P

P (pé), the fifteenth letter, was not figured in the old Runic alphabet, in which the bjarkan (ᛒ) was made to serve for both b and p; it is found only in very late Runes, as e. g. the Runic alphabet of the Danish king Waldemar (died A. D. 1241), where it is figured ᛕ or as a dotted ᛒ (ᛔ), Skálda 177, and the Arna-Magn. Runic MS. II. the p is in Icel. sounded as in Engl., pína = pain, hlaupa = leap.

B. REMARKS.—As all words with p initial have been borrowed at different times from foreign languages, the number of them goes on decreasing the farther we go back into antiquity; this is also the case in other Teutonic languages; the vocabulary in Ulf. presents about seven p words,—paida, plapja, plats, plinsjan, pungs, prangan, pund; the old A. S. poems about the same number,—plega, plegjan, pæd, pund, pynd, pyt, pad, peord (while the oldest and best, Beowulf, has none), see Grein. The ancient Icelandic or Norse poems of the heathen age have still fewer than the A. S.; the first words we meet with are penningr, a penny, Bragi; pundari, Egil (see ljóð-pundari);—which, with some other words beginning with p, are from the heathen age. Along with the introduction of Christianity many such words came in, chiefly through the English, e. g. prestr, pína, pínsl, páskar, páfi, pistill, prédika: through trade from the Norman-English, prúðr, prýði, páll, pallr, pell, poki, partr: and lastly, through the English trade with Iceland in the 15th and 16th centuries, prenta, púðr, petti, peisa, etc.: some few words, too, have since been adopted from the mod. Danish. A few words may be traced to Gaelic, and a few have been traced to the Chudic (Finnish); the scantiness of such words, however, shews better than anything else how very small indeed was the influence these languages had on the Norse, all the more so as the Finnish vocabulary abounds with p words. The letter p in an Icelandic Dictionary stands quite apart from all the other letters, for it is made up of a motley collection of words, incoherent and broken, containing no roots, no great verbs, particles, or such words as make the stock of a genuine vocabulary. The absence of initial p in the Teutonic language is not due to any inability to pronounce it, but to causes inherent to the parent language of the Teutonic as well as the classical languages, for in Greek and Latin the letter b, which, according to Grimm’s law, answers to the Teutonic p, stands exactly in the same predicament as p in the Teutonic; there is no single instance of ‘lautverschiebung’ from a Gr.-Lat. b to a Teut. p (Curtius): no word beginning with p is formed by ‘ablaut,’ and only a few are derived by ‘umlaut’ (prýði, pyngja, pæla). For other details see the introduction to letters B and F.

PADDA, u, f. [A. S. pada; Dutch padde; Engl. paddock]:—a toad; ormar, eðlur, froskar, ok pöddur, snakes, lizards, frogs, and toads, Fms. x. 380; mýss ok ormar, eðlur ok pöddur, Ó. H. 109; ekki eitrkvikindi, hvárki ormr né padda, Sks. 88, MS. 623. 26; þar eru eigi höggormar, froskr né padda, there are neither snakes, frogs, nor toads, viz. in Ireland, referring to the tale of St. Patrick,—a legend taken from a popular etymology of the saint’s name, qs. ‘padd-reaker,’ toad-driver. 2. in Icel., where no amphibia are found, used of any insects or beetles in pools or foul water.

Paðreimr, m.—the ιππόδρομος in Constantinople, Fms. vii. 97, xi. 315.

pakka,to pack, tie up.

pakki, a, m. [Engl. pack], (also pakka, u, f., Grett. 129 A), a pack, bundle, esp. used of bundles of wadmal exported from Icel. and the Faroes, D. N. ii. 559, iii. 451, N. G. L. iii. 207, 209, Bs. i. 812, 842. COMPDS: pakka-lina, u, f. pack-thread, string, N. G. L. iii. 209. pakka-vaðmál, n. common wadmal, H. E. i. 574.

paktar, m. pl. [Lat. epactum], the epacts, Rb. passim; pakta tal, -öld, the tale, cycle of epacts, Rb. 4, 6, 70.

paktin, m. a nickname, Fms. ix. 472.

pal, n. (?); með íllsku pali, Bs. ii. 503 (in a poem).

palafrey, m. [late Lat. palafredus], a palfrey, Karl. 495.

palans-greifi, a, m. a palgrave, count palatine, Ann. 1223.

pall-borð, n. the high table, háborð and pallborð are synonymous, Vm. 84: in the phrase, hann á ekki upp á, pallborðit, he is not up at the high table, i. e. is not made much of.

pall-dómar, m. pl. fire-side gossip, = arindómar, q. v.

pall-dýna, u, f. = pallkoddi, D. N.

pall-klæði, n. a carpet or covering for the pallr, Vm. 109, B. K. 50, D. N., Boldt.

pall-koddi, a, m. a cushion, Vm. 55, 109, D. N.

PALLR, m. [the etymology of this word, as also the time when and place whence it was borrowed, is uncertain; the true Norse word is bekkr or flet; pallr may be of Norman origin, although it is frequently used in the Sagas referring to the Saga time (10th century); even the benches in the legislative assembly on the alþing were called pallar, not bekkir; but this cannot have been so originally. The word itself is, like páll, probably from Lat. palus, pala = stipes, Du Cange; Engl. pale, palings; in the Icel. it is used of high steps (Lat. gradus), esp. of any high floor or daïs in old dwellings, sometimes = flet (q. v.) or = lopt (q. v.), and lastly of the benches in the hall = bekkr (q. v.) The adoption of the word was probably connected with the change in the floor and seats of the halls, as mentioned in Fagrsk. ch. 219, 220, which arrangement of benches was adopted from Norman England, and is in fact still seen in English college-halls, with the raised high floor at the upper end. In Icel. the ladies were then seated on this daïs (há-pallr, þver-pallr), instead of being placed, according to the older custom, on the left hand along the side walls, see below, II. 2. As the Sagas were written after this had taken place, so the use of the word, e. g. in the Njála (ch. 34 and often), may be an anachronism.]

B. A step = Lat. gradus; þessi steinn var útan sem klappaðr væri gráðum eða pöllum, Fms. i. 137; vindur upp at ganga, nítján pallar á bergit, Symb. 56; stíga pall af palli, from step to step, Hom. 140. palla-söngr and palla-sálmi, m. = the ‘graduale,’ chant, or responsorium ‘in gradibus’ in the Roman Catholic service, from its being chanted at the steps of the altar; sá söngr heitir pallasöngr þviat hann er fyrir pöllum sunginn, 625. 188, Hom. (St.), Mar.: metaph. degree, enn tólpti pallr ósóma, 677. 1: þrjátigi palla djúpr, Bév. palls-bók, f. ‘graduale,’ the service-book for the high mass, Játv. ch. 10. II. a daïs with its set of benches; þar skulu pallar þrír vera (three sets of benches) umhverfis lögréttuna, Grág. i. 4; pallinn þann inn úæðra, Eg. 303; Flosi gékk inn í stofuna ok settisk niðr, ok kastaði í pallinn (he threw on the floor) undan sér há-sætinu, Nj. 175; konungr leit yfir lýðinn umhverfis sik á pallana, Fms. vii. 156; hann lá í pallinum, 325; konungr sat í pallinum hjá honum, xi. 366; gékk Þrándr í stofu, en þeir lágu í pallinum, Sigurðr ok Þórðr ok Gautr, Fær. 195. 2. the raised floor or daïs at the upper end of the hall, where the ladies were seated (= þver-pallr, há-p.), konur skipuðu pall, Nj. 11; konur sátu á palli, Ísl. ii. 250; hljópu þeir inn ok til stofu, ok sat Katla á palli ok spann, Eb. 94; hón fal sik í pallinum, she hid herself in the pallr, Landn. 121; var þar hlemmr undir ok holr innan pallrinn, … þá bað Geirríð brjóta upp pallinn, var Oddr þar fundinn, Eb. 96:—mið-pallr, the middle bench; krók-pallr, the corner bench, Skíða R. (where the beggar littered himself). 3. in mod. usage the sitting-room is called pallr, from being elevated a yard or two above the level ground; í hlýindin þar hjónin búa á palli. Snót: hence pall-skör, f. the ridge of the pallr: palls-horn, n. the corner of the pallr, Nj. 220, Sturl. iii. 141.

pall-sessa, u, f. = pallkoddi, Dipl. iii. 4.

pall-stokkr, m. the ridge or edge of the daïs, Nj. 220, Fms. vii., 325.

pall-strá, n. the daïs-straw; verða ellidauðr inni á pallstrám, Hkr. i. 149.

panna, u, f. [Lat. patina; Germ. pfanne; Engl. pan], a pan, Dipl. v. 18. 2. [Swed. panna], the skull, head, Skíða R. 168.

panta, að, to bet, = veðsetja, Bs. ii. 176.

pantr, m. [Germ. pfand], a pledge, Stj. 197; also panta, að, to pawn: the true old Icel. word is veð, q. v.

pant-setja, tt, = panta, to pawn, D. N.

panzari, a, m. [mid. Lat. panceria; Germ. panzier, from mid. Lat. panzeria = lorica quae ventrem tegit (Du Cange), from panza = abdomen; Fr. pance; Engl. paunch—stomach]:—prop. a leather belt worn round the stomach, whence gener. a coat of mail, a jack, Nj. 70, Sks. 375, 400, 405; panzara húfa, Fms. viii. 404; hirð-maðr skal eiga vápntreyju ok útan yfir panzsara eða brynju, N. G. L. ii. 427: a panzari as armour is chiefly mentioned in the 12th and 13th centuries, and is probably an anachronism in the Nj. l. c.

papi, a, m. [Lat. papa; Gr. πάππα; cp. early Swed. pæplinger, whence mod. Swed. pebling and Peblinge-söe near Copenhagen; Germ. pfäfflein]:—a pope, priest; the Irish anchorites were esp. called Papar; traces of such anchorites at the first arrival of the Northmen were found in the east of Icel.; þá vóru hér menn Kristnir þeir es Norðmenn kalla Papa, Jb. ch. 1, Landn. (pref.) These ‘monks of the west’ had sought this remote desert island in order to shun all intercourse with men, and when the heathen Northmen came to Iceland, the Papas left it; the statement of Ari Fróði in the Landnáma is confirmed by the book of the Irish monk Dicuil (De Mensurâ Orbis), Ed. Paris, 1807. From these Papas are derived some local names, Pap-ey, Papýli, Pap-óss, Papa-fjörðr, map of Icel., Landn. Papeyjar-buxur, f. pl. a kind of wizard breeches, money breeches, see Maurer’s Volks. 2. the pope, Landn. 18.

pappír, m. [Lat. papyrus], paper; bréf á pappír ok á Látinu skritað, D. N. iii. (a Norse deed, A. D. 1364); all Icel. MSS. and writs (máldagar) of the 14th and 15th centuries were on vellum, and paper came first into general use about or a little before the Reformation; only two leaves on satin paper (a fragment of the Grágás) are preserved in the Arna-Magn. Coll. written in the 12th century or early in the 13th.

par, n. [Lat. par], a pair, occurs in the 15th century; hann gaf mér tvenn pör skæða, two pairs of shoes, Skíða R.; par skó, Bs. i. 876; ganga með pörum, by pairs, Mar.: since freq., tvenn pör vetlinga, sokka, two pairs of gloves, socks. II. a paring, scrap; hann fleygði til hennar pörum ok beinum, Clar.:—the phrase, ekki par, ekki parið, not a paring, not a whit, Bs. ii. 254, 323, 341 (16th century); opt eru kvæða efnin rýr, ekki á stundum parið, Tíma R. (begin.): the word may have come into use in the 15th or 16th century.

para, u, f. pairs, of fish hung up. II. parings.

paradís, f. [Gr. παράδεισος; Lat. paradisus], paradise (also paradísa, u, f., Sks. 502, 521 B), Stj. 36, Sks. 521, Niðrst. 8; paradísar-fagnaðr, -sæla, -vist, -grænleikr, Greg. 68, Fms. i. 227, Bs. i. 202, Sks. 580, Pass. 40. 18, Vídal. passim. II. in local names, Paradísar-hellir, m. the name of a cave in southern Icel., A.A., tab. xii, and Finn Magnússon’s work Rúnamó. In some Icel. farms a grassy hollow or valley (hvammr) close by a dwelling-house is called Paradís, as at Skarð in western Icel.; another called Víti, Ísl. Þjóðs. ii. 32 sqq.

parak, n. a nickname, Landn., prob. Gaelic = Scot. parrack: in mod. usage parraka, að, [A.s. parac = park], to keep pent in, under constraint and coercion, (slang.)

parði, a, m. a leopard, Al. 85.

pardun, m. a pardon, Ann. 1349.

París, París-borg, f. Paris, Bs. i. 92, 799, Fms.; París-klerkr, a clerk of Paris, Orkn. 330.

parlak, n. = sparlak; eitt silki p., a silken bed-curtain, D. N. ii. 165.

parliment, n. [Fr.], a parley, conference, Ann. 1276.

parta, að, to part, divide, H. E. ii. 167, Pr. 424.

partera, að, = parta, Stj. 106, 151, Bs. i. 242.

parteran, f. division, Edda (pref.)

partikúla, u, f. [a Lat. word], a particle or part of a degree, Rb. 462.

PARTR, m. [Lat.], a part, share, the word appears in writers of the 14th and the end of the 13th century, Stj. 50, Grett. 162, Al. 89, Ann. 824, Dipl. v. 3, Bs. i. 848; ok keypti honum þar part í skipi, Fb. ii. 105 (where Fbr. 25 new Ed. omits the word part); nokkurn part (acc.), partly, Fms. viii. 94 (v. l.), passim in mod. usage; but the true old word is hlutr:—as a measure, part of a degree, Rb. 480: of time, 489, MS. 732. 2, 7: a party, máls-partr, q. v. parta-lauss, adj. unparcelled, Boldt.

pass, n. a kind of tree, Edda (Gl.) ii. 566.

passa, að, [Dan. passe], to watch; passa upp á e-ð.

passi, a, m. a pint, measure; drekka passa og pela, Hallgr. 2. a passport, (mod.)

passía, u, f. passion; hann las passiona, Bs. i. 155: in the name Passíu-Sálmar, the Passion Hymns, see List of Authors, p. xii.

past, n. [Lat. pastus; Fr. pâte?], a feast; in the phrase, liggja á pasti, of a wild beast, to be sucking the blood out of the prey; the Landn. 235 has liggja á fasti, see fastr: gleðinnar past, Lil. 90; hyggju past, Krosskv. II. pastr, n. animal vigour; það er ekkert pastr í honum, there is no pith in him. pastrs-lauss, adj. pithless, feeble, e. g. of children suffering from atrophy.

pasta, u, f. a kind of stuff. pöstu-tjald, n. a tent of p., B. K. 83.

pat, n. an aimless gesticulation; handa-pat, Ísl. Þjóðs. i. 7.

pata, að, to ‘patter,’ prattle, and patari, a, m. a ‘patterer,’ prattler; að patarinn svo patar einn, hann patar sig inn í skaða, a ditty.

pataldr, n. [Fr. bataille], a battle, a απ. λεγ.; bjóða e-m á pataldr, to challenge to fight, Bs. i. 9.

pati, a, m. [the word is akin to the Engl. patter]:—a rumour; kvað þat ekki vera nema kvitt ok pata einn, Hom. 13; vér hofum heyrt nokkurn pata af, Fms. ix. 278; þá kom pati nokkurr til Vindlands, at …, 295; sögðu vinir Erlings honum pata þann sem þeir höfðu spurt, vii. 310, viii. 216, 262, 265; sá pati kom fyrir þá at hón mundi vera með barni, Hkr. i. 188; Hákon jarl fær nökkurn pata af því, at …, 246; biskup heyrði pata á þessu, Bs. i. 293.

patína, u, f. a paten on which the wafers are laid for mass, Vm. 54, 65, Hom. 138, 141.

Patrekr, m. St. Patrick, from whom was named the Patreks-fjörðr, m. in western Icel., Landn. 1. ch. 12, where Ari, the Icelandic historian, by misapprehension, makes St. Patrick the foster-father of Örlyg (end of the 9th century) instead of his saint and patron. Ari, in this case, probably merely repeated the current legend.

patriarki, a, m. a patriarch, Grág. ii. 165, Fms. vii. 91, Symb. 28.

pattara-legr, adj. [cp. Dan. patte = to suck; Engl. pet may be a kindred word]:—blooming, thriving, esp. used of a youth or child; þú ert svo pattaralegr, how thriving you look!

paufa, að, to sneak, lurk.

paufi, a, m. a lurking fiend; átu-maðkr og einhver paufinn ódrýgir hvað sem hún ferr með, Bb. 1. 15. paufa-legr, adj. dark, gloomy, of a road or a landscape.

pauri, a, m. a goblin, devil; höfuð-paurr, an arch-fiend.

pausa, að, = púsa, [Fr.], to espouse, Fms. ix. 293, x. 106, 114, v. l.

pax-blað, n. a ‘pacificale’ on vellum, Pm. 68, 112, Vm. 7.

pax-spjald, n. a peace tablet, ‘pacifcale,’ a tablet with a crucifix and a ‘pax vobiscum’ beneath; in the Roman Catholic times it was presented to be kissed by the worshippers (osculum pacis), see Du Cange, as also a description in H. E. i. 173, note a, and iv. 135, note b; the pacificale was either a piece of parchment or a slab, paxspjald steint, annat með bókfell, Pm. 108; it was different to altaris steinn, altaris steinar þrír, paxspjald gulllagt, ok paxblöð tvau, 112; p. með kopar, 10; p. gyllt, Vm. 83; páskaspjald ok paxspjald yfir altari, Pm. 11, D.I. passim.

or pái, m. [A. S. peâ; Engl. pea-cock, pea-hen; Lat. pavo; Germ. pfau]:—a peacock; it occurs as the nickname of Olave pá, who was born in Icel. about 948 A. D., but of an Irish mother, and she prob. gave him the name, Landn. (Ld., Nj.)

páfi, a, m. [papa; Dan. pave; cp. Germ. pfaff]:—a pope, Grág. ii. 165, Nj. 281, Landn. (pref.); páfa boð, boðskapr, a papal message, Ann. 1310, Fms. x. 8, Bs., Ann., passim. COMPDS: páfa-bann, n. a papal ban, K. Á. 65. páfa-dómr, m. the ‘popedom,’ papacy, 625. 53, Rb, 422. páfa-dæmi, n. id., D. N. iii. 11. páfa-fundr, m. visiting the pope, Fms. x. 60, 99. páfa-garðr, m. the papal residence (= Rome), Grett. 162 A, Fms. x. 8. páfa-lauss, adj. without a pope, Bs. páfa-ligr, adj. popish, papal, K. Á. 228, D. N. páfa-stóll, m. the papal see, 625. 41. páfa-tala, u, f. a list of popes, 625. 60. páfa-tíund, f. a papal tithe, Dipl. ii. 16. páfa-trú, f. popery. páfa-veldi, n. papal power, 625. 61. páfa-villa, u, f. a popish error, papistry.

pá-fugl, m. a pea-fowl, Karl. 51, 472, Stj. 573, Fas. iii. 359, passim in mod. usage, as the simple pá or pái is not used;

páll, m. [Lat. pālus, qs. paglus; Engl. pole; Fr. pelle; mid. Lat. pala, see Du Cange]:—a kind of hoe or spade for digging earth or peat, for a drawing of which see Eggert Itin., tab. viii, fig. 4; pála eðr rekur, K. Þ. K. 38; páll ok reka, Ám. 34; hafa pál ok reku. Ísl. ii. 193; gengu í fjós ok tóku þar pál ok reku, Dropl. 28; þá tók Clement graftól í hönd sér ok hjó tysvar pálinum niðr, Clem. 46; Klaufi saxar í sundr baggana með páli, Sd. 157. 2. a pale, D. N. i. 527. COMPDS: pál-stunga, u, f. a thickness (of peat) which can be cut in one slice with the páll. pál-torfa, u, f. a slice of turf cut with the páll, Mar. 312.

Páll, m. (the older form Póll, Bs. i. (the Miracle-book) 333 passim, K. Þ. K. 112):—Paul, Paulus; the name appears in Icel. about the 12th century, and soon became very popular: Páls-kirkja, St. Paul’s Church, 625. 47; Páls-líkneski, Pm. 51; Páls-messa, see messa.

pálmari, a, m. a palmer, pilgrim, Orkn. 176; for the palmers, when they came to the river Jordan, used to carry a palm in the hand and a cross on the breast, bartú þaðan pálm í hendi en kross á bringu, Fms. vii. 160; kross hangir þul þessum fyrir brjósti, en pálmr meðal herða, a cross hangs on this wise man’s breast, and a palm between his shoulders, Orkn. (in a verse). pálmara-vegr, m. the palmer’s way, i. e. the road to Palestine, Fms. ix. 417.

pálma-stika, u, f. [Lat. palma], a ‘palm-rule,’ the striking across the palm of the hand with a ruler.

Pálm-dróttinsdagr, m. Palm Sunday, Nj. 273, Fms. iii. 36.

pálmi, a, m. = pálmsunnudagr.

pálm-kvistr, m. a palm branch, Bs. ii. 16.

pálmr, m. [Lat.], a palm-tree, Edda (Gl.), Fms. vii. 160; fagran pálm, 656 B. 7; laufgir pálmar, Lil.; pálma-borg, the palm city = Jericho, Stj. COMPDS: Pálma-dagr, m. Palm Sunday, Rb. 42, Nj. 271, Fbr. 112, Fms. x. 396; pálmadags dúkr, an inventory, Dipl. v. 18. pálm-sunna, u, f. the palm-sun, i. e. Palm Sunday; and pálmsunnu-dagr, id., Nj. 271; but the usual form at present is pálmasunnu-dagr, id., Sturl. ii. 177, Nj. 271.

pálm-tré, n. a palm-tree, Stj.

pálm-viðr, m. palm-wood, Stj. 386, Barl. 100, Bs. ii. 164.

Pálnir, m. a pr. name, and Pálna-tóki, a, m. = Toki the Archer (?), Fms. xi. (Jomsv. S.)

pál-stafr, m. [páll; cp. Engl. ‘falstaff’], a ‘pole-staff,’ a pole with an iron spike, a kind of heavy missile, Róm. 164, Fms. viii. 139, 224, 389, Nj. 274, Sks. 386, Karl. 81.

pápi, a, m. papa, of children; hefna pápa, hefna pápa! Maurers Volks. 289; but in western Icel. babbi.

pápiska, u, f. papistry: pápiskr, adj. popish.

pár, n. crabbed writing, a scrawl: pára, að, to scrawl.

PÁSKAR, m. pl.; ancient writers freq. used a fem. pl. páskir or páskar, thus, fyrir Páskir, K. Á. 194, Stj. 52; fyrir Páskar (acc.), Gþl. 30; hann lét í stað koma Jól ok Páskar (acc.), Fms. x. 393 (Ágrip); um várit eptir Páskir, ix. 274; when in gen. and dat. Páska, Páskum, the gender cannot be distinguished; in mod. usage it is always masc., and, as of old, never used in sing.: [Gr. πάσχα; North. E. Pasch; Dan. Paaske; the ancient Teut. Easter and Germ. Oster are unknown in the Scandin. languages]:—Easter, Passover-time; eptir Páska, Grág. (Kb.) i. 141; fyrir Páskana, Ld. 324; þváttdaginn fyrir Páska, 326; halda Páska, 686 C. 1, Rb. 4; Páskar eru mér nú (it is an Easter to me, a great feast) er ek náða at sjá þik, Greg. COMPDS: Páska-aptan, m. Easter-eve, N. G. L. i, 10, Fms. ii. 137, ix. 511. Páska-blað, m. = Páska-spjald, Vm. 51. Páska-bók, f. a Paschal book (?) of lessons, as church furniture, Pm. 74, 96. Páska-dagr, m. Easter day, K. Þ. K., Bs., passim; Jóladag ok Páskadag, Symb. 22. Páska-friðr, m. the Easter-peace, Ó. H.; in the early Swed. law (Schlyter) the ‘paska-frider’ lasted from Wednesday before Easter until the evening of the eighth day after Easter. Páska-hald, n. the keeping of Easter, Rb. 66, 428. Páska-hátið, f. the Paschal-feast. Páska-helgi, f. the Easter holiday, K. Þ. K. Páskahelgi-vika, u, f. Easter week, N. G. L. i. 426. Páska-kerti, n. an ‘Easter-candle,’ a kind of church furniture; p. af tré a wooden p., Vm. 6; p. steint, painted, 22; Páskakertis umbúnaðr, a case of a p., 51; Páskakertis stika, Pm. 17, 51. Páska-lamb, n. a Paschal lamb, Hom. 84. Páska-messa, u, f. Easter service; svá virði ek eið biskups sem Páskamessu, Sturl. i. 68. Páska-morgin, m. Easter-morning, Fb. iii. 239. Páska-nótt, f. Easter night, K. Þ. K. 164, Fms. ii. 140. Páska-paktar, m. the Paschal epacts, Rb. 136. Páska-Saga, u, f. an ‘Easter Saga,’ perh. = the History of the Passion and Resurrection, Pm. 15. Páska-snjór, n. snow at Easter, Ann. 1310. Páska-spjald, n. an Easter-tablet as church furniture, a tablet representing the Resurrection, Vm. 47, Pm. 6, 112; it was different from paxspjald, see Pm. 11. Páska-tími, a, m. (-tíð, f.), Easter-time, Stj. 148, Greg. 59, Fms. x. 371. Páska-tré, n. an Easier-tree, = Páskaspjald (?), Vm. 47. Páska-tungl, n. an Easter-moon, Rb. Páska-veizla, u, f. an Easter banquet, Fms. ii. 137. Páska-vika, u, f. Easter-week, i. e. the week after Easter Sunday, Stj. 52, Rb. 70, Fms. vii. 187, Sturl. iii. 164, Ld. 216. Páska-vist, f. a staying for Easter, Fms. viii. 30. Páska-öld, f. the Paschal cycle (cyclus Paschalis = 532 years), MS. 1812. 61, Rb. 64: Páska-aldar-tal, n. computation according to the Paschal cycle, Rb. 368, 418.

peð, n. [Fr. péon], a pawn in chess; kóngs-peð, a king’s pawn; hróks-peð, riddara-peð, dróttningar-peð, biskups-peð. peð-mát, n. (Mag. 23, 44), or peð-rífr, m. checkmate with a pawn.

peð-maðr, m. a footman, Karl. 31: a pawn in chess = peð.

peini, a nickname, Fms. viii. 362; prob. Gael., cp. Engl. Payne.

peisa, u, f. [from Engl. piece; Gael. pios], a jerkin, the upper ‘piece,’ of a woman’s dress: in Icel. the word was prob. borrowed in the 15th century from English or Scottish traders, and is now very freq.; band-p., prjóna-p.

Peita, u, f. Poictiers in France, Fms.: a Poictier’s shaft or missile, Lex. Poët.: Peitneskr, adj. from P., id.

peks, n. (peksa, að), [from the Engl.], picking a quarrel, (slang.)

peli, a, m. [Dan. pægel], a quarter of a pint; yndi er ad sitja öls við pel og gamna sér, Hallgr.; drekka passa og pela, id.:—a little bottle, with brandy or liqueurs, brennivíns-peli.

pell, n. [Lat. pallium; A. S. pelle; Engl. pall; mid. H. G. pfelle]:—costly stuff, velvet (?); sæng tjölduð pellum, Hkr. i. 242; skikkja ok pell dregin yfir skinnin, fur lined with pell, Lv. 41; pell þat er hökull sá var ór gör, er Skarbendill heitir, Bs. i. 77; messu-hökull af pelli, B. K. 82; altaris-klæði með pell, Vm. 91; altaris-klæði tvau af pelli, 98; hökull ok kantara-kápa af nýju pelli, B. K. 83. Vm. 100; tvau handlin af pelli, B. K. 83: pells-altarisklæði, -búnaðr, -hús, -hökull, -kápa, -klæði, an altar cloth, lining, case, cope of pell, Vm. 49, 80, 92, 114, B. K. 83, Pm. 123, Am. 15, Dipl. v. 18; pells-klæði, -kyrtill, -skikkja, Ld. 328, Ó. H. 31, Fms. ii. 246, iv. 27, v. 268.

penni, a, m. [Lat.], a pen, Th. 76. penna-knífr, m. a pen-knife.

penningr, m., mod. peningr, with a single n; the double n is borne out by rhymes, penningi, kenna, Bragi; a contr. form pengar also occurs, Dipl. i. 8, iii. 4, Bs. i. 699, Mar.: [cp. Engl. penny; Germ. pfennig; Dan. contr. penge; from Lat. pecunia]:—a penny, in sing. a coin, coined piece; in plur. also gener. = money: the word occurs as early as in Bragi, the oldest of Norse poets, who calls the round shield with the painted ring (see baugr) ‘the penny of Walhalla,’ for the halls of the ancients were hung with shields; it also occurs in the Ls. 40. It is probably one of the earliest borrowed Gr.-Lat. words in the Scandin. language; Byzantine and Roman coins up to the end of the 2nd century A. D. have been discovered in Danish cairns and fens (coins of the last decennium of the 2nd century have been discovered in a ‘mose fund’ in Sleswig); see also the remarks s. v. kinga; but money for trade-purposes was little used until after the introduction of Christianity, and the first mint-masters were English; Enskir penningar, English coins, English money, Eg. 767; see the curious records in the Saga, ch. 55, 61, but esp. 88; gull-p., a gold coin; silfr-p., a silver coin: for a coin used as a token see the story in Gísl. 14, 24. II. a small coin, a penny, a subdivision of an ounce; but the value varies, thus, thirty pence to an ounce, N. G. L. i. 225; sixty to an ounce, Grág. i. 500; tuttugu penningar vegnir í örtog, MS. 732. 16; ten to an ounce, Grág. i. 357; lögsilfr et forna, þat er tíu penningar göra eyri, ii. 188; penning er tíu væri fyrir alin vaðmáls, Hkr. ii. 231; ef pennings er vert eðr meira, 188; hálfum vegnum penningi miðr en hálfan sjótta eyri, 175; þrjá penninga Enska, Fms. ix. 442, v. l.; hann fann grafsilfr ok tók af tuttugu penninga, Landn. 146; þrjá penninga ok tvær örtogar, N. G. L. i. 76; bæta fjórum penningum ok tveim örtogum, id.; þrem penningum minna en eyri = an ounce minus three pennies, 77; þrjá penninga ok fimm ærtogar, … áttján penninga, … tólf penninga, … tvá hluti fimta pennings ok eyri; tvá hluti sétta pennings þat er fimtungi minna en full öln, 78, 79; þrír penningar taldir eru við einn veginn, 732. 16; hálf önnur örtug ok tveir peningar, Dipl. iii. 4; hann görði penning þann er ekki stóð minna en eyri, he made a coin which weighed not less than an ounce, Gísl. 14; gjalda Rúma-skatt einn penning taldan (Peter’s penny), K. Á. 194:—in translations, þrjátigi penninga, 655 vii. 3 (triginti argenteis of the Vulgate, Gen. xxxvii. 28); tveim hundruðum penninga, 655 xi. 4 (=διακοσίων δηναρίων, John vi. 7); en hver sú kona sem hefir tíu peninga … eg hefi minn pening aptr fundið, Luke xv. 8, 9:—phrases, fyrir-göra hverjum penningi fjár síns, to forfeit every penny, K. Á. 144; hvern penning, every penny, Eg. 72; aldrei fær hann af því er ek á einn penning, MS. 4. 11; vert eins pennings, a penny’s worth, 4. 13; hvárki öln né penning, neither an ell nor a penny, i. e. not a whit, Ls 40. III. in plur. money; ríkr at penningum, monied, Dropl. 35; penninga upptekt, Fms. v. 162; mildr af penningum, i. 257; fá e-m góða penninga, vii. 319; svá marga penninga sem hér verðr brestr í, Dipl. ii. 10, iv. 3; fríðra penga, i. 8; frami ok fagrligir penningar, Fs. 6; til veraldligra pengi, Mar.; góðs ok penninga, Fms. iii. 91: sing. collect., Al. 4. COMPDS: penninga-lauss, adj. penniless, Th. 4. penninga-leysi n. lack of money. penninga-ríkr, adj. rich in coin, monied, Sturl. iii. 129. penninga-skortr, m. shortness, lack of money. IV. in mod. Icel. usage penningr is used of cattle, live stock; sauð-peningr, sheep; naut-p., neat cattle; mjalta peninginn, to milk the sheep. This curious usage is due to an analogy with the old word fé, q. v.

pensill, m. a pencil, (mod.)

penta, að, [Fr. peindre], to paint; ráfit (the roof) var allt steint ok pentað, Fms. v. 339; hann lét penta húfuna, he had the church ceiling painted, Bs. i. 830; hann lét Atla prest skrifara p. allt ræfr innan, í stöplinum ok svá bjórinn, 132; herra Ketill lét p. innan kirkjuna, Vm. 117; p. likneskju, Mar.; Máriu líkneski pentað; fjögur blöð pentuð, Pm. 1; pentuð lesbók, a painted, illuminated, book of lessons (see málbók). Ám. 35: metaph., pentaðar málsgreinir, painted phrases, Skálda. 2. in mod. usage to stain one’s clothes with food whilst eating, penta sig; þú hefir pentað þig; pentaðu þig ekki!

penta, u, f. a spot of meat on the clothes in eating. pent-speldi, n. a bib or napkin tied round the neck of children when eating.

pentan, f. painting, Vm. 44.

pentari, a, m. a painter. Mar.: also penturr, N. G. L. ii. 246.

pera, n. f. [Fr. poire; Engl. pear], a pear:—of a pear-tree, Edda (Gl.) ii. 483. peru-tré, n. a pear-tree, Karl. 14.

perla, u, f. [Fr. perle: Engl. pearl], a pearl; mitra með perlur, Dipl. iii. 4: kasta perlum fyrir svín, Matth. vii. 6. perlu-knappr, m. a pearl-stud, Vm. 21.

persóna, u, f., persóni, a, m., H. E. i. 468, [Lat. persona], a person. of the Divinity, Stj. 19; þessar persónur blessi Guð at hæðum (in reading the banns); manns-p., kvenn-p.: gramm., Skálda 180, 185, 186. 2. a parson: einnar persónu verð (the wages of one parson) … hann valdi ok hinar vísustu persónur af prestum sínum, at prédika kross, Bs. i. 699; klerka eðr kirkjulegar persónur, H. E. i. 501; prestar ok persónar (sic), priests and parsons, 468. persónu-lauss, adj. without a parson; kirkja persónulaus eða prestlaus, H. E. i. 258, N. G. L. i. 455.

persóna-legr, adj. personal, Stj.: mod. persónu-legr.

pervisa-legr, adj. (-liga, adv.), thin, puny.

pési, a, m. a ‘piece,’ a small tract, (mod.)

pest, f. [Lat. pestis; Germ. and Engl. pest], a plague.

Petarr, Pettarr is the older form, Gd. 19, 34, Bs. i. 616; Pettars messa, K. Þ. K. (Kb.) 39; dat. Pettari, Clem. 55; else Petur or Pétr, Fb. iii. 459; in earlier times (the 12th and 13th century) this name is very rare, see the list of pr. names to Landn., Sturl., and Bs., but became in Icel. more freq. in the 15th and following centuries: Pettars-m., see messa: Pétrs-blað, a picture of St. Peter, Pm. 126; Pétrs-fé, Peter’s pence, 45; Pétrs-kirkja, St. Peter’s church, Vm. 21; Pétrs-kýr, St. Peter’s cow, id.: Pétrs-nautr, see nautr; Pétrs-nál, see nál: Pétrs-stóll, -sæti, St. Peter’s chair, cathedra Petri, Rb. 372, MS. 625. 60, 61; Pétrs-tollr, St. Peter’s tithe, 671. 18; Pétrs-vaka, St. Peter’s eve, Vm. 21, Fms. viii. 122. II. plants and birds with names from St. Peter; Pétrs-budda, u, f., or Pétrs-skip, n. a fish, St. Peters purse or ship = pulvinar marinum, Eggert Itin. ch. 897: Pétrs-kofa, u, f. a bird, colymbus grylla: Pétrs-mold, f. a kind of earth: Pétrs-sóley, f., botan. dryas octopetala: Pétrs-urt, f. apargia autumnalis; Pétrs-vaðsteinn, m. = ovarium onisci; also óska-björn (q. v.), Maurer’s Volks., Björn. For legends referring to St. Peter see Maurer 190.

petti, n. [Fr. petit; Engl. petty], a small piece of a field; svo lítið petti, freq. in mod. conversation; the word prob. was imported with the English trade (15th or 16th century).

pikka, ad, to pick, prick. Bs. i. 319, ii. 163, Stj. 497, v. l.

pikkis-dagar, m. pl. [Germ. pfingsten, from eccl. Lat. pentacoste]:—Whitsuntide, Str. 47, 66, Bs. i. 706, Art. 75, but never used in speaking or classical writing, see hvítasunna.

piktur, m. [Lat. pictor], a painter, Mar.

pillz, mod. pils, n., older form piliza, u, f.; [from mid. Lat. pellicia, whence Germ. pelz, Engl. pelt]:—a pelt, fur coat; Ánn var í hvítu pillzi, þat var svá sítt at þat nam hæl, Fas. ii. 342; skrýðask pilizum ok kápum, Ó.T. 12. 2. mod. a petticoat; vera í pilzi, to wear a petticoat, freq.

pillzungr, m. a short pelt, Fas. ii. 343.

piltr, m. a boy, prop. a boy clad in a pelt or petticoat; hann bar piltinn á handlegg sér, Fb. i. 565, Grett. 117; hann sá hvar piltrinn stóð á baki honum, 124; piltr þessi, this youth, Fs. 69; biðr Þorleifr Kol tapa piltinum, 145, Gd. 55:—in mod. usage also a man, thus the labourers on a farm (vinnu-menn, hús-karlar) are called piltar. pilt-skapr, m. ribaldry; and pilta-yrði, n. pl. coarse language, Bs. ii. 261.

piltungr, m. a little boy, = piltr, Grett. 143 A, Krók.

pinni, a, m. [Engl.], a pin; pinnar af stáli, Bév.

piparr, m. [Lat. piper], pepper, Pr. 470, 475, MS. 4. 21, Str. 45, Rétt. 78, 114. pipar-korn, n. a pepper-corn, Pr. 474.

pipra, að, to pepper. Fas. iii. 359, Fms. v. 193. II. perh. a different word, [Lat. vibrare]:—to quiver, shake; hann (the horse) skalf ok pipraði, Bs. i. 318; jörðin skalf ok pipraði af ótta, 145; allar æðar pipruðu fyrir hræðslu sakir, Fb. 149:—reflex., Krosskv. 5.

pissa, að, (piss, n.), to piss, Lat. mingere.

pistill, m., dat. pistli, pistuli, a, m., 656 C. 24, Bs. i. 104, 392, Hom. 137, 140; [eccl. Lat.]:—an epistle, Bs. i. 100, 271, 278, Magn. 538; pistlar ok Guðspjöll, Vm. i, 55, N. T.; Vídal. passim, pistla-bók, f. a book with the epistles, Pm. 24.

pitlor, m. a nickname, N. G. L. i. 446.

pík, m. a nickname, Orkn., Sturl. ii. 168; cp. Engl. peak.

píka, u, f. [Dan. pige; Swed. piga], a girl, lass, virgin; a for. word, of which the origin is uncertain, for it occurs for the first time in Norway about the end of the 14th century, and in Icel. in the 15th; píkan Margreta, the spinster M., D. N. iii. 420 (in a deed of 1378); unga píku, Skáld H. 5. 31; sveinninn nefndist Herrauðr, en píkan Herríðr, Fas. ii. 447 (a romance and ballad of the 15th century); píku-brot, Stef. Ól. (Snót 184); píku-skrækr, Snót 136. In Icel. the word is rare and rather low; it can hardly be used of a gentlewoman.

píla, u, f. [Germ. pfeil; Dan. pile], an arrow; it appears in romances of the 15th century, Fas. iii. 329, 337, Skáld H. 1. 17; and since that time in the Bible and hymns, as also Safn i. 89; the vernacular word is ör, q. v.

píla-grímr, m. [Lat. peregrinus, whence Fr. Yr. pélerin; Engl. pilgrim]:—a pilgrim, Fms. iii. 33, v. 222, vi. 302, Karl. 71, passim in old and mod. usage.

pílárr, m. [Engl.], a pillar, Stj. 46, 101, 210, 284, Bs. i. 830.

píll, m. a kind of tree, Edda (Gl.), Sks. 106.

píment, n. a kind of wine, piment, Fas. iii. 359.

pín, f. = pína, Skíða R.

pína, u, f. [Lat. poena], a fine; undir pínu tólf aura gjalds, Bs. i. 733; hverjar pínur skyldask á þá menn, K. Á. 224; banns-pína. 2. in mod. usage, pine, torment, Vídal., Pass.

pína, d, [A. S. pînan], to torment, torture, Fms. i. 4, Mork. 221, Grág. ii. 129; pína e-n til sagna, i. 347; þar skulu djöflar pína yðr, Hom. 158, passim. 2. to punish; verk pínt ok lofat, punished or allowed, Mar.; píndr er stuldr, Skálda 204 (in a verse); til þess ér hafit yðrar syndir píndar, Hom. 158.

pínaðr, m. torture, Stj. 56.

pínari, a, m. a tormenter, Fms. ii. 32, v. l.

píniligr, adj. passive, Stj. 21: subject to pains, Eluc. 35, Hom. 86.

píning, f. torture, Fms. i. 4, vii. 227, Mork. 220, Karl. 279: pain, Str. 25: gramm. passive, Skálda 180. 2. eccl. Passion, Stj. 76, Rb. 82: pass., píningar-dagr, -tími, a day, time of passion, Stj. 117, 147, 195. COMPDS: Píningar-Saga, u, f. the History of the Passion. píningar-váttr, m. a martyr, 623. 51, Fms. xi. 308. píningar-vætti, n. martyrdom, 656 B. 8.

pínkill, m. a small trunk or luggage.

pínsl, f. thus in Hkr. iii. 349, Sks. 676 B, Fms. vii. 91, Hom. 85, MS. 677. 6: contr. písl, and so in mod. usage since the Reformation, and so also in old vellums; píslir, 623. 32; písla, Fms. x. 389; píslar, Symb. 29, Fms. vii. 195, Al. 130; písl, Rb. 86, Magn. 506:—torture, passion, passim; cp. píning above. COMPDS: píslar-dagr, m. ‘passion-day,’ Good Friday, Bs. i. 733. píslar-færi, n. pl. instruments of torture, racks, Al. 130. píslar-mark, n. the mark of the passion, i. e. the cross, Fms. vii. 195, Hom. 96, 103. Píslar-Saga, u, f. = Píningar-Saga. píslar-sigr, m. ‘passion-victory,’ martyrdom, Mar. píslar-staðr, m. a place of torment, Sks. 143, Greg. 22. píslar-tíð, f. passion time, 623. 63. píslar-tré, n. the ‘passion-tree,’ the cross, Hom. 102, MS. 625. 70. píslar-váttr, m. a martyr, Stj. 54, Magn. 486, and so in mod. usage, Vídal. píslar-vætti, n. martyrdom, Hom. 82, Magn. 430, Vídal., passim in mod. usage, for the word ‘martyr’ is never used in Icel. písla-sjón, f. a vision of the torments of hell, Mar.

pípa, u, f. [Fr. pipe], a pipe; drekka af pípu, to drink through a quill, Rb. 348; mjóvar pípur, Stj. 95; járnstika með pípu, Pm. 90. 2. a pipe (as a musical instrument); blása pípur, Fas. iii. 359; sýngja í pípur, Stj. 466; fiðlur ok pípur, Fms. xi. 353 (in a verse); strengjum, pípum, söngfærum, Skálda 179 (hljóð-pípa). pípna-hljómr, m. a sound from pipes, Karl. 203.

pípari, a, m. a piper, Boldt 16.

pírum-pár, m. a scrawl; see pár.

pískra, að, to whisper, (slang.)

písl, see pínsl.

pítal, n. [Lat.], a petal. COMPDS: pítal-settr, part. petal-worked, Vm. 47. pítals-spjald, n. = pítal, Vm. 74.

pjakka, að, to pick, prick; ef þú pjakkar broddinum á hallinn, Fms. iii. 180; stanga ok pjakka með knífum, to stab and prick with knives, Mar.; hann pjakkar sem hann getr fastast vegginn, Karl. 69, freq. in mod. usage.

pjakkr, m. a stumbling hack; hann er mesti pjakkr.

pjatla, u, f. [Dan. pjalt], a small piece of cloth cut-off, (mod.)

pjátr, n. pewter, Bs. ii. 322.

pjönkur, f. pl. luggage, esp. of a beggar’s bundle, pack, truss.

plag, n. [Engl. play], manner; upp á þeirra plag, Skáld H. 3. 32; með æru plag, Bs. ii. 306; sóma plag, 308; með hefndar plag, Hallgr.

PLAGA, að; this word, although found in old writers, is now almost out of use; it was no doubt borrowed from the German or English, perhaps through the Hanseatic trade, for it appears about the end of the 13th century; in Stj., Laur. S. (14th century):—the Flóam. S. l. c. is the sole instance of its occurrence in the classical Íslendinga Sögur (see List of Authors D.I. II), but that Saga is not preserved quite in its original form: [A. S. plægan; Engl. play; Germ. pflegen; Dan. pleje]:—to cultivate; prisa ok plaga sannleik, Stj. 298; plagar hann ok elskar náttina, 86; hann plagaði í honum allskonar ávöxt, Barl. 23 (v. l. to plantaði); allar þær listir er þá plöguðu dýrar konur, Fas. iii. 238. 2. to treat, entertain; presta sína lét hann sitja yfir sitt borð, ok plagaði þá alla vel með góðan kost ok öl, Bs. i. 903; sátu þeir sunnu-daginn vel plagaðir í mat ok drykk, 860, Fas. iii. 373; plagar sik nú alla vega við skraut ok skart, Stj. 417. 3. to be used, wont; eigi hafa menn þat plagat mjök hér til at gabba mik, Fs. (Flóam. S.) 159; þeir verða með Guðligum boðorðum þar til samdir ok plagaðir, Stj. 255. 4. reflex., kvennbúnað sem þar plagaðisk, which was there fashionable, Stj. 186.

plaga, u, f. [Lat. plaga], a region, Rb. 488.

plagg, n. luggage; hann bar vápn þeirra ok önnur plögg, Róm. 148; hvert þat plagg sem hann hefði með farit skyldi heilög Níðaróss-kirkja eiga, Bs. i. 820; var eigi traust at hann tæki af mönnum plögg sín, Grett. 129 A; at þú legðir af við mik eitthvert plagg af þeim sem þú ferr með, id. plagga-margr, m. having much luggage, Fms. iii. 117.

plag-siðr, m. custom, habit, Snót 164.

planka, u, f. = planki, Rétt. 61.

planki, a, m., in western Icel. sounded blanki, [planca, Du Cange]:—a plank, thick board.

planta, að, [Lat.], to plant, with acc. of the place, Stj. 14, 506, Edda (pref.): with acc. of the plant, Barl. 23, 100, Str. 17.

planta, u, f. a plant.

plantan, f. a planting, Stj. 14, 222.

plata, u, f. [Lat. platea], an open road; á þessari hinni miklu platu (v. l. to sléttu), Barl. 209. 2. a plate, mounted metal, esp. of plate armour the later Middle Ages, the 13th and following centuries; eigi hafði hann platu, muzu né brynju, Bév.: plata is a part of the armour of a king’s man in N. G. L. ii. 427 (Hirðskrá, latter part of the 13th century), D. N. passim, Trist. 12 (see Fr.) COMPDS: plötu-búnaðr, m. ‘plate-apparel,’ of lace, Rétt. 40. plötu-meistari, a, m. a plate-master who makes sheet-iron, N. G. L. ii. 246 (Dan. plattenslager).

platari, a, m. = platumeistari, N. G. L. ii. 246, v. l.

plaxa, u, f. = pláss, a plain, open place, Al. 155.

plága, u, f. the plague, torment, Bs. ii. 118, 160.

plága, u, f. [Gr.-Lat.], a ‘plague,’ chastisement, of flogging, Bs. i. 912. 2. a plague = drepsótt; plágan mikla.

plána, að, [Lat. planus], to efface, blot out; sem rit er plánat af vaxspjaldi, Stj. 647; af-plána, to ‘plane off,’ efface.

pláneta, u, f. [Lat.], a planet, Rb.

pláss-bera, bar, to bring abroad, slander. Snót 211.

plástr, m. [Germ. pflaster], a plaster, Pr. 473, 474, Barl. 136.

pláz, proncd. pláss, n.; the word never occurs in good old writers, and hardly before the end of the 13th century: [Engl. place; Germ. platz; Dan. plads; Ital. piazza; all from Lat. platea, see Du Cange; cp. plata above]:—a place, spot; þat pláz eðr eng …, þat pláz sem þessi fæsti hellir var í …, kaupandi þetta sama pláz, Stj. 133; hann sá þar einn brunn í plázi nökkuru eðr eng, 171; á einn vænasta völl … á miðju placinu (sic), Bs. ii. 10; sú höll stendr á eitt fagrt pláz, 122, Karl. 545, Fms. v. 339, v. l.: freq. in mod. usage, although mostly in a limited sense, viz. of a field, ground, spot, but seldom in the general sense ‘place,’ as in Engl. or Germ.

plokka, að, plukka, Art. 4, [Engl. pluck; Dan. plukke; Germ. pflücken; for. and borrowed, for reyta (q. v.) is the genuine Icel. word]:—to pluck the feathers of a bird; tók Randvér hauk sinn ok plokkaði af fjaðrarnar, Edda 77; ok plokkuðu hann, svá at af honum eru allar fjaðrar, Fms. i. 118; p. skegg sitt, Karl. 322:—plokka e-t af e-m, to pluck it out of one, to pluck; muntú þau hvárki p. af mér með mútu-gjöfum né heitan, Ld. 150; víða plokkaði hann menn með ráni, Ver. 54; tak ekki meir af henni nauðugri en einn koss, en ef þú plukkar nokkura konu, þá heit ömbun ok halt vel, Art. 4.

plokk-fiskr, m. a kind of stewed fish (a dish).

plógari, a, m. a plougher, ploughman, Stj. 395.

plóg-gangr, m. a plough-furrow; spanns p., D. N. iii. 976.

plóg-járn, n. a plough-iron, ploughshare, Fms. vii. 164, Sks. 425.

plóg-karl, m. a ploughman, Sks. 632, 768, Stj. 556.

PLÓGR, m. [Engl. plough; O. H. G. pfluoc; Germ. pflug; Dan. plov; Swed. plog; a borrowed word, for arðr (q. v.) is the genuine old Norse word; the word was also unknown to the Goth. as well as to the A. S., for Ulf. calls the plough hoha, and sulh is the A. S. term; the Engl. plough was borrowed later, see s. v. arðr, and Grimm’s Gramm. iii. 414]:—a plough; plógr first occurs in the poem Rm.—karta at görva, keyra plóg, 19; skilling silfrs af plógi hverjum, Eg. 278; bera þeir þá út plóga sína, Sks. 336; ef maðr höggr eyk fyrir plógi eðr arðri, N. G. L. ii. 115; hón setti þá fyrir plóg en plógrinn gékk svá hart ok djúpt, Edda (begin.); rekum eigi plug af akri, Orkn. (in a verse); eiga auðan plóg, to have an idle plough, Fms. vi. (in a verse); fjándans plógr, Gd. 33. 2. metaph. gain, produce, especial emoluments of an estate, either in down, jetsum, fowl, or the like; það er mesta plógs-jörð; virð lítils veraldar plóg, this world’s gain, Pass. 16. 10. II. a Dan. pr. name, Plógr, Fms. xi. (Knytl. S.), whence mod. Dan. Ploug. plógs-land, n. an acre of land; gjalda mörk af hverju plógslandi, Orkn. 286: hann gaf henni eitt plógsland, Edda (begin.), (Yngl. S. ch. 5.)

plóma, u, f. [Engl. plum; Germ. pflaume], a plum, Edda (Gl.) ii. 482, (or a plum-tree.)

plytr, m. a nickname, Fb. iii; cp. Gael. pliut = a club-foot.

plægja, ð, to plough, Stj. 76, Edda 149 (pref.) 2. metaph. to gain; hvat mun ek mér í plægja? Bret. 91; ræðr hann þat fyrir þeim hversu mikit í plægðisk, Bs. i.

poki, a, m. [Gael. poca; Du Cange poucha; Fr. poche; North. E. poke; as also pung = pungr, púss; Byzantine Gr. πουγγή, πούγγιον]:—a poke, pouch, bag, Fas. iii. 338; guðvefjar poki, Ld. 188, 202; in old writers of a small bag, in mod. of a big one; ullar-poki, a bag of wool, poka-prestr, m. a bag priest, a poor illiterate priest, a popular Icel. phrase, no doubt originating from the tale of the Master Thief and the Priest in the Poke, as told in the Norse Tales.

pollr, m. [Gael. poll; Welsh pwl; Germ. pfuhl; Engl. pool]:—a pool, pond; pollrinn var svá djúpr þar er skipit flaut, Ld. 78; þeir lenda skipi sínu í poll þann, er þar gengr norðan at túni, Sturl. i. 167 C: in local names, Gislu-pollar, in Bretagne; Snóksdals-pollr, Brákar-pollr, in western Icel.; cp. Liver-pool, Hartle-pool, the Pool on the Thames.

polotur, f. pl., or palata, u, f. [through Byzantine Gr., from Lat. palatium]:—the king’s palace in Constantinople; þeir ganga til konungs palatu þar er hann svaf inni, Fagrsk. 111, Fms. vi. 172. polota-svarf, n. ‘palace-scouring,’ a right belonging to the Warengs, when the Greek emperor died, of roaming through the king’s treasury for money, see Fms. vi. 171—ganga þeir um allar polotur konungs, … ok skal hverr hafa at frjálsu þat sem höndum kemr á (in fact a kind of pillage).

ponta, að, = punkta, Skálda 176.

ponta, u, f. a mull, snuff-box with a ‘pointed’ end, shaped like a horn, freq. in mod. usage; for a sketch of one see Paikull’s Travels in Icel. pontu-stútr, m. the pointed end of a ponta.

porri, a, m. a one-eyed person.

pors, m. [Lat. porrus], a kind of onion, Pr. 472, N. G. L. iii. 208. pors-mungát, n. a beverage spiced with pors, Rétt. 59.

port, n. [Lat. porta], a gate, Al. 49, Stj. 120, Fms. x. 15, Th. 21. COMPDS: port-greifi, a, m. = A. S. port-gérefa, a port-reeve, Sighvat. port-hús, n. a brothel, Fms. viii. 360. port-kona, u, f. a ‘gate-woman,’ harlot, Sks. 26, 436, Stj. 338, 405, Karl. 320, Róm. 382, N. G. L. ii. 417. port-lífi, n. prostitution, Mar.

portari, a, m. a porter, D. N. iv. 18.

posi, a, m. [Fr. bourse], a little bag, Háv. 46, Fb. i. 453.

postilla, u, f. [Lat. post illa], a postil.

postulera, að, [Lat.], to postulate, Bs. ii. 186.

postuli, a, m. [Gr.], an apostle, Nj. 275, Sks. 489, Bs., N. T., Pass., Vídal. passim; postula-dómr, apostleship, Post.; Postula-görningar, the Acts of the Apostles; postula-kirkja, an apostle’s church, Sturl. iii. 58; postula-klokka, the name of a bell, Bs. i. 858; postula-messa, a mass of an apostle, Fms. x. 13, Bs. i. 830; Postula-súð, the name of a ship, Ann. 1343; Postula-Sögur, the Lives of the Apostles, Vm. 60, Dipl. v. 18.

postulín, n. [corrupted from Lat. procellanea?], porcelain.

postulligr, adj. apostolic, Fb. i. 234, Stj., Bs. passim.

pota, að, [from the Engl. in the 15th century (?)], to put: with dat., pota e-u, with the notion of stealth.

pott-lok, n. a pot-lid: hence a small, wretched cap; hvað þú hugsar, að setja skrattans pottlokið að tarna á höfuðið á barninu! Piltrog Stúlka 57.

pottr, m. [potus, Du Cange, from Lat. potare; Fr. pot], a pot. Bs. i. 804; diskar í borðhúsi, fjórir tigir diska, sex katlar, níu pottar, Dipl. iii. 4; mikinn pott fullan af bjórblönduðu víni, MS. 4. 21; pottr, munnlaug, Dipl. v. 18; fjórir pottar, einn ketill, ein panna, D. N. iv. 328; pottr með höddu, 457; leir-pottr, an earthen pot: freq. in mod. usage = a cauldron or hver, q. v. 2. a measure = two merkr, see mörk, (mod.)

pott-steik, f. a pottage, Stj. 165 (of Esau).

póstr, m. a postman, (mod.) póst-ganga, u, f. journey of the post.

prakkari, a, m. a beggar, Run. Gramm.; whence a rogue.

prakt, n. [Germ. pracht], pomp, show: praktugr, adj. showy, (mod., but occurs in the 17th century.)

prang, n. traffic: pranga, að, to traffic: prangari, a, m. a trafficker, in a contemptible sense.

prata, að, [from the Engl.], to prate. pratara-legr, adj. prating: also used of a shy pony, hann er prataralegr.

prámr, m. [Engl. prame; Swed. pråm], a flat-bottomed boat, Edda (Gl.), Gþl. 411, Skáld H. 5. 26. prám-tog, n. the towing of a prame, Gþl. 427.

prebenda and prevenda, u, f. [Lat.], a prebend, H. E. i. 507, K.Á 230.

prédika, að, [Lat.], to preach, Fms. viii. 269, ix. 500, Bs i. 699 766, 846, H. E. i. 463.

prédikan, f. the preaching a sermon, Magn. 502, Stj. 27, Vídal. passim

prédikari, a, m. a preacher. 2. a preaching friar, i. e. a Dominican, Bs. ii. 223, Fms. ix. 500, 530, x. 76. COMPDS: Prédikara-bróðir, m. a Dominican friar, Bs. i. 809. Prédikara-garðr, -hús -klaustr, -líf, -lifnaðr, -regla, u, f. a Dominican convent, order, Bs. i. 700, 809, Fms. ix. 520, x. 76. Prédikara-kirkja, u, f., Fms. ix. 530.

prefatia, u, f. [Lat.], a preface, Hom. 142.

prenta, að, [this word was borrowed prob. from the English during the English trade early in the 16th century; the Germ. say drucken whence Dan. and Swed. trycke]:—to print: in Icel. prenta with compds is the popular word, Biblía … prentað á Hólum, the Bible of 1584; Heilög Biblía prentuð að nýju að Hólum, the Edition of 1644; Almúgafólki til gagns og góða prentuð, the Book of Lays of 1612. On the other hand, the Germ.-Dan. þrykkja is often used on title-pages—þrykkt í konungligum stað Roscylld, the N. T. of 1540; þrykt á Hólum, 1594 (the graduale); þrykt í Kaupinhafn, the Hymn-book of 1555: yet the Germ. and Dan. word was not able to displace the old word, which never ceased to be used in speech. COMPDS: prent-smiðja, u, f. a printing-house. prent-verk, n. a printing-office, prent-villa, u, f. a misprint, and so on.

prentan, f. printing: prentari, a, m. a printer.

presenta or presentera, að, [Lat.], to present, N. G. L. ii. 471, Pr. 405, Stj. 40, 216.

presenta, u, f. a present, Fms. ix. 450, Bs. i. 707, Stj. 503.

presentan or presenteran, f. a presentation, N. G. L. ii. 471, Stj. 109, H. E. i. 390.

pressa, að, [from Lat.], to press, Lil. 10, and in mod. usage.

pressa, u, f. a press, (mod.)

presta-firrur, f. pl. a priest’s rambles; ekki nema p. og hlutsemi, Vídal.

prest-borð, n. a ‘priest’s board,’ maintenance; liggja þrjár kýr til prestborðs, B. K. 10.

prest-gipt, f. a ‘priest-gift’ donation to the priest, N. G. L. i. 360.

prest-jörð, f. a priest’s land, D. N.

prest-kona, u, f. a priest’s wife, Fms. vii. 391, Bs. i. 348.

prest-lauss, adj. priestless, N. G. L. i. 455: a person who has forfeited his priestly orders.

prestliga, adv. in a priestly manner.

prestligr, adj. priestly, H. E. i. 474, passim; ú-prestligr, unpriestly.

prestlingr, m. a ‘priestling’ theological student preparing for orders under the care of the bishop or a clergyman; þat er manni rétt at láta læra prestling til kirkju sinnar, K. Þ. K.; kenna prestlingum, Bs. i. 83; Klængr, er þá var p. ok ungr at aldri, 165; heyrði hann til er prestlingum var kennd íþrótt sú er grammatica heitir, 163; þá höfðu prestlingar hans farit til fjöru at leika sér, 446, (for records of such schools see Jóns S. ch. 11, Bs. i. 162 sqq., Laur. S. ch. 44.)

prest-maðr, m. a clergyman, Sturl. iii. 225.

prest-mata, u, f. a tithe payable to the priest; see mata.

prest-mágr, m. a nickname, Fms. viii. 385.

prest-orð, n. = prestdómr, D. N. i. 276.

PRESTR, m., prests, presti, [the word was borrowed through the English missions from the A. S. preost, Engl. priest, as is seen from the dropping of the inflexive r or er, whereas the Germ. has priester, O. H. G. priestar, agreeably with the eccl. Lat. presbyter]:—a priest, Fms. ix. 8, Sturl. ii. 31, Grág. i. 152, K. Þ. K., Bs., H. E., in countless instances, as also in mod. usage. COMPDS: prests-borð, n. = prestborð, H. E. i. 494. presta-bók, f. a ministerial book, N. G. L. ii. 341. presta-búr, n. a ‘priest’s closet,’ Dipl. v. 18. presta-dómr, m. a priest’s court, an ecclesiastical court, K. Þ. K. prests-dómr, m. priesthood, Bs. i. 795. presta-fátt, adj. scarcity of priests, Bs. i. 136. prests-fundr, m. the visit of a priest; biðja prestsfundar, of one dying, Sturl. iii. 206. prests-fæði, n. = prestborð, Vm. 149. presta-garðr or prests-garðr, m., prests-hús, n. a priest’s residence, Sturl. ii. 124, Fms. ix. 379. presta-hatari, a, m. ‘priest-hater,’ a nickname of the Norse king Eric (1281–1299). presta-heimili, n. a priest’s domicile, Grág. i. 471. prests-kaup, n. a priest’s wage, K. Á. 102. presta-mót, n., and presta-stefna, u, f. a conference of priests, a synod, N. G. L. i. 347, Bs. i. 77, 853, K. Á. 80, Dipl. ii. 14. presta-reiða, u, f. = prestreiða, D.I. i. 161. presta-silfr, n. the priest’s fee, the contribution which a priest, when at a conference, had to pay, N. G. L. iii. 309. presta-spítal, n. (-spítali, a, m.), a hospital, infirmary for priests, Bs. i. 853.

prest-reiða, u, f. the rent payable to a priest, N. G. L. i. 15.

prest-renta, u, f. a priest’s rent, B. K. 106.

prest-setr, n. a priest’s residence, Bs. ii. 47, 116.

prest-skapr, m. priesthood, Bs. i. 157.

prest-skyld, f. = prestrenta, Pm. 21.

prest-stétt, f. the priestly order, priesthood, Bs. i. 590.

prest-stóll, m. a ‘priest’s stool,’ a pulpit, Vm. 23.

prest-tekja, u, f. (prest-taka, H. E. i. 494), a priest’s income, B. K. 8.

prest-tíund, f. a priest’s tithe, K. Á. 98, Vm. 140.

prest-vist, f. the maintenance of a priest, Fms. vii. 121, Ám. 38.

prest-vígsla, u, f. the ordination of a priest, Bs. ii. 158.

pretta, að, to cheat, deceive; ekki skal ek pretta yðr í þessu kaupi, Fms. vi. 110; ef þér prettið hann í öngu, Nj. 90; fær prettað mik Grettir, Grett. (in a verse, but spurious): pass. to be deceived, Gþl. 522.

prettóttr, adj. deceitful, tricky, Nj. 128, Stj. 78, Fb. i. 361.

prettr, m., pl. prettar, Barl. 197, but mod. prettir; acc. pl. prettu; [A. S. Dictionaries give a word præt, pl. prattas; but the age and the etymology of this word are uncertain]:—a trick; var þetta ekki nema prettr þeirra, Fms. i. 59, Fs. 73; konungr mælti, þetta er p. yðvarr, Fms. vii. 32; hafa þeir sýnt eigi góðan prett, Ld. 704; sviksamliga prettu, Stj. 144, Al. 68, Barl. 24; Þórir svarir at hann hirði ekki um prettu þeirra Erlings, Ó. H. 115; þetta vóru þínir prettar, Barl. 197; etja e-n við prettu, Ísl. ii. 224 (in a verse of the beginning of the 10th century, if the verse be genuine). COMPDS: pretta-fullr, adj. tricky, Stj. 77. pretta-lauss, adj. guileless. Fas. i. 32, Fms. viii. 44.

prettugr, adj. = prettóttr, Gþl. (pref. xv).

prett-vísi, f. craftiness, Th. 2, Háv. 57, Barl. 152.

prett-víss, adj. tricky, wily, Fas. i. 77, Bær. 16, Barl. 24, 150.

prik, n. [Engl.], a prick or dot in writing, Dan. prik, Rb. 530. 2. a little staff, stick (staf-prik); hafa prik í hendinni, freq. in mod. usage. COMPDS: prika-rím, n. a computistic table with dots, called Talbyrðing, published in the Rb. 1780. prika-setning, f. punctuation, Rb. 530. prika-stafr, m. a calendar with points, Rb. 512, 530.

prika, að, to prick, stab slightly, Ann. 1394.

prim-signa, d and að, [Lat., an eccl. word], to give the ‘prima signatio’ or ‘signaculum crucis’ a religious act, preliminary to christening; persons thus signed with the cross were catechumens, and if adults they could join in the social life among Christians; they were also admitted to a special part of the mass (primsigndra messa = the mass for the ‘prime-signed’), whereas all intercourse with heathens was forbidden. An infant who died, having received the prima signatio, but not baptism, was to be buried in the outskirts of the churchyard, where the consecrated and unconsecrated earth meet, and without burial service,—ef barn andask primsignt, ok hefir eigi verit skírt (primsignt ok hefir eigi meiri skírn, Sb. l. c.) ok skal þat grafa við kirkju-garð út, þar er mætisk vígð mold ok úvígð, ok syngva eigi legsöng yfir, K. Þ. K. (Kb.) 7. A monster-shapen infant was to receive the prima signatio, but not baptism, and then to be left to die (exposed) at the church door—þat barn (a monster-child) skal ok til kirkju bera, láta primsigna, leggja fyrir kirkju-dyr, gæti inn nánasti niðr til þess er önd er ór, N. G. L. i. 339; í þessi efan primsigni prestr ok skíri, iii. 251; hann primsignaði hann fyrst ok skírði hann síðan eptir siðvenju, Barl. 147. The words in the English Prayer Book—‘and do sign him (her) with the sign of the cross’—are remains of the ‘signaculum crucis’ of the ancient church. During the heathen age the Scandinavian merchants and warriors who served among Christians abroad in England or Germany used to take the prima signatio, for it enabled them to live both among Christians and heathens without receiving baptism and forsaking their old faith; ek em primsigndr at eins en eigi skírðr, I am ‘prime-signed,’ but not baptized, Fms. ii. 240, Valla L. 205, Kristni S. ch. 1, 2, Fb. i. 346, 357, ii. 137, 243; England var Kristið ok hafði lengi verit þá er þetta var tíðenda, Aðalsteinn konungr var vel Kristinn … hann bað Þórólf ok þá bræðr at þeir skyldi láta primsignask, þvíat þat var þá mikill siðr, bæði með kaupmönnum ok þeim er á mála gengu með Kristnum mönnum, þvíat þeir menn, er primsigndir vóru, höfðu allt samneyti við Kristna menn ok svá heiðna, en höfðu þat at átrúnaði er þeim var skapfeldast, Eg. 265, Gísl. 96: see also Vita Anscarii, ch. 24. These ‘prime-signed’ men, returning to their native land, brought with them the first notions of Christianity into the heathen Northern countries, having lived among Christians, and seen their daily life and worship, and they undoubtedly paved the way for the final acceptance of the Christian faith among their countrymen. It may even be that some strange heathen rites of the last days of paganism, such as the bjannak (q. v.), the sprinkling of infants with water, were due to this cause.

prim-signan, f. the ‘prima signatio,’ Grág. i. 29, 310.

prim-signing, f. = primsignan, Nj. 158.

prinz, m. [Lat. princeps,(?) through the Germ.], a prince, Ann. 1254, 1266, and in mod. usage.

prím, n. [Lat.], the prime moon, i. e. the new moon, Rb. 506, 518, Stj. 16. 2. a part of the mass; óttu-söngr, prím, nón, tertia, aptan-söngr, … prím, þat sem sungit var fyrir prédikan, Bs. ii. 247, 249.

prími, a, m., or príma, u, f. the ‘prima hora’ = 6 o’clock A.M., MS. 625. 175, 177, Fms. ix. 283:—the service at prime, H. E. i. 487. COMPDS: príma-mál, n. the prime hour, Fms. ix. 283, v. l. príma-stafr, m. a prime letter, Rb. 8. príma-tíð, f. = prímamál, 655 xi. 4.

príor, m. [Lat.], a prior, in a convent, Sks., Bs., Ann. passim.

prísa, að, [príss], to praise, Stj. 298, Mar., Fb. 1. 408, Vídal. passim.

prísaðr, part. [prísund], pressed, tortured; litt er hann enn prísaðr, Bs. i. 820; píndr ok prísaðr, Barl. 54, v. l.

príss, m. [Lat. pretium?], pomp, state; ríkuliga ok með prís miklum, Fms. xi. 315; fara með inum mesta prís, x. 36; reið konungr með þvílíkan prís í Miklagarð, vii. 95; sátu þar um vetrinn með mikinn prís, Fas. ii. 523; og sigldu þá með prís miklum, Orkn. 376; með prís miklum ok farar-blóma, 370; prís ok prýði, Stj. 142. 2. mod. praise, honour, glory, passim. II. price, freq. in mod. usage; háir prísar, góðir prísar.

prísu-liga, adv. magnificently, Stj. 15, v. l.

prísund, f. [Fr.], a prison, Fms. vi. 167, xi. 284, Hkr. iii. 69, Bs. i. 822, Al. 18: metaph., Stj. 157.

prjál, n. [Germ. prahl], a gewgaw, show in dress or manners, Pass. 49. 16: prjála, að, occurs in the 17th century, then freq.

prjóna, að, to knit, passim in mod. usage: metaph. to rear up, of a horse; see ausa.

prjónn, m. [Gael, prine; Scot. prin], a prin or pin, esp. of knitting pins; whence prjón-les, n. knitted wares, Snót 161: prjóna-peisa, n. a knitted jerkin: prjóna-stokkr, n. a prin-case: týtu-prjónn, a needle-pin:—prjónn as a nickname occurs in Sturl. iii. 209, so the word must then have been known.

processia, u, f. [Lat.] a procession, Fms. viii. 41, ix. 277, 498.

processionall, m. ‘processionale,’ Ám. 48.

próf, n. a proof, evidence; til prófs ok jartegna, Stj. 199; með prófi ok skilríki, H. E. i. 436: an ordeal, þá geng ek til þessa prófs með því skilríki, at …, Fms. i. 305: an inquest, examination, öll þau landamerki skyldi undir því prófi standa sem herra biskup tæki Rafns vegna, Dipl. i. 6; þar til er próf kemr til, Gþl. 493. COMPDS: prófs-bréf, n. a writ of evidence, D. N. i. 192. prófa-fullr, adj. evidential, H. E. i. 436.

prófa and próva, að, [Engl. prove; Germ. prüfen; Lat. probare]:—to try, put on trial, Al. 88, Stj. 145; þá skulum vit til prófa, Grett. 158 A; þeir vildu prófa hvárt …, Fms. vi. 156; prófa má ek þetta, Ísl. ii. 12: to shew, give evidence, ok prófa slíkir af sjálfum sér at lítil mildi muni búa í annars brjósti, Al. 96. 2. to examine; prófa mál, Al. 7; p. ok dæma, Bs. i. 720; en ef þetta er prófat á þingi, Nj. 99: to enquire, Fms. x. 131; þá skal próva ef nokkurir vissu, K. Á. 18; ef ek p. þetta allt sannindi, if I find it all to be true, Fms. i. 295; p. með líkindum, Stj. 105. II. reflex., prófaðisk svá til, it proved so, Stj. 160; sem síðan prófaðisk, Fms. i. 59. 2. part., prófaðr, proved, convicted of; sem at öðru verða prófaðir, Gþl. (pref. ix); nú höfu vér prófat, we have found that …, Mar.; ok er svá próvað fyrir biskupi, K. Á. 64, Bs. i. 755; nema þeir fengi af sér prófat, unless they can clear themselves of it; sökum prófaðrar harðfengi, Eb. 42.

prófan, f. a trial, enquiry, K. Á. 31, 134, 216.

prófan-ligr, adj. provable, H. E. ii. 74.

prófast-dómr, m. the office of a prófastr (q. v.), Jb. 458, N. G. L.

prófast-dæmi, n. the district of a provost, provostship, Ann. 1327, 1394, K. Á. 230, Bs. i. 747, 753: the revenue of the p., allt p., þat sem féll í sakeyri eðr öðrum sektum, gaf hann fátækum, … skipaði hann presta at láta reka prófastdæmi, Bs. (Laur. S.) i. 849.

prófastr, m. [Engl. provost; Germ. probst;—all from the eccl. Lat. praepositus]:—a provost; in the later Roman Catholic times the provost was a kind of church-steward, a ‘biskups ármaðr,’ and the diocese was divided into provostships, answering to the secular sýsla and sýslu-maðr; the provost might therefore be a layman; eptir ráði biskups eðr prófasts, Vm. 117, Dipl. v. 18, Fms. ix. 452, Bs. i. 841; this division of the provostship appears in Icel. at the beginning of the 14th century, cp. esp. Laur. S. and the Annals. 2. in Norway the provost or dean of a collegiate church; prófastr í Túnsbergi, Fms. ix. 284; Ketill p. er varðveitti Máríu-kirkju, Hkr. iii. 349. II. after the Reformation the office underwent some change, and the prófastdæmi (Germ. probstie) became the eccl. division throughout the whole of the land; each provostship consists of several parishes, and one of the parish priests is called prófastr, answering closely to the Engl. archdeacon; he is nominated by the bishop, and is the head and overseer of his fellow-priests in the district, has to visit the churches, look after the instruction of the young, etc., and is a kind of bishop’s vicar, is unpaid, and holds his office for life.

prókurera, að, [Lat.], to procure, Stj. 157.

prólaga, að; p. sér e-t, to bargain for oneself, Stat. 280.

própheti, a, m. [Lat.-Gr.], a prophet, Hom., Sks., Bs.; but spámaðr is the genuine word.

prósa, u, f. [Lat.], prose, Nikdr. 76.

próvenda or prófenda, u, f. [eccl. Lat. praebenda; Germ. pfründe]:—a prebend, for the maintenance of the church or charitable institutions; beneficia kirkjunnar er sumir kalla próvendur, K. Á. 228; hann lét göra kirkju norðr í Vágum ok lagði próvendu til, Hkr. iii. 248, Fms. vii. 100, x. 159; en síðan er Erkibiskups-stóll var skipaðr í Noregi, þá vóru próventur skipaðar at biskups-stólum, Anecd. 76:—a prebend, af próventum þeirra klerka, sem í brott eru at studium, H. E. i. 507; dýrar prófentur (presents), Odd. 18. 2. spec.; in the Roman Catholic times laymen (often men of wealth and rank) in the decline of life retired and entered into a convent; at the same time they bequeathed to the church or convent a portion in money or estates for their maintenance; this portion was called prófenta,—Magnús konungr gaf sik í klaustr í Hólmi, ok tók við múnka-klæðum, þá var skeytt þangat Hernes mikla á Frostu í próventu hans, Fms. vii. 196; þann hlut jarðar sem Gróa gaf með sér í próventu til þverár-klaustrs, Dipl. iii. 5, B. K. 124; mátn vér ok dæmdum áðr-nefnt próventu-kaup ekki arfsvik við erfingja, Dipl. iii. 14. próventu-maðr, m. (-kona, u. f.), a person who has given his próventa, Dipl. iii. 6; prestar, klerkar, próventumenn. Bs. i. 848. II. in mod. usage, gefa prófentu sína, and prófentu-karl, m.: prófentu-kerling, f., is used of old people in the same sense as arfsal and arfsals-maðr (q. v.) in the ancient law.

prúð-leikr, m. show, ornament. Str. 81.

prúð-liga, adv. stately, magnificently, Str. 81: manfully, courageously, Bs. i. 128, Hkr. ii. 304.

prúð-ligr, adj. magnificent; p. veizla, Eg. 30, 44.

prúðr, adj. [from the A. S. prâd; old French prudhomme], fine, magnificent, stately. The word is used in Sighvat, and appears at the beginning of the 11th century (in the reign of king Canute); it is very freq. in the poets of the following century, but less freq. in prose; it is also freq. in mod. usage, although not in the mod. Engl. sense of ‘proud,’ which is a derived one; drekans prúða, the proud ship: af þramval prúðum, id.; prúðar ekkjur, the proud ladies; várum þá. prúðir, then were we grand, Fms. vi. (in a verse), and so passim in Lex. Poët.; er ér lituð þá svá prúða, stirðu ér veslugir upp á þeirra fegrð, Mar.; ríðr nu sá prúðr, er vanr var at ganga fátækliga, MS. 4. 6; prúð hibýli, Ísl. ii. 415; konu dýrliga ok prúða, a stately lady, Str.; hár-prúðr, having splendid hair:—of manners, fine; hann var hverjum manni kurteisari, því var hann kallaðr Ásbjörn prúði, Fb. i. 524; hátt-p., sið-p., híbýla-p. (q. v.); geð-p., gentle: a nickname, Hugi inn Prúði, Orkn. II. gallant, brave; hug-p., hjarta-p., q. v.

prútta, að, onomatopoetic, to shout in driving a horse. 2. to higgle, Dan. prutte.

prýða, d, to adorn, ornament, Fms. i. 141, Magn. 504, Hkr. iii. 110.

prýði, f. an ornament, Stj. 396; þá er þú sigldir með fegrð ok prýði (with pride and pomp) af Noregi, Fms. vii. 157. 2. gallantry, bravery; verja með p., Fms. xi. 274: falla með p. ok orðstír, vi. 421; p. ok karlmennska, Fs. 17. passim. prýði-maðr, m. a brave man, Fb. ii. 199.

prýði-liga, adv. finely, bravely, Fms. iii. 44, v. 324. vii. 223: nobly, hefir honum allt p. farit, Vígl. 33: beautifully, passim in mod. usage.

prýði-ligr, adj. fine, ornamental, noble, Bs. i. 74, Al. 98; magnificent, p. veizla, Hkr. ii. 163.

prýðing, f. decoration. Mar.

prýðir, m. an adorner, Lex. Poët.

psalmr, psaltari, a, m. [eccl. Lat.], a psalm, psalter.

pukr, n. stealth, secret dealing, concealment; í pukri, in stealth.

pukra, að, to do stealthily, to do a thing ‘í pukri.’

pula, u. f. = lota, q. v.; but in a lower sense, í einni pulu.

pulkru-kirkja, u, f. [Lat.], the church of the sepulchre, Symb. 29.

pund, n. [Engl. pound; Germ. pfund; Lat. pondo]:—a pound, of a pound = 24 marks or 12lbs.; þriggja punda smjör, þeirra at fjórar merkr ok tuttugu göri hvert pund, Gþl. 524; þrir laupar þriggja punda smjörs, 100; engi maðr kunni marka tal ok varla punda tal. Fms. xi. 202; pund matar eðr eyrir vaðmáls, Vm. 147; ek orka tólf punda þunga, Bær. 18. 2. skip-pund, Dan. skibpund; pund ok nant, Fms. viii. 395; leiga tveggja punda far, Jb. 393. 3. as a rendering of the Gr.-Lat. talentum, Stj. 151, 570, N. T.; pund þat er Guð seldi mér, Eluc. 1, Stj. 151; at þessi falli ekki fyrir sína pund-tekju, Stj. 151. 4. in mod. usage pund is = two merkr = a lisb.

pundari, a, m. a steel-yard, Grág. i. 499, ii. 369, Gþl. 522 (Jb. 375).

pung-elta, u, f. a nickname, Fms. vii. 215.

pungr, m. [Ulf. puggs], a small bag, purse, hanging on the belt (= púss); silki-pungr, Dipl. v. 18; buðkr ok pungr, id.; vefja saman ok hafa í pung sér, Edda 70, Grett. 161, Fs. 97: hefi ek elnorð allra lendra manna Magnúss konungs í pung mér, Fms. viii. 128, Sks. 27; tóbaks-pungr, a snuff-bag, tobacco-pouch:—scrotum. pung-arfi, a, m., botan. bursa pastoris, Hjalt.

punkta, punktera, ponta, að, [Lat.], to point, dot, Skálda (Edda ii. 401); ráfrit var allt steint ok punkterað, Fms. v. 339: to point with a full stop, Skálda (Edda ii. 104): metaph. to point out, Dipl. ii. 5.

punktr, m. [Lat.], a point, Rb. 470: a degree or part of the circumference of a circle, Rb. 2. a full stop in writing. II. the point or nick of time; í þann punkt, sama punkt, í sagðan punkt, Stj., Mar., and passim in writers of the. 14th century, e. g. Bs. ii. 2. a point, case, Bs. i. 730.

puntr or pundr, m. [pundari, from its steel-yard-like shape], a windle-straw; beint þegar börðust punti. Gd.: = phleum Alpinum, Hjalt. COMPDS: punt-hali, a, m., botan. aira caespitosa, Hjalt. punt-strá, n. = puntr.

purka, u, f. [Ivar Aasen purka; Lat. porcus], a sow; in svefn-purka, a sleepy sow, a term of abuse: a local name, Purk-ey, in western Icel., but called Svíney in the Eb.; as also a deed of 1533 A. D. (bænhús í Svíney, í Hrafsey, og Langey, etc.)

purkunar-samr, adj. (-semi, f.), parsimonious, perh. from the Engl.

purpuri, a, m. [Lat.], purple, but also of costly stuff; thus, purpura hökul hvítan, a ‘white’ cope of p., Bs. i. 67; hvítr sem p., ‘white’ as purple, Fb. i. 33, Stj., Bs., Al. passim; purpura-hökull, -klæði, -möttull, -skikkja, Vm. 123, MS. 645. 69, Stj.; purpura-litr, purple colour, Stj.; purpura gull, purple gold, red gold, Fms. vii. 96.

purpur-ligr, adj. purple, Magn. 514.

pussa, u, f. cunnus, of a beast, a mare, cow.

putlingar, m. pl., Stj. 344, = inadventiones (Deut. xxviii. 20)

putrea, að, [Fr.]. to portray, paint, Stj. 97, 192, v. l.

putt, interj. [Dan. pyt], pish! pshaw! putt, putt! Fms. vii. 21.

pú, interj. pooh! púa, að, to say pooh, cp. Dan. puste.

púðr, n. [Engl. powder; Lat. pulvis], gunpowder; the word was borrowed from the English during the English trade, for the Danes say krudt.

púki, a, m. [akin to Engl. Puck; cp. also Dan. pokker]:—a devil, but with the notion of a wee devil, an imp, see the tale in Fb. 1. 416–418 and freq. in mod. tales:—the evil one, móti púkanum, against the devil Stj. 8, 55; allir menn heita í skírn at hafna púkanum, to forsake the devil, N. G. L. ii. 366; hann játar öllum púkans vilja, Th. 4: maura-púki ‘treasure-puck’ = a miser, Maurer’s Volks. púka-bit, n., botan. scabiosa. Germ. teufels abbiss, Hjalt.

púl, n. [Dan. pule], slaving, grinding. COMPDS: púls-band, n. a kind of coarse thread, Snót 163. púls-hestr, -klár, m. a cart horse, opp. to reið-hestr. púls-mennska, u, f. a slavish work.

púliza, ad, [Lat.], to polish, Stj. 56.

Púll, m. = Apulia; in the phrase, á Púli, Symb. 25, Fms. xii.

púsa, að, [Lat. and Fr.], to espouse, Str. 20, 21, 31, 65; láta púsa sik, K. Á. 120; púsa saman, H. E. i. 523, Fms. ix. 292; púsa konu manni, 293, x. 106: reflex., Str. 48. The word is now only used in the phrase, láta pússa sig, pússa saman; but it is slang, and cannot be said of gentlefolk.

púsa, u, f. [through French, from Lat. sponsa], a spouse, Fms. ix. 293, x. 106, Str. 3, 15, 16.

púsan, f. marriage, H. E. i. 493: púsaðr, m. = púsan, id.

púsi, a, m. a spouse, husband, Str.

púss, m. [Bohem. páss = a girdle], = pungr, q. v.; hann tók línhúfu ór pússi sínum, Nj. 193; tók hann þá jaxl ór pússi sínum, 203, Fms. vi. 235., Þorst. Síðu H. 177; þá mundi horfinn hlutr ór pússi hans, Landn. 174.

pústr, m., the r is radical, [early Swed. puster], a box on the ear, a blow with the fist in the face, Fas. iii. 479, Gþl. 177, Karl. 65; konungr sló hana pústr. Fms. vi. 4; ætla ek at þar muni þá vera hrundningar eða pústrar, Eg. 765; svívirðr með pústrum, Mar.

pústra, ð, to buffet, Þryml.

púta, u, f. [early Fr. pute], a harlot, Nj. 140, Fms. vii. 162, xi. 54, N. G. L. i. 327, Rétt. 36, Stj. 188, 558, Fb. i. 158, Karl. 100. COMPDS: pútu-barn, pútu-sonr, m. a whore-son, a term of abuse, Flóv. 26, Fb. i. 256. Jb. 102. pútna-hús, n. a brothel, Sks. 358. pútna-maðr, m. a whoremonger, MS. 4. 31.

pylsa, u. f. [Dan. pölse], a sausage; lífrar-p., n liver sausage.

pynda or pynta, t, [from A. S. pund = a fold, Engl. pond, pound, and not from Lat. poena; A. S. pyndan; cp. provinc. Engl. pindar or pynder]:—to extort, compel by brute force; skal eigi pynda yðr til Kristni, Ld. 172; at pynda hann til blóta, Fms. i. 38; konungr vildi eigi at bændr væri pyndir til svá mikilla fégjalda, x. 113: sögðu at bændr vildi eigi hafa frekari álög af konungi, en forn lög stæði til, … sögðusk í engu vilja láta pynda sik, xi. 224; en móti flutningi þeirra, at biskupar pyndi um rétt fram, Bs. i. 702: to torment, pyndir þú ok pinir, drepr ok deyðir. Barl. 106; at þú vilt pina mik eðr pynda, 116.

pynding, f. extortion, tyranny; álögur ok pyndingar Haralds konungs, Fms. vi. 192: hafa slíkar pyndingar (extortions) af honum, xi. 253; ok höfðu engar pyndingar á mönnum, iv. 84; láta engra pyndinga við þurfa, vii. 304: pyndingar ok kúgan, Ó. H. 61; konungr fann þat, at Þorfinnr var mikin skapstærri ok kunni verr pynding þessi, 98; krafir ok pyndingar, K. Á. 220, Bs. i. 702. 2. mod. torture, torment.

pyngja, u, f. [pungr], a purse: peninga-p.

pysja, u, f. the young of a puffin, called so in the south of Icel.

pytla, u, f. [cp. Fr. bouteille: Engl. bottle], a little bottle.

pytta, t, to dam, D. N.

pyttr, m., pl. pyttar, Fs. 157, but mod. pyttir; [Engl. pit; mid. H. G. pute; Lat. puteus]:—a ‘pit,’ pool, cesspool; í Helvítis pytt, Mar.; p. djúpr ok víðr. Bs. i. 452; í einn fúlan pytt, Fas. iii. 295; í enn saurgasta pytt, Karl. 320: saur-p., Ísl. ii. 367; flæðar-p., Fs. 158; hann hrapar í pyttinn, id.; djúpasta pytts, Stj.: a pit without water, Stj. 194.

pýta, t, [púta], stuprare, Al. 87: reflex., El. 104.

pækill, m. [from the Engl.], pickle, but only used of salt, saltpetre (salt-pækill), or the like.

pæla, d, [páll], to dig, dig up.

pæla, u, f. a rugged, dug up place.

pör, n. pl. pairs; see par. 2. stráka-pör, bad tricks; heimsku-pör, foolish tricks.

pöróttr, adj. trickish.

© Tim Stridmann