óar við því, it forebodes me evil; huga þeirra tók at óa fyrir einhverri hrellingu, Od. xx. 349. II. reflex. óask, to dread, fear; óumk ek of Hugin at hann aptr né komit, Gm. 20; óumk ek alldregi, Am. 13; ex skoluð óask dóm Guðligs veldis, Greg. 13; þat er ér óisk at taka Corpus Domini, 686. 5; þá óaðisk biskup mjök, then the bishop was much afraid, 655 xxii. B; óaðisk hann í hug sér, 623. 62; ok óaðisk greifinn er hanu hafði látið berja hann, xvi B. 4.

óan or óun, f. fear, distress; sigrmark í óunum (= ógnum), 656 B. 7.

óða-far, n.; í óðafari, in a hurry, Boll. 350.

óða-got, n. hurry, flurry.

óða-kapp, n. = óðaönn.

ÓÐAL, n., pl. óðul; in Norse MSS. it is usually contracted before a vowel (whence arose the forms öðli eðli), and owing to a peculiarity in the Norse sound of ð an r is inserted in contracted forms, örðla, orðlom, N. G. L. passim: [akin to aðal, öðli, eðli, = nature; öðlask = adipisci; oðlingr, q. v.; A. S. êðel = patrimony; it is also the parent word of Germ. edel, adel, = noble, nobility, for the nobility of the earliest Teut. communities consisted of the land-owners. From this word also originated mid. Lat. allodium, prob. by inverting the syllables for the sake of euphony (all-od = od-al); oðal or ethel is the vernacular Teut. form, allodium the Latinised form, which is never found in vernacular writers; it may be that the transposition of syllables was due to the th sound in oðal; and hence, again, the word feudal is a compd word, fee-odal, or an odal held as a fee or feif from the king, and answering to heið-launað óðal of the Norse law (heið = fee = king’s pay), N. G. L. i. 91.]

B. Nature, inborn quality, property, = aðal, eðli, öðli, q. v.; this seems to be the original sense, þat er eigi at réttu mannsins óðal, Sks. 326 B; þat er helzt byrjar til farmanns óðals, a seaman’s life, 52; þat er kaupmanna óðal (= mercatorum est), 28; jörlum öllum óðal batni, Gh. 21. II. a law term, an allodium, property held in allodial tenure, patrimony. The condition which in the Norse law constitutes an oðal was either an unbroken succession from father to son (er afi hefir afa leift) through three or more generations, N. G. L. i. 91, 237, Gþl. 284; or unbroken possession for thirty or more years, N. G. L. i. 249; or sixty years, Gþl. 284; or it might be acquired through brand-erfð (q. v.), through weregild, barn-fóstr (q. v.); and lastly heið-launað óðal, an allodial fief, was granted for services rendered to the king, see N. G. L. i. 91: the oðal descended to the son, and was opp. to útjarðir (out-lands), and lausa-fé (movables), which descended to the daughter, Gþl. 233; yet even a woman, e. g. a baugrygr (q. v.), could hold an oðal, in which case she was called óðals-kona, 92, jörð komin undir snúð ok snældu = an estate come under the rule of the spindle, N. G. L. i. 237; the allit. phrase, arfr ok óðal, 31, Gþl. 250: brigða óðal, N. G. L. i. 86; selja óðal, to sell one’s óðal, 237. The oðal was in a certain sense inalienable within a family, so that even when parted with, the possessor still retained a title (land-brigð, máldagi á landi). In the ancient Scandin. communities the inhabited land was possessed by free oðalsmen (allodial holders), and the king was the lord of the people, but not of the soil. At a later time, when the small communities were merged into great kingdoms, through conquest or otherwise, the king laid hold of the land, and all the ancient oðals were to be held as a grant from the king; such an attempt of king Harold Fairhair in Norway and the earls of Orkney in those islands is recorded in Hkr. Har. S. Hárf. ch. 6, Eg. ch. 4, cp. Ld. ch. 2, Orkn. ch. 8, 30, 80 (in Mr. Dasent’s Ed.); cp. also Hák. S. Goða ch. 1. Those attempts are recorded in the Icel. Sagas as acts of tyranny and confiscation, and as one of the chief causes for the great emigration from the Scandinavian kingdoms during the 9th century (the question of free land here playing the same part as that of free religion in Great Britain in the 17th century). The attempt failed in Norway, where the old oðal institution remains in the main to the present day. Even the attempts of king Harold were, according to historians (Konrad Maurer), not quite analogous to what took place in England after the Conquest, but appear to have taken something like the form of a land-tax or rent; but as the Sagas represent it, it was an attempt towards turning the free odal institution into a feudal one, such as had already taken place among the Teutons in Southern Europe. III. gener. and metaph. usages, one’s native land, homestead, inheritance; the land is called the ‘oðal’ of the reigning king, á Danr ok Danpr dýrar hallir, æðra óðal, en ér hafit, Rm. 45; eignask namtú óðal þegna, allan Noreg, Gauta spjalli, Fms. vi. 26 (in a verse); banna Sveini sín óðul, St. Olave will defend his óðal against Sweyn, 426 (in a verse); flýja óðul sín, to fly one’s óðal, go into exile, Fms. iv. 217; flýja óðul eðr eignir, vii. 25; koma aptr í Noreg til óðala sinna, 196; þeim er þar eru útlendir ok eigi eigu þar óðul, who are strangers and not natives there, Edda 3; öðlask Paradísar óðal, the inheritance of Paradise, 655 viii. 2; himneskt óðal, heavenly inheritance, Greg. 68; njóta þeirra gjafa ok óðala er Adam var útlægr frá rekinn, Sks. 512: allit., jarl ok óðal, earl (or franklin) and odal, Gh. 21. 2. spec. phrase, at alda óðali, for everlasting inheritance, i. e. for ever and ever, D. N. i. 229: contr., at alda öðli, id., Grág. i. 264, D.I. i. 266; til alda óðals, for ever, iii. 88: mod., frá, alda öðli, from time immemorial.

C. COMPDS: óðals-borinn, part. born possessor of an óðal, noble, Gþl. 298. óðals-bréf, n. a deed proving one’s title to an óðal, D. N. óðals-brigð, f. redemption of an óðal, Gþl. 295. óðals-jörð, f. an allodial estate, Gþl. 240, 284, Fms. i. 225 (= native country); áðr Gyðingar næði óðalsjörðum sínum (i. e. their Land of Promise), 655 viii. 2. óðals-kona, u, f. a lady possessed of óðal, N. G. L. i. 92. óðals-maðr, m. [mod. Norse odels-mann], an allodial owner, like the ‘statesman’ of Westmorland, Gþl. 289, 296: metaph., væra ek sannr óðalsmaðr til Noregs, rightful heir of Norway, Fms. ix. 326. óðals-nautr, m. an ‘odals-mate’ or co-possessor, Gþl. 293, 296. óðals-neyti, u. a body of óðalsnautar, Gþl. 294. óðals-réttr, m. allodial right, allodial law, D. N. iv. 593. óðals-skipti, n. the sharing out óðal, N. G. L. i. 43, 91, Gþl. 285. óðals-tuptir, read aðal-tupt (q. v.), N. G. L. i. 379, v. l. óðals-vitni, n. a witness in a case of redemption of an óðal, Gþl. 296.

óðal-borinn, part. = óðalsborinn, Eg. 40, Hkr. i. 125: of a king, óðalborinn til lands ok þegna, Js. 15: native, indigenous, Al. 152.

óðal-jörð, f. = óðalsjörð, Fms. vi. 339.

óðal-nautr, m. = óðalsnautr, N. G. L. i. 93.

óðal-torfa, u, f. patrimonial land, Skv. 3. 60.

óðal-túptir, f. pl. a homestead, Sighvat.

óðal-vellir, m. pl. patrimony, Rm. 33.

óðal-vitni, n. = óðalsvitni, N. G. L. i. 87.

óða-málugr, adj. = óðmálugr, Fas. i. 230.

óðask, að, = óask, to be struck with terror, Bs. i. 335.

óða-stormr, m. = óðaveðr, Róm. 384.

óða-straumr, m. a violent current, Bs. i. 386.

óða-veðr, n. a violent gale, Clem. 27.

óða-verkr, m. a violent pain, Bs. i. 259, ii. 180.

óða-önn, f.; vera í óðaönn, to be deep in business, very busy.

óð-fluga, adj. with violent speed, as lightning, Fms. viii. 405, Hkr. i. 150, Nj. 144.

óð-fúss, adj. madly eager, Þkv. 26, Band. 8 new Ed.

óð-gjarn, adj. = óðfúss, Ísl. ii. (in a verse).

óð-gjörð, f. verse-making, panegyric, eulogy, Post. 510.

ÓÐINN, m., dat. Óðni; [A. S. Wodan; O. H. G. Wodan, in the Old High German song Phol ende Wodan vuoron zi holza; in the Norse the w is dropped, whence Odinn]:—Odin, Wodan, the name of the founder of the ancient Northern and Teutonic religion, who was afterwards worshipped as the supreme god, the fountain-head of wisdom, the founder of culture, writing, and poetry, the progenitor of kings, the lord of battle and victory; so that his name and that of Allföðr (Allfather, the father of gods and men) were blended together. For Odin as an historical person see esp. Yngl. S., the first chapters of which were originally written by Ari the historian, who himself traced his pedigree back to Odin. For the various tales of Odin as a deity see the Edda and the old poems; for the legends explaining how Odin came by his wisdom, how he was inspired, how he pawned his eye in the well of Mimir, see Vsp. 22; how he hung in the world-tree Yggdrasil, Hm. 139 sqq.; and the most popular account, how he carried away the poetical mead from the giant Suptung, etc., see Hm. 104–110. and Edda 47–49; for his travelling in disguise in search of wisdom among giants and Norns, Vþm., Gm., Vsp. For Odin’s many names and attributes see Edda (Gl.) The greatest families, the Ynglings in Sweden, Skjöldungs in Denmark, and the Háleygir in Norway, traced their pedigrees back to Odin, see the poems Ýt., Ht., Langfeðgatal. In translations from the Latin, Odin was, strangely enough, taken to represent Mercury; thus, kölluðu þeir Pál Óðin, en Barnabas Þór, they called Paul Odin, but Barnabas they called Thor, is an ancient rendering of Acts xiv. 12, cp. Clem., Bret., and passim. This seems to have originated with the Romans themselves; for Tacitus says, ‘deorum maxime Mercurium colunt,’ by which he can only mean Wodan; the Romans may have heard the German tales of Wodan’s wonderful travels, his many assumed names and disguises, his changes of shape, his eloquence, his magical power,—tales such as abound in the Edda,—and these might make the Romans think of the Greek legends of Hermes: accordingly, when the planetary week days were adopted from the Lat., ‘dies Mercurii’ was rendered into A. S. by Wodansdäg, in Engl. Wednesday, in Dan. Onsdag, in Norse Óðins-dagr, Orkn. 386, Fms. ix. 282: Óðins-nótt, f. Wednesday night, N. G. L. i. 17. Óðins-hani, a, m. a bird, tringa hyperborea, or the phalaropus cinereus, or the red phalarope, see Fjölnir viii, Faber, Edda (Gl.) II. Northern local names, Óðins-vé, n. the sanctuary of Odin = Odense in Fünen in Denmark, Knytl. S.: Óðins-salr, m. in Norway. Munch’s Norg. Beskr. 79: Óðins-lundr, m. Odin’s grove. In a single instance Athens is rendered by Óðins-borg, and the Athenians by Óðins-borgar-menn, Post. 645. 90; the name can only have been formed from the Greek name pronounced with the th sound, perhaps by the Northmen at Constantinople, who may have associated the name, thus sounded, with Odin’s supposed travels from the east to Sweden, and his halts at various places, which were afterwards called after him, as recorded in Yngl. S. As a pr. name, Othen villicus, Dipl. Arna-Magn. (Thorkelin) i. 23; Oden Throndsson, D. N. iv. 756, 764; Ódin-dís, f., Baut., but very rare. It is noteworthy that the name of Odin is, in the old poets, hardly ever used as appellative in poët. circumlocutions of a ‘man;’ málm-Óðinn is a απ. λεγ. = warrior.

óð-inndæla, u, f. a απ. λεγ., [qs. of-inndæla (?) from of and eindæll or inndæll = strange, odd]:—a puzzle (?); ek skal kæra um óðindælu mína sjálfs, I have to complain of my puzzle, an accident that has happened to me, Fms. vi. 374.

óð-inndæll, adj. [see the preceding word], self-willed, puzzling (?); miklu eru menn þeir óðindælli en vér fám við þeim séð, they are much too headstrong, more than a match for us, Fms. xi. 151; er nú einsætt at láta sverfa til stáls með oss, ok eigi víst hvárt færi manna óðindælla verðr en svá (seems here to stand for ú-óðindælla (?) = less embarrassing opportunity), Sturl. i. 157.

óðins-liga, adv., Ísl. ii. 198, read ó-þínsliga, unlike thee.

óðlask, að, to get possessed of; see öðlak.

óð-látr, adj. headstrong, impatient, Korm. 80, Fms. viii. 447.

óð-liga adv. rashly, impatiently, Eg. 543, Valla L. 218, Fms. ii. 236.

óð-ligr, adj. rash, vehement.

óð-lundaðr, adj. headstrong, Korm. 80.

óð-málugr, adj. speaking violently, excited, Orkn. 430, Ísl. ii. 318, Finnb. 280.

ÓÐR, adj., óð, ótt, [Ulf. wôds = δαιμονιζόμενος; A. S. wod; Engl. wood, Chaucer, Spenser; Scot. wud; Germ. wüthend]:—mad, frantic; nú verðr maðr svá óðr, at hann brýzt ór böndum, N. G. L. ii. 54 (band-óðr, mad so as to be kept in bonds); hestrinn var óðr ok kornfeitr, Fms. xi. 280; óðr maðr, a madman, Grág. i. 155; óðs manns víg, óðs manns verk, N. G. L. i. 64; óðr hundr, a mad dog, Pr. 473. 2. frantic, furious, vehement, eager; ólmr ok óðr, Fms. iv. 111; hann görðisk svá óðr at hann kastaði skildinum, Eg. 289; görði hann sik óðan um, Fs. 6l; göra sik óðan ok reidan, Fb. i. 559; svá vórn þeir óðir, Fms. vii. 270: hvárt þeir leggja því betr fram en ek, sem þeir eru óðari, 259; vóru þeir óðastir á þetta mál, Ld. 210; hann var óðr at verki sínu, Nj. 58; hann lét sem hann væri óðr ok ærr at íshögginu, Fms. vi. 337: of a thing, violent, óðr útsynningr, a violent gale, Bs. ii. 50; orrosta óð ok mannskæð, Fms. i. 44; bardagi sem óðastr, vii. 265, Nj. 247; óðr byrr, Hm. 89; ótt veðr, Am. 18. II. neut., ótt e-m er ótt um e-t, to be impatient; var þeim Þorgilsi ótt til at flytja líkit í brott, Fms. v. 98; hann kallaði sér þó ótt um ferðina, vi. 375; Flosi fór at engu óðara en hann væri heima, not more rashly than if, as calmly as if, he were at home, Nj. 220; vér skulum fara at engu ótt, not hastily, Háv. 48; fékk konungr sótt ok fór ekki mjök ótt í fyrstu, Fms. ix. 249. 2. adverb, phrase, ótt ok títt, vehemently and rapidly; þeir reiddu ótt sverðin ok hjuggu títt, Fms. ii. 322; drjúpa mjök ótt, vi. 351: acc. óðan, as adv., bera óðan á, to talk fast and vehemently.

ÓÐR, m., gen. óðs and óðar, [totally different from the preceding word, but akin to Ulf. wods in weit-’wods’ = μαρτύς, weit-wodan = μαρτυρειν, weit-wodiþa, weit-wodei = μαρτύριον; cp. also Icel. æði = sense, wit, manner, answering to the Goth. weit-wodei]:—mind, wit, soul, sense, Lat. mens, Gr. νους; the old Vsp. distinguishes between three parts of the human soul,—önd, óðr, and læ, spirit, mind, and craft (?); the önd was breathed into man by Odin, the óðr by Hænir, the læ by Löðurr; the faculty of speech seems also to be included in the óðr. The tale in Plato’s Protagoras is an interesting illustration of the Northern legend as briefly told (and only there) in Vsp. 17, 18: tryggva óð, hafa góðan óð, to be of good cheer, Nj. (in a verse). 2. song, poetry; bragr, hróðr, óðr, mærð, lof, Edda 95:—metre, sá er óðinn skal vandan velja, Lil. 98; óðar-smiðr, a ‘song-smith’ = poet, Eg. (in a verse); óðar-ár, ‘speech-oar,’ Geisli 37; and óðar-lokarr, ‘speech-plane,’ i. e. the tongue, Edda (in a verse); óðar-rann, mind’s abode, Likn. 1. óð-borg, f. ‘mind’s-borough’ = the breast, Harms, 1. óð-gerð, f. versification, Geisli. II. Óðr, the husband of Freyja, Vsp. 29; in the tale in Edda of Freyja, she wanders over the earth seeking for her lost husband and weeping for him golden tears, (answering to the Gr. tales of Demeter as told in the Homeric hymn.)

óð-ræði, n. counsel of wisdom or a council (?); hverr mér hugaðr á hlið standi, annarr þegn við óðræði, what other man shall stand by my side, as a friend, in the council? i. e. where am I now to look for friendly help and comfort? Stor. 14; this we believe is the bearing of the passage, and not as explained in Lex. Poët. (= a row, tumult, fight, from óðr, adj.)

óð-rærir, m. a ‘rearer’ or inspirer of wisdom, one of the holy vessels in which the blood of Kvásir was kept, Edda; in Hm. 107 it is used of the mead itself = the inspiring nectar.

óðum, adv. rapidly; jafn-óðum.

óð-verki, adj. taken with violent aches or pains, Gísl. 48.

óð-viðri, n. a violent gale, Ó. H. 26.

ó-elja, u, f. restlessness, Ísl. Þjóðs.

Ófóti, a, m. the name of a giant, Edda (Gl.)

ófreskja, u, f. a monster; the word is not recorded in old writers, but is freq. in mod. usage; it originally meant an apparition which can only be seen by people endued with second sight (see ófreskir); ófreskja and skrímsl are used synonymously; eg heiti ekki náðugr herra, svaraði ófreskjan, en eg heiti skrímsl, … Já, svaraði skrímslið, góðgjarn er eg, en eg er ófreskja, … Til eru margar manneskjur sem eru meiri ófreskjur en þér, Kveldv. ii. 162 sqq. in the tale of the Beauty and the Beast.

ófreskr, adj., qs. of-freskr (?), a mythol. word, endowed with second sight, able to see ghosts and apparitions which are hidden from the common eye; þat sá ófreskir menn at landvættir allar fylgðu Hafrbirni til þings, en þeim Þorsteini ok Þórði til veiðar ok fiskjar, Landn. 271; Geirhildr hét fjölkunnig kona ok meinsöm, þat sá ófreskir menn, at …, 212; þat sá ó. maðr um kveld nær dagsetri, at björn mikill gékk …, 289; ok sá hana þeir einir er ófreskir vóru, Bs. i. 607; ok inargir sj;i þat olreskir mean, ok svá þeir er eigi vóru ófreskir, Fms. xi. 136; hann sá öngir menn í bardaga útan þeir er ófreskir vóru, Fb. i. 571 (of seeing a person invisible in a cap of darkness). The word is now obsolete in Icel., and ‘skygn’ is used instead; it remains in ófreskja, q. v.

ófrýnliga, adv. frowningly, Fms. i. 70 (spelt úfrýnliga).

ófrýnligr, adj. frowntng-like, frowning, Fær. 50, Fms. ii. 101, Boll. 358, Orkn. 440.

ófrýnn, adj., qs. of-frýnn, see frýnn:—frowning, Eg. 765, Ó. H. 144, 167 (spelt ofrynn).

ÓGN, f. dread, terror; ógn stendr af e-u, to inspire terror; svá stóð þeim af honum ógn mikil, Nj. 68; svá stóð mikil ógn af orðum konungs, Fms. xi. 246; þótti honum lítil ógn af þeim standa, i. 26; maðr kom til hans ljóss, ok af honum stóð mikil ógn, Ó. H. 107. 2. menaces, threats, esp. in plur.; enga ógn býð ek þér at sinni, Ísl. ii. 253; hvárki ógnir né blíðmæli, Lv. 69; með blíðmælum ok ógnum, Fms. i. 109; þéir hræddusk eigi ógnir jarls, Blas. 45; ógnir mótstöðu-manna várra, 623. 35: terrors, of the torments of hell, sá þar í ógnir margar, Nj. 279; allar ógnir þær er helgengnir hafa, Sól.; hann varð hræddr mjök við ógn þessa, Ó. H. 107. II. gen. ógnar-, prefixed as adv. awfully; ógnar-digr, awfully stout, Fb. i. 258; ógnar hár, awfully high. Fas. iii. 480; ógnar mikill, awfully great, Stj. 372, 434: in mod. usage joined with almost any adjective, ógnar-breiðr, -brattr, -djúpr, awfully broad, steep, deep. COMPDS: ógnar-andi, a, m. spirit of terror, Stj. 643. ógnar-boð, n. a dreadful message, Fms. x. 54, Stj. 447, 649. ógnar-dómr, m. an awful doom, 677. 13. ógnar-eyrendi, n. = ógnarboð, Stj. 642. ógnar-geisli, a, m. a dreadful ray, Fms. v. 166. ógnar-hlutr, m. a dire apparition, Sks. 154. ógnar-laust, n. adj. without horror, Sks. 9. ógnar-ligr, adj. (-liga, adv.), awful, Fms. v. 241, Sks. 155. ógnar-mál and ógnar-orð, n. pl. menacing words, Stj. 643, Greg. 74, Fms. i. 216, vii. 104, x. 292, xi. 408. ógnar-raust and ógnar-rödd, f. a dreadful voice, Fb. i. 417, Greg. 39.

ÓGNA, að, [Ulf. ôgan = φοβεισθαι; cp. Icel. agi = awe, A. S. ôga, which point to an obsolete strong verb, aga, óg]:—to threaten, with dat.; þér hafit öðrum ógnat, Fms. ii. 266; hann fékk eigi fyrr en hann ógnaði honum til, Sd. 142; hann ógnaði þeim, Fms. x. 217. 2. with a double dat,; ógna e-m e-u, to threaten one with a thing; ógna e-m dauða, Stj. 35; ógna e-m hegningu, 47; þú ógnar oss Guði þínu, er blint er ok dauft, Ó. H. 109; ógnaði bráðum bruna allri hans eign, Fms. ii. 236. 3. ógna, to be afraid, Al. 34. II. reflex, to be overawed; ógnask ok skelfask, Hom. 143; ógnask e-t, to fear, stand aghast at a thing, 144; hann ógnask mjök at höggva til hans, O. H. L. 3.

ógnan, f. awe, menace, Fms. x. 274.

ó-grynni = örgrynni, q. v.

ógur-leikr, m. aufulness, Stj. 314.

ógur-liga, adv. awfully, Fas. i. 383, Fb. i. 258, Fms. iii. 111, passim.

ógur-ligr, adj. (not ógrligr), awful, Nj. 183, Fms. vi, 376, vii. 172, viii. 8, x. 241, 242, Ísl. ii. 447, Ó. H. 108, Hom. 13, Fbr. 57 new Ed., Sks. 159, 229, 643, Stj. 96, Bret. 96, and passim.

ó-hljóð, n., qs. ofhljóð, a violent singing sound, esp. in the ears, see ú-hljóð; óhljóðs-eyru, the valves of the heart:—but also = ofheyrn, q. v., sér er hver óhljóðs eyrun á þér! of a person imagining that he hears things which have never been spoken.

ó-hræsi, n. a loathsome thing, 623. 17 (where spelt ohresi), Ísl. ii. 420 (spelt óręsi), Fas. ii. 263, freq. in mod. usage; þú ert mesta úhræsi! óhræsið þitt, thou naughty thing!

ó-já, interj. oh yes, yes yes!

ÓL, f. a strap; var höfuðit komit á ólina, Bs. i. 314; the ó, which is kept throughout all the cases, is a remains of the old umlaut; for the references see ál.

Óláfr, m. Olave, an old and favourite pr. name; the oldest form seems to have been Áleifr, from Anleifr, as seen from rhymes, e. g. Áleifr is made to rhyme with reifum, kleif, or the like, Hallfred passim; and, on the other hand, Áláfr with stála, hála, Eg. (in a verse), Fms. vi. (in a verse): then the ei was changed into á, Áláfar frið gálu, Sighvat: then the initial á into ó, and Óláfr is made to rhyme with sól in a poem of the end of the 11th century: lastly, the medial á into a, Ólafr. This Norse name is rendered by Anlâf in the Saxon Chron., and by Amlabh in the Irish Chroniclers; thus Righ Amlabh = king Olave the White in Dublin, see pref. p. iv: in local names, Ólafs-dalr, -fjörðr, -vík, Landn.: Ólafs-dælir, m. pl. the men from Olave-dale, Gullþ. The answering fem. pr. name is Álöf (the still older Áleif, qs. Anleif, is not recorded), mod. Ólöf, Landn. 2. compds referring to St. Olave; Ólafs-gildi, -kirkja, -messa, -dagr, -vaka, = St. Olave’s guild, church, mass, day, vigil, Sturl. i. 23, ii. 99, Vm. 24, Fms. ix. 8, 341, x. 14; Ólafs korn, sáð, skot, tollr, a tithe in corn to St. Olave, N. G. L. i. 142, 346, 460; Ólafs minni, see minni, ii. 445; Ólafs Saga, St. Olave’s Saga, Vm. 20; Ólafs skript, 21; Ólafs súð, the name of a ship, Ann. 1360. (St. Olave’s Church, Bridge, etc., still exist in London, Norfolk, and Suffolk.)

ó-lekja, u, f. curded milk with the whey, whilst in the tub; when the whey has been strained off it it called skyr. (mod.)

ÓLGA, u, f. [akin to válgr (?), changing into ó]:—a swell, swelling, esp. of water; sævar ólga, the swell of the sea, Fas. ii. 378, freq. in mod. usage; cp. also ylgja = the rolling, of waves. ólgu-sjór, a rolling swell of sea.

ólga, að, to swell; ólgandi Þverá. (the swoln Cross-water) veltr yfir sanda, Snót 12, passim in mod. usage.

ólmast, að, dep. to rage, rave, act or work furiously.

ólm-leikr, m. fury. Post. 114.

ólm-liga, adv. furiously, savagely, Nj. 104, Karl. 520.

ólm-ligr, adj. furious, savage, Fas. iii. 411, Ld. 234.

ÓLMR, adj. savage, furious, worrying; ólmr hundr, a savage dog, Grág. ii. 119; halda e-m sem ólmum hundi, Grett. 93: the saying, opt hefir ólmr hundr rifit skinn, a savage dog has often a torn skin; óarga dýr, svá at þau væri ólmari en áðr, Ver. 31; ólmt kykvendi, a savage beast, Grág. ii. 117; ólmr ok údæll, Fms. v. 240; ólmr ok óðr, iv. 111; hinir verða ólmari æ því meir, Sturl. ii. 8.

ÓLPA, u, f., mod. úlpa, a kind of outer cloak, a fur cloak as it seems; ólpu eðr kápu, Jb. 187; græn ólpa, Fms. ii. 16, Fs. 92 (in a verse); loð-ólpa (q. v.), a fur cloak; á þá mynd sem ólpa eðr loðkápa, Mag. 63; ólpu-maðr, a cloaked man, Fms. ii. 17.

óma, að, to resound: part. ómandi, sounding, resounding; ómandi stólpa gangr, rendering of Homer’s αἴθουσα ἐρίδουπος.

óman or ómun, f. sound, voice; ómon þverr, the voice fails, falters, Skv. 3. 68; heitir ok rödd ómun, Edda 110: ómun-lokarr, m. ‘sound-plane,’ i. e. the tongue, Ad. 16; see lokarr.

Ómi, a, m. one of the names of Odin or Allfather, Gm., Edda: a personification of the wind as the voice of God (cp. 1 Kings xix. 12, God speaking to man through the ‘still small voice’ of the wind).

ÓMR, m. [A. S. woma and wom and dæg-woma = aurora], sound, voice, esp. of a tinkling sound such as a peal of bells heard afar off; klingir mér fyrir eyrum ómr, a sound tinkles in my ears, Bjarni; held eg sem helgan dóm, hörpunnar sætan óm, a ditty: the word is freq. in mod. usage, but is not recorded in old writers, for Edda i. 544, v. l., is from a paper MS.

ón, f. = ván, hope, Am. 67, Ls. 36, Hom. 60.

ón, prep. = án (q. v.), without, Fms. xi. 111, 153, Eluc. 38, 39, Alm. 7, and passim in the oldest vellums; see án.

ó-nei, interj. oh no!

ónn, m. = ofn (q. v.) according to pronunciation; óns-hús, n. a close stove, Bs. ii. 256.

ÓP, n. [cp. Ulf. wôpjan = φωνειν, βοαν; A. S. wôp; Engl. whoop, weep]:—a shouting, crying: 1. without the notion of weeping; með ópi ok eggjan, Stj. 365; heyrðu þeir óp mikit, Fs. 143; þá varð óp mikit (a great shouting) at Lögbergi, Nj. 15; en er Egill heyrði óp þat, Eg. 296; æpa sigr-óp, shouting victory, id., 298, Fms. viii. 141, Karl. 365, 368; her-óp, a war-whoop, Nj. 245, Eg. 80. Ó. H. 107, Orkn., Stj. passim; hrinda upp ópi, to raise the war-cry. Fas. i. 254 (in a verse). 2. a crying, weeping aloud; þá setti hann upp mikit óp, ok í þeim angistar ekka, … gráta með ópi miklu, Stj. 167; stóð hann þar ok grét aumliga, þessi maðr bað hann ganga inn í búðina ok taka af sér ópit, Ölk. 35; óps ok ýlfranar, Matth. ii. 18; óp og tanna gnístan, weeping and gnashing of teeth, xiii. 50; setr hon upp stór óp, she set up a great howling, Bs. ii. 87; sló síðan ópi á barnit, the child began to weep, i. 341; þeir sögðu konu hans þenna atburð, en hón kunni ílla ok grét hátt … hann taldi sér leiðask óp hennar, Edda 48.

ópi, a, m. a magical Rune character, causing hysterics, Skm.

óp-ligr, adj. weeping: með ópligum tárum, with weeping tears, Greg. 39.

ÓR or or, written with o in older vellums, or now and then even with y, yr; in later MSS. with u, ur, which in mod. Icel. is sounded long, úr. In other Teut. languages this prep. has been lost as an independent word; only the Goth. has us = ἐκ, ἀπό, and the O. H. G. ar, ir, ur, which in mid. H. G. was lost and replaced by the adverb aus, O. H. G. uz, answering to Icel. út. Engl. out, a word altogether different from ór, see Grimm’s Dict. s. v. er; ur, however, survived as a prefixed particle in a countless number of compds, in A. S. â-, in O. H. G. ar-, ir-, in mid. H. G. and Germ. er-; causal verbs are formed by means of this prefixed particle, e. g. Goth. us-wakjan, A. S. â-weccan, Engl. to awaken, O. H. G. ar-wechan, Germ. er-wecken. In the Scandin. languages, on the other hand, the independent prep. has been preserved in its fullest extent, whereas the prefixed particle is rare, mostly wiih adjectives, and is sounded and spelt ör-, e. g. ör-endr = exanimis; seldom er-, for erlendr (q. v.) is different; ór- or úr- seems to belong only to words of later formation, as ór-lausn, ór-skurðr, úr-kast, úr-þvætti, refuse; úr-hættis, out of time (from skera ór, kasta úr). These compds will be given under the head of ör- and úr-. The quantity of the root-vowel in the particle or, ur is an unsettled question; the German and Saxon forms er-, ar-, as also the Icel. prefixed ör-, seem to indicate a short, the present Icel. pronunciation úr- a long, vowel. The MSS. in these cases give no help; in this Dictionary it has been assumed as long (ór) in deference to the majority of Editions and the present Icel. spelling and pronunciation.

A. Out of, from; as remarked in the introduction to the prep. af, the prep. ór (p. 3, col. 2) denotes from the inside of a thing (out of which), and in most cases corresponds to í, so that the same case which goes with ór would also go with í, (and thus it answers to í with dat., see í A. I-III); tekinn ór jörðu, taken out of the earth (answering to í jörðu, of anything lying in the earth), Fms. i. 51; ór skóginum, vi. 225; yr afrétt, Grág. ii. 233; yr héraði, Ísl. ii. 322, 333; fara ór landi, to leave the country, Fms. vi. 284; ór Þrándheimi, Eg. 32 (opp. to í Þrándheimi); ór Tungu, Nj. 95, 192; Ísland bygðisk ór Noregi. from Norway, Íb. 4; austan ór Smálöndum, Nj. 122; ór Breiðafirði, Ísl. ii. 368; ór Eyjum (all names compounded from Ey), Landn. passim; ór Mön, from the Isle of Man, Nj. 138; ór Hrafnistu (an island), 164; ór Þjóttu (a Norse island), Fms. iv. 275; ór Skógi, Skógum, Nj. 89; ór Gili, 113; ór Mörk, 192; ór Þórólfsfelli, 39; ór Saurbæ, 164; ór Garði, Landn., Nj. 164; cp. i, p. 315, col. 2 (A. loc. II); er þá bar ór hafi, Fms. ii. 64; ór lopti, passim; úr eldi, Nj. 132; ór vötnum, Fms. i. 226; ór höll, xi. 16; ór Valhöllu, Nj. 132; ór tjaldi, Fms. ii. 268; ór garði, Nj. 54; ór kirkju, Fms. ix. 471; ór poka, Ld. 202; hús ór húsi, from house to house, Bs. i. 386; flokk ór flokki, Karl. 244; ór gólfinu, Ld. 53; ór húsum, Grág. ii. 336; ór norðri, suðri, vestri, austri, Eg. 133: ór hendi, out of one’s hand, Greg. 62, Nj. 84: the phrase, bíða ór stað, to bide ‘out of’ one’s place, i. e. to bide without moving, Ó. H. (in a verse). 2. with adverbs; ofan ór fjalli, Eg. 766: niðr ór, Fms. iii 94; fram ór, out of; út úr, out of, (Goth. ût-;us, whence arose the mod Germ. aus); út ór hringinum, Ld. 276. 3. ok ræðr lækr ór henni til sævar, Dipl. ii. 2; festina er ór var fjötrinum, Edda 20; þit skulut spyrja ór kaupstefnu, to ask news from the meeting, Ísl. ii. 346; ráðask ór hernaði, to leave off freebooting, Eg. 2; komask ór barnæsku, Sturl. i. 226; vakna ór svefni, to wake out of sleep, 623. 14; rísa upp ór dauða, 655 ix. C. 1; segjask ór lögum, to secede, Íb. 11; vera ór sögunni, to be out of the story, Nj. 22, 120; falla ór minni, Bs. i. 39.

B. Metaph., denoting forfeiture; þá er hann útlagr ok ór goðorði sínu, Grág. i. 33; ok ór öllum skrúðanum, and stripped off all their ornaments, Nj. 132. 2. of a part of the whole; þessir téllu ór liði Haralds, Eg. 11; kveðja fimm búa yr sóknar kvið, Grág ii. 208; ryðja búa ór kviði, kvöð, Nj. 110; menn sakna Skeggja ór flokkinum, Grett. 30 new Ed.; maðr andask ór kvöðinni, Band. 14 new Ed.; Joseph var ór kyni Davíðs, Post.; þriðjungr ór feti, Rb. 482. 3. denoting cause; andask, deyja ór sárum, sótt, to die of wounds, sickness. Eg. 36, Landn. 217, Fms. ii. 164, Sks. 594. 4. of the substance of which a thing is made (see af C. III); ór járni, of iron, Nj. 272; ór gulli, silfri, Akv. 7; þat er ór jörðu, Eluc. 9; ór Ymis holdi var jörð of sköpuð, en ór sveita siár, björg or beinum, baðinr ór hari, en or hausi himin, en or hans heila, etc., Vþm.; úr hári, ullu, etc.; ór osti, Fms. vi. 253. 5. of changing from one state to another, from; ek veil ekki hvat ór honum er orðit, 623. 53; verða at ösku ór miklu mannvirki, Al. 48; görir heimska ór herskum, Hm. 93; auka ór því sem áðr hafði verit, beyond what it was, Al. 145, Nj. 192; hefir þú nokkut samit þik ór því sem var, Ísl. ii. 211: þurru mjök vinsældir hans ór því sem vóru, they dwindled from what they had been, Fms. x. 160; ór hófi (cp. öróf, öræfi), exceeding, out of measure; allt ór hófi, Al. 54; fégjarn ór hófi, Rb. 370; ganga ór dæmum, beyond example, unexampled. Fms. i. 214, viii. 52. II. ellipt. and adverb. usages; annarra brjóstum ór, Hm.; skar ór spjótið, to cut through, Hkr. i. 37; ok skar út ór, Fms. i. 217. III. with verbs; fara ór, to take off a garment, Nj. 279; ganga ýr, to withdraw, 86, 113; fyrr en ór sliti (ór-slit), till it was all over, 105; skera ór, to decide; leysa ór, to read a riddle, answer, Fms. ii. 283; ráða ór (ór-ræði), to solve a difficulty, Nj. 177, 243; ok hefir þú ílla ór haft við mik, thou hast behaved badly towards me, Fs. 140. IV. ór því, since; nú er at segja hvat görðisk í Noregs ór því hann var í burtu farinn, Fas. ii. 84: causal, since, úr því þú vilt það, since thou wishest it, mod. V. double prepp. as adv. ellipt. and as prep.; tók ór verk allan yr augum hans, Bs. i. 336; at ór sé grátraust ór skapi hans, Nj. 82.

óra, að. = vára (q. v.), to become spring, Orkn. (in a verse).

óra, pres. órir, [órar], to rave, play pranks; órir gestr við gest, Hm. 31: the mod. phrase, mig órar til þess, to recollect dimly, of a long by-gone time.

ÓRAR, f. pl., in mod. usage masc. pl. [cp. ærr = insane] fits of madness; þegar tók af honum órarnar er Davíð lék hörpuna, Stj. 467; mæla órar, to talk wildly, Mar. 1071; segi ek yðr satt, at hón bar eigi óra í augum, Bs. i. 204; hann varð ærr ok sagði í órunum (in fits of delirium) hvat þeir höfðu gört, Magn. 522; hann görði sér órar (feigned insanity) ok lét sem hann félli í brottfall, Landn. (Hb.) 215; af órum ok vitleysi, Stj. 467; höfuð-órar (q. v.), delirium. 2. wild fancies, frolics; trúir þú þegar á órar þær, er sá maðr ferr með, Ó. H. 107; þessum mun ek við bregða Áslaugar órunum, Fas. i. 257: wild pranks, mad freaks, órar (ravings) eru úrækðir órar (our), Skálda 162; ærsli og órar; þat er ok óronum næst (there will be mad doings) er veslu batnar, Al. 4; draum-órar, wild dream-fancies. COMPDS: óra-belgr, m. a merry-maker: in mod. usage of youths or children, þú ert mesti ó. óra-ferð, f. a mad undertaking, Grett. 153 A. óra-maðr, m. a madman, frantic, Post. 192. óra-mál, n. a mad talk. Post. 645. 82. óra-vegr, m. a way of immense length, an immense distance; það er mesti óravegr, mod., perh. corrupt from afar, ofr. óra-verk, n. a law term, a deed done in a state of insanity, Grág. ii. 64.

ór-dauðr, adj. extinct, quite dead, Bs. i. 879; cp. ördauða.

ór-för, f. departure; krefja arfs ok órfarar, N. G. L. i. 53 (Jb. 158 B).

ó-ristinn, adj., in the phrase, liggja óristinn, of one who lies down to rest without taking off his clothes.

ór-kosta, u, f. = órkostr; deyja frá allri órkostu, Am. 58.

ór-kostr, m. means, resources; hafa, eiga, órkost til e-s, Grág. i. 185, ii. 155, K. Þ. K. 90: in the mod. phrase, eiga einskis úrkosti, to be destitute of means.

ór-lausn, f., mod. úr-lausn, [leysa ór], solution of a difficulty, an expedient, help; hann segir sik vera í heyþroti, ok krefr órlausna, Ísl. ii. 132; hann skal sjálfr þeirra vandræði ábyrgjask en hrepps-menn eru til engra órlausna skyldir, Grág. i. 490; vilt þú, búandi, selja oss korn? væri oss þat ó. ef vér þyrfum eigi lengra at fara, hér skalt þú fá þá órlausn, at þurfa eigi at fara lengra, Ó. H. 112: the mod. phrase, göra e-m úrlausn, to let one not go empty-handed away. 2. an answer, a reply, the reason given to a question; þér munut einskis þess spyrja er ek kunna eigi órlausn til, Fms. x. 329; vænti ek góðrar órlausnar ok andsvara, Sks. 306; engi spyrr hann þeirra hluta er eigi kann hann órlausn, Edda 47; órlausn til allra spurninga, Hkr. i. 269: a decision, skulu görðar-menn leita órlausna at lögum, Grág. i. 495; enda sé eigi aðrar órlausnir til mæltar. 490; til yðvarrar órlausnar stunda allir er vanda-málum eigu at skipta, Sks. 13.

ór-lauss, adj. free, disengaged, Nj. 76, v. l.

ór-nám, n. a picking out, of challenging neighbours, Grág. i. 31, 51.

órr, adj. an obsolete form = várr (q. v.), our; mara óra, Hkv. Hjörv. 5; órr alda-föðr, Vþm. 4; órum höllum, 7; óru hofi, Hým. 33; óru skipi, Hkv. Hjörv. 33; ór salkynni, Skm. 17; töður órar, Kormak; guð ór, Clem. 44; leið óra, 40; augu ór, Greg. 21; önd óra, Hom.; afrétt óra, Grág. ii. 314 A; krapta óra. Niðrst. 2; lögum órum, id.; lög ór, Íb. 17; byskopum órum, 3; órum löndum, Grág.; Drottni órum, 623. 7; úrækðir órar, Skálda 62 (Thorodd, with a nasal sound).

ór-ráð, n. = órræði; hvert órráð (yrráð Cd.) skulum vér nú taka, Ó. H. 88; órráð vár kvenna verða jafnan með lítilli forsjá, Ld. 42; munt þú trúa mér bezt til órráða um þitt mál, Nj. 12; liggja hér til miklu betri órráð um þetta mál, Fms. xi. 11; til atkvæðis ok órráða, 33.

ór-ræði, n., mod. úr-ræði, [ráða ór e-u], an expedient; varð þat hans ó. (vrræði Cd.) at, … sagði hann órræðit eigi gott. Fb. iii. 448. 449; þat varð ó. Özurar, at …, Dropl. 25; þótti honum þurfa nökkurra órræða í at leita, Rd. 238; hér eru skjót órræði til, Fms. ii. 7; taka gott órræði, v. 272; hvert órræði (help) vilt þú veita mér, Nj. 31, Glúm. 352; hann hafði mörg órræði (many sources) til penninga, Bárð. 173. COMPDS: órræða-lauss, adj. helpless. órræða-leysi, n. helplessness.

ór-skurða, að, to decide, give a legal decision. Stat. 296, D. N., and in mod. usage.

ór-skurðr, m., mod. úr-skurðr, [skera úr e-u], a decision; veita órskurð um e-t, Fms. i. 42, v. 333; vil ek heyra fleiri manna órskurð (opinion) um þetta mál, Hkr. i. 155; en er Norðmönnum þótti seinkask órskurðrinn, Fms. vi. 20; fengusk þeir órskurðir, at …, Hkr. iii. 306; ráðit hefi ek skjótan órskurð um þetta mál okkat, Lv. 53. 2. a legal decision, of a debated question; gefa með fám orðum fullan órskurð, Gþl. (pref. v); tóku hvárir-tveggju Gunnlaug til órskurðar …, hvárir-tveggju undu vel við órskurðinn, Ísl. ii. 233; nú höfu vit skotið þrætu okkarri til yðvars órskurðar, Fms. vii. 203; koma til biskups órskurðar, K. Á. 118: lögmanns órskurðr, D. N. i. 93. COMPDS: ór-Skurðar-bréf, n. a writ of arbitration, Pm. 43, Bs. i. (Laur. S.) ór-skurðar-maðr, m. an umpire, Ísl. ii. 233.

ór-slit, n. pl., mod. úr-slít, [slíta úr], a final decision; hann veitti engi órslit. Sturl. i. 149; vóru oss engi órslit veitt, Ísl. ii. 315; ek hefi veitt eigi órslit hingat til um þat mál, Ó. H. 141; ok urðu engi ó. gör af þeim, O. H. L. 95.

ór-tölur, f. pl. dissuasion; hafa úrtölur um e-t.

ór-vinda, adj., proncd. úrvinda, [the word is not recorded in old writers: the etymology may be from úr and vyndi, qs. yndi, Germ. wonne, = out of rest, out of cheer; if so, it would be an interesting instance of the retention of the w before y]:—restless, distressed, esp. of a person distressed from want of sleep, e. g. a child crying incessantly is said to be úrvinda; barnið er úrvinda, það er úrvinda af svefni, distressed for want of sleep.

ór-völ, n. pl. [velja úr], refuse; en mér þykki þó íllt at hafa af órvöl ein, Hrafn. 5. II. in mod. usage úrval, sing. = the choice of a thing.

ó-ræsti [see ræsta]; þú ert mesta óræsti. naughty thing!

ÓSK, f. dat. ósk, but ósku when it is a pr. name, [A. S. wiscan; Engl. wish; O. H. G. wunsc; Germ. wunsch; Dan. önske]:—a wish; þessi ósk veitisk þér, Fb. i. 31, passim: freq. in plur., ok er gott góðu at una er yðr gengr allt at óskum, Fas. i. 189; þú ert virðinga-maðr mikill ok gengit lengi at óskum líf þitt, Glúm. 337; ok þótti Helga þetta má hafa at óskum gengit, Dropl. 14:—óska-vel, all as one wishes, Fb. i. 34. COMPDS: óska-barn, n. a chosen, adopted child, 625. 179; óskabarna andi, Rom. viii. 15; eptir óskabarna réttinum, 23; hverjum óskabarna réttr til heyrir, ix. 4. óska-björn, n. [Ivar Aasen fiske-bjorn = fish-bear], a kind of crab, Lat. oniscus; óska-björn is evidently a corruption from the Latin oniscus, which then gave rise to the legend that whosoever possessed the ‘oniscus’ might have a ‘wish’ (ósk) granted. óska-byrr, m. a wind to one’s mind, a fair wind to one’s heart’s content, Hkv. 2. 30; the word may have a mythical bearing, as in the tale of Odd the Archer, who had but to hoist the sail to have a fair wind whithersoever he wished—a popular legend analogous to Homer’s Od. x. óska-sonr, m. an adopted son, Edda 13, Fas. ii. 242. óska-steinn, m. a ‘wish-stone,’ is the globe-formed ovarium of the oniscus; for another record see Maurer’s Volks. 182; it is also called Pétrs-vaðsteinn, q. v. óska-stund, f. the ‘wish-hour,’ for in the popular belief there is a point of time as short as the twinkling of an eye, recurring, some say, every day, others every week, or every year; and whatsoever one wishes at that moment comes to pass: hence the phrase, þú hefir hitt óskastundina, thou hast hit on the ‘wish-hour,’ when a person has a piece of luck. Akin to this is the legend of three wishes granted to one by some good fairy; hence the phrase, eiga sér ósk, to own a wish; eina vildi eg eiga mér óskina svó góða, a ditty, Maurer’s Volksagen. II. a pr. name of a woman, dat. Ósku, Landn.

ósk-barn, n. = óskabarn, Al. 45, Clem. 24.

ósk-berni, n. = óskbarn, Stj. 103, 252.

Óski, a, m. the god Wish, one of the names of the highest god, All-father (Odin), Gm., Edda 2; only the name, not the legend, of this god is left. The name reminds one of the god Eros, as described by Socrates in Plato’s Symposium.

ósk-mær, f. the chosen maid, the name of the Valkyriur, who were the chosen maids of Odin, Og. 18: = eskimær, Fas. i. 118.

ósk-mögr, m. = óskasonr, Ls. 16, Eluc. 61: a beloved son, Fagrsk. 123 (in a verse).

ós-minni, n. the month of an óss, Fb. ii. 29.

ÓSS, m. [Lat. ostium], the mouth or outlet of a river or lake; at ósi skal á stemma, a saying;, Edda 60; Danubius fellr með sjau ósum til sjófar, Stj. 88; þó at brjóti nýja ósa í gögnum fjöru manns, ok skal inn forni óss ráða merki sem áðr, Grág. ii. 354; hér gékk upp óss (an inlet, estuary) við nes þetta, ok féll sjórinn út ór ósinum, Ld. 76; vatn þat er Holtavatn heitir stemmdi upp, … grafa út ósinn, hversu torsótt mundi ósinn út at grafa, en er þeir kómu til óssins, var hann út brotinn, Bs. i. 333. II. freq. in local names. Óss, Ósar, Ós-ló, in Norway; Holtavatns-óss, Bs. i. 308; Rangár-óss, Nj.; Faxa-óss (Landn. 29), Lækjar-óss, Landn.; Hóps-óss; Vágs-óss; Niðar-óss, the famous town in Norway; Ár-óss = the mod. Aar-huus, and Randar-óss = Randers in Denmark, óss-verki, a, m. a jetsum at the farm Óss, Vm. 140. III. the Rune ᚭ, see introduction.

óstr, m., see hóstr; lostinn öru í óstinn, Fms. vi. 419; kom örin upp í óstinn (hóstinn, Fb. l. c.), viii. 433; hann var lostinn öru í óstinn (hóstinn v. l.) ok fékk þegar bana, ix. 311, Bs. i. 414; var hann lagðr í óstinn, Sturl. iii. 251: spelt with h, Bs. i. 382, Finnb. 214.

ósvift, n. adj., qs. of-svift; e-m verðr ósvift, to be stunted; þeim varð ósvift við þessa sýn. Fbr. 79; honum varð mjök ó. við óp þetta, Fb. i. 417 (vsvipt); en við þessi tiðendi varð honum svá ó., at hann mátti langa stund ekki mæla, Bs. i. 472; hinum varð svá ó. (dátt, Bs. i, l. c.) sem hann væri steini lostinn, Sturl. i. 211.

ótót or ó-tæti, n. a wretched, bad creature; ótætið þitt! ótót-ligr, adj. looking wretched and rugged, of sheep or beasts.

ÓTTA, u, f. [an old Teut. word; Ulf. uhtwo = ἔννυχον, or uhtiugs = εὔκαιρος, uhteigo = εὐκαίρως, uhteigs wisan = σχολάζειν; A. S. uhte; Hel. uhta; O. H. G. uohta]:—the last part of the night just before daybreak; í nótt fyrir óttu, Fms. vi. (in a verse); en í óttu fyrir dag (in the ótta before daybreak) stóð hann upp ok klæddi sik, Edda 28; óttu ok öndverðan dag, Am. 50; í óttu, Fas. i. 148, Hkr. i. 70; þegar í óttu, iii. 417, Fms. xi. 433; hana-ótta, cock-crow, gallicinium, N. G. L. i. 9. COMPDS: óttu-söngr, m. matins in the Roman Catholic time, 625. 164, 167, K. Þ. K. 58, Bs. i. 673, 847; óttusöngs-bók, -kver, -mál, -tíð, -sloppr, Pm. 38, 58, 73, 117, Jm. 36, Fms. v. 224, vii. 317, Hom. 122. óttu-tíðir, f. pl. = óttusöngr = eccl. borae matutinae, Mar.

ótta-ligr, adj. (-liga, adv.), awful, terrible, Stj. 170, freq. in mod. usage.

óttask, að, dep. to fear, 623. 36: with acc., óttask e-n, Gþl. 174; þótti mér nú sem hann mundi heldr ó. yðr, Nj. 260; hann óttaðisk at …, Fms. i. 93; óttuðusk þeir þá eigi at sér, Bret. 96, Fms. x. 220; svá heilir! drepum Ólaf digra, hann óttask nú ekki at sér, Ó. H. 70, Eg. 283; óttask um sik, id., 168.

ÓTTI, a, m. [contr. qs. oht, cp. ógn, ógna, ógur-]:—fear, dread; var þeim ótti mikill at honum, Nj. 68; gjalda ótta við, Ísl. ii. 363; bjóða ótta, to inspire fear (see bjóða IV. 2); ótta slær á e-n, Ó. H. 224; milli vánar ok ótta, between hope and fear. Mar. 2. a thing to be feared, danger; ótti var at sjá í augu honum, ef hann var reiðr, Ó. H. 16; var æ ótti at Sverri konungi, Fms. viii. 339: fear, danger, vita sér enskis ótta vánir, Eg. 74, Fms. ix. 467; vænta sér enskis ótta, Ó. H. 220; vera undir miklum aga ok ótta, Fms. x. 409; at mannsöfnuðr dragisk at Önundi ok ótti nokkurr, Sturl. i. 158. COMPDS: ótta-boð, n. a feeling afraid, Bs. ii. 32, Mag. 46. ótta-bragð, n. a looking afraid, Fas. ii. 483. ótta-fenginn, part. and ótta-fullr, adj. terrified, Stj. 119, 154, 201, Hkr. iii. 33, Ó. H. 240, Nj. 105, Fms. iii. 216, x. 366, xi. 371. ótta-lauss, adj. fearless, Bret. 24, Fbr. 88, Ó. H. 240; engi hlutr er þá óttalauss á himni eða jörðu, Edda 41: neut. not to be feared, without danger, var þá allt óttalaust. Eg. 371. ótta-mikill, adj. much afraid; þá görðisk óttamikit með Böglum, the B. were much afraid, Fms. ix. 45, v. l. ótta-samligr, adj. awful, Sks. 226 B. ótta-sleginn, adj. terror-stricken, Fms. i. 138, ix. 497.

-óttr, adj. an inflexion, cp. Germ. achtig, see Gramm. p. xxxiii, col. ii.

ó-viðkomandi, part. not belonging to, (mod.)

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