E (a), the fifth letter, is in the old Gothic and Anglo-Saxon Runes represented by ᛖ, being in Anglo-Saxon called ‘eoh;’ the common Scandinavian Runes have no character for e, but mark it either ia or i, and, still later, ᛁ, with a knob in the middle (‘stunginn Íss’ ᛂ).

A. PRONUNCIATION, etc.—The Icel. e is sounded as English a in same, take, and in modern printed books is only used in radical syllables without regard to etymology; but there is sufficient evidence that in early times in Icel. the e had a double sound, one long, like the Italian e or English a (long), the other short, like e in English wet. These two sounds are etymologically different; the first is of comparatively late growth and derived from a by vowel change or otherwise; it is therefore in kindred languages (Swed., Germ.) often spelt ä, so as to indicate its origin from the mother-letter a: the other e is much older, nearly akin to i, being related to that letter as o to u. Grimm suggests that e is derived from i as o from u (only admitting a, i, u as primitive vowels), but in the Icel. at least e and o are in spelling as old as i or u, and seem to be primitive. The Runes in Tune and on the Golden horn have special marks for e and o. At the time of Ari and Thorodd the two seem to have been distinguished in Icel. The latter grammarian uses a special sign for each; he proposes to represent the long sound (Engl. a) by  (commonly ę), adding (as he says) the bight of a to the body of e, to express a sound intermediate between ä and e; he therefore would have written tk (I take), vnja, tmja (to tame), but eðr, en, ef, etc., Skálda 161–163; in the unique vellum MS. (and in Edd.) the characters are not given correctly, as transcriber and editors did not fully understand the bearing of the author’s words. About 700 years later, Jacob Grimm (without knowing the Icel. grammarian or the spelling of MSS. not then edited) recalled the old double e sound to life, guided by the analogy of other Teutonic languages. He proposed to represent a (the ę of Thorodd) by e, and the genuine e by ë. He (Gram. i. 281–284) drew out a list of words founded on the supposed etymology, and kept this distinction wherever he spelt Icel. words. It is curious to observe the difference between Grimm’s artificial list of words and the phonetic spelling in some MSS.; there are especially two MSS., both of them Norse, which are remarkable for their distinction of the two sounds, the long e being spelt with æ, the short with e: these MSS. are the O. H. L., published from a vellum MS. Ups. De la Gard. no. 8, written in Norway at the beginning of the 13th century, and edited by C. R. Unger; the second, small fragments of Norse law MSS., published in N. G. L. ii. 501–515 and i. 339 sqq. Some words compiled from them are as follow: I. æ: the verbs, bærja, blækkja, ærja, æggja, færja, hængja, glæðja, hæfja, hærja (to harry), kvæðja, læggja, sægja, sælja, sætja, strængja, væðja (to bail), værja, etc.; bænda, brænna (brændi), bræsta, æfla, æfna (Swed. ämna), fælla (to fell), frægna, gægna, hæmna (= hæfna), hværfa (to turn), kænna, mætta, næmna (Swed. nämna), rænna (to let run), ræfsa, spænna, stæmna (stafn), tælja, værða (to become), værka, vækra (vakr), þværra: nouns, bæn, a wound (but ben, N. G. L. iii. 388); bær, a berry; bæðr, a bed; bælgr; bærsærkr; bælti, a belt; dæpill; drængr, a man; drægg; ækkja, a widow; ændi, end; ældr, fire; æmni (= æfni = Swed. ämna); æmbætti (Germ. amt); ældri (in for-ældri, forefathers, Germ. ältern); ælja, a concubine; ærendi, an errand; ærændr, exanimis; ængill, an angel; ærmr, a sleeve (armr); ærvi, ærfingi, ærfð (arfr); ænni, the forehead; ærtog (a coin); æng, a meadow (ang = a sweet smell); Ærlingr (a pr. name); ærki-, Engl. arch- (αρχι-); ærveði, toil, and ærveðr, toilsome; ægg, an edge; fæðgar (faðir); fælmtr (falma); færð (fara); frælsi (frjals); hæl, hell; hælviti; hælla, a stone; hællir, a cave; hærra, a lord; hærr, troops; hærbúðir; hærnaðr; hærað, a county (but herað in N. G. L. i. 344 sqq.); hærðar, shoulders; kæfli (Swed. kafle); kær, a jar; kælda (kaldr), a well; kætill, a kettle; fætill; kvæld, evening; kværk, the throat; læggr, a leg; mærki, a mark; mærgð (margr); mægn, mægin, main; mærr, a mare; næf, nose; næss, a ness; ræfill, tapestry; rækkja, a bed; sækt, sake; skægg, beard; skællibrögð; skæpna, a creature (skapa, Dan. skæbne); sværð, a sword; sænna, sound; væfr, weaving; værk (but verk better, N. G. L. i. 339 sqq., cp. virkr): væstr, the west; væl, a trick; vætr, the winter (but vittr or vitr better, N. G. L. ii. 509); vær (in sel-vær); værðr, a meal; þængill, a king; þækja, thatch; þægn, thane; Ængland, England; Ænskr, English; Ænglændingar, the English (Angli); Tæmps, the Thames, etc.: datives, dægi, hændi, vændi, vælli, hætti (höttr), bælki (balkr): adjectives, compar. and superl., fræmri, fræmstr; skæmri, skæmstr; ældri, ælztr; længri, længstr; bætri, bæztr; værri, værstr; hældri, hælztr: sækr, guilty; værðr, due; fæginn; hælgr, holy; bærr, bare; stærkr, stark, etc.: prepositions, hænni, hænnar (hann); tvæggja, duorum; hværr, who; ænginn, none; ækki, nothing (but also engi, which is better), etc.: particles, æftir, after; væl, well; ælligar, or: inflexive syllables, -sæmd (-sanir); -ændi; -spæki, wisdom, etc.: the diphthongs æi and æy = ei and ey, læita, bæita, hæyra, æyra, etc. II. e: the pronouns and particles, eða, or; ek, ego; enn, still; en, but; sem, which; ef, if; með, with; meðan, while; meðal, between; nema, nisi; snemma, early; er, is, and em, are; em, I am; þessi, this; þetta, that; sex, six; sek, mek, þek, sometimes instead of sik, mik, þik: nouns, elgr, an elk; sef, sib; brekka, brink; veðr, weather; nevi, a kinsman (Lat. nepos); nevi, a neave, fist; segl, a sail (cp. segla); vetr, a wight; selr, a seal; net, a net; nes, a ness; el, a gale; messa, a mass (Lat. missa); hestr, a horse; prestr, a priest; þegn (O. H. L. 47); vegr, a way, honour; sel and setr, shielings; veröld, the world; vesöld, misery: verbs, gera, to ‘gar,’ to do; drepa, to kill; bera, to bear; bresta, to burst; gefa, to give; geta, to get; meta, to measure; kveða, to say; drekka, to drink; stela, to steal; vera, to be; mega, must; nema, to take; eta, to eat; vega, to weigh; reka, to drive; skera, to cut: participles and supines from þiggja, liggja, biðja, sitja, þegit, legit, beðit, setið: preterites as, hengu, gengu, fengu (Germ. gingen, fingen); greru, reru, sneru (from gróa, róa, snúa): e if sounded as é, e. g. hét, blés, lét, réttr, léttr; even in the words, hér, here; mér, sér, þér, mibi, sibi, tibi; neðan (niðr), hegat (= huc); héðan, hence: adjectives, mestr, flestr, þrennr, etc.: inflexions, -legr, -ly; -lega, -ly; -neskja, -neskr (cp. Germ. -isch); in the articles or the verbal inflexions, -en, -et, -er, -esk, etc. The e is often used against the etymology, as dreki, dragon; menn, men (from maðr). In some other Norse MSS. the two sounds are marked, but so inaccurately that they are almost useless, e. g. the chief MS. of the Barl. S.; but in other MSS. there is hardly an attempt at distinction. The list above is mainly but not strictly in accordance with the etymology, as phonetical peculiarities come in; yet the etymology is the groundwork, modified by the final consonants: both old spelling and modern pronunciation are of value in finding a word’s etymology, e. g. the spelling drsengr indicates that it comes from drangr; hærað and hær, troops (but hér, here), shew that hærað (hérað) is to be derived from hærr (herr), exercitus, and not from her (hér), etc. The Icel. idiom soon lost the short e sound in radical syllables, and the long e sound (like the Italian e) prevailed throughout; there was then no more need for two signs, and e, prevailed, without regard to etymology. Some few MSS., however, are curious for using æ almost throughout in radical syllables, and thus distinguish between the e in roots and the e in inflexions (vide B below); as an example see the Arna-Magn. no. 748, containing an abridgement of the Edda and Skálda and poems published in the edition of 1852, vol. ii. pp. 397–494; cp. also Vegtamskviða, published by Möbius in Sæm. Edda, pp. 255, 256, from the same MS.; this MS. uses æ in radical syllables, but e or i in inflexions. It is clear that when this MS. was written (at the latter part of the 13th century) the Icel. pronunciation was already the same as at present. In some other MSS. e and æ, and e and ę now and then appear mixed up, till at last the thing was settled in accordance with the living tongue, so that the spelling and sound went on together, and æ (or ę) was only used to mark the diphthong; vide introduction to Æ.

B. SPELLING of e and i in inflexions.—The Germans, Swedes, Danes, English, and Dutch all express the i sound in inflexional syllables by e, not i, as in Engl. father, mother, brother, taken, bidden, hidden, heaven, kettle; or in Germ., e. g. hatte, möchte, sollte, lange, bruder, mutter, soltest, himmel, etc.: in the earliest times of Icel. literature also it is almost certain that e was used throughout: Ari probably signed his name Are (en ek heitcr Are, Íb. fine): Thorodd, too, seems to have followed the same rule, as we may infer from several things in his treatise, e. g. the words framer and frá mér, which would be unintelligible unless we suppose him to have written framer, not framir: even the name of Snorri is twice spelt Snorre in the Reykholts-máldagi, probably written by one of his clerks. Some old vellum fragments may be found with the e only; but even in the oldest extant, i is used now and then. The reason is clear, viz. that the Icel. never admits the long e in inflexive syllables, and in roots it never admits the short e, consequently the same sign would not do both for roots and inflexions; hende, velle, gefe have each two vowel sounds; therefore the short i was admitted in inflexions; yet in most MSS. both e and i are used indiscriminately, e. g. faðir and faðer, tími and time, manni and manne, kominn and komenn, komið and komet, höndin and hönden, fjallit and fjallet; even those that use i admit e if following ð or d, e. g. viðe, bæðe, liðe, lande, but fjalli, vatni. As the spelling was partly influenced from abroad, the e even gained ground, and at the time of the Reformation, when printing became common, it was rcassmned throughout, and remained so for nearly 230 years, when (about A. D. 1770–1780) i was reinstated and e expelled in all inflexions, as being inconsistent with the spelling and ambiguous; but the sound has undoubtedly remained unchanged from the time of Ari up to the present time: the English father, mother, German vater, mutter, and lcd. fadir are, as to the inflexion, sounded exactly alike.

C. INTERCHANGE of e and i.—The adjectival syllable -ligr, -liga, is in MSS. spelt either -ligr or -legr; in modern pronunciation and spelling always -legr, -lega (Engl. -ly). β. in a few root words e has taken the place of i, as in verðr, qs. virðr (food); brenna, qs. brinna; þremr and þrimr; tvenna and tvinna; ef, efa, efi, = if, ifa, ifi; einbirni and einberni (born): e has taken the place of ø in such words as hnetr (nuts) from hnot, older form hnøtr: so also in eðli and öðli; efri efstr from öfri öfstr: e and the derived ja make different words, as berg and bjarg, fell and fjall, bergr and bjargar, etc.

D. DIPHTHONGS: I. ei answers to Goth. ai, A. S. â, Germ. ei, Engl. ō (oa or the like); in Danish frequently expressed by ee; in Swedish and Northern English the diphthong is turned into a plain e and a, which, however, represent the same sound: Goth. stains, A. S. stân, Swed. sten, North. E. stane. The o sound is English-Saxon; the a sound English-Scandinavian; thus the forms, home, bone, oak, oath, broad, one, own, more, none, no, may be called English-Saxon, from A. S. hâm, bân, etc.; the North. E. and Scottish hame, bane, aik, aith, braid, ain, mair, nain, may be called English-Scandinavian: cp. Swed. hem, ben, ek, ed, bred, en; Icel. heimr, bein, eik, eiðr, breiðr, einn, meir, neinn, nei; cp. also Icel. bleikr, Swed. blek, North. E. blake, etc. The Runic stones mark the ei with a + i or i simply, e. g. stin or stain. Old Norse and Icel. MSS. frequently for ei give æi. II. ey is in modern usage sounded as ei, and only distinguished in writing; in old times a distinction was made in sound between ei and ey. Norse MSS. almost always spell öy, and in Norway it is to the present time sounded accordingly, e. g. öyra, = Icel. eyra, sounded nearly as in English toil: the ey is properly a vowel change of au: ey frequently answers to an English e (ea) sound, as heyra, to hear; eyra, ear; dreyma, to dream; leysa, to lease. In very old MSS., e. g. Íb. (ai in the Ed. is a wrong reading from ꜹ in the MS.), au and ey are even spelt alike (ꜹ or au), though sounded differently. In some MSS. ey is also used where it is not etymological, viz. instead of ø or ö, in such words as hreyqva, seyqva, steyqva, deyqvan, greyri, geyra, seyni, etc., = hrökva, sökva, … greri or grori, syni, e. g. the Cod. Reg. of Sæm. Edda, the Rafns S. Bs. i. 639 sqq.

E. é is sounded almost as English ye (or ya); it is produced, 1. by an absorption of consonants, in words as réttr, léttr, þéttr, sétti, flétta, rétta, cp. Germ. recht, Engl. right; Germ. leicht, Engl. light: or in fé, kné, tré, hlé, sé (Icel. fé = Engl. fee, Goth. faihu, Lat. pecus), etc. 2. by a lost reduplication in the preterites, féll, grét, réð, lét, blés, hét, gékk, hékk, lék, fékk, from falla, gráta, etc.; in some old MSS. this é is replaced by ie, e. g. in the Hulda Arna-Magn. no. 66 fol. we read fiell, liet, hiet, griet, gieck, liek, cp. mod. Geim. fiel, hiess, liess, etc.; perhaps in these cases é was sounded a little differently, almost as a bisyllable. 3. in such words as the pronouns vér, þér or ér (you), mér, sér, þér (tibi): the particles hér (here), héðan (hence), hérað, vél, él. 4. é is also sounded after g and k, and often spelt ie in MSS., gieta, giefa, kier, kierti; this sound is, however, better attributed to g and k being aspirate. In Thorodd and the earliest MSS. é is marked with ´ just like the other long or diphthongal vowels; but the accent was subsequently removed, and e and é are undistinguished in most MSS.: again, in the 15th century transcribers began to write ie or ee (mier or meer). In printed books up to about 1770 the ie prevailed, then e, and lastly (about 1786) é (cp. the 5th and 6th vols. of Fél.): è is an innovation of Rask, and is used by many, but máttr, dráttr, and réttr, sléttr, etc. are etymologically identical, though the sound of é is somewhat peculiar: the spelling je is also a novelty, and being etymologically wrong (except in 2 above) is not to be recommended.

Ebreskr, adj. Hebrew, Skálda 161, 167, Stj. 26. Ebreska, f. the Hebrew tongue, Ver. 11, Ann. (H.) 14.

eð, a particle, vide er.

eðal-, noble, in compds, borrowed from Germ. and rare.

EDDA, u, f. a great-grandmother, Rm. 2. 4; móðir (mother) heitir ok amma (grandmother), þriðja edda (the third is edda), Edda 108: this sense is obsolete. II. metaph. the name of the book Edda, written by Snorri Sturluson, and containing old mythological lore and the old artificial rules for verse making. The ancients only applied this name to the work of Snorri; it is uncertain whether he himself called it so; it occurs for the first time in the inscription to one of the MSS. of Edda, viz. the Ub., written about fifty or sixty years after Snorri’s death: Bók þessi heitir Edda, hann hefir saman setta Snorri Sturlusonr eptir þeim hætti sem hér er skipat (viz. consisting of three parts, Gylfagynning, Skáldskaparmál, and Háttatal), Edda ii. 250 (Ed. Arna-Magn.); sva segir í bók þeirri er Edda heitir, at sá maðr sem Ægir hét spurði Braga …, 532 (MS. of the 14th century); hann (viz. Snorri) samansetti Eddu, he put together the Edda, Ann. 1241 (in a paper MS., but probably genuine). As the Skáldskaparmál (Ars Poëtica) forms the chief part of the Edda, teaching the old artificial poetical circumlocutions (kenningar), poetical terms and diction, and the mythical tales on which they were founded, the Edda became a sort of handbook of poets, and therefore came gradually to mean the ancient artificial poetry as opposed to the modern plain poetry contained in hymns and sacred poems; it, however, never applies to alliteration or other principles of Icel. poetry: reglur Eddu, the rules of Edda, Gd. (by Arngrim) verse 2, Lil. 96, Nikulas d. 4; Eddu list, the art of Edda, Gd. (by Arni) 79;—all poems of the 14th century. The poets of the 15th century frequently mention the Edda in the introduction to their Rímur or Rhapsodies, a favourite kind of poetry of this and the following time, Reinalds R. I. 1, Áns R. 7. 2, Sturlaugs R., Sigurðar þögla R. 5. 4, Rimur af Ill Verra og Vest, 4, 3, Jarlmanns R. 7. 1, 5, II. 3, Dímis R. 2. 4, Konraðs R. 7. 5;—all these in vellum and the greater part of them belonging to the 15th century. Poets of the 16th century (before 1612), Rollants R. 9. 6, 12. 1, Pontus R. (by Magnus Gamli, died 1591), Valdimars R., Ester R. 2. 2, 6. 3, Sýraks R. 1. 2, 6. 2, Tobias R. I. 2; from the first half of the 17th century, Grett. R., Flores R. 6. 3, 9. 2, Króka Refs R. 1. 7, Lykla Pétrs R. 4. 2, 12. 1, Apollonius R. 1. 5, Flovents R. 6. 3, Sjö Meistara R. 1. 7, 2. 1, 3. 8;—all in MS. In these and many other references, the poets speak of the art, skill, rules, or, if they are in that mood, the obscure puerilities and empty phrases of the Edda, the artificial phraseology as taught and expounded by Snorri; and wherever the name occurs (previous to the year 1643) it only refers to Snorri’s book, and such is still the use of the word in Icel.; hence compd words such as Eddu-lauss, adj. void of Eddic art; Eddu-borinn, part. poetry full of Eddic phrases; Eddu-kenningar, f. pl. Eddic circumlocutions, Kötlu Draumr 85, e. g. when the head is called the ‘sword of Heimdal,’ the sword the ‘fire or torch of Odin,’ etc.; Eddu-kendr = Edduborinn; Eddu-bagr, adj. a bungler in the Eddic art, etc. The Icel. bishop Brynjolf Sveinsson in the year 1643 discovered the old mythological poems, and, led by a fanciful and erroneous suggestion, he gave to that book the name of Sæmundar Edda, the Edda of Sæmund; hence originate the modern terms the Old or Poetical and New or Prose Edda; in foreign writers Eddic has been ever since used in the sense of plain and artless poetry, such as is contained in these poems, opposed to the artificial, which they call Scaldic (Skald being Icel. for a poet); but this has no foundation in old writers or tradition. Further explanation of this subject may be seen in Ersch and Gruber’s Encyclopedia, s. v. Graagaas.

EDIK, n. [from Lat. acidum or acetum; A. S. eced; Germ. essig; Dan. edik]:—vinegar (qs. acidum vini); the word is modern in Icel., being borrowed from Danish, and probably first used in Matth. xxvii. 34, 48; edik galli blandað, Pass. 33. i, 2.

EÐLA (eyðla, O. H. L. 27), u, f. [old Swed. ydhla], a viper, Hkr. i. 103.

eðla-, in compds [from Germ. edel-, Dan. ædel-], noble, Pass. 48. 6, (rare and mod.)

EÐLI, n., akin to and derived from óðal, q. v.; old MSS. also always use the form øðli (eyðli, D. I. l. c.), Fms. x. 301, Hom. 47, 118, Greg. 48, O. H. L. 86, Eluc. 16, Hkr. i. 225, Hbl. 9, Bs. i. 335, 342; eðli is more modern, but öðli is still preserved: 1. nature; mannligt e., human nature or character, 623. 19, Eb. 110, Fms. x. 301; náttúrligt e., human condition, Mag. (Fr.); vera í e. sinu, to be in one’s own nature or frame of mind, Fs. 59; eptir e., natural, ordinary, Fms. iii. 118; móti e., against nature, extraordinary; með líkindum ok e., Edda 69; undruðusk er jörðin ok dýrin ok fuglarnir höfðu saman e. í sumum hlutum, 144. (pref.); eðli and náttúra (natura) are used synonymously, id.; engla öðli, the nature of angels, Eluc. 16; arnar öðli, the eagle’s nature, Hom. 47; allt mannkyns öðli, Greg. 48; öðrlez (= öðlis) skepna, O. H. L. 86. 2. birth, origin, extraction, in the alliterative phrases, ætt ok öðli, Fms. i. 149; hann var Valskr (Welsh) at ætt ok eðli, vii. 56; Danskr at öðli, Danish by origin, Hom. 118; nafn ok öðli, name and family, Hbl. 9: the phrase, at alda-öðli, for ever and ever, D. I. i. 266: in mod. usage, frá alda öðli, from the birth of time, from the beginning, only used of ‘past time;’ the Dan. ‘fra Arildstid’ is probably a corruption of the same phrase. 3. embryo, Lat. fetus, Mar. 156. COMPDS: eðlis-fræði, f. physic, (mod.) eðlis-hættir, m. pl. constitution, Bb. 2. 14. eðlis-skapan, n. and eðlis-skepna, u, f. one’s nature, Fms. v. 216, Hom. 123.

eðli-borinn, part. noble-born, well-born, Hkr. ii. 135.

eðli-ligr, adj. (-liga, adv.), natural, proper.

eðlingr, m. = öðlingr, poët. an ‘etheling.’

eðl-vina, adj., probably corrupt, as a viper (?), Hdl. 45.

EÐR or eða, which is the more freq. form in mod. use, conj., [Goth. auþþa; A. S. oððe; Engl. or; Germ. oder]:—or; joining two nouns, verbs, or adjectives, hold eðr blóð, heitr eða kaldr, illr eða góðr, etc., esp. after the pronouns annaðhvárt, hvárt, either; héraðsektir e. utanferðir, Nj. 189; slíkr vetr eða verri, Ísl. ii. 138; kaupmenn e. formenn, Fms. i. 11; í Blálandi eðr Arabia, Bb. 468; kirkjum eðr klaustrum, H. E. i. 419; í skógum eðr í öðrum fylsnum, Fms. iv. 384; skjóta e. kasta, e. höggva e. leggja, Sks. 430; fyrr e. síðar, sooner or later, Hkr. ii. 368. β. in comparison of two unlike things, the two things are connected with the disjunctive eða instead of the copulative ok, where the Engl. may use and, e. g. the proverb, sitt er hvað, gæfa eðr görfuleiki, there’s a difference between luck and wit; er úglíkt at hafa með sér góða drengi ok hrausta eðr einhleypinga, Ísl. ii. 325; úlíkr er þessi eða hinn fyrri, he is unlike and the first one, Mar. (Fr.); mun nokkut allíkt, garpskapr Bersa eðr stuldir Þórarins, i. e. can one compare the valour of B. and the thievishness of Thorarin? Korm. 142. γ. after a comparative, or even, sooner; ek em eigi verri riddari en Salomon konungr, eðr nokkuru betri, I am no worse a knight than king S., nay, rather somewhat better, Þiðr. 161; eigi síðr, … eðr nokkrum mun heldr, not less, but rather a little more. Barl. 97: otherwise, else, = ella, lykt skal landskyld vera fyrir sumarmál, eðr …, N. G. L. ii. 106 (rare): ellipt. = enn, than, meta hvárt þau sé meiri, eðr hennar föng sé, Js. 61. δ. denoting a query, exclamation, abrupt sentence, or the like, as Engl. or, what, but; ek heiti Auðgisl, eðr ertú Hallfreðr, my name is A., or art thou Hallfred? Fms. ii. 80; ek heiti Önundr, … eða hvert ætli þit at fara, but whither do you think of going? 81; nú vil ek gera at skapi þínu, eðr hvar skulum vit á leita? Nj. 3; sagði, at þeir mundi vera menn stórlátir, eðr hvat þeir mundi fyrir ætlask, Eg. 17; eðr með hverjum fórstu norðan? Finnb. 256; vituð ér enn, eðr hvat? Vsp. 22, 31, 38, 39.

eðr, adv. still, yet, older form instead of ‘enn,’ only in poetry; eðr of sér, one still has to see, i. e. the next thing is …, Haustl. 14; stóð eðr í hausi, stood, i. e. remains, still in his head, 19.

EF, A. neut. subst., older form if, Barl. 114, 124, Hkv. l. c., Vellekla l. c., Hkv. Hjörv. 33:—doubt, used in plur., hver sé if, what doubt can there be? Vellekla: it still remains in the phrase, mér er til efs, I doubt; en þar sem ef er á, wherever it is doubtful, K. Á. 28; hvervetna þar sem ef er á nokkuru máli, 204; ekki er til efs, at þeir menn ríða at grindhliði, it cannot be doubted, that…, Lv. 19; sæmilig til efs, dubiously good, rather had, Vm. 55; utan ef, without doubt, Fms. vii. 37, Stj. 421; fyrir utan allt ef, H. E. i. 519, Barl. l. c.

B. conj. [Goth. ibai; A. S. and Scot. gif; Engl. if; O. H. G. ipu; Germ. ob; lost in Swed. and Dan.]:—if, in case; en ef þit eigit erfingja, Nj. 3; ef eigi (unless) væri jafnhugaðr sem ek em, 264; ef þú átt þrjár orrostur við Magnús konung, Fms. vi. 178; ef hann er varmr, if he is warm, 655 xxx. 1: very freq. as a law term = in case that, Grág., N. G. L.; en ef þeir gjalda eigi, þá, i. 127; en ef (MS. en) þeir vilja eigi festa, id. β. in poetry often with subj. (as in Engl.); inn þú bjóð, ef Eiríkr sé, if it be Eric, bid him come in, Em. I: nálgastu mik, ef þú megir, if thou may’st, Gm. 53; vega þú gakk, ef þú reiðr sér, if thou be wroth, Ls. 15; ef Gunnars missi, Akv. 11; ef hann at yðr lygi, Am. 31; ef sér geta mætti, Hm. 4; heilindi sitt ef maðr hafa nái (better than nair), 67: ellipt. passages where ‘if’ is omitted, but the subj. retained, v. Lex. Poët.; skór er skapaðr illa eðr skapt sé rangt (= ef skapt sé rangt), Hm. 127; but indic. sometimes occurs, ef hann freginn erat, 30; ef þitt æði dugir (indic.) ok þú Vafþrúðnir vitir (subj.), Vþm. 20: in prose the subj. is rare, and only in peculiar cases, e. g. nú munu vér á þá hættu leggja, ef (if, i. e. granted, supposed that) ek ráða ok binda ek við hann vináttu, Fms. iv. 82; ok bæta um þat, ef konunginum hafi yfirgefizt, xi. 283; þat var háttr Erlings, ef úvinir hans kæmi fyrir hann, vii. 319; en skotið á þá, ef þeir færi nær meginlandi, viii. 419; ef ek lifi ok mega’k ráða, Edda 34. II. if, whether, Germ. ob, with indic. or subj.; sjá nú, ef Jakob leysir hann af þessum böndum, 655 xxx. 3; þá spyrr Frigg, ef sú kona vissi, then Frigg asks, if the woman knew, Edda 37; hann kom opt á mál við konung, ef hann mundi vilja bæta Þórólf, Eg. 106; Egill spurði, ef hann vildi upp ór gröfinni, 234; at Bölverki þeir spurðu, ef hann væri með böndum kominn, Hm. 109; hitt vil ek fyrst vita, ef þú fróðr sér, Vþm. 6; vittu ef þú hjálpir, see if thou canst help, Og. 5:—this sense is now obsolete, and ‘hvárt’ (hvort) is used

efa, að, in old writers usually spelt with i, ifa; efa occurs in Nj. 207, Hkr. ii. 326, Sks. 153, Stj. 256, Fms. ii. 42, iii. 115, vi. 184, Al. 43, Grett. 110 A, Bs. ii. 169, etc.; in mod. usage always with e:to doubt, with acc.; engi ifar þat, Fms. x. 319: the phrase, efa sik, to hesitate, Grett. l. c.; skulu þér eigi e. yðr (doubt), at …, Nj. 307: used as neut. to feel a doubt, ifi þér nokkut, at, Fms. v. 38, Hkr. l. c., 623. 33; ifa (efa) um e-t, to doubt about a thing, Hkr. i. 223, Grág. ii. 47, Fms. ii. 283, v. 37, vi. 184. 2. reflex., efask (ifask) í e-u, to doubt or hesitate in a thing; í því má engi maðr ifask, at …, Sks. 272 B; ekki efumk ek í því, 153, Stj. l. c.; Freysteinn efaðisk í, hvárt …, F. was in doubt, whether…, Fms. iii. 115; þér efisk í um þeirra almátt, ii. 42: efask um e-t, to doubt about a thing, x. 392; hvárt ifisk ér um ok hræðisk, Niðrst. 2. β. absol. to doubt, hesitate, Str. 22; statt upp ok ifask alls ekki, Hom. 119. γ. with gen., efask e-s, to change one’s mind in a matter, Grág. i. 312, 313.

efan, ifan, f. (almost always with i; efan, H. E. l. c.), doubt, hesitation, Barl. 149, H. E. i. 396, Bær. 14, Hom. 23. COMPD: efanar-lauss, adj. undoubted, Stj., 655 xxvii. 2: neut. as adv. undoubtedly, Fms. ix. 347, El. 2, Str. 35, K. Á. 202.

efan-laust, n. adj. undoubtedly, Hom. 15 (spelt ifan-).

efan-leikr, m. doubtfulness, Skálda 188.

efan-ligr (ifan-ligr), adj. doubtful, Skálda 188, Ld. 58, Fms. x. 317, 369 (in the last two passages spelt with i).

efi, a, m., in old writers almost always ifi:—doubt, Greg. 37, Fms. iii. 8, x. 392, Hkr. i. 223; vera ifa, to be in doubt, Mar. 17; enn er eptir ifi í hug mínum, 623. 26; án ifa (efa), without doubt, Fms. x. 336, Skálda 210: suspicion, Fms. x. 260. COMPDS: efa-lauss (ifa-lauss), adj. undoubted, clear, Nj. 87: neut. as adv. undoubtedly, Grág. ii. 189. efa-lausligr, adj. id., Bs. i. 263. efa-samr, ifað-samr, efað-samligr, adj. doubtful, Al. 5, Stj. 172. efa-samliga, adv. doubtfully, Bs. ii. 153. efa-semð and efa-semi, f. doubt, Bs. i. 272. efa-sök, f. a doubtful case, Grág. i. 73.

EFJA, u, f. [Swed. äfja], mud, ooze, Fms. vi. 164, Hrafn. 26.

EFLA, d, [afl and afli], to strengthen: I. act., α. to make strong, build; efla veggi, to build walls, 655 xxv. i; létu þeir efla at nýju Danavirki, they restored the Danish wall, Fms. i. 121. β. to found, raise, endow; efla stað, kirkju, to endow or raise a church, bishopric, Barl. 65, Fms. iv. 110; e. bú, to set up one’s house, Band. (MS.) 3: milit., e. her, lið, to raise troops. Fms. v. 279; e. flokk, to raise a party, 140; e. ófrið, to raise a rebellion, make war, xi. 268: e. e-n, to aid, side with one, in a fight or lawsuit; efldi Dofri hann síðan til ríkis í Noregi, Bárð. 164; ok hét honum liðveizlu sinni at hann skyldi e. Steinar, Eg. 722: e. e-n til rangs máls, to help one in a wrong case, Js. 8; Danir höfðu þá herrana eflt upp á Svíaríki, Fms. x. 50; bað liðit e. sik, Fagrsk. ch. 179. γ. to perform solemnly; e. heit, to make a vow, Gísl. 90; e. blót, to perform a sacrifice, Nj. 158; e. at brullaupi, to hold a wedding, Fms. ix. 21: poët., e. dáð (dáð eflir, a hero); e. tafl, to play a game, Orkn. (in a verse), Lex. Poët. δ. neut. to be able; sem vér eflum ok orkum, Stj. 149; sem þú eflir ok orkar, id., 186, (rare.) II. reflex. to grow strong; hversu staðrinn hefir eflzk ok magnask. Bs. i. 59; hann fann at mótstüðumenn hans efldusk, grew strong; eflask at her, liði, to gather, raise troops, Gísl. 7, Fms. i. 199, vii. 23; síðan var efldr (raised) flokkr í móti honum, iv. 140: eflask til ríkis, to win a kingdom, get a kingdom by force of arms, Bárð. 165: erlask við e-n (poët.) = mægjask, to marry into one’s family, Hdl. 15.

ef-lauss and if-lauss, adj. undoubted, Greg. 25, Mart. 121, Fas. ii. 539.

efling, f. growth, increase in strength and wealth, Bret., Greg. 43: strength, help, assistance, Glúm. 346, 347, Ld. 88, Hkr. iii. 185, Mork. 128.

eflir, m. a helper, promoter, Lex. Poët.

EFNA, d, (að, Nj. 189, Fms. ix. 453, xi. 286), [Swed. ämna; A. S. efnan, æfnan, = to perform]:—to perform, chiefly to fulfil a vow or the terms agreed upon; e. orð sín, to keep one’s word, Fms. i. 4; þat efndi Gunnarr, Nj. 45; þat skal ek e. sem ek hét þar um, Fms. i. 217; e. sætt, to fulfil an agreement, Nj. 258: Ólafr efnir vel við ambáttina, Olave behaved well to the handmaid, Ld. 156. β. reflex. to turn out so and so, come to a certain issue; efndisk þat ok vel, Nj. 72; þat efnask (better efnisk) opt illa, it comes to a bad end, 189. II. efna, að, to prepare for a thing, make arrangements; ekki er þess getið at hann efnaði til um fégjaldit, Fms. xi. 286; hann efnaði þar til vetrsetu, x. 1; þeir efnuðu til vetrsetu í Oslo, ix. 453; þar hafði Ólafr konungr efnat til kaupstaðar, king O. had there founded a town, iv. 93: efnaði Ólafr konungr þá til ágætrar veizlu, king O. made a great feast, ii. 133; þeir Ingjaldr efna þar seið, Ingjald made a great sacrifice, feast, Fs. 19.

efnaðr, adj. rich, having ample means.

efnd, f. fulfilment of a pledge, promise. Sturl. iii. 170, Fms. vi. 29, vii. 121.

EFNI, n. [Swed. ämne = stuff, materia, and Dan. ævne = achievement]:—a stuff, originally like Lat. materia, timber; and so the stuff or material out of which a thing is wrought; auðskæf mærðar e., Ad. 16; at allir hlutir væri smíðaðir af nokkru efni, that all things were wrought (created) of some stuff, Edda 147 (pref.); skapa af engu efni, to create from nothing (of God), Fms. i. 304; efni (materials) til garðbóta, Grág. ii. 263, Sks. 287 (of a cloth); ek em görr af ústyrku efni, I am made of frail stuff, 543, Barl. 140, Stj. 17, 67; smíðar-efni, materials; efni-tré, a block, tree; efni í ljá, orf, etc., or of any piece fitted as materials. β. in a personal sense; manns-efni, a promising young man: karls-efni, a thorough man, a nickname, Landn.: the proverb, engi veit hvar sæls manns efni sitr, of youths of whom no one can tell what may be hidden in them; þegns e. = manns-efni, Stor. 11: gott manns-e., gott bónda-e., promising to be an able man; and on the other hand, ónýtt, illt manns-e., in whom there is nothing. γ. merely in temp. sense, applied to persons designate or elect; konungs-e., a crown prince; biskups-e., a bishop-elect; brúðar-e., a bride-elect; konu-e., one’s future wife. δ. a subject, of a story, book, or the like, Lat. argumentum, plot; yrkis e., Íd. 11; e. kvæða, a plot, subject for poetry; sögu-e., a subject for tales or history; in old writers it rarely occurs exactly in this sense: the contents of a written thing, bréfs-e., efni í bók; hence efnis-laust, adj. void, empty writing; efnis-leysa, u, f. emptiness in writing; Björn hafði ort flim um Þórð, en þau vóru þar efni í, at …, but that was the subject of the poem, that …, Bjarn. 42; þótti mönnum þar mikit um, hversu mikil efni þar vóru til seld, i. e. people thought the tale interesting, Ld. 200; eigi með sönnu efni, falsely, with untrue statements, Sturl. iii. 305: hvárt efni þeir höfðu í um rógit, how they had made (mixed) their lies up, Eg. 59; meir en efni sé til seld, i. e. (related) more than what was true, the tale was overdone, Bs. i. 137; talar af sama efni (subject) sem fyrrum, Fms. ix. 252. 2. metaph. a matter, affair; til sanninda um sagt e., Dipl. i. 8; segir konungi frá öllu þessu e., Sturl. i. 3; er þat merkjanda í þessu e., Rb. 250; fátt er betr látið enn efni eru til (a proverb), few things are reported better than they really are, Band. 2; fyrir hvert efni, for this reason. β. a cause, reason; látask báðir af því e., both died from this cause, Ísl. ii. 197; með hverju e. Sturla hefði þessa för gört, what was the reason of S.’s doing so? Sturl. ii. 132; gleði e., sorgar e., matter of joy, sorrow, etc.: the proverb, en hvert mál, er maðr skal dæma, verðr at líta á tilgörð með efnum (causes), Eg. 417; fyrir þat efni (for that reason) keypti hann landit, Hrafn. 22, H. E. i. 471; en þetta efni (cause) fundu þeir til, Sks. 311. γ. a state, condition, affair; Rútr sagði allt e. sitt, Nj. 4; í úvænt efni, a hopeless state, Band. (MS.) 13, Ísl. ii. 225; ek veit eigi görla efni Gunnlaugs, I know not how Gunlaug’s matters stand, 240; Helgi kvað eigi þat efni í, at láta lausan þjóf fjölkunnigan, H. said that it would never do, to let a thief and wizard go, Sturl. i. 62; ef þess eru efni, if that be so, Grág. i. 76; sér, hvers efni í eru, he saw how matters stood, Band. (MS.) 11; sagði hver efni í voru, said how matters stood, Nj. 99; mér þykir sem málum várum sé komið í únýtt efni, ef …, 150; munu ill efni í, some mischief may have happened, Fs. 144; gott, þungt e., Karl. 402, Bs. i. 815; e-t gengr, kemr svá til efnis, happens so and so, Mar. (Fr.); skipta sitt líf í betra e., to repent, id.; bera til efnis, to happen, Pr. 410. 3. plur. means, ability; minni nytjamenn af meirum efnum en hann, Sturl. i. 126; eptir sínum efnum, to the best of their ability, Hom. 123; ok bjoggusk um eptir þeim efnum sem þeir höfðu til, Orkn. 360; sjái þér nökkuð ráð (possibility) eðr efni vár (means), 358; grunar mik, at Þórólfr muni eigi görr kunna at sjá efni sín, i. e. I fear that Th. will overrate his own means, power, Eg. 76; þá væri þat efni nú í vóru máli, it would be a chance for us, Fms. ix. 239; þar vóru engi efni önnur, there was no other chance, xi. 144; nú eru þess eigi efni, if that be impossible, Grág. ii. 140; hér eru engin efni til þess at ek muna svíkja hann, i. e. I will by no means deceive him, it is out of the question that I should do so, Eg. 60. β. in mod. usage, means, property, riches. COMPDS: efna-fæð, f. want of means, Bs. i. 457. efna-lauss, adj. wanting means. efna-leysi, n. want of means, Hrafn. 5. efna-lítill, adj. poor; vera vel við efni, to be a well-to-do man. efna-skortr, m. shortness of means, Bs. i. 525.

efni-ligr, adj. (-liga, adv.), hopeful, promising, e. g. of a youth, Nj. 39, Eg. 147, 599, Fms. i. 17, v. 263, Orkn. 202; efniligt ráð, a wise issue, Fms. xi. 21; sögðu allt hit efniligasta, made a flattering report, ix. 488; ekki efniligt, not advisable, Sturl. i. 186.

efni-mark, n. a sign, 732. 17.

efning, f. keeping (= efnd), Grág. i. 316

efni-tré, n. a block, timber, Gísl. 146, Fas. ii. 210, Stj. 618, Mork. 91.

EFRI, compar.; EFSTR, superl.; older form öfri, Hkv. 2. 36, Ó. H. ch. 248 (in a verse), Greg. 42, N. G. L. i. 10, 384, Íb. 5, Hom. 116; öfstr, Fms. x. 394, 686 C. 2, Ls. 50, 51, Hbl. 18, Edda 115, 116 (Gl.); compar. and superl. without the positive [as Lat. superior, supremus, Gr. ὑπέρτερος], but formed from the root syllable ‘of-,’ cp. ofar, yfir; very old MSS. therefore mostly spell with ö, a vowel change of o; the mod. form, as well as that of most MSS., is with e, efri, efstr, Am. 50, Og. 23: I. the upper, higher; the phrase, bera efra skjöld, to carry the higher shield, i. e. carry the day, Fms. x. 394 (MS. æfra): opp. to neðri = upper, at Mosfelli enu öfra, Íb. 5: the adverb, phrase ‘it efra’ denoting the upper or inland road, opp. to the shore; allt hit efra suðr, Eg. 58; sumir fóru it efra til Þríhyrnings-hálsa, Nj. 207; hit efra um Upplönd, Fms. i. 22: by land, opp. to the sea, Hkr. ii. 8: of the inner part of a building, opp. to fremri or the part nearest the door, Eg. 43: in the air, opp. to the earth, Sks. 115: superl. efstr, the hindermost, e. liðr, the hindermost joint, 623. 32: neut. efst as adv. highest up, uppermost, efst á stólpanum, 655 xxv. 2. β. metaph. superior, better; er öllum öfri er, Greg. 43. II. the latter, last part: 1. temp., á efra aldri, in the decline of life, Eg. 4; inn öfri, the latter, opp. to fyrri, N. G. L. i. 342; efri hluti sumars, in the decline of summer, Eg. 712; Ólafs-messa hin öfri (= síðari), the latter (i. e. second) day of St. Olave (viz. Aug. 3), opp. to Ólafs-messa fyrri (July 29), N. G. L. i. 10; efsti dómr, the last judgment, Stj. 58; öfsti dómr, id., 686 l. c.; efsta vika, the last week of Lent = the Passion week, Orkn. 386, Mar. 78; öfsti dagr Paska, the last day in Easter, N. G. L. i. 348; efsta bæn, the last prayer, 623. 50; þeim gef ek erni efstum bráðir, Fas. i. 429 (in a verse); efsta sinni, for the last time, 227; þó vér ritim hana öfri en aðrar, Hom. 116. 2. loc., where aptari and aptastr or eptri and eptstr are the common words; fyrstr and efstr are opposed, foremost and last, in a rank, Ls. l. c.; sá fyrstr er efstr gekk inn, Grág. i. 32.

EFSA, t, [cp. Swed. efsing = thrum, stump], to cut; e. e-m skör, to cut one’s head off, Sighvat, (απ. λεγ.)

egðir, m., poët. an eagle.

Egðskr, adj. from Agðir, a county in Norway, Fms., Landn.

EGG, n. [A. S. äg; Engl. egg; Swed. ägg; Dan. æg; Germ. ei], an egg, Eg. 152, Grág. ii. 346; arnar-e., æðar-e., álptar-e., hrafns-e., dúfu-e., kriu-e., etc., an eagle’s egg, eider duck’s, swan’s, raven’s, dove’s, etc.; also, höggorms egg, a snake’s egg: eggja-hvíta, f. the white of an egg: eggja-rauða, f. or eggja-blómi, m. the yolk; verpa eggjum, to lay eggs; liggja á eggjum, to sit on eggs, brood; koma, skríða ór eggi, of the young, to come out of the egg, Fagrsk. 4 (in a verse): an egg is glænýtt fresh, stropað half-hatched, ungað hatched; vind-egg, a wind-egg, addled egg; fúl-egg, a rotten egg; vera lostinn fúlu eggi, proverb of a sad and sulky looking fellow that looks as if one had pelted him with rotten eggs, Gísl. 39 (in a verse); fullt hús matar og finnast hvergi dyrnar á, a riddle describing an egg; but fullt hús drykkjar og finnast hvergi dyrnar á, the berry: eggja-fata, f. a bucket in which to gather eggs: eggja-kaka, f. an ‘egg-cake,’ omelet: eggja-leit, f. a gathering of eggs, etc.

EGG, f., gen. sing. and nom. pl. eggjar, old dat. eggju, mod. egg; [Lat. acies; A. S. ecg; Engl. edge; Hel. eggja; O. H. G. ecka, Germ. ecke, is the same word, although altered in sense; Swed. ägg; Dan. æg]:—an edge, Eg. 181, 183, Nj. 136: the phrase, með oddi ok eggju, with point and edge, i. e. by force of arms, with might and main, Ó. H. ch. 33, Grág. ii. 13, Nj. 149, 625. 34; oddr ok egg, ‘cut and thrust,’ Hom. 33; drepa í egg, to blunt: as the old swords of the Scandinavians were double-edged (only the sax had a single edge), egg is freq. used in pl.; takattu á eggjum, eitr er í báðum, touch not the edges, poison is in both of them, Fas. i. 522 (in a verse); the phrase, deyfa eggjar, vide deyfa: the sword is in poetry called eggjum-skarpr, m. with sharp edges; and the blade, tongue of the hilt, Lex. Poët.; sverðs-eggjar, sword edges; knífs-egg, öxar-egg, the edge of a knife, axe. 2. metaph., fjalls-egg, the ridge of a mountain, Hkr. ii. 44; reisa á egg, to set (a stone) on its edge, opp. to the flat side, Edda 40: eggja-broddr, m. an edged spike, Fms. x. 355.

egg-bitinn, part. bitten, smitten by an edge, Bs. i. 644.

egg-dauðr, adj. slain by the edge of the sword, Lex. Poët.

egg-elningr, adj. having an ell-long edge (of a scythe), Grág. i. 501.

egg-farvegr, m. the print of an edge, Þórð. 54 new Ed.

egg-fránn, adj. sharp-edged, Lex. Poët.

egg-hvass, adj. sharp, Lex. Poët.

egging, f. an egging on; eggingar-fífl, n., v. l. for eggjunar-fífl, Nj. 52.

eggja, að, to egg on, incite, goad, with acc. of the person, gen. of the thing; (e. e-n e-s), er þá eggjaði hins vesta verks, Nj. 213; allmjök muntu eggjaðr hafa verit þessa verks, Fs. 8; e. lið, a milit. term, to encourage, cheer troops just before battle, Fms. v. 73: proverb, illt er at e. óbilgjarnan, ‘tis not good to egg on an overbearing man, Grett. 91; e. e-n á e-t, to egg one on to do a thing, Nj. 21, Pass. 22. 9: absol., er þat gráta á annari stundu er eggja á annari, Þorst. St. 52. 2. reflex., láta at eggjask, to yield to another’s egging on; eigi mun konungr láta at eggjask um öll níðingsverk þín, Eg. 415; Haraldr konungr lét at eggjask, Fms. xi. 23; eggjask upp á e-n, to thrust oneself upon one, provoke one, Róm. 120: recipr. to egg one another on in a battle, eggjuðusk nú fast hvárirtveggju, Nj. 245.

eggjan (eggjun), f. an egging on, Fms. v. 75, vii. 260, Eg. 473, 623. 29. COMPDS: eggjunar-fífl, n. a fool, a cat’s paw, Nj. 52; vide eggingar-fífl. eggjunar-orð, n. pl. egging words, Fms. ii. 290, viii. 219.

eggjari, a, m. an egger on, inciter, Barl. 52.

egg-leikr, m., poët. the play of edges, battle, Gkv. 2. 31.

egg-móðr, adj., poët. epithet of the slain in a battle-field; e. valr, mown by the sword, Hom. 31, Gm. 53; no doubt from má, to mow, not from móðr, weary.

egg-skurn, n. (mod. egg-skurmr, m.), an egg-shell, Edda. 12, Stj. 10.

egg-sléttr, adj. ‘edge-plain,’ i. e. quite plain, of a meadow to be mown.

egg-steinn, m. an edged, sharp stone, Edda. (Ub.) 290.

egg-teinn, m. ‘edge-rim,’ one of the two rims running along the ancient swords, with a hollow between them; blánaðr ‘annarr’ eggteinninn, Nj. 203; svá at fal báða eggteina, the blade sank so deep that both edge-rims were hidden, 125, Ísl. ii. 55, Fas. ii. 415; ritað gullstöfum fram eptir eggteinum, of the sword of Charlemagne, Karl. 178.

egg-tíð, n. ‘egg-tide,’ the egg-season (May), Edda 103.

egg-ver, n. ‘egg-field,’ a place where the eggs of wild fowl are gathered in quantities (cp. sel-ver, síld-ver, álpta-ver), Grág. ii. 263, 338, Jb. 217, Eg. 42: gathering eggs = varp, Bs. i. 350; eggvers-hólmi = varphólmi, Jm. 1.

egg-völr, m. the slope on the edge (as of scissors), Fbr. 142, Bs. ii. 94.

egg-þunnr, adj. thin-edged; e. öx, Ann. 1362.

Egipzkr, adj. Egyptian; Egiptaland, n. Egypt, Al., Fms., etc.

EGNA, d, [agn], to bait, with dat. of the bait, Edda 154, Hým. 22: the prey for which the bait is set either in acc., e. örriða, to bait for trout, Sighvat; e. veiði, to set bait for the prey, Sturl. i. 18; or in mod. use, e. fyrir fisk: even used, e. neti (better acc.), to cast a net, Fms. ii. 140; e. snörur, gildru, Mar. passim; egnd snara, Grett. (in a verse). 2. metaph. to provoke, Sks. 232, Fas. i. 39; reiði Drottins þá uppegnd er, Pass. 40. 3.

egning, f. = eggjan; egningar-kviðr, m. a kind of verdict, v. kviðr.

EI and ey (cp. also æ), adv. [cp. Gr. αἰών; Lat. aevum; Goth. aivs = eternity, everlasting time: hence are derived the O. H. G. eva, A. S. æ, Hel. êo, in the metaph. sense of law (the law being symbolical of what is everlasting), which word still remains in the mod. Germ. ehe = marriage; whence the mod. Germ. echt = genuine, mod. Dan. ægte, mod. Icel. ekta, q. v. (Grimm)]:—ever; the phrase, ei ok ei, or ey ok ey, for ever and ever; gott ey gömlum mönnum, gott ey ungum mönnum, Landn. 45; öllungis muntu hafa þau ei ok ei, Hom. 15, Al. 120; hans ríki stendr ei ok ei, 160; Guðs ei lifanda, Blas. 43: the proverbs, ey sér til gyldis gjöf, Hm. 146; ey getr kvikr kú, 69; ey lýsir mön af mari, Vþm. 12; ey bað hon halda, Hkv. 1. 4; ey var mér týja, Akv. 27; lifa ey, Hm. 15, 34; er ok ey eða ei þat er aldregi þrýtr, Skálda 172; ei at vera, 677. 3; til hins sama var ey at ætla, Bs. i. 108. II. [Dan. ei, Swed. ej], not ever, not, properly a contraction from ei-gi, in the MSS. freq. spelt é or e̅g̅; ei is often used in mod. writers, but not in speech; it is also used now and then in Edd. of old writers, though it is doubtful whether it is there genuine. 2. ey in a negative sense; ey manni, no man, Vþm. 55; vide eyvit.

EIÐ, n. an isthmus, neck of land; mjótt e., Eg. 129; rastarlangt eið, Fms. ix. 402; hence the names of places, Satíris-eið, the Mull of Cantire, Orkn. 152; Skalp-eið, Scalpa (in Orkney), 244; Eiðar (a farm), Eiða-skógr (in Sweden), Eiða-fjörðr, Eiðs-berg, Eiðs-vágr, Eiðs-völlr (in Norway), Eið = Aith (in Shetland).

EIÐA, u, f. [Ulf. aiþei; Finn. aiti], a mother, Edda 108; an obsolete word, which only occurs once or twice in old poetry; perhaps akin to edda, q. v.

eið-bróðir, m. an oath-brother, confederate, Fms. ix. 294, Bær. 16: metaph., arnar e., the oath-brother of the eagle, the raven Fagrsk 4 (in a verse).

eið-bundinn, part. bound by oath, Hkr. iii. 26.

eið-byggjar, m. pl. inhabitants of an isthmus, Fms. viii. 194.

eið-fall, n. a law term, failing in one’s oath, Grág. ii. 22, Glúm. 387, K. Þ. K. 146.

eið-falli, a, m. one who fails in an oath, N. G. L. i. 431.

eið-færa, ð, a law term, to charge one with a thing by an oath, Grág. i. 244. 245, Sturl. iii. 98, (in a case of alimentation.)

eið-færing and eið-færsla, f. charging by an oath, Grág. i. 235, 244, 245.

eið-færr, adj. able, competent to take an oath, Fb. i. 555.

eið-hjalp, f. a Norse law term, ‘oath-help,’ metaph. last help, issue; svá er, segir Þórarinn, ok er þó nokkur í eiðhjálpin, Band. (MS.) 16, H. E. i. 467, v. l.

eið-laust, n. adj. without an oath. K. Þ. K. 72.

EIÐR, m. [Ulf. aiþs; A. S. að; Engl. oath; North. E. aith; Swed. ed; Dan. eed; Germ. eid]:—an oath; vinna eið, but also sverja eið, to take an oath, to swear, Glúm. 387, Nj. 36, Grág., Sdm. 23; ganga til eiða, to proceed to the taking an oath, Nj., Grág.; eiðar, orð ok særi, Vsp. 30; fullr e., a full, just oath, Grett. 161; rjúfa eið, to break an oath (eið-rofi); perjury is mein-særi, rarely mein-eiðr (Swed.-Dan. men-ed, Germ. mein-eid); eiðar úsærir, false, equivocal oaths, Sks. 358; hence the proverb, lítið skyldi í eiði úsært, with the notion that few oaths can bear a close scrutiny, Grett. 161; trúnaðar-e., hollustu-e., an oath of fealty, allegiance: cp. the curious passages in Sturl. i. 66 and iii. 2, 3; dýr eiðr, a solemn oath; sáluhjálpar-e., sverja dýran sáluhjálpar-eið, to swear an oath of salvation (i. e. as I wish to be saved). In the Norse law a man was discharged upon the joint oath of himself and a certain number of men (oath-helpers, compurgators, or oath-volunteers); oaths therefore are distinguished by the number of compurgators,—in grave cases of felony (treason etc.), tylptar-e., an oath of twelve; in slighter cases of felony, séttar-e., an oath of six, (in N. G. L. i. 56, ch. 133, ‘vj á hvára hönd’ is clearly a false reading instead of ‘iij,’ three on each side, cp. Jb. Þb. ch. 20); grímu-eiðr, a mask oath, a kind of séttar-e.; lýrittar-e., an oath of three; and lastly, ein-eiði or eins-eiði, an oath of one, admissible only in slight cases, e. g. a debt not above an ounce; whence the old law proverb, eigi verðr einn eiðr alla, a single oath is no evidence for all (cases), Sighvat, Fms. iv. 375, v. l., Bjarn. 22, Nj. 13: other kinds of oaths, dular-e., an oath of denial; jafnaðar-e., an oath of equity, for a man in paying his fine had to take an oath that, if he were plaintiff himself, he would think the decision a fair one: vide N. G. L. i. 56, 254–256, 394, Jb. and Js. in many passages. In the Icel. law of the Commonwealth, oaths of compurgators are hardly mentioned, the kviðr or verdict of neighbours taking their place; the passage Glúm. ch. 24, 25 is almost unique and of an extraordinary character, cp. Sir Edmund Head’s remarks on these passages in his notes to the Saga, p. 119, cp. also Sturl. iii. 2; but after the union with Norway the Norse procedure was partly introduced into Icel.; yet the Js. ch. 49 tries to guard against the abuse of oaths of compurgators, which led men to swear to a fact they did not know. As to the Icel. Commonwealth, it is chiefly to be noticed that any one who had to perform a public duty (lög-skil) in court or parliament, as judge, pleader, neighbour, witness, etc., had to take an oath that he would perform his duty according to right and law (baug-eiðr ring-oath, bók-eiðr gospel-oath, lög-eiðr lawful-oath), the wording of which oath is preserved in Landn. (Mantissa) 335, cp. Þórð. S. (Ed. 1860) p. 94, Band. (MS.) COMPDS: eiða-brigði, n. breach of oath, Band. 6. eiða-fullting, n. an oath help, Fas. ii. 204. eiða-konur, f. pl. women as compurgators, Grett. 161. eiða-lið, n. men ready to take an oath, Eg. 503, referring to Norway, the men elected to an oath of twelve. eiða-mál, n. an oath affair, Sturl. iii. 2. eiða-sekt, f. a fine for an (unlawful) oath, N. G. L. i. 211. eiða-tak, n. giving security for an oath, bail, N. G. L. i. 314, 321. II. a pr. name, Landn.

eið-rof, n. breach of an oath, perjury, K. Á. 148.

eið-rofi (eið-rofa), a, m. a perjurer, violater of an oath, Fms. viii. 387, K. Á. 148, N. G. L. i. 152, 429, Edda 43.

Eið-sifjar, m. pl. ‘Oath-sibs,’ the name of a confederation of kinglets in southern Norway: whence the name Eiðsifja-lög, m. pl. a collection of laws in N. G. L. i. The word is differently spelt, Heiðsifjar, Heiðsævi, etc. But the syllable eið- may be derived from eið, an isthmus, because their parliament was held on an isthmus, Eid, now called Eidsvold; vide Munch.

eið-spjall, n. delivery of an oath, in the Icel. law phrase, hlýða til eiðspjalls e-s, to listen to one’s oath, Nj., Grág. i. 39, 76, etc.

eið-stafa, að, to say the oath formula for another to repeat, D. N.

eið-stafr, m. the form or wording of an oath; sverja með þessum eiðstaf, Gþl. 7, Fms. vi. 53, viii. 150, x. 418.

eið-svari, a, m. a confederate, one bound by oath, Nj. 192: a liegeman bound by a hollustu-e., Orkn. 106, Fms. v. 44 (Hkr. ii. 333).

eið-særr, adj. such that it may be sworn to, absolutely true, Eg. 347 (in a verse, MS.; Ed. auðsært).

eið-unning, f. the taking an oath, Grág. i. 57.

eið-vandr, adj. ‘oath-fast,’ religious as to an oath, Lex. Poët.

eið-varr, adj. cautious (conscientious) as to an oath, Ísl. ii. 98.

eið-vinning, f. = eiðunning, K. Þ. K. 156.

eið-vætti, n. testimony on oath, Jb. 448.

EIGA, pret. átti; pret. subj. ætti, pres. eigi; pres. ind. á, 2nd pers. átt (irreg. eigr, Dipl. v. 24), pl. eigum, 3rd pers. pl. old form eigu, mod. eiga; imperat. eig and eigðu; sup. átt; with suffixed neg. pres. ind. 1st pers. á’k-at, 2nd pers. átt-attu; pret. subj. ættim-a: [Gr. ἔχω; Goth. aigan; A. S. âgan; Hel. êgan; O. H. G. eigan; Swed. äga; Dan. eje; Engl. to owe and own, of which the former etymologically answers to ‘eiga,’ the latter to ‘eigna’]:—to have, possess.

A. ACT. I. denoting ownership, to possess: 1. in a proper sense; allt þat góz sem þeir eiga eðr eigandi verða, D. N. i. 80; hann eigr hálfa jörðina, Dipl. v. 24; Björn hljóp þá á skútu er hann átti, Eb. 6; Starkaðr átti hest góðan, Nj. 89; þau áttu gnótt í búi, 257; hón á allan arf eptir mik, 3; átti hón auð fjár, Ld. 20; ef annarr maðr ferr með goðorð en sá er á, Grág. i. 159; annat vápnit, ok á þat Þorbjörn, en Þorgautr á þetta, Ísl. ii. 341; eignir þær er faðir hans hafði átt, Eb. 4; í ríki því er Dana konungar höfðu átt þar lengi, Fms. xi. 301, Rb. 494, Eb. 54, 118, 256, 328, Sturl. ii. 60, Eg. 118; e. saman, to own in common, Grág. i. 199; ef tveir menn eigo bú saman, ii. 44; e. skuld (at e-m), to be in debt, Engl. to owe; en ef hann átti engar skuldir, if he owed no debts, i. 128; þar til átti honum (owed him) meistari Þorgeirr ok þá mörk, D. N. iv. 288 (Fr.); e. fé undir e-m, to be one’s creditor, Nj. 101; in mod. usage, e. fé hjá e-m, or ellipt., e. hjá e-m. 2. in a special sense; α. eiga konu, to have her to wife; hann átti Gró, Eb. 16; hann átti Ynghvildi, 3; Þorgerðr er (acc.) átti Vigfúss, … Geirríðr er (acc.) átti Þórólfr, 18; hann gékk at eiga Þóru, he married Thora, id.; Þuríði hafði hann áðr átta, Thorida had been his first wife, 42; enga vil ek þessa e., I will not marry any of these, Nj. 22; Björn átti þá konu er Valgerðr hét, 213, 257; faðir Hróðnýjar er átti Þorsteinn, Landn. 90; Ásdísi átti síðar Skúli, S. was A.’s second husband, 88; Þorgerðr er átti Önundr sjóni, 89; Vigdís er átti Þorbjörn enn digri, 87; Árnþrúðr er átti Þórir hersir, 66; Húngerð er átti Svertingr, 6l, 86, and in numberless passages: old writers hardly ever say that the wife owns her husband—the passages in Edda 109 (vide elja) and Nj. 52 (til lítils kemr mér at eiga hinn vaskasta mann á Íslandi) are extraordinary—owing to the primitive notion of the husband’s ‘jus possessionis’ (cp. brúðkaup); but in mod. usage ‘eiga’ is used indiscriminately of both wife and husband; Icel. even say, in a recipr. sense, eigast, to own one another, to be married: þau áttust, they married; hann vildi ekki at þau ættist, hann bannaði þeim að eigast, he forbade them to marry:—to the ancients such a phrase was almost unknown, and occurs for the first time in K. Á. 114. β. eiga börn, to have children, of both parents; áttu þau Jófriðr tíu börn, J. and her husband had ten bairns, Eg. 708; hann átti dóttur eina er Unnr hét, Nj. 1; þau Þorsteinn ok Unnr áttu son er Steinn hét, Eb. 10, Nj. 91, 257; áttu þau Þórhildr þrjá sonu, 30; e. móður, föður, to have a mother, father, Eb. 98; vænti ek ok, at þú eigir illan föður, id. γ. the phrase, e. heima, to have a home; þeir áttu heima austr í Mörk, Nj. 55; því at ek tek eigi heim í kveld, þar sem ek á heima út á Íslandi, 275; in mod. usage = to live, abide, in regard to place, cp. the questions put to a stranger, hvað heitir maðrinn? hvar áttu heima? used in a wider sense than búa. δ. eiga sér, to have, cp. ‘havde sig’ in Dan. ballads; Höskuldr átti sér dóttur er Hallgerðr hét, Nj. 3; ef hann á sér í vá veru, Hm. 25, (freq. in mod. use.) 3. without strict notion of possession; e. vini, óvini, to have friends, enemies, Nj. 101; hverja liðveizlu skal ek þar e. er þú ert, what help can I reckon upon from thee? 100; e. ván e-s, to have hope of a thing, to reckon upon, 210; e. til, to have left; ekki eigu it annat til (there is nothing left for you) nema at biðja postulann. Jóh. 623. 22: in mod. usage e. til means to own, to have left; hann á ekkert til, he is void of means, needy; eiga góða kosti fjár, to be in good circumstances, Ísl. ii. 322; e. vald á e-u, to have within one’s power, Nj. 265; the phrase, e. hlut at e-u, or e. hlut í e-u, to have a share, be concerned with; eptir þat átti hann hlut at við mótstöðumenn Gunnars, 101, 120; þar er þú ættir hlut at, where thou wast concerned, 119; mik uggir at hér muni eigi gæfu-menn hlut í e., 179: hence ellipt., e. í e-u, to be engaged in, chiefly of strife, adversity, or the like; thus, e. í stríði, fátaekt, baráttu, to live, be deep in struggle, want, battle, etc. II. denoting duty, right, due, obligation: 1. to be bound, etc.; þeir menn er fylgð áttu með konungi, the men who owed following to (i. e. were bound to attend) the king’s person, Fms. vii. 240; á ek þar fyrir at sjá, I am bound to see to that, Eg. 318; Tylptar-kviðr átti um at skilja, Eb. 48; þeir spurðu hvárt Njáli þætti nokkut e. at lýsa vígsök Gunnars, Nj. 117; nú áttu, Sigvaldi, now is thy turn, now ought thou, Fms. xi. 109, Fs. 121; menn eigu (men ought) at spyrja at þingfesti, Grág. i. 19; þá á þann kvið einskis meta, that verdict ought to be void, 59; ef sá maðr á (owns) fé út hér er ómagann á (who ought) fram at færa, 270; nú hafa þeir menn jammarga sem þeir eigu, as many as they ought to have, ii. 270; tíunda á maðr fé sitt, … þá á hann þat at tíunda, … þá á hann at gefa sálugjafir, i. 202:—‘eiga’ and ‘skal’ are often in the law used indiscriminately, but properly ‘ought’ states the moral, ‘shall’ the legal obligation,—elska skalt þú föður þinn og móður, þú skalt ekki stela, where ‘átt’ would be misplaced; sometimes it is merely permissive, gefa á maðr vingjafir at sér lifanda, ef hann vill, a man ‘may’ whilst in life bequeath to his friends, if he will, id.; maðr á at gefa barni sínu laungetnu tólf aura, ef hann vill, fyrir ráð skaparfa sinna, en eigi meira nema erfingjar lofi, a man ‘may’ bequeath to the amount of twelve ounces to his illegitimate child without leave of the lawful heir, etc., 203; ef þat á til at vilja, if that is to happen, Fas. i. 11. 2. denoting claim, right, to own, be entitled to, chiefly in law phrases; e. dóm, sakir, to own the case, i. e. be the lawful prosecutor; ok á sá þeirra sakir, er …, Grág. i. 10; eðr eigu þeir eigi at lögum, or if they be not entitled to it, 94; e. mál á e-m, to have a charge against one, Nj. 105; e. rétt á e-u, to own a right; sá sem rétt á á henni, who has a right to her, K. Á. 16; þeir sögðu at þeim þótti slíkr maðr mikinn rétt á sér e., such a man had a strong personal claim to redress, Nj. 105; hence the phrase, eiga öngan rétt á sér, if one cannot claim redress for personal injury; þá eigu þeir eigi rétt á sér, then they have no claim to redress whatever, Grág. i. 261; e. sök, saka-staði á e-u, to have a charge against; þat er hann átti öngva sök á, Nj. 130; saka-staði þá er hann þótti á eiga, 166; kalla Vermund eigi (not) eiga at selja sik, said V. had no right to sell them, Eb. 116: hence in mod. usage, eiga denotes what is fit and right, þú átt ekki að göra það, you ought not; eg ætti ekki, I ought not: in old writers eiga is seldom strictly used in this sense, but denotes the legal rather than the moral right. β. eiga fé at e-m (mod. e. hjá e-m), to be one’s creditor, Grág. i. 90, 405, Band. 1 C: metaph. to deserve from one, ok áttu annat at mér, Nj. 113; e. gjafir at e-m, 213; in a bad sense, kváðusk mikit e. at Þráni, they had much against Thrain, 138. γ. the law phrase, e. útkvæmt, fært, to have the right to return, of a temporary exile, Nj. 251: at hann skyli eigi e. fært út hingat, Grág. i. 119; ok á eigi þingreitt, is not allowed to go to the parliament, ii. 17; e. vígt, Grág., etc. III. denoting dealings or transactions between men (in a meeting, fight, trade, or the like), to keep, hold; þætti mér ráðliga at vér ættim einn fimtardóm, Nj. 150; e. orrustu við e-n, to fight a battle, Fms. i. 5, Eg. 7; e. högg við e-n, to exchange blows, 297; e. vápna-viðskipti, id., Fms. ii. 17; eiga handsöl at e-u, to shake hands, make a bargain, x. 248; e. ráð við e-n, to consult, hold a conference with, Nj. 127; e. tal við e-n, to speak, converse with one, 129; e. mál við e-n, id., Grág. i. 10; e. fund, to hold a meeting, Nj. 158; e. þing, samkvámu, stefnu, to hold a meeting, Eg. 271; þetta haust áttu menn rétt (a kind of meeting) fjölmenna, Eb. 106; e. kaupstefnu, to hold a market, exchange, 56; e. féránsdóm, Grág. i. 94; e. gott saman, to live well together, in peace and goodwill, Ld. 38; e. illt við e-n, to deal ill with, quarrel with, Nj. 98; e. búisifjar, q. v., of intercourse with neighbours, Njarð. 366; e. drykkju við e-n, to be one’s ‘cup-mate,’ Eg. 253; e. við e-n, to deal with one; ekki á ek þetta við þik, this is no business between thee and me, Nj. 93; gott vilda ek við alla menn e., I would live in goodwill with all, 47; e. við e-n, to fight one; eigum vér ekki við þá elligar (in a hostile sense), else let us not provoke them, 42; eðr hvárt vili it Helgi e. við Lýting einn eðr bræðr hans báða, 154; brátt fundu þeir, at þeir áttu þar eigi við sinn maka, Ld. 64; Glúmr kvað hann ekki þurfa at e. við sik, G. said he had no need to meddle with him, Glúm. 338; e. um að vera, to be concerned; ekki er við menn um at e., Nj. 97; þar sem við vini mína er um at e., where my friends are concerned, 52; við færi er þá um at e., ef Kári er einn, there are fewer to deal with, to fight, if K. be alone, 254; við brögðótta áttu nú um, Fms. v. 263; ætla ek at oss mun léttara falla at e. um við Svein einn, iv. 80; Sveinn svarar, at þeir áttu við ofrefli um at e., that they had to deal with odds, 165. β. almost as an auxiliary verb; e. skilt (skilit), to have stipulated; hafa gripina svá sem hann átti skill, Fms. vi. 160; þat átta ek skilit við þik, ii. 93; sem Hrani átti skilt, iv. 31; e. mælt, of oral agreement; sem vit áttum mælt með okkr, xi. 40; þá vil ek þat mælt e., 124: in mod. usage e. skilit means to deserve, eg á ekki þetta skilit af hér, etc. γ. sometimes used much like geta; við því átti Búi eigi gert, B. could not guard against that, Fms. i. 117, cp. xi. 109:—also, e. bágt, to be in a strait, poor, sickly; e. heimilt, to have at one’s disposal, Eb. 254. IV. to have to do; skal Þorleifr eigi (not) e. at því at spotta, Eb. 224; e. hendr sínar at verja, to have to defend one’s own hands, to act in self-defence, Nj. 47; e. e-m varlaunað, to stand in debt to one, 181; e. um vandræði at halda, to be in a strait, Eb. 108; e. erindi, to have an errand to run, 250; en er þeir áttu um þetta at tala, when they had to talk, were talking, of this, Stj. 391; e. ríkis at gæta, to have the care of the kingdom, Nj. 126; en þó á ek hverki at telja við þik mægðir né frændsemi, i. e. I am no relation to thee, 213; ok ætti þeir við annan at deila fyrst, 111; e. mikið at vinna, to be much engaged, hard at work, 97; e. e-t eptir, to have left a thing undone, 56; e. för, ferð, to have a journey to take, 11, 12; hann átti þar fé at heimta, 261; e. eptir mikit at mæla, 88. 2. metaph. in the phrases, e. mikit (lítið) ‘at’ ser, or ‘undir’ sér, to have much (or little) in one’s power; margir menn, þeir er mikit þóttusk at sér e., Sturl. i. 64; far þú við marga menn, svá at þú eigir allt undir þér, go with many men, so that thou hast the whole matter in thy hands, Ld. 250; en ávalt átta ek nokkuð undir mér, Vígl. 33; kann vera at hann eigi mikit undir sér, Fas. i. 37; eigum heldr undir oss (better keep it in our own hands), en ganga í greipar þeim mæðginum, Fs. 37; sem þeir, er ekki eigu undir sér, who are helpless and weak, Þorst. St. 55; e. þykisk hann nokkut undir sér, i. e. he bears himself very proudly, Grett. 122; þetta ráð vil ek undir sonum mínum e., I will leave the matter in my sons’ hands, Valla L. 202; e. líf sitt undir e-m, to have one’s life in another’s hands, Grett. 154; mun ek nú senda eptir mönnum, ok e. eigi undir ójöfnuði hans, and trust him not, 110: hence in mod. usage, e. undir e-u, to risk; eg þori ekki að e. undir því, I dare not risk it: e. saman, to have or own in common; the saying, það á ekki saman nema nafnið, it has nothing but the name in common; rautt gull ok bleikt gull á ekki saman nema nafn eitt, Fms. v. 346: the proverb, þeygi á saman gamalt og ungt, Úlf. 3. 44; e. skap saman, to agree well; kemr þú þér því vel við Hallgerði, at it eigit meir skap saman, you are quite of one mind, Nj. 66; eigi veit ek hvárt við eigum heill saman, I know not whether we shall have luck, i. e. whether we shall live happy, together, 3. β. to deal with one another (sam-eign); er vér skulum svá miklu úgæfu saman e., that we are to have so much mischief between us, Nj. 201; e. e-t yfir höfði, to have a thing hanging over one’s head, Sks. 742. V. to agree with, to fit, to suit one: 1. with acc., það á ekki við mig, it suits me not, it agrees not with me. 2. with dat., medic. to agree, heal, the sickness in dat., thus the proverb, margt á við mörgu, cp. ‘similia similibus curantur,’ Vidal. ii. 109. 3. absol. to apply to; at hann skyldi eigi trúa lágum manni rauðskeggjuðum, því at meistarinn átti þetta, the description suited to the master, Fms. xi. 433; þat muntu ætla, at ek muna e. hinn bleika uxann, that the dun ox means me, Vápn. 21.

B. REFLEX., in a reciprocal sense, in the phrase, eigask við, to deal with one another, chiefly to fight; en er þeir höfðu langa hríð við átzk, when they had fought a long time, Eb. 238, 74; eigask við deildir, to be engaged in strife, 246; áttusk þeir höggva-viðskipti við, they came to a close fight, Fms. i. 38; áttusk þeir fá högg við, áðr …, they had a short fight before …, Eg. 297; fátt áttusk þeir við Þjóstólfr ok Þorvaldr, Thostolf and Thorwald had little to do with one another, kept aloof from each other, Nj. 18; var nú kyrt þann dag, svá at þeir áttusk ekki við, tbat day passed quietly, so that they came not to a quarrel, 222. β. to marry, vide above (A. I. 2).

eiga, u, f. ownership, property; þá er af hans e., Grág. ii. 304, Gþl. 312; alla eigu sína (al-eiga), Nj. 11; eiga í eigunni (mod. eigu sinni), to own, possess, Fms. vii. 156, 280; kasta eigu sinni á, to take in possession, Eg. 335. COMPD: eigu-ligr, adj. worth having, precious, Fms. i. 294, v. 260, Sks. 696, Sturl. i. 2.

eigandi, pl. eigendr, part. possessor, owner, Grág. i. 419, 420, 623. 21.

ei-gi, sometimes (though rarely) egi, or even contracted ei, adv. (vide ei 2, p. 117); [the negative eigi is particular to the Scandin., mod. Dan. ei, Swed. ej]:—not. Old Icel. writers usually make a distinction between ekki, neut. adj. = nullum, nihil, and eigi, non; but in mod. usage ekki has, as adv., taken the place of eigi (whilst ekkert is used as the neut. adj.), e. g. ekki góðr, ekki vel, where the oldest writers use eigi góðr, eigi vel; this use of ekki is, however, very old and freq. used, e. g. in the Njála, and even in as old a vellum MS. as the Miracle-book (Bs. i); in most cases ekki and eigi are difficult to distinguish, because of the contraction in MSS. (vide ei); editors commonly print eigi:—that old poets used eigi, not ekki, may be seen from rhymes such as eigi varð ens ýgja, Fms. vi. 420: vide the negative -gi.

eigin, n. [Ulf. aigin = οὐσία], one’s own, of property; sitt eigin, his own, Stj. 448; girnask annars eigins, Hom. 54, Fms. ix. 453, v. l., Grág. ii. 191 (rare), vide eign. II. a seed, Edda (Gl.); cp. the Norse iend or ejende = the first sprouts of corn, Ivar Aasen.

eigin-bóndi, m. one’s own husband, K. Á. 122, 655 xxxi. 3.

eigin-brúðr, f. one’s own bride, Lex. Poët.

eigin-bygð, f. one’s own county, Fms. ii. 185.

eigin-dóttir, f. one’s own daughter, Stj. 516.

eigin-gipt, f. part. one’s own wife, H. E. ii. 111.

eigin-giptask, dep. to marry, Bs. ii. 167.

eigin-girnd and eigin-girni, f. selfishness, Stj. 134, Fas. i. 396.

eigin-gjarnligr and eigin-gjarn, adj. selfish, Sks. 528.

eigin-húsfrú, f. one’s own housewife, Stj. 251.

eigin-kona, n, f. one’s own wife, Eg. 342, Grág. i. 376, K. Á. 122, Fms. vii. 306, x. 265, Sturl. ii. 197.

eigin-kvángaðr and eigin-kvæntr, part. lawfully married, 671 B. 17, Sturl. i. 226.

eigin-kyn, n. ‘own-kind,’ peculiarity, Stj. 22.

eigin-leikr (-leiki), m. peculiarity, quality, Skálda 174.

eigin-ligr, adj. (-liga, adv. properly), one’s own, Fms. v. 232, x. 230, Magn. 496, K. Á. 432: gramm., e. nafn, a proper name, Skálda 185.

eigin-maðr, m. one’s own wedded husband, K. Á. 136, Titus i. 6.

eiginn, adj. [A. S. âgen; Engl. own; North. E. ain; Germ. eigen; Swed.-Dan. egen]:—own, one’s own; this word is in mod. usage indecl. in case and number, only marking the gender, e. g. mín, minnar, mínum eigin …, but mitt eigið, etc.; old writers use a full declension, til eiginnar konu, K. Á. 110; eigna konu, Str. 20; sínum eignum bróður, Hom. 158; spýju sína eigna, 159; í sínu eignu fóstrlandi, Stj. 103; fyrir sínum eignum sonum, 240; hafa at eignum manni, one’s own husband, Fagrsk. 10; eiginnar konu barn, 13.

eigin-orð, n. as a law term, ownership, possession, Grág. i. 417, ii. 259, Ó. H. 98; fá at eiginorði, to get into possession, Eg. 511. 2. metaph. a wedding, betrothal, Korm. 74, Grág. i. 162, 174, 310, Vígl. 20.

eigin-spúsa, f. = eiginkona, Str., (for. word.)

eigin-tunga, u, f. one’s own native tongue, Edda 153 (pref.)

eign, f. property, possession, patrimony; ríki þessu er ek kalla mína eign, Fms. i. 201; fá til eignar, to get, Stj. 484; kasta sinni eign á e-t, to take into possession, Fms. iv. 238, Eg. 466. β. chiefly in pl. estates, landed property, opp. to lausafé or movable; hann átti eignir í Vík austr, Eg. 466, K. Á. 84: sing., en ef eign (a landed estate) er í þegngildi, Gþl. 131; eignir eða lausafé, N. G. L. i. 121; eignir er hann tekr, 122. COMPDS: eigna-lauss, adj. without estates, Fagrsk. 33. eignar-búr, n. one’s own barn, N. G. L. i. 383. eignar-hluti, m. private share, property, Dipl. ii. 6: part of an estate, Bs. i. 762. eignar-jörð, f. a patrimony, landed inheritance, Bs. ii. 11. eignar-kona, f. = eiginkona, Fms. x. 152, K. Á. 136. eignar-lýðr, m. one’s own people, Stj. eignar-lýrittr, m., vide lýrittr, Grág. ii. 204. eignar-maðr, m. an owner, possessor, Jb. 371, Dipl. v. 9. eignar-mark, n. a mark of ownership (on cattle), Jb. 121. eignar-nafn, n. a proper name, Stj. 258, Fms. xi. 444. eignar-skipti, n. [mod. Dan. mageskifte], exchange of land, Jb. 192, D. N. eignar-vitni (-vætti), n. a witness of ownership, Jb. 191.

eigna, að; e. e-m e-t, to attribute to one, Stj. 25, Grett. 147 A, Fms. v. 277: to dedicate, name after one, mikit hof ok eignat Þór, i. 294; kirkju ok e. hinum helga Kolumba, Landn. 43; eigna daga vitrum mönnum heiðnum, Bs. i. 237; eigna sér, to declare a thing to be one’s own property; fé minu ok eignir ykkr Helgu, say that you and Helga are the owners, Nj. 257; e. sér land, to take land into one’s own hands, Fms. v. 168: the proverb, sér eignar smalamaðr fé, þó enga eigi hann kindina, the shepherd calls the flock his own, though he owns not a sheep. 2. reflex. to get, become the owner of, Grág. i. 4, Nj. 94, Fms. i. 28, iv. 79, Edda 145 (pref.): part. eignaðr, having possession, Fms. iv. 23, v. l.

ei-góðr, adj. ‘ever-good,’ dear, beloved, a nickname, Fms.

eigra, að, to walk heavily, denoting pain from age or debility, Fas. ii. 130 (in a verse), now freq.

eigu-ligr (eigur-ligr, Barl. 205), vide eiga.

EIK, gen. eikar, pl. eikr, [O. H. G. eik; Germ. eiche; A. S. âc; Engl. oak; North. E. aik; Swed. ek; Dan. eg]:—an oak, Skálda 151. 2. used in Icel. (where are no trees) in the general sense of tree, Lat. arbor; and wherever found it is a sure test of Icel. authorship; brotna eikrnar fyrir því, Fb. i. 133; í skóg við eik eina, Fs. 69; hann reist á honum kviðinn ok leiddi hann um eik, Nj. 275, Fms. xi. 9, 12 (Jómsv. S.), (an ‘oak’ with apples); átu hverjar aðrar því eikrnar með skyndi, Núm. 2. 98; ‘saepius ventis agitatur ingens pinus’ (of Horace) is by Stefan Olafsson rendered, opt vindar ‘eik’ þjá ef að hún er mjög há, Snót 87: but in the oldest proverbs the sense is probably that of oak, e. g. þat hefir eik er af annari skefr, cp. one man’s meat, another man’s poison, Hbl. 22, Grett. 53 new Ed.; or, þá verðr eik at fága sem undir skal búa, Eg. 520;—this last proverb seems to refer to an old custom of building houses under an old oak as a holy tree.

eiki, n. oak timber, Lex. Poët.

eiki-áss, m. an oaken beam, El. 12.

eiki-kylfa, f. an oaken club, Lex. Poët.

eiki-köstr, m. a pile of oak-wood, Gh. 20.

eikinn, adj. savage (of a bull), freq. in mod. use; in Skm. 17, 18 it is used of wild-fire. II. oaken, Edda i. 430 (in a verse).

eiki-skógr, m. an oak-shaw, oak-wood, Fms. vi. 426, xi. 224.

eiki-stobbi, a, m. the stump of an oak, Flóv.

eiki-stokkr, m. an oak-stock, Fms. vii. 37.

eiki-súla, u, f. an oaken column, Róm. 148.

eiki-tindaðr, part. with oaken pegs, Sks. 418.

eiki-viðr, m. an oak-wood, Sks. 415.

eiki-vöndr, m. a twig of an oak-tree, Sks. 416.

EIKJA, u, f. [eikja, Ivar Aasen], a small ferry-boat, Hbl. 7, Fms. iv 185, viii. 37, N. G. L. i. 239, 243; for Bs. i. 674 vide eykr.

ei-ligr, adj. eternal, 677. 2, 3, (rare.)

ei-lífð, f. everlasting life, eternity, Mar., (freq. in mod. use.)

ei-lífi, n. = eilífð, Barl. 76, 93.

ei-lífleikr, m. eternity, Stj. 8.

ei-lífliga, adv. to eternity, Fms. i. 202, Fb. i, 322, Eluc. 3, Fær. 137, 655 xxxii. 10, N. T.

ei-lífligr, adj. everlasting, eternal, N. T.

ei-lífr, adj. everlasting, eternal, 625. 188, Fms. i. 75, K. Á. 228, N. T.; at eilífu, for ever and ever, Niðrst. 8, Hkr. i. 19.

ei-lítill, adj. ‘ever-little,’ very little.

EIMR, m. and eimi, a, m. [this word may be akin to O. H. G. âtam; Germ. athem; Fris. ethma, adema, omma; A. S. âdm,—a Scandin. contracted form would be sounded eim; Dan. em; Norse æm, Ivar Aasen]:—reek, vapour, from fire or embers, different to gufa, steam from boiling; eimr ok reykr, Stj. 58; e. ok aldrnari, vapour and fire, Vsp. 57; eim hratt, vapour gushed out, Orkn. (in a verse); eimr skaut hrími, the vapour sent forth soot, Lex. Poët.: when the poets (Edda Gl.) call fire eimr, this can only be in a metaphorical sense; the sword is poët. called eimnir, m. reeking (with blood). β. in mod. usage eimr is also used of sound, a faint sound, tune; fyrir sönglistar sætan eim, Bb. 1. 4.

ei-muni (and ey-muni), a, m. an ever-memorable thing; þat er þeim eimuni, they will never forget, Fms. iv. 249; þat man þér eymuni, thou wilt never forget it, Bjarn. 25 (in a verse); eymuni hinn mikli (name of a very severe winter), Ann. 1291. β. nickname of a Dan. king, the everbeloved, Fms. xi; vide ein-muni.

eim-yrja, u, f. [Dan. æmmer; Ivar Aasen eimor], embers; in allit. phrases, eldr ok e., Fms. iii. 180, Fas. ii. 75 (in a verse), or eisa ok e.; hann var borinn í eimyrju, Greg. 57; akin to eimr, qs. eim-myrja, a quantity of eimr, q. v.

EIN- in compds denoting only, or only one in an intensive sense, vide the following words.

ein-angr, m., Lat. angustiae, a narrow passage: metaph. a great strait; the proverb, margr verðr vaskr í einangrinum, þótt lítt sé vaskir þess á milli, many a man is bold in perils, though …, Eb. 60; útilleitinn (unprovoking) en öruggr i einangri, but bold if put in a strait, Grett. 120.

ein-angra, að, to put one in a strait, drive into a corner, Stj. 71.

einarð-liga, adv. firmly, Fms. ix. 509, v. l.: heartily, 625. 195; vel ok e., well and heartily, Fms. x. 35; eigi mjök e., not very heartily, 99.

einarð-ligr, adj. firm, trusty looking, Fms. ii. 39.

ein-arðr (qs. ein-harðr), adj. firm, and metaph. honest, sincere; einörð trú, firm belief, Hom. 38, 159; röskr maðr ok e., a bold and trusty man, Nj. 223; e. ok skelegr, firm and undaunted, Sturl. iii. 217; djarfr ok e., daring and bold. Fms. iv. 204: faithful, trusty, ix. 256, opposed to tvídrægr. II. single; einörð sæng, a single bed, D. N. ii. 94 (Fr.); bæta einörðum rétti, to pay a single fine, N. G. L. i. 69, 71,—this sense is Norse and obsolete and rarely occurs in Icel. writers; einart þak, a single thatch, Ld. 280; en hann slítr af sér böndin eigi seinna en einarðan vef, Stj. 416. Judges xiv. 12 (‘like a thread,’ A. V.)

einart, mod. einatt, or even einlagt, adv. incessantly; gékk annarr maðr út en annarr inn einart, one went out and another in incessantly, Fms. iv. 261; sitja einart við drykk, xi. 366; mærin grét einart, the girl ‘grat sore,’ kept on weeping, Eg. 481; fylgja e., to follow on one’s heels, 371; Ögmundr var e. (always) með Karli, Sd. 171; sóttusk e. í ákafa, Ísl. ii. 268; hann ferr einart (straight, directly) til himna-ríkis, Hom. 159; boginn má eigi e. uppi vera, a bow must not be ever bent, 623. 19; lá þó allr herrinn Dana ok Svía einart í skotmáli, Fms. ii. 313.

ein-asta, adv. only, solely, Sks. 439: in mod. usage also adj. indecl.

ein-bakaðr, part. once-baked, Stj. 279.

ein-bani, a, m., poët. the only, i. e. the great, slayer, Hým. 22, Hkm. 3.

ein-baugr, m. a single ring, opp. to tví-baugr, a double ring.

ein-beittr, adj. resolute.

ein-berni, mod. ein-birni, n. [barn], the only bairn, only heir, Grág. ii. 183, Eg. 25, 83.

ein-berr, adj. sheer, pure.

ein-beygðr, part. (cp. baugr II. 4), in the phrase, e. kostr, dire necessity, only chance, Hkr. ii. 172, Orkn. 58.

ein-bjargi (ein-bjarga), adj. able to help oneself, Bs. i. 328.

ein-bregða, brá, to braid a single knot.

ein-breiðr, adj. of a single breadth, half a yard broad, of stuff, opp. to tví-breiðr, N. G. L. iii. 114.

ein-búi, a, m. a single dweller, Eg. 109.

ein-bæli (ein-býli), n. [ból], a single household, opp. to tví-býli, Fms. iv. 93, Fagrsk. 57.

ein-daga, að, to fix a day for pay or the like, with acc.; e. fé, þing, brullaup, etc., Grág. i. 102, 266, 391, Gþl. 212.

ein-dagi, a, m. a term for pay or any other duty to be done, Grág. i. 3, 383, Fms. v. 278, N. G. L. i. 7, 27, 83.

ein-dreginn, part., e. vili, decided, firm will.

ein-drægni, f. (ein-drægr, adj.), unanimity, harmony, Ephes. iv. 3.

ein-dæll, mod. and more freq. inn-dæll, adj., prop. very easy: metaph. agreeable, Fas. ii. 492; vide inndæll.

ein-dæmi, n. a law term, the right to be an absolute, sole umpire or judge in a case, Sturl. ii. 2, Fms. ii. 11, O. H. L. 36; cp. sjálf-dæmi. 2. a single example, Sks. 649: an unexampled thing, cp. the proverb, eindæmin eru verst, Grett. 93 A, vide dæmi; cp. also endemi.

ein-eggjaðr, part. one-edged, Stj. 383.

ein-eiði, n. (eins-eiðr, m., K. Á. 150, Gþl. 25), a single oath (vide eiðr), Gþl. 196, 361, K. Þ. K. 42, Jb. 119, 120, 123, 126, 443, passim.

ein-eigis, adv. with sole ownership, D. N.

ein-eign, f. sole ownership, D. N.

ein-elti, n. the singling one out.

ein-eygðr (ein-eygr), adj. one-eyed, Bárð. 178, Fas. i. 379.

ein-falda, að, to ‘single,’ address with ‘thou,’ Sks. 303.

ein-faldleikr (ein-faldleiki), m. simplicity, Stj. 34, 44, Hom. 67.

ein-faldliga, adv. simply, Stj. 60, K. Á. 224: specially, singularly, Skálda 190, Alg. 354.

ein-faldligr, adj. simple, singular, Skálda 190.

ein-faldr, adj., prop. having ‘one fold,’ Lat. simplex, simple, single, Vm. 135: metaph. simple, plain, of men or things, Bs. ii. 39, 147, Hom. 49, Hkr. iii. 97, Fas. i. 76: simple, silly, (mod.)

ein-farir, f. pl. walking alone, Hkr. ii. 106; fara einförum, with the notion of melancholy, (freq.)

ein-feldr, part. [fella], resolute, bent on one thing, Ísl. ii. 36.

ein-fyndr, adj. as finder entitled to the whole, N. G. L. ii. 146, l. 9, 13, or belonging only to the finder, id. l. 13, 14.

ein-færr, adj. able to do for oneself, Fas. ii. 113, Glúm. 344.

ein-fætingr, m. a one-legged man, Rb. 344, cp. Þorf. Karl. 432.

ein-fættr, adj. one-legged, Grett. 87.

EINGA- [from einigr; Ulf. ainaha; A. S. ânga; Germ. einig], only, single; only used in COMPDS: einga-barn, n. an only bairn, Barl. 174, Þiðr. 130, Sturl. ii. 197, Bær. 14. einga-brúðr, f. the only beloved bride, Lex. Poët. (the Church, the bride of Christ). einga-dóttir, f. an only daughter, Fas. i. (in a verse), Stj. 407. Judges xi. 34, Þiðr. 224, Fas. i. 76. einga-dróttinn, m. the only Lord, Hom. 74. einga-sauðr, m. an only sheep, Stj. 516. 2 Sam. xii. 4. einga-sonr, m. an only son, Mar. 43, Gg. 2, Karl. 209. einga-vinr, m. an only friend, bosom friend, Nj. 77. In mod. usage einka- (q. v.) is used instead of einga-, which is an obsolete form; and even in old MSS. both forms occur, e. g. Stj. (l. c.), v. l.: Þiðr. 130 spells ‘einka-,’ and it even occurs in old vellums as 623, p. 41; einka-sonr, Luke vii. 12.

ein-ganga, u, f. = einfarar, N. G. L. iii. 36: eingöngu, as adv. solely.

ein-getinn, part., eccl. only begotten, Clem. 40, Sks. 604 (of Christ).

EINGI, einginn, in old writers more freq. spelt ‘eng’ (which accords with the mod. pronunciation), engi, enginn, qs. einn-gi from einn, one, and the negative suffix -gi:—none.

A. THE FORMS vary greatly: 1. the adjective is declined, and the suffix left indeclinable; obsolete forms are, dat. eino-gi or einu-gi (nulli), ægishjálmr bergr einugi, Fm. 17; einugi feti framar, not a step further, Ls. 1; svá illr at einugi dugi, Hm. 134; in old laws, ef maðr svarar einugi, Grág. (Þ. Þ.) i. 22; acc. sing. engi, engi mann, Hkv. 1. 37; engi frið, Hm. 15; engi jötun (acc.), Vþm. 2; engi eyjarskeggja, Fas. i. 433 (in a verse); also in prose, engi mann, Ó. H. 68; engi hlut, 33, 34: engi liðsamnað, 36, Mork. passim; engi knút fékk hann leyst, ok engi álarendann hreift, Edda 29. 2. the -gi changes into an adjective termination -igr; gen. sing. fem. einigrar, Hom. 22, Post. 645. 73; dat. sing. fem. einigri. Hom. 17; acc. sing. fem. einiga, Fas. i. 284 (in a verse); nom. pl. einigir, Jd. 1; fem. einigar, Grág. i. 354; gen. pl. einigra, Post. 73; dat. einigum: this obsolete declension is chiefly used in the sense of any, vide below. 3. declined as the pronom. adj. hverr or nekverr (= nokkur); dat. sing. fem. engarri; gen. pl. aungvarra, Fms. ix. 46, Stj. 70; dat. sing. fem. aungvarri, Mork. 187; hereto belongs also the mod. neut. sing. ekkert. 4. the word is declined as the adj. þröngr, with a final v; nom. fem. sing. öng sorg (no sorrow), Hm. 94; nom. masc. öngr or aungr, Skv. 2. 26, Nj. 117 (in a verse), Fms. vi. 42 (Sighvat), i. 132 (Vellekla), etc. 5. adding -nn, -n to the negative suffix, thus einginn, fem. eingin, neut. pl. eingin (or enginn, engin); in the other cases this n disappears. Out of these various and fragmentary forms sprung the normal form in old and modern writings, which is chiefly made up of 1, 4, and 5: old writers prefer nom. engi or eingi, but modern only admit einginn or enginn; gen. sing. masc. neut. eingis, einskis or einkis (enskis, Grág. i. 163; einskis, 25 C), engis or eingis, Eg. 74, 714, 655 xxxii. 10; einkis, Fms. x. 409: in mod. usage einskis and einkis are both current, but eingis obsolete: neut. sing. ekki assimilated = eit-ki or eitt-ki, in mod. usage ekkert, a form clearly originating from 3 above, but which, however, never occurs in old MSS.,—Fms. iii. 75, Landn. (Mant.) 329, Gþl. 343 (cp. N. G. L. ii. 110), are all paper MSS.,—nd only now and then in those from the end of the 15th century, but is common ever since that time; the N. T. in the Ed. of 1540 spelt ekkirt: in the nom. sing. old writers mostly use eingi or engi alike for masc. and fem. (eingi maðr, eingi kona), whereas modern writers only use einginn, eingin (einginn maðr, eingin kona); this form also occurs in old MSS., though rarely, e. g. engin hafði þess gáð, Stj. 6; einginn karlmaðr, 206; eingin atkvæði, Fms. v. 318: eingin hey, Ísl. ii. 138; chiefly in MSS. of the 14th or 15th centuries: acc. sing. masc. engan or öngan is in MSS. much commoner than eingi (engi), see above, e. g. engan háska, Fms. ii. 322; fyrir engan mun, Gþl. 532, etc.: in the other cases the spelling and pronunciation are at variance. Editions and mod. writers usually spell engra, engrar, engri, engum, engu, engan, enga, engir, engar, but these forms are pronounced throughout with ö or au, öngra, öngrar, öngri, öngum or öngvum, öngu or öngvu, öngan or öngvan, önga or öngva, öngir or öngvir, öngar or öngvar; that this is no mod. innovation is amply borne out by some of the best vellum MSS., e. g. Arna-Magn. 468, Ó. H., Fb., Mork.; öngum manni, Nj. 82; öngri munuð, 10; öngvar sakir, 94; önga fárskapi, 52; aungu vætta, Stj. 208; öngvan þef, 7; öngu nýtr, Fb. i. 284, 365; öngvan hlut, 166; öngum, 25; aungum várum bræðra, 63; avngir, Ó. H. 184; öngva, 146; öngu, 184 (freq.); avnga menn, Ísl. ii. 349 (Heið. S. MS. Holm.); öngvir diskar, 337; öngum, Grág. i. 27; avngver menn, Bs. i. 337 (Miracle-book); öngom, 346, 347; önga björg, 349; en sér öngu at una, Hm. 95, Mork. passim, etc.: these forms are clearly derived from 4 above. [The word is exclusively Scandin.; Dan. ingen, neut. intet; Swed. ingen, inga, intet; Ivar Aasen ingjen, neut. inkje.]

B. THE SENSE: I. ‘not one;’ used as adj. with a subst. none, no, not any; þeir vissu sér eingis ótta ván, Eg. 74; man hann einigrar (= ongrar) ömbunar vætta af Guði, Post. 73, and in numberless cases. 2. used absol. (Lat. nemo) as subst. none, naught; ekki er mér at eigna af þessu verki, Fms. ii. 101; enda virðask einkis vætti þau er þeir bera, Grág. i. 25; enginn konungs manna, Fms. i. 104; ok lét þá ekki (naught) hafa af föðurarfi sínum, Eg. 25; eingi þeirra, Skálda 165; fur hann var enskis örvænt, Ísl. ii. 326; en svarar engu, Ld. 202; at öngu, for naught, Fms. iv. 317; öngum þeim er síðarr kemr, Grág. i. 27; þa skal enga veiða, none of them, ii. 338; engi einn, none, Fms. v. 239; sem engin veit fyrri gert hafa verit, K. Á. 28; ekki skorti þá (ekkert, Ed. from paper MS.), Fms. iii. 75. β. neut. ekki with gen. pl. in a personal sense, ekki manna, ‘nought of men,’ = engir menn or enginn maðr, no man, not a single man, Ó. H.; ekki vætta, nought, Fms. viii. 18; öngu vætta, nought (dat.), xi. 90; ekki skipa, not a single ship, etc. (freq. in old writers): einskis-konar, adv. in nowise, Sks. 713: engan-veginn, adv. noways. 3. neut. ekki is freq. used as adv. = eigi, q. v., Edda 20, Fms. ii. 81, vii. 120, xi. 22, Grág. i. 206, Eg. 523. II. any; this sense is rare and obsolete, and probably also etymologically different from the preceding (cp. A. S. ânig): α. after a negative; á hón eigi at selja fjárheimtingar sínar, né sakar einigar, Grág. i. 354; er eigi saurgisk í einigri líkams úhreinsun, Hom. 17; hvat sem engi segir, Þiðr. 178; aldregi skalt þú þat heyra né engi annarra, 128; aldri fyrr í engri herferð, 29; má eigi þar fyrri undir búa eingi sá er tempraðan bólstað vill hafa, Sks. 45 new Ed.; né önnur eingi, Skálda (Thorodd) 165; því at hanu má hvárki vaxa nó þverra, né á engi veg skapask í sínu at kvæði, 166; eigi skal maðr gildra í mörku annars til einigra dyra, N. G. L. i. 242. β. after a comparative; prettvísari en ekki annat kvikendi, Mar.; þíðari ok fegri en engi maðr annarr, Stj. 524; sæmilegri en engan tíma fyrr hafði hann verit, 196; um þat fram (= framar) en engi hans frænda hefir haft fyr hánum, Fagrsk. 11.

ein-girni, n. [garn], single-threaded yarn.

ein-göngu, adv. only, exclusively, (mod.)

ein-hagi and ein-agi, a, m. a piece of ladies’ dress, Edda (Gl.), Bjarn. 42 (in a verse).

ein-hama and ein-hamr, adj. ‘one-shaped,’ as equivalent in the phrase eigi e., ‘not single-shaped,’ a werewolf; it is also used with berserkr, q. v.; sem háttr er þeirra manna sem eigi eru einhamir … er af þeim gengr berserks-gangrinn, Eb. 136; Þrándr var kallaðr eigi e. (Thrand was thought to be a werewolf), meðan hann var heiðinn, en þá tók af flestum tröllskap er skírðir vóru, 306; þykkir sem hann hati eigi síðan dyggilega e. verit, Fb. i. 260; því at þú ert eigi e., Ísl. ii. 29: without a preceding eigi (less correctly), at hann hafi sterkastr maðr verit … sá er e. hefir verit, i. e. of those who were not berserkers, Fb. i. 524, Fas. ii. 261; cp. hamr, hamramr, hamremi, hamask, etc.

ein-hendis, adv. straight, off-hand, Bs. i. 13 (in a verse).

ein-hendr, adj. single-handed, Edda 17, Landn. 186.

Ein-herjar, m. pl. the ‘only’ or great champions, the dead warriors in Valhalla; about this mythological word vide Edda (Gg.) 23–25, Em. 1, Hkm. 16, Gm. 23, Vþm. 40, 41: sing. voc. einheri, thou great champion! (of Thor), Ls. 60: the name Einarr is properly = einheri; cp. einarðr bold, einörð valour, all kindred words.

ein-hjal, n. secret gossip, Ó. T. 2.

ein-hleypi, n., einhleypis-maðr, m. = einhleypingr, Gþl. 94.

ein-hleypingr, m. one who goes alone, hence a vagabond or person without hearth or home (cp. Scot. landlouper), Hrafn. 13; e. félausir, Stj. 398. Judges ix. 4 (‘vain and light persons,’ A. V.)

ein-hleypr, adj. a single man without fixed household, unmarried, K. Á. 126, N. G. L. i. 142; opp. to búandi, 26.

ein-hlítr, adj. [hlíta], trusting to oneself alone, self-confident, not needing the help of another; vera sér e. í e-u, Eb. 90, Orkn. 283; láta sér e-t einhlitt, to think it enough, rest satisfied, Fms. iv. 78; þat var mælt at hón léti mik eigi einhlítan, it was said that she was untrue to me (a euphemism), Sturl. i, 44; svá mundi þá, ef hón hefði bónda sinn einhlítan, gjört, Dropl. 9; vera e. um e-t, to have to decide a thing; eigi em ek e. um svör þessa máls, ok vil ek ráðask um við móður hennar, Ísl. ii. 159.

ein-hugi, adj. with one mind, resolute, Fb. iii. 418.

ein-hugsa, að, to make up one’s mind, Fs. 18.

ein-hverfa, ð, to decide upon, determine, with acc., Fms. v. 39.

ein-hverfr, adj. determined, Sturl. i. 213.

ein-hverr, v. einn.

ein-hyrndr, adj. having one born, Stj. 69.

ein-hyrningr, m. ‘one-horn,’ a unicorn, Karl. 386.

ein-hæfr, adj. only fit for one thing.

einigr, v. eingi.

eining, f. unity, Hom. 55, Ver. 46, Fms. i. 281, Sks. 604.

EINIR, m. [Swed. en] juniper, Edda (Gl.), Stj. 396, Hjalt. einir-ber, n. berries of the juniper, Hjalt. einir-lauf, n. leaves of the juniper, Björn.

ein-járnungr, m. all of one piece of iron, e. g. a knife, Krók. 40.

einka, að, to appoint for a peculiar use; hann einkaði til þess eitt hús, Sks. 622; hlutr einkaðr kirkjunni, H. E. i. 258; ok var þar til einkaðr Guðmundr prestr, Bs. i. 452: to dedicate, Karl. 301.

EINKA- (rarely einkar-), in COMPDS denoting, I. special, personal, particular: einka-gjöf, f. a special gift, Lex. Poët. einka-grið, n. special truce, N. G. L. i. 417. einka-gripr, m. a special family heir-loom, Glúm. 339; bæði rúnar ok e., runes and tokens, Fms. vi. 274. einka-hlutr, m. a special, particular, personal thing, 625. 195. einka-jartein, f. a special token, Skálda 167. einka-leyfi, n. a law term, an especial leave, Grág. i. 364, ii. 491, 492: (mod.) a privilege. einka-lof, n. id., Grág. i. 6. einka-lækning, f. an especial remedy, Hom. einka-maðr, m. a person of special rank, a dignitary, Sks. 271, N. G. L. i. 4. einka-mál, n. pl. a special, personal agreement, treaty, Eg. 37, Fagrsk. 179, Fms. i. 23, ii. 290; binda sætt eiðum ok einka-málum, vii. 282: a privilege, e. ok réttarbaetr, Bs. i. 699, Js. 47, Játv. 8. einkar-eðli (einka-öðli), n. especial nature, Skálda 171, 677. 3. einkar-nafn, n. a special name, proper name, Edda 108. einka-skriptargangr, m. a special confession, Hom. 74. einka-sæla, u, f. happiness, beatitude, Greg. 18. einka-vinr, m. a particular friend, Bárð. 173, Nj. 77, v. l., Orkn. 448, (vide einga-vinr.) II. only: einka-dóttir, -barn, -sonr, etc., vide einga- above.

einkan-liga, adv. especially, particularly, Fms. i. 20, 191, K. Á. 216, 230, Bs. i. 771.

einkan-ligr, adj. especial, Stj. 6, H. E. i. 502, 655 xxxii. 8: extraordinary, Bs. ii. 18, 159, 170.

ein-kanna, að, = einka, to attribute, N. G. L. ii.

ein-kanna- in einkanna-hlutr, m. an especial thing, Fms. vii. 120.

einkar- prefixed to adjectives or adverbs = Scot. unco = specially, greatly, very; e. vel, very well, Fms. xi. 18; e. fagr, very fine, beautiful, ii. 300; e. skjótt, with great speed, Eg. 354; e. trauðr, very unwilling, Fms. xi. 98; e. mjök, very much, viii. 186; e. lítill, very small, Fbr. 99 new Ed.: cp. Lex. Poët., (very freq. in mod. use.)

ein-kenna, d, to mark, signalise, Stj. Josh. ii. 18, Hkr. iii. 264, v. l.

ein-kenniligr, adj. especial, particular, Str. 3, 39.

ein-kenning, f. distinction, Karl. 288.

ein-kili, m. [cp. Swed. kela; Dan. kjæle = to fondle], a fondling, Edda (Gl.); hence einkilju-legr, adj. fondled, spoilt, Björn.

ein-kleyfr, adj. clear, unequivocal, Hkr. iii. 203, v. l.

einkum, dat. used as adv. ‘unco,’ chiefly, especially, Landn. 282, Fms. xi. 25, viii. 102, Fs. 21, K. Þ. K. 162. 2. = einkar, very; e. góð, Hom. 111; e. vel, 655 xxx. 7; e. lítið, Sks. 188; e. bezt, Mork. 79. 3. particularly, Fms. xi. 45, 127.

ein-kunn, f. a mark, sign, Grág. i. 414, 415, ii. 303, Hkr. iii. 364.

ein-kunna, að, = einkenna, Grág. ii. 345.

ein-kynna, t, = einkenna, esp. of marking sheep or cattle, to brand or mark their ears, Grág. i. 414, 415, ii. 303, 348.

ein-lagi, adj., vera, gerask e. um e-t, to act alone in a thing, Ld. 266, Fms. iv. 87.

ein-lát, n. pl. ‘letting alone,’ deserting one’s wife, Grág. i. 178.

ein-leikit, part. neut., in the phrase, það er ekki e., of an uncanny thing, not by fair means.

ein-leitr, adj. singular, odd, particular, Mar.

ein-litr, adj. of one colour, Stj. 45, H. E. i. 492, Rd. 251.

ein-lyndr, adj. odd, strange, stubborn, Nj. 184, Sks. 435.

ein-lægni, f. sincerity, earnestness.

ein-lægr and einlæg-ligr, adj. (-liga, adv.), sincere.

ein-læti, n. = einlát, Hkr. i. 245.

ein-man, n. solitude, in the phrase, í einmani; nú ef maðr býr í einmani öðrum mönnum fjarri, in solitude, far from other men, N. G. L. i. 340; nú er maðr staddr í einmani, 343.

ein-mani (ein-mana), adj. solitary, alone, lonely; e. svá langt frá öðrum mönnum, Fas. i. 48, iii. 227: with the notion of a helpless, orphan state, þóttisk hann nú mjök e., left alone, Nj. 260; þar þú ert kominn hér e. (single-handed), Fbr. 154; ungr ok e., young and friendless, Fms. viii. 3; hversu e. (how bereft) margir fara, Sl. 48.

ein-máll, adj. one-sided in speech, Skálda 164.

ein-mánuðr, m. the ‘single month,’ i. e. the last month of the winter, thirty days long, beginning on the Tuesday between the 9th and 15th of March (old style), Grág. i. 166, Edda 103, Rb. 516. COMPD: einmánaðar-samkváma, u, f. a meeting held (in northern and eastern Icel.) at the beginning of the Einmanad, mentioned in Sturl. iii. 311, Lv. 65, Vápn. (Ný Fél. xxi. 124), Jb. 301, Fs. 67.

ein-menningr, m., drekka e., to toss off a bumper at one draught, Eg. 551.

ein-mitt, n. adj. as adv. just, exactly.

ein-muna, adj. ‘alone remembered,’ memorable, always in a good sense; e. blíðr, exceedingly mild; e. veðr, fine weather, cp. eimuni.

ein-munaligr, qs. ein-manaligr, adj. lonely.

ein-mæli, n. private talk or conference, Eg. 54, 741, Nj. 10, Sks. 363, Fms. i. 204, iv. 123, 303: common talk, var þat allra manna e., Fagrsk. 179.

ein-mæling, f. = einmælt, Mar. 155.

ein-mælis, adv. once a day, N. G. L. ii. 359.

ein-mælt, n. adj. [mál = meal], one meal a day; eta, matask e., Fms. viii. 447; fasta e., K. Þ. K. 102.

ein-mæltr, part. spoken by all, Fms. ix. 501, Eg. 514, Eb. 310.

EINN, adj., pl. einir, acc. sing. einn, but also einan, esp. in the sense al-einan etc.; [Gr. εἱς, εν; Lat. ūnus, and early Lat. oinos; Ulf. ains; A. S. ân; Engl. one, in E. Engl. proncd. like stone, bone; Scot. ane; Swed. en; Dan. een]:—one.

A. Cardinal number, one; einn, tveir, þrír …, opp. to báðir, fleiri, etc.; einum eðr fleirum, Grág. i. 108; eina sök eðr fleiri, 78; unnu báðir eins verk, Fas. i. 515; einum ok einum, one by one, ii. 252; tveir menn veðmæltu um einn grip, Grág. i. 412. 2. in old poems it is used as an ordinal number; Urð hétu eina, aðra Verðandi, Vsp. 20; segðu þat it eina …, opp. to þat it annat, Vþm. 20; hjálp heitir eitt, help ranks first, Hm. 147, Vkv. 2; but this use is quite obsolete. 3. with the notion of sameness, one and the same (unus et idem;) í einu húsi, in the same house, Grág. ii. 42; ein ero lög um, hvárt sem ero naut eðr sauðir, i. 422; allt á eina leið, all one way, Fms. ii. 315; til einnar gistingar báðir, vii. 274; í einu brjósti, Alm. 36; allr einn, the very same, Nj. 213. II. indefinite, a, an, a certain one; einn vetr, a winter, Fms. i. 57; einn dag, x. 11, Fas. i. 514; eitt kveld, Ld. 38; einn hinn versti maðr, Fær. 91; Breiðlingr einn, a man from Broaddale, Sturl. ii. 249; einn vinr Þóris, a certain friend of Thorir, Fms. vi. 277: einn as the indefinite article is hardly found in old writers; and though it is freq. in the Bible, sermons, hymns, etc., since the Reformation, it was no doubt borrowed from the German, and has never been naturalised. β. about, before numbers; ein tvau hundruð vaðmála, about two hundred pieces, Sks. 30; einar fimm þúsudir, about three thousand, Al. 111,—obsolete, in mod. usage hérum-bil or the like. III. alone, Gr. μόνος, Lat. solus, used both in sing. and plur.; Guðrún skyldi ein ráða, Ld. 132; Hallr tók einn upp fang, 38; láta einan, to let alone; láttu mig Drottinn einan ekki, Pass. 34. 11; as a law term, to let one’s wife alone, þá lét hann eina Guðrúnu, Fms. x. 324 (cp. einlát); Gunnarr mundi vera einn heima, Nj. 113; sjá einn hlutr, that one thing only, 112; þau ein tíðendi (plur.), only such news, 242. β. if put after the noun, einn denotes, only, but, sheer, and is almost adverb.; segja þetta prett einn, a mere trick, Sturl. ii. 249; raufar einar, all in holes, Nj. 176; urðu borðin í blóði einu, the tables were bedabbled with blood all over, 270, Ó. H. 116; öll orðin at hvölum einum, all turned into whales, Fas. i. 372; gabb eitt ok háð, sheer mockery, Sks. 247; orð ein, mere words, Nj. 123; ígangs-klæði ein, Eg. 75; vin eitt, wine only, Gm. 19; heiptyrði ein, Fm. 9; hamingjur einar, Vþm. 49; ofsamenn einir, Ld. 158; þá nótt eina, for that one night, N. G. L. i. 240: also after an adj., lítið eina, only a little, Stj. 177; þat eina, er hann ætti sjálfr, Eg. 47, Fms. v. 303; nema góðs eina, naught but good, Eg. 63; fátt eitt, few only, but few; vilt eitt, but what is agreeable, Hm. 125; mikit eitt skala manni gefa, a proverb, ‘small gifts shew great love,’ 51; sá einn, er …, he only, who …, 17; satt eitt, sooth only, Fm. 9; the sense differs according as the adj. is placed before or after the noun, einn Guð, the one God; but, Guð einn, God only, none but God. IV. plur. in a distributive sense, single; ein gjöld, a single weregild, opp. to tvenn, þrenn, fern, double, triple, quadruple, Grág. ii. 232; thus Icel. say, einir sokkar, skór, vetlingar, a pair of socks, shoes, gloves; einar brækr, a pair of breeches; also with nouns which have only plur., e. g. ein, tvenn, þrenn Jól, one, two, three Christmasses (Yules); einar (tvennar) dyrr, a single … door; eina Páska, one Easter. V. gen. pl. einna is used in an intensive sense; einna manna bezt, best of all single men, Fms. ix. 258; í mesta lagi einna manna, foremost of all single men, Bjarn. 65; fátt er svá einna hluta, at örvænt sé at hitti annat slíkt, Ó. H. 75. β. ellipt., manna, hluta, or the like being omitted, einna becomes almost an adverbial phrase, by far, exceedingly; at engi viti einna miklogi görr (= einna manna), that no one (no single man) shall know it much better, Grág. i. 2; einna verst, by far the worst, Orkn. 162, Nj. 38; einna sizt, by far the least, least of all, Fms. i. 37; einna mest verðr, Ld. 8; er einna var ríkastr, who was the mightiest of all, Fms. i. 297; engan rétt einna meir kunnan at göra (= einna rétta meir), Sks. 22; engi er einna hvatastr (= e. manna), there is none so mighty but be may find his match, Hm. 63: in mod. usage einna, joined with a superlative, is used adverbially, e. beztr, e. fljótastr, the best, the fleetest, but in a somewhat depreciatory sense. VI. used adverb.: 1. gen. sing. eins, α. eins ok, as, as if; eins ok væri hann með öllu óttalauss, Hkr. iii. 275; allt eins ok (just as) rakkar metja með tungu, Stj. 392. β. likewise, in the same way; mikill þorri var þat er þær sögðu eins báðar, Landn. (Hb.) 320; this use of eins is very rare in old writers, but freq. in mod. use; in the spoken language at least ‘eins’ (= as) has almost replaced the old ‘sem.’ γ. only; er ek hefi áðr spurn til eins, Fms. iv. 139 (rare). δ. at eins, only, but, Grág. i. 235; vel at eins, ironically, well enough, Ld. 248; eigi at eins, not only, Fms. i. 266; með sínum at eins kostnaði, vii. 184; því at eins, only in that case, Nj. 228; þar at eins, Ísl. ii. 400; allt eins, not the less for that, 216: in mod. use, just as (vide allr A. V. 5). 2. dat. at einu = at eins; údauðr at einu, Ld. 242; því at einu = því at eins, Fms. iv. 195; því at einu er rétt …, Grág. i. 164; svá at einu, id., Nj. 103; sá evkr syndir sínar at einu, he but adds to his sins, Hom. 157; allt at einu, all the same, Ísl. ii. 216, v. l.: af því einu, only because, Mork. 140.

B. Joined to another pronominal adj. or adv.: I. einn hverr, adj. pron., in old writers usually in two words and with a double declension (see below), but now and then (and in mod. usage always) in a single word, einn being indecl.; einhverja (acc. f.), Hbl. 30; einhverjum (dat. sing.), Hm. 122, Fms. x. 71; einhverjo héraði, Al. 98, Nj. 2; einhverra (gen.), Fms. iv. 75; einhverir (nom. pl.), viii. 202; einhver, einhverir, etc.: the form eins-hverr is peculiar, keeping the gen. indecl. through all the cases, nom. einshverr, N. G. L. i. 6; acc. einshverja, Stj. 156, 655 xxxii. 18, Gþl. 135; dat. einshverjum, Stj. 22, 442, 448; this form seems to be chiefly Norse, is very rare in old writers, and now quite obsolete; neut. sing. eitthvert, Vm. 73, or eitthvat, Stj. 442, the mod. usage makes a distinction, and uses eitthvert only as adj., eitthvað as subst.: 1. each one, each single one; maðr er einn hverr, Edda 108; þær eru svá margar, at ein hver má vel endask, Eg. 414; ór þeirra fjórðungi sem ór einum hverjum öðrum, Íb. ch. 5; skal einn hverr (each) þeirra nefna sér vátta, Grág. i. 74; jafnmikinn arf sem einn hverr (each) sona hans, Sturl. ii. 77; fátt er svá herra einhverra hluta, of any single thing, Fms. iv. 175. β. joined to a superl. it strengthens the sense; ágætastr maðr einn hverr, one of the very first men, Nj. 282; vinsælastr höfðingi einhverr, highly popular, Fms. vii. 4; einhver drengilegust vörn, ix. 515. 2. in an indefinite sense, some, somebody, a certain one; eitthvert ríki, Sks. 350; eina hverja nótt, some night, 686 B. 4; eitthvert sinn, once, sometime, Sturl. i. 77, Nj. 79; einhverju sinni, id., 2; einhvern dag, some day, Fms. v. 177, Ísl. ii. 212; eina hverja þessa tíð, about this time, N. G. L. i. 355; til einnar hverrar stefnu, to some meeting, Fb. i. 354; eins-hverja hluti, Stj. 156; með eins-hverjum sveini, 442; at ekki sé minna vert, at hlýða prests-messu nývígðs hinni fyrstu, heldr en biskups-messu einhverri, Bs. i. 131. β. used as subst.; einn hverr várr búandanna, Fms. i. 34; einn hvern manna hans, Eg. 258; einhverr í hverjum dal, Ld. 258, Nj. 192. γ. einhver-staðar (eins-hver-staðar, Fms. vii. 84), adv. somewhere, Grett. 130, Fms. iv. 57, Sd. 181. II. einn-saman, adj. ‘one together’ (vide einsamall), i. e. quite alone; maðrinn lifir ekki af einu-saman brauði, Matth. iv. 4; með einni-saman sinni sýn, með einni-saman sinni þefan, Stj. 93; ef útlegðir fara einar-saman, if it be solely a matter of outlay (fine), Grág. i. 103; ef þat færi eitt-saman, ii. 10: of a woman, vera eigi ein-saman, to be not alone, to be with a child, Fms. iii. 109. III. with other words; einir … ýmissir, ‘one and sundry;’ various, mixed, Stj. 88, 204; eina hluti ok ýmissa, Fb. i. 191. β. hverr ok einn, ‘each and one,’ every one, 677. 1, H. E. i. 393, Rb. 492; fyrir hvern mun ok einn, Fas. i. 396. γ. einn ok sér-hverr, one and all. δ. einn sér, apart, for oneself, alone; Múspells-synir hafa einir sér fylking, Edda 41; einn sér, sole, Fms. ii. 308; sér einir, Sturl. ii. 53: metaph. singular, peculiar, ein var hón sér í lýðsku, Fs. 30. ε. sér-hverr, adj. every one, q. v.: eins-konar, adv. of one kind, Skálda 165; mod. indef. of a certain kind, a kind of: eins-kostar, adv. particularly, Ísl. ii. 322, Mork. 81. ζ. né einn, not one, none; in old writers usually so, but now and then contracted neinn (q. v.), and in mod. usage always so; né eina sekð, Grág. i. 136; né eitt úhreint, Stj. 409; né einu sinni, not once, Fms. xi. 13; né eins, not a single thing, 112; né eina herferð, vii. 28. η. fáir einir, only a few, in mod. usage in one word, nom. fáeinir, dat. fáeinum, gen. fáeinna: ein-stakr, single, q. v.: al-einn, alone, q. v.: ein-mana, q. v. (cp. Gr. μόνος): einum-megin, adv. on one side, Nj. 248 (vide vegr).

ein-nefna, d, to appoint specially, Grág. i. 11.

einn-ig (einn-eg, einn-og, einn-ug), in mod. pronunciation and in MSS. of the 15th century einninn or einneginn (qs. einn veginn), adv. [from einn and vegr, qs. einn veg; cp. hvernig, how; þannig, thus; hinnig, otherwise]:—in the same way, likewise, also; the subst. notion is still seen in the phrase, á einneg, in the same manner, 686 B. 12, Hom. (St.) 64; ek vil sjá hvernog þú markar þinn hlut, at eigi markim vit einnog báðir, Hkr. iii. 59; eigi þótti öllum einnug, Ísl. ii. 352; Torfa Svartsson einnig (likewise), Sturl. i. 103; einneginn Ölver, O. likewise, Fas. iii. 470; fylgir honum ok einninn sá kappi, Fas. i. 419; létu þeir einninn syngja í kirkju, Bs. (Laur. S.)

ein-nættr, adj. one night old, Sturl. i. 174, Hm. 85.

ein-ráðit, sup., hafa e., to have resolved, made up one’s mind, Greg. 60, Eg. 424, Fms. ii. 266, v. 44, Orkn. 34: masc., Mork. 84.

ein-ráðr, adj. self-willed, Ld. 314, Fms. xi. 246, Fas. ii. 113, Bjarn. 70.

ein-reikull, adj. straying alone, Bs. i. 243.

ein-rendr, part. having a single stripe (of cloth), Nj. 96, v. l.

Ein-riði, a, m., pr. name, also Eind-riði, mod. Indriði, but freq. in good MSS. spelt ein-, Mork., Ó. H., Orkn.; it properly means the great rider. β. nickname of Thor the god of thunder from his driving in the clouds, Edda (Gl.); cp. reið, thunder.

ein-rúm, n. a privy; í einrúmi, privately.

ein-ræði, n. self-will, obstinacy, Fms. ii. 254, Ld. 4, 188, Mork. 83.

ein-rænligr, adj. singular, strange, odd, Fms. vi. 217.

ein-rænn, adj. of singular temper, self-willed, Eg. 573, Fms. ii. 154, iii. 202, Bs. i. 144, in the last passage probably a false reading, = einvænn.

ein-samall, adj., einsömul, einsamalt, pl. einsamlir, etc., alone, rarely, in old writers, who use einn saman in two words, and it only occurs in later MSS., Fas. i. 91, iii. 469 (paper MSS.)

ein-seta, u, f. hermitage, Hom. 26, Mart. 125. COMPDS: einsetu-kona, u, f. a female anchorite, Bs. i. 478, Ld. 332, Hkr. i. 316. einsetu-líf, n. and einsetu-lifnaðr, m. the life of an anchorite, Bs. i. 204, Stj. 154, 158. einsetu-maðr, m. an anchorite, Fms. i. 145. einsetu-munkr, m. a hermit, Greg. 70, 655 iii. 4.

ein-setja, setti; e. sér, to resolve firmly.

ein-skapan, f. the right to fix one’s own terms, Orkn. 214, Fms. xi. 24.

ein-skepta, u, f. stuff woven with a single weft, a kind of flannel.

ein-skilt, n. adj. taken aside for a private purpose, (Fr.)

ein-skipa, adj. with a single ship, Fms. ii. 5, vii. 214, ix. 499.

ein-skírr, adj. quite clear; e. veðr, Njarð. 374.

ein-skjaldar, gen. as adv. under one shield, acting together, Fms. ix. 249.

ein-skora, að; e. hug sinn, to make one’s mind up, Bær. 11.

ein-skærligr, adj. pure; e. rödd, a pure voice, Thom. 151.

ein-skærr, adj. pure; e. náð, pure grace.

ein-sköpuðr, m. a sole judge or umpire, Lex. Poët.

eins-ligr, adj. (-liga, adv.), alone, by oneself, Sks. 2: singly, Fms. i. 139, Stj. 184: especial, Magn. 512: gramm. singular, Skálda 185, 191.

ein-staka, adj. single, isolated (with the notion of few, now and then, here and there); e. víg, Fms. xi. 99; e. slög ok skeinur, Háv. 50; e. kossar, Fb. i. 304; e. vísur, extemporised ditties (hence staka, a ditty), Fbr. 69.

ein-stakr, adj. = einstaka. β. mod. famous, notorious, chiefly in a bad sense; e. armingi, svíðingr, þjófr, galdramaðr, etc.

ein-stapi, a, m. a kind of fern, pteris aquilina, Str. 45.

ein-stigi, a, m. a single path, so narrow that only one can pass. Eg. 576, 577, 583, Fær. 267, Rd. 246, 247, Fms. ii. 110, viii. 49.

ein-strengja, d, to resolve firmly, Fms. iii. 49: reflex. to grow bold, ix. 50.

ein-stæðingr, m. an orphaned (bereft) person, einstæðings-skapr, m. a state of bereavement.

ein-stæðr, adj. left alone, bereaved, widowed, Hðm. 5.

ein-sýnn, adj. = eineygr, one-eyed, Fas. i. 41, Fms. ii. 138, x. 301. β. at einsýnu, clearly, evidently, Hom. 5.

ein-sætt, n. adj. evident, what clearly ought to be done; e-t er e., i. e. that and nothing else is to be done; ok er þér e. at þjóna eigi lengr fjanda, Fms. ii. 39, 124, vi. 154, 242, vii. 19, 25, 27, Boll. 342, Orkn. 408.

ein-tal, n. private conversation, Nj. 103, Fms. i. 205, iv. 145, 308, vi. 11, vii. 103, Mork. 176.

ein-talat, part., verða e-t um e-t, to speak of nothing but that, Ísl. ii. 245.

ein-teiti, adj. quite merry, in high spirits, Eg. 526, Fms. iv. 167.

ein-tómi, adj. at one’s ease, undisturbed, Orkn. 266.

ein-tómis, adv. alone.

ein-tómr, adj. sole, alone, sheer.

ein-trjánungr, m. made of one piece of wood, Karl. 96, v. l.

einungis, adv., like öllungis, solely, only, (mod.)

ein-vala, adj. ind. chosen, excellent (Lat. egregius); e. kappi, a great champion, Stj. 512: e. ker, a chosen vessel, of a saint, Orkn. 226, Bs. ii. 148; e. lið, chosen, picked troops, Fær. 79, Stj. 480; e. maðr, a choice man, Blas. 37; e. riddari, a fine horseman, Stj. 450.

ein-vald, n. monarchy, sovereignty, Stj. 499; koma einvaldi á landit, to make the country (i. e. the Icel. Commonwealth) submit to the monarch, Fms. ix. 435; tíundi vetr einvalds hans, the tenth year of his reign, x. 161. COMPDS: einvalds-höfðingi, a, m. a monarch, Ann. 492. einvalds-konungr, m. an absolute king, Fms. i. 4, Eg. 6, 118, 263. einvalds-riki, n. an empire, Stj. 576, Fms. i. 19.

ein-valdi, a, m. and ein-valdr, s, m. a monarch, Fms. i. 2, iv. 126, Eg. 6, Fb. i. 40.

ein-valinn = einvala, Bs. ii. 70, 183.

ein-veldi, n. = einvald.

ein-vera, u, f. a being alone, solitude.

ein-verðugr, adj. = einvirðuligr, (Fr.)

ein-vili, a, m. self-will, Fms. x. 418.

ein-virðing, f. one’s own choice, Bs. ii. 46, H. E. i. 523.

ein-virðis, adv. in particular, Mar. 49, 139.

ein-virðuliga, adv. (-ligr, adj.), especially, Lv. 37, H. E. i. 518.

ein-virki, also ein-yrki, a, m. [verk]. a single worker, one who works single-handed, a poor husbandman that has no servants; the einyrki is reckoned partly as bóndi, and not cottager; he could serve as a neighbour (búi) in case of his property amounting to two cows’ value per head of his household (wife and children), Grág. i. 145, defined in ii. 42, 43: the Norse sense of the word, Gþl. 438, cp. Jb. 184: in N. G. L. i. 199 distinction is made between bændr, einhleypingar, and einyrkjar.

ein-vist, f. in the phrase, vera einvistum, to live alone, 625. 88, Bs. n. 45.

ein-vígi, n. [A. S. ânvig], a single combat; distinction is made between the hólmganga (q. v.) and einvígi, the rules of einvígi being plain, cp. the curious passage in Korm, 84; Edda 18, Nj. 33, Fms. vii. 229. COMPD: einvígis-maðr, m. one who fights in single combat, Fms. x. 88.

ein-voldugr, adj. absolute, Fs. 17.

ein-vænn, adj. [ván]: medic., liggja e., to lie in a hopeless state, to be sinking fast, Bs. i. 353; hón hafði aldri orðit einvænni, her life had never been in greater danger, id.; fylgði bæði svefnleysi ok matleysi, ok þótti hann þá einvænn vera, and they thought he was in a hopeless state, 144, (Ed. emrænn, which no doubt is a misspelling in the MS.)

ein-vörðum, adv. specially, D. N., Sks. 787.

ein-þykkr, adj. (ein-þykkni, f.), stubborn, self-willed, Fb. i. 543.

ein-æri, n. [ár]. a termof one year, D. N.

ein-ærr, adj. lasting one year, D. N.

ein-æti, n. pl.; eta einætum, to eat ‘off-hand,’ Glúm. 340, cp. Edm. Head’s Transl. 24.

ein-örð, mod. einurð (Norse form einarð), f. [einarðr], frankness, boldness, fairness; vit ok e., Fms. ix. 333; ef þú vilt heldr trúa lygi … en e., rather to believe a lie than simple truth, Eg. 63; e. ok vinátta, frankness and friendship, Ísl. ii. 234; þá munu þér ætla, at sá muni eigi e. til hafa við at ganga, that he has not the fairness (boldness) to confess, Ld. 172, Fms. ii. 32; nú vilju vér sýna e. várrar frásagnar, we will shew the fairness of our story, viii. 48. β. faith, fidelity; at engi skjoplisk í einurðinni (fidelity) við annan, Ó. H. 61; að landfólkit mundi snúit frá einörðinni við konung, 177; fáir munu nú vera í Noregi þeir er einörð sinni haldi nú við mik, 194. γ. in mod. usage, einurð means frankness, as opp. to shyness; thus einarðar-lauss, adj. = shy: einarðar-leysi, n. shyness, einarðar-lítill, adj. rather shy, whereas in old writers these words mean faithless or irresolute; verða einarðar fátt, to fail in courage, Nj. 208; einarðar-lauss, wavering, Al. 71, Sks. 357, N. G. L. ii. 420: einarðar-maðr, m. a stedfast, trusty man, Sturl. ii. 64: einarðar-skortr, m. = einurðarleysi, Nj. 208, v. l.

EIR, m. [Lat. aes; Goth. aiz; A. S. âr; Engl. ore; O. H. G. er; Hel. erin; Germ. erz]:—brass, Stj. 340, 656. 7, Greg. 80, Hkr. i. 265, Fms. x. 284. COMPDS denoting brazen, of brass: eir-altari, m. a brazen altar, Stj. eir-baugr, m. a brazen ring, Fb. i. 370. eir-hestr, m. a brazen horse, Merl. eir-hjálmr, n. a brazen helmet, Stj. 461. eir-ketill, m. a brass kettle, Grág. i. 504, Eg. 396. eir-kross, m. a brazen cross, Vm. 49. eir-kyrtill, m. a brazen cloak (used for torment), Blas. 46, 655. 14. eir-lampi, a. m. a brass lamp, Jm. 2. eir-ormr, m. a brazen serpent, Stj. 333. Numb. xxi. 9. eir-penningr, m. a penny of brass, Post. 645. 78. eir-skjöldr, m. a brazen shield, Stj. 461. 1 Sam. xvii. 6. eir-stólpi, a, m. a pillar of brass, Stj. 564. eir-teinn, m. a wire of brass, Fms. ii. 129. eir-uxi, a, m. an ox of brass (image), Stj. 2 Kings, xvi. 17.

EIR, f. peace, clemency; this word occurs several times in old poetry (Kormak), but not in prose, cp. Lex. Poët., and in COMPDS: eirar-samr (eir-samr), adj. mild; eirar-lauss and eirar-vanr, adj. merciless, martial. II. one of the heathen goddesses, Edda.

eira, ð, [A. S. ârian = parcere], to spare, with dat.; hafa allir hlutir unnit eiða at e. Baldri (not to hurt Balder), Edda 37; hann eirði öngu hvárki í orðum né verkum, he spared naught either in word or work, Nj. 184, Fms. vii. 312; at þeir skyldu e. konum ok kirkjum, spare women and churches, Sturl. iii. 40; e. undan e-u, to yield; höfum vér lengi undan eirt fjandskap yðrum, Ld. 204; kvað hann þá ekki mundu tjá at letja sik, kvaðsk lengi hafa undan eirt, Fms. vii. 244; ok meir þykjumk vér undan eira, Sturl. i. 72; eptir þetta ríða þeir Ögmundr í brott, ok eirir hann undan þá enn fyrst, iii. 103. β. impers., e-m eirir e-t illa, it displeases one, i. e. to feel ill at rest with a thing; illa eirði mér fall þitt, Flóv. 29; Eiríki konungi eirði þetta stórilla, Fms. i. 19; honum eirir illa ef hann hefir eigi sitt mál, Ísl. ii. 236; Bergi eirði hit versta, Fs. 53; eira vel (ironically), to be well pleased, meira efni hefir hann til eldingar en honum megi vel eira inni at vera, 45: to do for one, vitum hve oss eiri öl þat er Bárðr of signdi, let us see how Bard’s draught will agree with us, Eg. ch. 44 (in a verse); Egill fann, at honum mundi ekki svá búit eira, E. felt, that this would not do, Eg. 552. In mod. usage, eira means to feel at rest (= una), of a man or beast who is restless or runs from one place to another,—it is said ‘hann eirir hvergi,’ he can nowhere rest; the other senses are obsolete.

eira, u, f. rest, = eirð.

eirð, f. clemency, mercy, Fms. ix. 36, v. l., Hkr. iii. 257, Gullþ. 48, O. H. L. 40. 2. mod. rest, quietness; pl. ú-eirðir, uproar, tumult.

eirinn, adj. forbearing, Bs. i. 766; ó-eirinn, overbearing, mod. restless.

eir-ligr, adj. brazen, Stj. 377.

EISA, u, f. [Swed. ässia; Norse eisa and esja], glowing embers, Edda (Gl.), esp. in the allit. phrase, eisa ok eimyrja.

eisa, að, in the phrase, e. eldum, to shower down embers, Fas. ii. 469: poët., ganga eisandi, to go dashing through the waves, of a ship, Hkv. 1. 2; láta skeiðr e., id., Sighvat; vargr hafs eisar, the sea-wolf (the ship) goes dashing, Edda (in a verse); eisandi uðr, foaming waves, Bs. i. 483 (in a verse), vide Lex. Poët.

eiskald, n., poët. the heart, Edda (Gl.), Lex. Poët.: in pl., eisköld, Fm. 27.

eiskra, að, to roar or foam, rage; gékk hon útar ok innar eptir gólfinu eiskrandi, Ísl. ii. 338; görvir at eiskra, enraged, Hðm. 11; hann eiskraði þá mjök ok hélt við berserksgang, Fas. i. 524; eiskraði sút í berserkjunum, 425: in mod. usage, það ískrar í honum, it roars within him, of suppressed rage.

EISTA, n., gen. pl. eistna, a testicle, Sturl. ii. 182, Fas. ii. 342, Bs. i. 615, Fb. ii. 161; sels-eista, a nickname, Fbr.

EITILL, m. a nodule in stone, iron, or the like; hence the saying, harðr sem e., ‘hard as a flint,’ poët. name of a giant, Edda (Gl.)

eitla, að, in the phrase, eitla augum, ‘to set the face as a flint,’ Sks. 230 B.

EITR, n., gen. eitrs, [A. S. âtor; O. H. G. eitar; Dan. ædder; Old Engl. atter-cop; the spider is in A. S. âtor-coppa, whence Dan. ædder-kop = cup of poison]:—poison, Bær. 15, Fms. vi. 166, viii. 303, Edda 155 (pref.), Al. 49, Fas. i. 522 (in a verse).

eitra, að, to poison, Ann. 1360: part. eitraðr, empoisoned.

eitr-á, f. a poisonous stream, Edda 42.

eitr-blandaðr (eitr-blandinn), part. poisoned, Rb. 358.

eitr-blástr, m. inflammation from poison, Bs. ii. 95, 157.

eitr-bólginn, part. swoln with poison, Greg. 79.

eitr-dalr, m. dales with rivers of poison, Vsp. 42.

eitr-dreki, a, m. a venomous dragon, Sól.

eitr-drep, n. deadly poison, mortification, Stj. 97.

eitr-dropi, a, m. a drop of poison, Vsp. 44.

eitr-drykkr, m. a poisoned draught, Fas. iii. 392.

eitr-eggjaðr, part. having a poisoned edge, Fms. iii. 78.

eitr-fár, adj. glittering (of poison), venomous (of snakes), Edda (Gl.)

eitr-fluga, f. a venomous insect, Bs. ii. 183.

eitr-fullr, adj. full of poison, Magn. 470.

eitr-herðr, part. tempered in poison (of steel), Bret.

eitr-kaldr, adj. deadly cold, Lex. Poët.

eitr-kveisa, f. venomous sore, a nickname, Fms.

eitr-kvikendi, n. a poisonous animal, Sks. 88, Stj. 253, Al. i, 623. 26.

eitr-kvikja, u, f. poisonous yeast, Edda 3.

eitr-ligr, adj. poisonous, Stj. 91.

eitr-maðkr, m. a venomous maggot, Stj. 97.

eitr-naðra, a, u, f. a poisonous adder.

eitr-ormr, m. a viper, Stj. 37, 96, Rb. 344, Fms. vi. 164.

eitr-tandraðr, adj. = eitrfár, Al. 168.

ei-vist, f. an everlasting abode, Hom. (St.)

EK, pers. pron., mod. eg, proncd. ég or jeg; eg occurs as early as in MSS. of the 15th century, Arna-Magn. 556 A; jak, Fms. x. 287, cp. the mod. Swed. form and the mod. Icel. jeg; old poets make it rhyme with ek, as, Halldórr ok ek | höfum engi þrek, Korm. 154 (in a verse), cp. Ld. 108: [Ulf. ïk, but ek on the Golden horn and on the stone in Tune; A. S. ic; Engl. I; Germ. ich; old Swed. jak, mod. jag; Dan. jeg; cp. Lat. ego, Gr. ἐγώ]:—I, Nj. 10, 30, 132, etc. 2. in poetry and old prose a pronominal ‘k or ‘g is suffixed to the verb; em’k búinn annan í at nefna, Grág. i. 103; ek em’k, 623. 56, Blas. 41, Mork. 89, 94, 99, 104, Vþm. 8, Ls. 14, Ad. 1, Post. 645. 33; jók’k, ‘I eked’ (added), Íb. (pref.); vas’k þar fjórtán vetr, ch. 9; þá er ek var’k á bænum, Blas. 40, Hm. 12; ek bað’k, Post. 645. 54; ek kom’k, Skm. 18; ek sit’k, Mork. 168; ek finn’k, 141; ek nam’k, 73; sá’k, 75; ek sé’k (video), 103, 168, Fms. xi. 110; mun’k-at ek, Mork. 50; svá ek vind’k, Hm. 156; ok rít’k á þessa lund, Skálda (Thorodd) 166; sjá’k (sim), Mork. 183: g before k becomes by assimilation k, e. g. hyk’k = hygg’k, Skm. 5: the pronominal k is inserted between the suffixed negative and the verb, ek skal’k-a, hef’k-a, mon’k-a, sa’k-a, ma’k-a, veit’k-a, or skal’k-a ek, hef’k-a ek, etc.: even a double k after a diphthong, siá’kk (sim), Mork. 89, 134, but chiefly in poetry with the suffixed negative, e. g. ek sé’kk-a: this form is obsolete, whereas the suffixed g (or k) in bisyllables or after a vowel is more freq.; svá at ek fæ’k eigi leyzt mik, Edda 20; er ek vilda’g helzt, Fms. xi. 146; eigi munda’k trúa, Edda 32; ef ek lifi ok mega’k ráða, 34; þá hafða’k bundit með gresjarni, id.; sem önga frægð muna’k af hljóta, 20; sýnda’k bæði þeim ok Sæmundi, Íb. (pref.); þá er ek var heima heyrða’k sagt, Edda 81; er ek aeva kenni’g, Hm. 164; draums ætli’g þér, Hdl. 7; þorða’g, Ad. 1; ræka’g, mætta’g, Stor. 8; sky’t ek ok ræ’k (ræ’g, v. l.), Fms. vi. 170 (in a verse); líkara at ek vitja’g hingat þessa heita, Eg. 319; næða’k (or næða’g), if I could reach, Eb. 70 (in a verse); at ek nemni þá menn alla ok beiði’g, Grág. ii. 317; vilja’k, I will, Ht. 1; þvíat ek ætla’g, Ó. H. 59; ok náða’k svá öllu ríki þeirra, 74; þvíat ek trúi’k yðr bezt, 88; ek setta’k, Mork. 62; flytta’k, 94; geri’k, heyrða’k, 36; mæli’g, 39; ek vetti’g, 175; tefli’g, 186; setta’g, lagða’g, id.; vilda’g, 193; vide Lex. Poët. and the word ‘-at’ [p. 2]: sometimes a double pronoun occurs, g and k, mátti’g-a’k, Og. 32; bjargi’g-a’k, Hm. 153; stöðvi’g-a’k, 151; hversu ek má’k, Fms. vi. 102; vide Lex. Poët. and Frump. 228 sqq.

B. DAT. AND ACC. are from a different root:—dat. mér, [Ulf. mis; Germ. mir; lost in Dan.], Nj. 10, etc. etc.; acc. mik, mod. mig, which form occurs even in MSS. at the beginning of the 14th century, e. g. Hauks-bók: mek occurs now and then in MSS., e. g. O. H. L., N. G. L., Sks. B, else it is rare and obsolete, Al. 42, Ó. H. 107, [Ulf. mik; A. S. mec; Engl. me; Germ. mich; Dan. mig.] As the word is so common, we shall only mention the use of mik which is special to the Scandinavian tongue, viz. its use as a verbal suffix. The ancients had a double form for the reflexive; for 1st pers. -mk, i. e. mik suffixed to the plur. of the verb; for the 3rd pers. -sk, i. e. sik suffixed to sing. and plur. alike; thus, ek (vér) þykkjumk, I (we) seem to myself (ourselves); but hann þykkisk, he seems to himself; þeir þykkjask, they seem to themselves: the -mk was later changed into -mz, or -mst of editions and mod. use; but this is a grammatical decay, as if both -mst and -st (þykjumst and þykist) arose from the same reflex. sik. 1. the subject may be another person or thing (plur. or sing.) and the personal pronoun mik suffixed as object to the verb, a kind of middle voice found in very old poems, and where it occurs freq. it is a test of antiquity; in prose it is quite obsolete: jötna vegir stóðum’k yfir ok undir, the ways of giants (i. e. precipices) stood above and beneath me, Hm. 106; er lögðum’k arm yfir, the lass who laid her arms round me, 108; mögr hétum’k fögru, my son promised me fair, Egil; hilmir buðum’k löð (acc.), the king gave me leave, i. e. bade me, sing, Höfuðl. 2; úlfs bagi gáfum’k íþrótt, the wolf’s foe (Odin) gave me the art (poetry), Stor. 23; Ragnarr gáfum’k reiðar mána, R. gave me the shield, Bragi; þat erum’k sýnt, it is shewn to me, id.; stöndum’k ilmr fyrir yndi, the lass blights my joy, Kormak; hugr tjáðum’k, courage helped me, Egil; snertum’k harmr við hjarta, grief touches me to the heart, Landn.; stöndum’k til hjarta hjörr, the sword pierces me to the heart, Fm. i; feldr brennum’k, my cloak catches fire, Gm. 1; draum dreymðum’k, I dreamed a dream; grimt várum’k hlið, the gap (breach) was terrible to me, Stor. 6; hálf ván féllum’k, half my hope failed me, Gráfeldar-drápa; heiðnir rekkar hnekðum’k, the heathen men turned me out, Sighvat; dísir hvöttum’k at, the ‘dísir’ hooted us, Hðm. 29; gumi görðum’k at vigi, the man made us fight, id.; lyst várum’k, it list me, Am. 74: very common is erum’k, ‘tis to me (us); erum’k van, I (we) have to expect; mjök erum’k tregt tungu at hræra, ‘tis hard for me to move the tongue, i. e. the tongue cleaves to my mouth, Stor. 1, 17, Ad. 16. 2. sometimes oneself is the subject, freq. in prose and poetry, either in deponent verbs or as reflex. or recipr.; at vit skilim’k sáttir, Ó. H. 119; at vér komim’k, that we shall come, 85; finnum’k hér þá, 108; ef vér finnum’k, 111; ek skildum’k við Ólaf konung, 126; ef ek komum’k í braut, 140; sigrom’k, if I gain the victory, 206; æðrom’k, 214; ef ek öndum’k, if I die, Eg. 127; ek berum’k, I bear myself, Grág. ii. 57, Mork. passim; ek þykkjum’k, þóttum’k, ráðum’k, látum’k, setjum’k, bjóðum’k, skildum’k, kveljum’k, etc., = ek þykisk, þóttisk, ræðsk, lætsk, setsk, býðsk, skildisk, kvelsk, etc.: even at the present day the forms eg þykjumst, þóttumst are often used in writing; in other words the suffix -mst (-mk) is almost obsolete. β. the obsolete interjection er mik = I am; vel er mik, well is me (= ‘bless me!’), O. H. L. 71; æ er mik, ah me! 64; kendr er mik, I am known, 66: with a reflex. notion, hvat er mik at því, what is that to me? Skv. 1. 28; er mik þat undir frétt þeirri, that is my reason for asking, Grág. i. 19:—this ‘er mik’ is clearly the remains of the old erum’k.

C. DUAL AND PLUR. also from a different root: 1. dual vit, mod. við, a Norse form mit also occurs, Al. 170, 171, [cp. mi, Ivar Aasen]:—we two; gen. and dat. from a different root, okkar and okkr, [cp. Goth. ïggqis; A. S. inc and incer; O. H. G. inch and inchar; Ivar Aasen dikke and dykk]:—our. 2. plur.: α. nom. vér and vær, the last form now obsolete, [Goth. veis; A. S. and Engl. we; Germ. wir; Dan. vi]:—we. β. gen. vár, mod. vor, Eg. 524, Fms. viii. 213, 398, etc. γ. dat. and acc. oss, [Goth. uns (acc.), unsis (dat.); A. S. us; Germ. uns; Swed. oss; Dan. os]:—us: it need only be noticed that in mod. familiar usage the dual—við, okkr, okkar—has taken the place of the plural, vér, oss; but that in written books the forms vér, oss are still in freq. use, except in light or familiar style; old writers, on the other hand, made a clear distinction both in speech and writing.

EKJA, u, f. [aka], a carting, carrying in a cart; tóku þá sumir til ekju, en sumir hlóðu heyinu, Eb. 260; cp. Swed. åska, vide áss [p. 46]. COMPD: ekju-vegr, m. a cart-road, D. N.

EKKI, a, m. [akin to öngr, Lat. angustus], as a medic, term, a convulsive sobbing, caused by the repression of tears, Fél. ix. 208, Hkv. 2. 43, Skv. 1. 20, Gísl. 64 (in a verse), Rafns S. (in a verse), Am. 44, Hkr. iii. (in a verse of Sighvat), Stor. 2, where we ought to read, því at ekki stendr höfugligr í (not ‘ór’) hyggju stað, because a heavy sobbing oppresses, stifles my breast; angrs ok ekka, Stj. 428, (freq.)

ekki, adv. not, vide eingi.

ekkill, m. a widower, akin to the preceding; freq. in mod. use; that no reference from an old writer is on record seems to be a mere accident. II. poët. name of a sea-king, Edda (Gl.): botan., Ekkilsjurt, Achillaea L., Bb. 3. 75.

ekkí, adv. no, in a slow hesitating way, freq. in mod. talk, and is mentioned as early as Run. Gramm. Ísl.; nei, ekkí, well no, not quite so!

ekkja, u, f. [Swed. enka and Dan. enke shew that the root consonants are nk; this word is peculiar to the Scandin. tongue; even Ulf. renders χήρα by vidovo, which is the Lat. vidua]:—a widow, Grág. i. 108, 306, Blas. 21, Bs. ii. 161, Fas. i. 223; this word (as well as ekkill = Swed. enkling) is no relation to ekki = sobbing, but is derived from einn, one, and an inflexive -ka, like in stúlka, see Gramm. p. xxxii. col. 2. Ekkja originally meant a single woman, a damsel, and is thus used by the ancient poets, e. g. vara sem unga ekkju í öndugi kyssa, Km.; út munu ekkjur líta allsnúðula prúðar, Sighvat; ‘ekkja’ and ‘ung kona’ are synonymous, Ísl. ii. (Gunnl.) in a verse; ekkjan stendr ok undrask áraburð, Lex. Poët. It then came to mean a widow (a single, lone woman, having lost her husband). Ekkja is a word peculiar to all Scandin. languages, old and modern; although, as we believe, it superseded a still older ‘widuwo’ (cp. the Goth., Germ., and Engl.); this change took place at so early a time that no traces are found of that word anywhere in Scandin. speech or writing (cp. Swed. en-ka, Dan. en-ke). COMPDS: ekkju-búnaðr, m. widow’s weeds, Stj. 197. ekkju-dómr, m. widowhood, Stj. 197. ekkju-nafn, n. a widow’s name, widowhood, Fas. i. 223, Am. 98 (MS. ekkiunam clearly a false reading = namn). ekkju-skapr, m. widowhood, Fms. x. 433. ekkju-sonr, m. a widow’s son, 656 A. ii. In Edda 108 there is a distinction between hæll, a widow whose husband is slain, and ekkja, the widow of one who died a natural death; hæll is merely a poët. word and obsolete, but ekkja is in full use. In old poetry ekkja is used = a lass, girl, cp. Lapp. akka = Lat. mulier; cp. also Lex. Poët.

ekla, u, f. dearth, want, Sks. 218, v. l.; Vell-ekla, Dearth of Gold, the name of a poem, Hkr.; suml-e., scarcity of drink, Eg. (in a verse): the word is rare in old writers, but still in use in Icel., e. g. hey-e., scarcity of hay; matar-e., dearth of meat; vinnu-fólks-e., scarcity of servants.

ekla, adv. scarcely; þeir Helgi tóku e. til matar um kveldit, konungr spurði hvárt þeir væri sjúkir, Fms. v. 317 (απ. λεγ.)

EKRA, u, f. [from akr, p. 10], an acre, corn-field, Landn. 125, Al. 52, N. G. L. i. 217, Stj. 400. Judges ix. 32.

ektar- and ekta-, [Germ. echt], adj. genuine, mod. (vide ei). β. wedded; taka til ekta, to marry: chiefly used in COMPDS, ekta-maðr, m. a husband; ekta-skapr, m. matrimony, etc.; ektar-kona, u, f. a wedded wife, occurs in D. N. i. 591, (mod.)

ÉL, n., spelt iel, Edda (Kb.) 72, Fms. xi. 136; él, Hom. 109; gen. dat. pl. éla, élum; mod. élja; éljum, inserting j; [cp. Dan. iling]:—a snow-shower; the proverb, öll él linna um síðir, every ‘él’ comes to an end; él eitt mun vera, ok skyldi langt til annars slíks, Nj. 200; þá görði él mikit ok illviðri, Fms. i. 175; élum ok hreggi, x. 135, xi. 136, 137; drífu-él, Orkn. 414; meðan él dró á, 396; í éli einnar stundar, 656 B. 12; él augna (poët.), tears, Edda 72. β. metaph. a shock, uproar, Hom. 109: a hot fight, ok verðr et harðasta él, Fms. xi. 32. élja-drög, n. pl. (qs. élja-dróg, f. ?), streaks of snow-showers seen far off, etc.

elda, d, mod. also að, [eldr], to light, kindle a fire, with dat. of the fuel; e. viði, Grág. ii. 211, 338; ef þeir e. görðum, grindum eðr andvirki, Gþl. 422: absol., at vér eldim úsparliga í Hvammi, Sturl. i. 67: to heat, warm, þá skulu þeir e. hús at manntali, Jb. 225; e. ofn, Hkr. iii. 115: metaph., elda hug e-s, to kindle one’s mind, Hom. 107; ek skal yðra húð e. knáliga með klungrum (make you smart), Stj. 395; e. vita, to kindle a beacon, Orkn. 264; en þó eldi hér lengi af með þeim bræðrum, the spark of resentment was long felt among the brothers, Lv. 34; e. járn, to forge iron, Rkv.: the phrase, elda grátt silfr, to be bad friends, is a metaphor taken from smelting drossy silver that cannot stand the fire; þeir Stórólfr eldu löngum grátt silfr, en stundum vóru með þeim blíðskapir, Fb. i. 522. 2. to cook, or gener. to expose to a light fire. II. reflex. to be kindled; má vera at eldisk hér langr óþokki af, it may be that long ill-feeling will be kindled therefrom, Lv. 50.

eldask, d, [aldr], to grow old; eldisk árgalinn nú, Fms. vi. 251; er þá tók mjök at eldask, viii. 108; hann tekr nú at eldask (MS. öldask) mjök, xi. 51; ek finn at ek eldumk, en þverr kraptrinn, Orkn. 464; þeir hrymask eigi né eldask, Rb. 346. β. part. eldr, old, worn by age; Gísli kvaðsk eldr vera mjök frá úfriði, Sturl. iii. 10: equivocal is the phrase, eldir at ráðum ok at þrotum komnir (in the dream of king Sverrir), Fms. viii. 108, cp. Orkn. ch. 34. γ. impers. in the phrase, nótt (acc.) eldir, the night grows old (cp. elding); þá er nótt eldir, Fas. i. 147.

eld-bakaðr, part. baked on embers, Stj. 595. 1 Kings xix. 6.

eld-beri, a, m. a brasier, lantern, H. E. ii. 107, Pm. 26, 73, Jm. 12, Vm. 164; eldbera-ker, id., Pm. 106.

eld-borg, f. a volcanic crag, vide borg.

eld-bruni, a, m. fire, conflagration, D. N.

eld-böllr, m. a fire-ball, Dipl. v. 18.

eld-fimr, adj. inflammable, easily catching fire, Sks. 427.

eld-fjall, n. a fire-hill, volcano.

eld-færi, n. pl. an apparatus, for striking fire, tinder-box, Jb. 145.

eld-gamall, adj. [from Dan. ældgammel = Icel. elli-gamall], stone old, (mod. word.)

eld-glæringar, f. pl. ‘fire-glare,’ seen in darkness.

eld-gos, n. ‘fire-gush,’ a volcanic eruption.

eld-gróf and eld-gröf, f. a ‘fire-groove,’ Ísl. ii. 405, 417, Eb. 272, v. l.

eld-gýgr, m. a crater.

eld-gögn, n. pl. cooking-vessels, D. N.

eld-heitr, adj. hot as fire.

eld-hraun, n. a ‘fire-field,’ lava-field.

eld-hús (elda-hús, Eg. 397, 603, Sturl. iii. 219, Gþl. 344), n. the ‘fire-house,’ i. e. the hall or parlour, one of the chief rooms in ancient dwellings, where the fire was kept up, used synonymously with eldaskáli, but opp. to stofa, the ladies’ room; stofa, eldhús, búr, Grág. i. 459; stofu-hurð, búr-hurð, eldahús-hurð, Gþl. 344, H. E. i. 495; eldhús eðr stofur, Grág. i. 468; gauga milli stofu ok eldhúss, Fbr. 164; cp. Gísl. 14, 15, 97, (Mant.) 324, Eb. ch. 52, vide new Ed. 98, v. l. 1, 3, 4; gékk Þorgerðr þegar inn í eldahús, Eg. 603; eldhúss dyrr, Lv. 89, Ld. 54, Sturl. iii. 218, 219; eldhúss-skot, n. id., cp. Eg. 397; eldhús-hurð, f. the hurdle of an e., N. G. L. i. 38, Gþl. l. c.; eldhús-fífl, n. a ‘fireside fool,’ an idiot who sits all day by the fire, Fas. ii. 114; in Sturl. iii. 219 eldahús and skáli seem to be used differently. β. it may also be used of any room having a hearth and fire, eldahús … var þat brott frá öðrum húsum, Eg. 203; and even of a kitchen, 238, cp. Nj. 75. In mod. usage eldhús only means a kitchen.

eldi (elþi, Grág.), n. [ala], feeding, maintenance, Grág. i. ii 7, 143: the person maintained, 236: in mod. usage esp. of keeping another’s lambs, sheep, in winter, hence lambs-eldi, ‘lambs-keep,’ an obligation on every householder to feed a lamb for the priest in winter; elda-skildagi, m. the time when the lambs are sent back (middle of May); the phrase, skila úr eldum, to send back (lambs): eldis-hestr, m. a horse kept in stall, opp. to útigangs-hestr. 2. a thing born; mislit eldi, Stj. 179. Gen. xxxi. 8; e. þat er fram fer af kviði konunnar, 656 B. 7; skaltú þiggja þat at Guði at hann gefi þér gott eldi, Mar. 3, 6, 19; komask frá e. sínu, to be delivered of a child, Fas. iii. 276; cp. upp-eldi, breeding.

eldi-brandr, m. fire-wood, fuel, Grág. ii. 261, Fms. ii. 82, viii. 358, v. l., Fbr. 97: a fire-brand, Stj. 402, Fs. 45, Þiðr. 332, Grett. 117: metaph., Post. 645. 84.

eldi-ligr, adj. elderly, Fas. i. 120, Mag. 5.

elding, f. firing, fuel, Scot. eilding, Grág. ii. 338, 358, Fs. 45; eldingar-steinar, (bituminous?) stones to make a fire, Karl. 18: smelting metals, gull er stenzk e., gold which resists the heat of the crucible, Grág. i. 501; cp. elda grátt silfr. II. lightning, also in plur., Fms. x. 30, xi. 136, Fas. i. 372, Sks. 229, Stj. 300, Al. 41: eldinga-flug, n. a flash of lightning, Rb. 102: eldinga-mánaðr, m. the lightning month, id.

elding, f. [aldr], the ‘eld’ or old age of the night, the last or third part of the night; allt frá eldingu ok til miðs aptans, Hrafn. 7; vakti Þórhildr upp sína menn þegar í elding, Fms. ii. 231; í elding nætr, vii. 214; kómu í elding nætr á Jaðar, Ó. H. 117. The ancients divided the night into three equal parts, of which the last was called either ótta (q. v.) or elding, (þá er þriðjungr lifir nætr, i. e. where the third part of the night is left): the mod. usage is, það er farið að elda aptr, it begins to rekindle; and aptr-elding, rekindling, as though ‘daybreak’ were from fire ‘eldr;’ but in old writers ‘aptr’ is never joined to these words (Anal. 193 is taken from a paper MS., cp. Fb. iii. 405, l. 6); the phrase elding ‘nætr’ also shews that the word refers not to daylight, but to night, and means the last part of the night, opp. to midnight, mið-nætti.

eldi-skíð, m. a log of fire-wood, Fs. 6, Þiðr. 262; loganda e., a fire-brand, Stj. 413.

eldi-stokkr, m. a log of fire-wood, Glúm. 338.

eldi-torf, n. turf for firing, Ísl. ii. 112, Dipl. v. 23, Bs. ii. 135.

eldi-viðr, m. fire-wood, Fms. ii. 82, vii. 97, K. Þ. K. 90: but, as Icel. is barren of trees, eldiviðr means fuel in general, peat, etc., Orkn. 16; torf-skurð svá sem hann þarf til eldividar, digging peat for fuel, Vm. COMPDS: eldiviðar-fátt, n. adj. wanting fuel, Fbr. 97. eldiviðar-lauss, adj. short of fuel. eldiviðar-leysi, n. want of fire-wood (fuel), Fms. vi. 146, Stj. 150. eldiviðar-stika, u, f. a stick of fire-wood, Stj. 268.

eld-ker, n. = eldberi, Am. 5.

eld-knöttr, m. a fire-ball.

eld-kveykja, u, f. kindling fire, Nj. 194: metaph., 625. 74, Mork. 7.

eld-ligr (elligr, Al. 65), adv. fiery, of fire, Greg. 19, Niðrst. 6, Fas. iii. 414, Sks. 208, Rb. 442, Stj. 98.

eld-neyti, n. fuel, Gþl. 369.

eld-næmr, adj. easily catching fire, Sks. 427, Fms. xi. 34, Mork. 7.

ELDR, m., gen. ellds, also spelt ellz, [a word that may be taken as a test of Scandin. races; Dan. ild; Swed. äld; for the Teut. nations use the word feuer, fire, which is wanting in Scandin., though used by old Icel. poets, who probably borrowed it from A. S.; on the other hand, Ulf. constantly renders πυρ by fon, Icel. funi, q. v.; in A. S. poetry and in Hel. äled = incendiary occurs a few times, and älan = Lat. urere (Grein and Schmeller); Rask suggests a Finn. origin]:—fire. In cold climates fire and life go together; hence the proverb, eldr er beztr með ýta sonum, ok sólar sýn, fire is best among the sons of men, and the sight of the sun, Hm. 67: in reference to the healing power of fire, eldr tekr við sóttum, fire consumes (cures) fevers, 138; sá er eldrinn heitastr er á sjálfum brennr, Grett. 136 new Ed.: allit., e. né járn, fire nor iron, Edda 82; hvárki egg né eld, 162; eldr (sparks of fire) hraut or sverðum þeirra, Flóv. 29; e. þótti af hrjóta er vápnin kómu saman, Sturl. iii. 187, vide Fms. i. 292, vi. 153, vii. 338 (MS. ell), viii. 74, 202, x. 29. Nj. 74, Eluc. 19, 625. 178. β. the eruption of a volcano, Bs. i. 803, 804; jarð-eldr, ‘earth-fire,’ subterranean fire. COMPDS: elds-bruni, a, m. burning of fire, Stj. elds-daunn, m. smell of fire, Finnb. 242. elds-gangr, m. the raging of fire, Fms. i. 128, x. 29, Sturl. iii. 132, Bs. i. 327, Orkn. 368, 458, Sks. 141. elds-glór, n. glare of fire, Fas. iii. 471. elds-gneisti, a, m. a spark of fire, Greg. 74. elds-gólf, n. a hearth-floor, N. G. L. i. 256. elds-gögn, n. pl. materials for firing, Vm. 177. elds-hiti, a, m. fiery heat, Fms. x. 379. elds-kveykja, f. = eldkveikja, Greg. 77. elds-litr, n. orbs of fire, Nj. 194, Rb. 336. elds-líki, n. a likeness, shape of fire, Clem. 30, Rb. 388. elds-ljós, n. fire-light, Fms. ix. 49. elds-logi, a, m. a flame, Stj. 414. elds-matr, n. food of fire, Th. 19. elds-neyti, n. pl. fuel, Band. 10, Fms. ix. 339, Fas. i. 84. elds-stólpi, a, m. a pillar of fire, Stj. 326. elds-uppkváma, u, f. the eruption of a volcano, Landn. 269, Bs. i. 148, 498. elds-vélar, f. pl. fire devices, Flóv. 43. elds-vimr, m. ‘fire-whims,’ flickering fire, of the aurora borealis, fire-gleam, Sks. 203. elds-virki, n. a tinder-box, Fms. vii. 225, Orkn. 208, Band. 30. II. esp. in plur. a fire on the hearth; the proverbs, við eld skal öl drekka, by the fireside shalt thou drink ale, Hm. 82; allir eldar brenna út um síðir, all fires (beacons) burn out at last (of the death of an aged man): allit., eldr á arni (vide arinn). In the old halls in Scandinavia an oblong hearth was built in the middle of the hall, and the fires kindled were called langeldar, long fires, with an opening in the thatch called ljóri for a chimney; the benches in the hall were ranged on both sides of the langeldar, vide Edda 82 (the hall of king Adils); hence the phrase, bera öl um eld, to hand the ale round the fire, viz. to one’s cup fellow on the opposite bench, Fagrsk. ch. 219, Grett. ch. 10, new Ed. p. 23; elda-skálar vóru stórir á bæjuni, sátu menn við langelda á öptnum, þá voru borð sett fyrir menn fyrir (innan MS. Holm.), sváfu menn upp (út MS. Holm.) frá eldunum, Kristni S. ch. 2; þá vóru görvir eldar stórir eptir endilöngum skálanum, sem í þann tíma var títt, at drekka öl við eld, Bs. i. 42; cp. Orkn., eldar vóru á gólfinu, on the floor, ch. 18, where the fire seems to have been made in a pit (vide eldgróf) in the middle of the floor, cp. also kipti honum upp at pallinum, vide bakeldr: again, at the evening and morning meals people gathered round the ‘meal-fires’ (mál-eldar), hence the phrases, sitja við elda, to sit at the fire; vóru görfir máleldar hvert kveld í elda-skála sem siðr var til, sátu menn löngum við eldana áðr menn gengu til matar, Eb. ch. 52: máleldr, the ‘meal-fire’ or the small fire, is distinguished from langeldr, the great fire, 276; þat var í þann tíma er þeir Snorri sátu við málelda (yfir málborði, v. 1.), ch. 26; höfðu menn orðit vátir ok vóru görvir máleldar (langeldar, v. 1.), Nj. ch. 8; ok er skálabúinn var mettr sat hann við eld, Fs. 6; snýr at dyrum, er menn sátu við langelda (in the evening), Korm. ch. 15; um kveldit er menn sátu við elda, Orkn. 448: the phrase, sitja milli elda, to sit between two fires, to be in a strait, vide Gm. COMPDS: elda-hús, n., vide eldhús. elda-skáli, a, m. = eldhús, Eb. l. c., Grett. l. c., cp. Eb. 170; einn laugaraptan sat Helga í elda-skála, Ísl. ii. 274; hafði hann lagzt niðr í elda-skála eptir dagverð. Gísl. 97; Þrándr hafði látið göra elda mikla í elda-skála, Fzr. 183; ekki lagðisk Ormr í elda-skála, Fb. i. 521, Eg. 238. elda-skára, u, f. (elda-skári, a, m., Lex. Run.), a ‘fire-rake,’ poker, Nj. 236. elds-görð, f. making fire, Fs. 45. III. a beacon, bale-fire, Gs. 18. IV. in old poetry the fire of wounds or of Odin = weapons, the fire of the sea = gold; hauga-eldar, magical fire in old cairns; maur-ildi, a glow-worm; hrævar-eldr, a Will o’ the wisp, ignis fatuus. V. as a prefix to pr. names, Eld-grímr, Eld-járn, Eld-ríð, etc.: in names of places it denotes volcanic ground, Eld-borg, eld-fjall, eld-gjá, etc.

eld-rauðr, adj. fiery-red.

eld-sókn, f. fetching fire, Grett. 89.

eld-stokkr, m. a burning beam, Nj. 202.

eld-stó, f., pl. stóar, a ‘fire-stove,’ hearth, Bárð. 2 new Ed., Nj. 236, Fb. iii. 446, Fas. ii. 115, Mork. 91; sitja við eldstó móður sinnar, Fs. 6.

eld-súrr, adj. hot as fire, of vinegar or the like.

eld-sætr, adj. always sitting by the fireside, as a spoilt boy; Oddr var eldsætr í æsku ok seinlegr ok kallaðr kolbitr, Landn. 235 (Hb.); Grímr var mikill ok eldsætr, ok þótti vera nær afglapi, Gullþ. 14, Krók. 33 (Kd. eldseti), Fas. ii. 112 (Ed. eldssetirm).

eld-tinna, u, f. a flint stone, Fas. i. 447.

ELFR, f., gen. elfar, acc. dat. elfi, a pr. name of the three rivers called Elbe, Lat. Albis, viz. Gaut-Elfr, the Elb of the Gauts (a Scandin. people) = the River Gotha of the present time; Sax-E., the Elb of the Saxons, the Elbe; Raum-E., the Elb of the Raums (a people in Norway), i. e. the present Glommen and Wormen, Bær. 3, Nj. 42. Fms. i. 6, ii. 128, iii. 40, iv. 121, ix. 350, 393, 401, x. 292: Elfar-bakki, the bank of one of these Elbes, Bær. 3, Fms. ix. 269, 274; Elfinar-bakki, Fms. i. 19;, of the river Ochil in Scotland, is a false reading = Ekkjals-bakki, vide Orkn. 12. COMPDS: Elfar-grímar, m. pl. dwellers on the banks of the Gotha, Fms. vii. 17, 19, 321. Elfar-kvíslir, f. pl. the arms of the Gotha, Fms. i. 7, iv. 9, ix. 274; used of the mouths of the Nile, Edda 148 (pref.) Elfar-sker, n. pl. the Skerries at the mouth of the Gotha, Fms., Fas.; cp. álfr, p. 42. 2. meton. used of any great river, (rare in Icel. but freq. in mod. Dan.)

Elfskr, adj. a dweller on one of the Elbe rivers, Landn., Fms. ii. 252.

elgja, ð, to belch.

ELGR, m., gen. elgs or elgjar, [Lat. alces; O. H. G. elah; Engl. elk], an elk, Gþl. 449, Fms. viii. 31, Fas. i. 54; elgja-gröf, f. an elk pit, a hunting term, D. N.; elgja-veiðr, f. hunting elks, Gþl. 448; elgjar-galgi, a, m., poët. ‘elks-gallow,’ the ice, as elks were hunted on the ice, Stor. 15; but some explain the phrase = tree, cp. Caes. Bell. Gall. vi. 27. II. deep pools of half-melted ice; akin to ólga, ylgr.

elg-skógr, m. a forest with elks, Gþl. 449.

eligr, adj. [Swed. elig], vile, Hom. 151; e. ambátt, a poor handmaid, Stj. 484. 1 Sam. xxv. 24; afleitt eðr elikt, vile and refuse, 456. 1 Sam. xv. 9; illr ok e., Hb. 31: it is probably akin to el-, Germ. elend, vide aulandi, p. 34.

Eli-vágar, m. pl. the Ice-waves, a mythol. name, Edda.

ELJA, u, f. a concubine, as opp. to a wedded wife; this word is either akin to eljan in the sense of zeal, jealousy, or to the word eligr, as these women were often captives of war and handmaids; cp. the case of Melkorka, Ld., cp. also Gen. xxi. 10:—the word is defined in Edda 109,—þær konur eru eljur, er einn mann eigu, those women are called ‘eljur,’ who are wives of one man; stattú upp ór binginum frá elju minni, Nj. 153; en elja hennar görði henni jafnan skapraun, Stj. 428. 1 Sam. i. 6 (‘and her adversary also provoked her sore,’ of the two wives of Elkanah); systur konu þinnar skaltú eigi taka til elju hennar, Stj. 320, Lev. xviii. 18: in poetry the earth is called the elja of Rinda, one of Odin’s wives, Fms. vi. (in a verse): this word points to the remotest time; the sole passage where it occurs in an Icel. hist, work is Nj. (above), where it is wrongly used, the wedded wife being called the elja by the concubine; cp. arin-elja.

ELJAN, f. (in mod. usage elja, u, f.), [Ulf. aljan = ζηλος; cp. A. S. ellian; Hel. ellan], endurance, energy; eljun ok styrk annarra manna, Fms. vii. 228; heilsu ok eljun, 277; afl ok eljun, Fas. i. (in a verse); atferð ok eljun, Ld. 318; ok fari þar e. eptir ok öll tilræði, Fs. 4. COMPDS: eljanar-lauss, adj. [ellennlæss, Ormul.], weak, feeble, Al. 100, Fbr. 157. eljunar-leysi, n. weakness, want of energy, Fms. iv. 163. eljunar-maðr, m. an energetic man, Fms. iv. 163, viii. 447. β. in mod. usage elju-lauss, adj., elju-leysi, n., with the notion of impatience; hann hefir enga elju á e-u, he is too restless to perform anything.

eljara-gletta, u, f. [cp. elja], pertness, sauciness, Skýr. 53 (pref.)

Elj-úðnir, m. the hall of Hela, Edda (Gl.)

él-kaldr, adj. ice-cold, epithet of a stream, Ýt. 23.

ELLA, adv., in Norse laws freq. ellar, and so in Fms. vi. 214, vii. 17, 115, etc.; in mod. Icel. usage ellegar; elligar, Ó. H., Grág., Mork., passim, etc., which seems to be the original form, qs. ell-vegar, ‘other-ways,’ cp. þann-ig, hinn-ig, einn-ig; ella, though it is the usual form in the MSS., would be an apocopated form, the r being dropt: [A. S. elles; Engl. else; Swed. eljest; cp. Lat. alius, Gr. αλλος]:—else, otherwise; er yðr nú annat-hvárt til at leggja í brott þegar, ella búisk þér við sem skjótast, Nj. 44; en þann þeirra e. er réttari er, Grág. i. 78; en ella jamt skerða sem at skuldadómi, 84; ella liggr á þér víti, Fms. iv. 27; hann hét vináttu sinni ef þessu vildi játa en elligar afarkostum, Ó. H. 141; ella man ek láta drepa þik, Nj. 74; eða—ella, orelse, Fms. vi. 196 (in a verse); eða heit hvers manns níðingr ella, or else be called the ‘nithing’ of every man, Nj. 176; eða drepit hann ella, Fms. xi. 100; eðr stökki hann af eignum sínum ellar, vii. 17.

ellefu-tíu, ‘eleventy’ (i. e. one hundred and ten), like seventy, eighty, etc., freq. in reckoning by duodecimal hundreds, Feðga-æfi 16.

ELLI, f. indecl. [Dan. ælde], ‘eld,’ old age; the saying, öllum hefir elli á kné komit, old age has brought all on their knees, cp. the tale in Edda 33, 34, where the old giantess Elli wrestles with Thor, whence in poetry she is called ‘the antagonist of Thor,’ Eg. (in a verse); engi hefir sá orðit …, at eigi komi ellin öllum til falls, Edda 34; fyrir elli sakar, Eg. 107; eigi er þat síðr en elli …, Nj. 171. COMPDS: elli-belgr, m., in the mythol. phrase, kasta e., to cast the ‘slough of age,’ to be young again, Mag. 3, (freq.) elli-bjúgr, adj. bowed down with age, Mag. elli-dagar, m. pl. old days, Stj. 190, Sks. 458. elli-dauðr, adj. dead (dying) from old age, Nj. 58, Fms. i. 117, Edda 18. elli-dómr, m. old age, Stj. 192. elli-gamall, adj. exceeding old, Stj. 190, Sks. 92, Al. 3. elli-glöp, n. pl. dotage from old age, Fas. i. 421. elli-hamr = ellibelgr (of serpents shedding their slough), Stj. 98. elli-hrumr, adj. tottering from old age, Stj. 432. elli-hærur, f. pl. the hoariness of age, Stj. 214. elli-karl, m. an old carle, Barl. 164. elli-lyf, f. medicine to bar old age, elixir vitae, (mythol.). Haustl. 9, cp. Edda 63. elli-móðr, adj. worn, weary from age, Ld. 12, Landn. 117. elli-sjúkr, adj. sick from age, Þiðr. 30. elli-stoð, f. the stay of old age. elli-tíð, f. time of old age, Hom. 13. elli-vafur, n. pl. wavering from age, decrepitude, Bret. 162 (of king Lear); in Eg. 756 (the verse), the old poet said, vals hefi’k váfur elli = elli-vafur; the comparison with the passage in Bret. is decisive, and the explanation in Lex. Poët. s. v. vafur is undoubtedly wrong. elli-vam, n. the being a dotard, Bret. 162. elli-þokki, a, m. looking old; hratt hón af sér elliþokka, Stj. 627, 2 Kings ix. 30 (of the old queen Jezebel).

elliði, a, m. a kind of ship with a high poop, Edda (Gl.), Fas. ii. 5; hence Elliða-ey, f. the name of an island, from its resemblance to these old-fashioned ships, Landn., Kb.; Elliði, a, m. a farm, Korm.; Elliða-Grímr, m., pr. name of a man, Landn., Nj.

ellifti, mod. ellefti, ord. numb. the eleventh, Landn. 199, Fms. ix. 412.

ellifu, mod. ellefu, ord. numb., the Goth. ainlif; A. S. ellefne; Engl. eleven; Germ. eilf; Swed. elfva; Dan. elleve:—‘lif’ is an obsolete word, denoting ten, so that ‘eleven, twelve’ are formed just like thirteen, fourteen, etc.

él-ligr, adj. [él], stormy, Vápn. 51.

Elli-sif, f. a popular version of Elizabeth, cp. Scot. Elspeth, Fms. vi. (of a Russian princess).

ellri (eldri), compar. elder, and ellstr (eldstr), superl. eldest; vide gamall.

elma, u, f. [almr], a branch, twig, Mar. 183.

-eln, adj. in compds, tví-e., þrí-e., etc., two, three … ells long.

elna, að, [cp. Goth. aljanon; A. S. elnjan = aemulari], to wax, grow, a medic. term, in the phrases, sótt elnar á hendr e-m, the fever grows upon one’s hands, i. e. becomes worse; en sótt elnaði á hendr Gizuri biskupi, Bs. i. 69; þá elnaði sótt á hendr Kveldúlfi, en er dró at því at hann var banvænn, etc., Eg. 126; e-m elnar sótt, id.; ok elnar honum sóttin, Band. 14; en Lopthænu einaði sóttin (of a woman in labour), Fas. ii. 162; sótt elnaði við Lopthænu, 504.

elptr, f. = álpt, a swan, Str. 52, 62, etc.

elrir, m., and elri, n. the alder-tree, Lat. alnus, A. S. alor, aler, Germ. erle, Edda (Gl.), Ó. H. 250, Fbr. 10.

elska, að, to love, love dearly, with acc.; elskaðr sem sá er framast elskaði sannan Guð, Fs. 80; konungr elskaði Hákon meir en nokkurn annan mann, Fms. i. 17; Birkibeinar elskuðu því meir sveininn, sem …, ix. 244; halt vel trú þína ok elska Guð, ii. 255; Hrafnkell elskaði ekki annat goð meir enn Frey, Hrafn. 4; kona þess hins ríka manns elskaði Jóseph, Sks. 455: hann sá at Guð elskaði Davíd (acc.), 708; ok er sva auðr svá sem hann er elskaðr til, 442. 2. reflex., elskask at e-m, to grow fond of; Þorkell var lengi með jarlinum ok elskaðisk at honum, Fms. iv. 217 (‘elskaði’ at jarli, act., Ó. H. 93, is scarcely right). β. recipr. to love one another; höfðu þau Jón elskask frá barnæsku, Bs. i. 282; þessir ungu menn elskask sín í millum mjök hjartanliga, 655 xxxii. 20. Icel. have a playful rhyme referring to lovers, running thus—elskar hann (hún) mig, | af öllu hjarta, | ofrheitt || harla lítið | og ekki neitt, which calls to mind the scene in Göthe’s Faust, where Gretchen plucks off the petals of the flower with the words, liebt mich—nicht—liebt mich—nicht.

ELSKA, u, f. (ælska, Barl. 6, O. H. L.), [this word is peculiar to the Scandin. races; it is probably derived from él and an inflexive sk, and properly means storm, whence metaph. passion; the Swedes and Danes have not the single word, but älskog and elskov, qs. elsk-hogr; Icel. elskhugi or elskogi]:—love; með Guðs elsku ok náungs, Hom. 48; hafa elsku á e-m, to love one, Bs. i. 36; mikla elsku hafði jarl á konungs syni, Fms. ix. 242; vit höfum lengi saman haldit okkarri elsku, vii. 140; svá mikla ást sem þú hefir á hinum digra manni ok elsku við hann lagt, iv. 182. COMPDS: elsku-band, n. a bond of love, Mar. elsku-bragð, n. a deed of love, Mar. 220. elsku-fullr, adj. full of love, Barl. 179. elsku-geð, n. a loving kindness, Pass. 30. II. elsku-gras, n. love’s flower, vide brönugrös s. v. brana, p. 76. elsku-lauss, adj. loveless, and elsku-leysi, n. want of love, Lex. Poët. elsku-merki, n. a love token. elsku-semi, f. lovingness. elsku-váttr, m. a love token. Elska never occurs as a verb or noun in old heathen poets; Arnor is the first poet on record who uses it; old writers prefer using ást; with Christianity, and esp. since the Reformation, it gained ground; ἀγαπαν of the N. T. is usually rendered by elska (to love) and ἀγάπη by elska (love) or kærleiki (chanty); so, mann-elska, humanity, kindness.

elskandi, part. a lover, Greg. 30.

elskan-liga, adv. lovingly, 655 xxxii. 17.

elskan-ligr, adj. beloved, N. T.

elskari, a, m. a lover, Barl. 88, 187, Karl. 545, Mar. 197, (rare.)

elsk-hugi or elsk-ogi, a, m. [Swed. älskog; Dan. elskov], love, Edda 21; vináttu ok elskhuga, Stj. 8; ástúð ok e., 130, Bev. 8 (Fr.); elskugi (ælskugi), Barl. 6: a sweetheart, minn sæti herra ok ágætr elskugi (my love), Fb. i. 514.

elskr, adj., in the phrase, e. at e-m, fondly attached to one, fond of one, of the attachment of children, or to children; hann var elskr at Agli, he loved the boy Egil, Eg. 187; Egill (the father) unni honum mikit, var Böðvarr (the child) ok e. at honum, 599: also used of animals, ok svá elskir hvarr at öðrum, at hvárr rann eptir öðrum, two steeds that never left one another, Nj. 81; hann (the ox) er mjök elskr at mér, Fms. iii. 132; hence mann-elskr, of pet lambs or tamed animals (but never used of cats, dogs, or animals that are constant companions of man); heima-e., home-loving, one who never leaves the hearth, Fs. 4.

elsku-liga, adv. lovingly, heartily, Fms. i. 140.

elsku-ligr, adj. loving; e. alvara, warm affection. Fms. iii. 63, K. Á. 22: dear, beloved, þitt e. andlit, 655 xxxii. 7; e. sonr, Th. 7; var henni mjök e., Fms. i. 81; ἀγαπητός of the N. T. is usually rendered by elskuligr.

él-skúr, f. a snow-shower, Sks. 227.

ELTA, t, to chase, with acc.; þeir eltu einn hjört, Flóv. 27 ; elta dýr á spori, Barl. 199; e. sauði, to run after sheep, in order to fetch them back, Nj. 27, Korm. 28 (in a verse); eltu Þjálfa, Hbl. 39; þeir höfðu elt af skipum Tryggva konung, they had driven king T. from his ships, Fms. i. 37; Styrkárr elti þá suðr í Karmsund, ix. 54; hljópu á land upp ok eltu þá, iv. 304, Gullþ. 21; e. öxn með vendi, to drive cattle with a goad, Karl. 471. β. reflex. to pursue one eagerly; eltask eptir e-m, … Fms. ix. 305: Icel. now say, eltask við e-n, e. g. of catching a horse, sheep, when grazing wild in an open field. II. to knead, work; elta leir, to mix lime, Stj. 247, cp. Exod. i. 14. 2. a tanner’s term; e. skinn, to tan a hide, i. e. rub, scratch it, so as to make it soft; ek skal yðra húð elta með klungrum, Stj. 395. Judges viii. 7; elt skinn, tanned hide; óelt skinn, rough hide, (freq.) 3. = velta, to overthrow, in the Runic phrase, at rita sa varþi es ailti stain þansi eþa heþan dragi, Rafn 188, 194.

elting, f., chiefly in pl. pursuing, chasing, Fms. vii. 128, 294, Fs. 50. II. botan., proncd. elking, [Swed. ältgras], spearwort, equisetum vulgare, arvense, Björn.

eltur, f. pl. pursuing, Fms. vii. 407, viii. 406, Róm. 276.

Embla (in Ub. spelt Emla), u, f. a mythol. word, which only occurs in Vsp. 17; and hence in Edda (where it is said that the gods found two lifeless trees, the askr (ash) and the embla; of the ash they made man, of the embla woman), it is a question what kind of tree the embla was; some suggest a metathesis, qs. emla from ahnr, elm, but the compound emblu-askr, in one of Egil’s poems, seems to shew that the embla was in some way related to the ash.

embætta, tt, mod. að, to attend, wait upon, with dat.; e. gestum, to wait upon guests; kann vera at Guð yðvarr sé á málstefnu, eðr eigi gestum at e., Stj. 593. I Kings xviii. 27; eigi samneytti hon, heldr e. hon, she ate not with the people, but waited on them, 655 xxxi A. 3; e. fé, to serve the cattle, to milk, Ísl. ii. 334, 482. 2. eccl. to say mass, to celebrate the eucharist, D. N. β. in mod. usage since the Reformation, to officiate as a clergyman.

embætti (embuð, Anecd. 38), n. [Germ. amt; Dan. embede; as to the root vide ambátt, p. 19], service, office; bjóða e-m af e., to depose one from office, Bs. i. 550; Guðs e., Hom. 121, 160, Stj. 613. 2 Kings iv. 13; mikit e., hard work, a great task, Hom. 153; veita e-m e., to serve one, Fms. viii. 332, 406; bindask í e-s e., to enter one’s service, Sks. 357; fremja e., to perform a service, Bs. i. 426; Guðligt e., holy service, Fms. ii. 198; heilagt skírnar e., holy baptism, i. 148: officiating at mass, D. N. 2. in mod. use, α. divine service, answering to ‘mass’ in the Roman church; fyrir, eptir e., before, after service. β. in a secular sense, [Germ. amt, Dan. embede], a public office. COMPDS: embættis-færr, adj. able to perform one’s duties, Ann. 1332. embættis-görð, f. officiating (of a clergyman), Bs. i. 811. embættis-lauss, adv. holding no office (of a priest), Sturl. ii. 118. embættis-maðr, m. a minister (priest), Hom. 119, Sks. 162, Fms. v. 146: in mod. use, embættismaðr, -lauss, etc. (= Germ. beamter, Dan. embedsman) mean an officer, chiefly in a secular sense.

emendera, að, to amend (Lat. word), Fb. i. 517.

EMJA, að, to howl, Fms. vi. 150. x. 383, Fas. i. 213, 656 B. 10, Fagrsk. 8.

emjan, f. howling, Fs. 44.

EN, disjunctive conj.; in MSS. spelt either en or enn, [a particle peculiar to the Scandin.; in Danish men; in Swedish both men, än, and endast; Norse enn and also men, Ivar Aasen]:—but; en ef hann hefir, þá …, but if he has, then …, Grág. i. 261; en ef menn gefa þeim mat, id.; en heima mun ek sitja, but I will stay at home, Fms. vi. 100; en fjöldi féll, but a great many fell, Fas. ii. 514; eyrum hlýðir en augum skoðar, Hm. 7; en ekki eigu annarra manna orð, Grág. i. 84, 99, 171; en Skíðblaðnir skipa, en jóa Sleipnir, en hunda garmr, Gm. 44; en ór sveita sjár, en ór beinum björg, Vþm. 21; and passim. It is even used with a slight conjunctive sense; þykki mér sem því muni úhægt saman at koma, kappi þínu ok dirfð ‘en’ skaplyndi konungs, methinks it will be hard to make the two things go together, thy vehemence and rashness ‘and’ (on the other hand) the temper of the king, Eg. 521; ek kann ráðum Gunnhildar ‘en’ kappsemd Egils, I know the devices of Gunnhilda ‘and’ (on the other hand) Egil’s eagerness, 257: used in narratives to begin a sentence, merely denoting the progress of the tale, much the same as ‘and,’ cp. the use of auk III, p. 33; thus in Ýt. some verses begin with ‘en,’—En dagskjarr …, 2, 3, 14, 23; En Gunnlaugr grimman tamði, Hlt.; En Hróalds á höfuðbaðmi, Ad. 19, without any disjunctive notion.

EN, temporal adv., better spelt enn, [prob. akin to endr and eðr, q. v.]:—yet, still; þú hefir enn eigi (not yet) heyrða kenning Drottins, Mar. 656 A. ii. 14; vildi hann enn svá, Fms. i. II; at hann mundi enn svá göra, vi. 100; þá ríkir hann enn fyrir mik, Al. 29; til betri tíma en (than) enn (still) er kominn, Sks. 596 B. 2. before a comparative; enn síðarr, still later, N. G. L. i. 94; enn betr, still better; enn fyrr, still later; enn verri, still worse; enn æðri, still worthier; enn hærri, still higher; enn firr, still further off; enn nær, still nearer; enn heldr, still more, Sks. 304: separated from the comparative, enn vóru fleiri dætr Haralds, the daughters of H. were still more, i. e. H. had more daughters yet, Fms. i. 5. β. curious is the use of en (usually spelt in or inn) in old poems, viz. before a comparative, where in prose the ‘en’ can be left out without impairing the sense; thus, hélt-a in lengr rúmi, be kept not his place longer, i. e. ran away, Am. 58; ráð en lengr dvelja, to delay no longer, 61; menn in sælli, a happier man, Skv. 3. 18; né in mætri mægð, worthier affinity, id.; mann in harðara = harðara mann, a hardier man, Hbl. 14; nema þú in snotrari sér, unless thou art wiser, Vþm. 7; drekka in meira mjöð, to drink more mead; bíta en breiðara, to bite broader, i. e. eat with better appetite, Þkv. 35; þars þætti skáld in verri, where poets were kept in less honour, Jomsv. S. (in a verse); né in heldr, neither; né hests in heldr, neither for his horse, Hm. 60; né in heldr hugðir sem var Högni, neither are ye minded as H., Gh. 3, Sdm. 36, Hkv. 1. 12, Skv. 1. 21: in prose, eigi in heldr ætla ek, þat …, neither do I think, that …, Nj. 219. 3. to boot, further, moreover; bolöxar ok enn amboð nokkur, pole-axes and some tools to boot, Dipl. v. 18; ok þat enn, at, and that still more, that, Róm. 302; Ingibjörg hét enn dóttir Haralds, Ingeburg was further Harold’s daughter, Fms. i. 5.

EN or enn, conj., written an in very old MSS., e. g. Hom., Greg., Eluc., but in the great bulk of MSS. en is the standing form, both ancient and modern; [formed by anacope, by dropping the initial þ; Ulf. þanuh; A. S. þanne; Engl. than; Hel. than; O. H. G. danna; Germ. dann, but here almost replaced by ‘als;’ Swed. änn; Dan. end; Norse enn, Ivar Aasen; the anacope is entirely Scandin.]:—than, Lat. quam; heldr faðir an móðir, more father than mother, Eluc. 5; bjartari an sól, brighter than the sun, 45, 52; meira an aðrir, more than others, Greg. 51; víðara an áðr, wider than before, id.; betr an þegja, better than being silent, 96; æðri an þetta, Eluc. 51; annat an annat, one thing rather than another, 50; ljósara an nú, 44; heldr an vér, 17; annat an dauðan, 15; meira an Guð, 13; fyr an, 6; annat an þú ert, 59; framarr an þeir hafa, id.; framar an vesa, 60; heldr an færi eðr fleiri, Hom. 45; heldr an, 63; betra er þagat an mælt, 96; helgari an annarra manna, 126; framar an sín, 135, etc.; cp. Frump. 158–163: ‘en’ however occurs in Hom. 126. II. the form ‘en’ (or ‘enn’) occurs passim, Grág. i. 173, ii. 13, Al. 29, Sks. 596 B, N. G. L. i. 32, etc. etc.

☞ The particle en differs in sense when placed before or after the comparative; if before, it means still; if after, than; thus, fyrr enn, áðr enn, before, Lat. prinsquam, but enn fyrr, still earlier, sooner; enn heldr, still more, but heldr enn, rather than; enn betr, still better, but betr enn, better than; enn síðar, still later, but síðar enn, later than, etc. Again, there is a difference of sense, when neither en is a comparative; en ef, but if; ef enn, if still, etc.

EN is now and then in MSS., esp. Norse, used = er, ef, q. v., but this is a mere peculiarity or false spelling: 1. when; mér vórum í hjá en (= er) þeir, when they, D. N. i. 271; til þess en = til þess er, 81. 2. as a relat. particle, which; sú hin ríka frú en (which), Str.; mína dóttur en allra meyja er fegrst, my daughter who is the fairest of all women, Þiðr. 249; af því en hann hefir fingit, Al. 145; sá ótti en, 107; en sungin er, which is sung, Hom. 41; but hvárt en er, whether, N. G. L. i. 349. 3. = ef, if, [cp. Old Engl. an]; sælar yæri sálurnar, en þær vissi, if they knew, Al. 114; en þeir vildi = ef þeir vildi, 118; en vér færim = ef vér færim, 120, esp. freq. in D. N. (vide Fr.) Very rare in Icel. writings or good MSS., e. g. en ek hefi með Guðs miskunn (i. e. er ek heti), as I have, because I have, Bs. i. 59, Hung. ch. 1; vide er.

ENDA, a copul. conj. with a slight notion of cause or even disjunction: [the use of this copulative is commonly regarded as a test word to distinguish the Scandin. and the Saxon-Germ.; the A. S. ende, Engl. and, Hel. end, Germ. und being represented by Scandin. auk, ok, or og: whereas the disjunctive particle is in Scandin. en, enn, or even enda, answering to the Engl., A. S., and Germ. aber, but; the Gothic is neutral, unless jab, by which Ulf. renders καί, be = auk, ok:—this difference, however, is more apparent than real; for the Icel. ‘enda’ is probably identical with the Germ. and Saxon und, and: in most passages it has a distinct copulative sense, but with something more than this]:—and, etc. I. with subj., a standing phrase in the law, connecting the latter clause of a conditional premiss, if so and so, and if …, and again if …; or it may be rendered, and in case that, and supposing that, or the like. The following references will make it plainer; ef goðinn er um sóttr, enda hafi hann öðrum manni í hönd selt …, þá skal hann ok sekja …, if a suit lies against the priest, ‘and’ he has named a proxy, then the suit lies also against him (viz. the proxy), Grág. i. 95; ef skip hverfr ok sé eigi til spurt á þrim vetrum, enda sé spurt ef þeim löndum öllum er vár tunga er á, þá …, if a ship disappears without being heard of for three years, ‘and’ inquiry has been made from all the countries where ‘our tongue’ is spoken, then …, 218; ef goðinn gerr eigi nemna féránsdóm, enda sé hann at lögum beiddr …, þá varðar goðanum fjörbaugsgarð, if the priest name not the court of férán, ‘and’ has been lawfully requested thereto, then he is liable to the lesser outlawry, 94; nú hefir maðr sveinbarn fram fært í æsku, enda verði sá maðr veginn síðan, þá …, if a man has brought a boy up in his youth, ‘and in case that’ he (the boy) be slain, then …, 281; ef maðr færir meybarn fram …, enda beri svá at…, ok (then) skal sá maðr …, id.; ef menn selja ómaga sinn af landi héðan, ok eigi við verði, enda verði þeir ómagar færðir út hingat síðan, þá …, 274; hvervetna þess er vegnar sakir standa úbættar á milli manna, enda vili menn sættask á þau mál …, þá …, ii. 20; ef sá maðr var veginn er á (who has) vist með konu, enda sé þar þingheyandi nokkurr …, þá …, 74; þat vóru lög, ef þrælar væri drepnir fyrir manni, enda (and in case that) væri eigi færð þrælsgjöldin fyrir hina þriðju sól, þá …, Eg. 723, cp. Eb. 222; þótt maðr færi fram ellri mann, karl eðr konu, í barnæsku, enda (and in case that) berisk réttarfar síðan um þá menn, þá skal …, 281; ef þú þorir, enda sér þú nokkut at manni, if thou darest, ‘and supposing that’ thou art something of a man, Fb. i. 170, segja má ek honum tíðendin ef þú vilt, enda vekir þú hann, ‘and supposing that’ thou wilt awake him, Fms. iv. 170; en þeir eru skilnaðarmenn réttir er með hvárigum fóru heiman vísir vitendr, enda (and even) vildi þeir svá skilja þá, Grág. ii. 114; enda fylgi þeir hvárigum í braut (supposing they), id.; hvat til berr er þú veizt úorðna hluti, enda sér þú eigi spámaðr, supposing that thou art a prophet, Fms. i. 333. 2. rarely with indic.; ef kona elr börn með óheimilum manni, enda gelzt þó fé um, hón á eigi…, Eb. 225. II. even, even if, usually with indic.; kona á sakir þær allar ef hún vill reiðask við, enda komi (even if) eigi fram loforðit, Grág. i. 338: in single sentences, þá skal hann segja búum sínum til, enda á þingi, even in parliament, ii. 351: the phrase, e. svá (even so), eigi þau handsöl hennar at haldask, enda svá þau er, i. 334; enda er þó rétt virðing þeirra, ef …, and their taxation is even (also) lawful, if …, 209: in mod. usage very freq. in this sense (= even). III. denoting that a thing follows from the premiss, and consequently, and of course, and then, or the like, and forsooth, freq. in prose with indic.; man ek eigi optar heimta þetta fé, enda verða þér aldri at liði síðan, I shall not call for this debt any more, ‘and also’ lend thee help never more, Vápn. 18; ef þeir eru eigi fleiri en fimm, enda eigi færi, if they are not more than five, and also not less, Grág. i. 38; enda eigu menn þá at taka annan lögsögumann ef vilja, and they shall then elect another speaker if they choose, 4; enda skulum vér þá leysa þik, and then of course we shall loose thee, Edda 20; varðar honum skóggang, enda verðr hann þar óheilagr, and of course or and even, and to boot, Grág. ii. 114; skal hann segja til þess á mannamótum, enda varðar honum þá eigi við lög, i. 343; á sá sök er hross á, enda verðr sá jamt sekr um nautnina sem aðrir menn, 432; þá á sök þá hvárr er vill, enda skal lögsögumaðr …, 10; enda á hann kost at segja lögleigor á féit, ef hann vill þat heldr, 217; trúi ek honum miklu betr en (than) öðrum, enda skal ek þessu ráða, and besides I will settle this myself, Eg. 731; sýnisk þat jafnan at ek em fégjarn, enda man svá enn, it is well known that I am a money-loving man, and so it will be too in this case, Nj. 102; beið ek af því þinna atkvæða, enda num öllum þat bezt gegna, I waited for thy decision, and (as) that will be the best for all of us, 78; er þat ok líkast at þér sækit með kappi, enda munu þeir svá verja, and so will they do in their turn, 227; Hallgerðr var fengsöm ok storlynd, enda (and on the other hand) kallaði hón til alls þess er aðrir áttu í nánd, 18; mikit má konungs gæfa um slíka hluti, enda mun mikill frami fásk í ferðinni ef vel tekst, Fms. iv. í 29; Ölver var málsnjallr ok máldjarfr, e. var hann vitr maðr, 235; ekki mun ek halda til þess at þú brjótir lög þín, enda eru þau eigi brotin, ef …, neither are they broken, if …, Fb. i. 173, Mork. 81. 2. with a notion of disjunction, and yet; eigi nenni ek at hafa þat saman, at veita Högna, enda drepa bróður hans, I cannot bear to do both, help Hogni and yet kill his brother, Nj. 145; er þér töldut Grænland vera veðrgott land, enda er þat þó fullt af jöklum ok frosti, that you call Greenland a mild climate, and yet it is full of frost and ice, Sks. 209 B. 3. ellipt. in an abrupt sentence, without a preceding premiss; enda tak nú öxi þína, and now take thy axe (implying that I can no longer prevent thee), Nj. 58; enda þarf hér mikils við, 94; maðrinn segir, enda fauk höfuðit af bolnum, the man continued,—nay, the head flew off the body, Ld. 290: even in some passages one MS. uses ‘enda,’ another ‘ok,’ e. g. skorti nú ekki, enda var drengilega eptir sótt (ok var drengilega eptir sótt, v. l.), Fms. viii. 357; cp. Fb. iii. 258, 1. 16, and Mork. 7, 1. 15: the law sometimes uses ‘ok’ exactly in the sense of enda, ef maðr selr ómaga sinn af landi brott, ‘ok’ verði hinn aptrreki er við tók, þá …, Grág. i. 275.

ENDA, d, (enda, að, Fs. 8, Ld. 50, Bs. i. 865; mod. usage distinguishes between enda að, to end, finish, and enda t, to fulfil):—to end, bring to an end; ok endi þar líf sitt, Fms. i. 297; af ráðinn ok endaðr, Fs. l. c.; endaðir sínu valdi, Bs. i. 865. 2. metaph. to bring to an end, fulfil, perform a promise or the like; þá sýslu er hann endi eigi, work which he did not perform, Grág. ii. 267; þótti Heinreki biskupi Gizurr eigi enda við konung þat sem hann hafði heitið, Fms. x. 51; enda þeir þat er Páll postuli mælti, Hom. 135; hefir þú komit ok ent þat er þú lofaðir, Niðrst. 8. II. reflex, to end, come to an end; reiði mannsins endisk á einu augabragði, 656 A. ii. 17; er svá hefjask upp at eigi endask, 656 B. 3; þá endisk sá enn mikli höfðingskapr Dana konunga, Fms. xi. 205; þær endask ok byrjask jafnfram ávalt, Rb. 232. 2. to last out; ok endisk þá, allt á sumar fram, Nj. 18; meðan mér endask föng til, Eg. 66; en honum endisk eigi til þess líf, Bs. i. 77; en er veizlor endusk eigi fyrir fjölmennis sakir, Hkr. ii. 92; ok endisk því þetta hóti lengst, Gísl. 50; meðan ek endumk til, as long as I last, i. e. live, Fms. iv. 292. 3. to end well, do; enda mun þat fám bóndum vel endask at synja mér mægðar, Ísl. ii. 215; ek veit, at þat má honum eigi endask, ef …, Rd. 311; ok öngum skyldi öðrum hans kappa enzk hafa betta nema þér, Fas. i. 104; segir honum eigi ella endask mundu, Fms. iv. 143. III. impers. in the phrase, sögu endar, endar þar sögu frá honum, it ends the tale, i. e. the tale is ended, Ld. 50: in mod. usage Icel. can say, saga endar, sögu endar, and saga endast, here the story ends.

endemi and endimi, n. pl. an abomination, scandal, shame, esp. in exclamations; sé undr ok endemi! Niðrst. 6; ok þykir nauðsyn, at eigi verði þau e. í, Fms. xi. 27; nú era slíkt mikil e., vii. 36; heyr á endemi, hear the abomination! for shame! heyra á firn ok e., 21, ii. 14; heyr á e., segir Hallgerðr, þú gerir þik góðan, Nj. 74; vissum vér eigi vánir slíkra véla ok endema, Blas. 46; mörg e. tóku menn þá til önnur, Bs. i. 62; hér lýstr í e., segir hann, Fms. xi. 94. endemismaðr, m. a monster, Fs. 38. The etym. is doubtful, either = ein-dæmi, what is unexampled, or rather from dámr and the prefix and-; endemi is always used in a very bad sense; the passage Fms. v. 206—veiztu ef þau e. (= wonder) eru sönn, at konungrinn sé heilagr hjá okkr—is an exception and perhaps incorrect.

ENDI, a, m., and endir, s, m. [Ulf. andeis = τέλος; A. S. ende; Engl. end; O. H. G. enti; Germ. ende; Swed. ände; Dan. ende]:—the end, conclusion; as in the proverbs, endirinn skyldi í upphafi skoða, Lat. quidquid incipias respice finem; allt er gott ef endirinn er góðr, all’s well that ends well; sjá fyrir enda á e-u, to see the end of a thing (how it will end); göra fyrir enda á e-u (a weaver’s term), to bring to an end, Grett. 100 new Ed.; leysa e-m illan (góðan) enda (a weaver’s term), to bring to an ill (good) end, Korm. 164 (in a verse); mun einn endir leystr vera um þá úgiptu. it will all come to one end, Gisl. 82; binda enda á e-t, to fulfil, finish, Snót 169; göra enda á, to bring to an end, Dipl. i. 6; vera á enda, to be at an end, Fms. xi. 427 (to be at one’s wit’s end); standask á endum, Nj. 111; allt með endum, adv. from end to end, Lex. Poët.; til annars endans, Nj. 176; öðrum endanum, Eg. 91; dyrr á báðum endum, Fms. iv. 220; at sínum enda hvárir, Grág. ii. 48; til enda jarðar, 656 B. 4; endanum (with the article), 655, xxxii; til enda, to the end of life, Nj. 39; endir líkams, Hom. 103; upphaf ok endir, 146; engi endir, 157; hér skal nú ok endir á verða, it shall come to an end, Nj. 145; sá varð endir a, at …, that was the end of it, that …, Fas. ii. 514; annarr endir hersins, Fms. ix. 353; hinn neðri endir, Sks. 167 B. COMPDS: enda-dagr, m. (enda-dægr, n.), the last day, day of death, Fms. viii. 93, x. 388, Sks. 355, Fas. i. 223. enda-fjöl, f. a gable end, Pr. 413. enda-knútr, m. the ‘end-knot,’ final issue. enda-lauss, adj. endless, Fms. v. 343, Sks. 617, Hom. 87. enda-lok, n. pl. and enda-lykt, f. the end, conclusion, Finnb. 248, Fbr. 29, Hom. 152, Fms. iii. 163, v. 343, Stj. 20, 49. enda-mark, n. the end, limit, H. E. ii. 70, Fms. v. 343. enda-merki, n. id., D. N. enda-mjórr, adj. thin at the end, tapering, in the phrase, láta eigi verða endamjótt við e-n, to treat one well to the end; Icel. say, e-t verðr enda-sleppt, n. adj. it has an abrupt end, etc. enda-þarmr, m. the great gut, Pr. 473.

endi-land, n. borders, confines, Stj. 406, 531, 546.

endi-langr, adj. ‘end-long,’ from one end to another; eptir endilangri mörkinni, Eg. 58; með endilöngum bekkjum, along the benches, Nj. 220; útlaga fyrir endilangan Noreg, 368, Fms. iv. 319, Grett. 97: as adverb. phrases, ‘endwise,’ opp. to ‘across,’ at endilöngum skipum, Fms. vii. 94; um endilangan, Stj. 290; um endilangt, Bs. i. 644; at endilöngu, El. 32.

endi-lauss, adj. endless, Hom. 87.

endi-leysa, u, f. nonsense, ‘without end or aim,’ Fms. vi. 375.

endi-liga, adv. finally, Stj. 225, Fms. ix. 355, v. l.

endi-ligr, adj. final, Stj. 110, Dipl. ii. 11, Bs. i. 8.

endi-lok, n. pl. the end, conclusion, 625. 172.

endi-mark, n. esp. pl. a boundary, confine, Grág. ii. 166, Hom. 48, Stj. 275, 345, Sks. 338, Dipl. ii. 4, Pm. 92: a limit, end, Hom. 52, Skálda 206, Gþl. 44, Sks. 272 B, Fms. ii. 89, H. E. i. 466.

endi-merki, n. (and endi-mörk, f.) = endimark, Sks. 207, 338 B.

endim-ligr, adj. abominable, Clem. 129.

ending, f. ending, termination, Fms. v. 225, Vígl. 16.

endir, v. endi.

end-langr, adj. = endilangr, Grág. ii. 257, Vkv. 7.

ENDR, adv. [cp. Lat. ante]. I. in times of yore, erst, formerly, before; very freq. in old poetry, Am. 1, Ad. 3, Ýt. 12, 13, Eg. 751 (in a verse), vide Lex. Poët.; in prose very rare, or only in the phrase, endr fyrir löngu, a long time ago, Fas. iii. 250, 347; cp. eðr. 2. in the phrases, endr annan veg en endr = now one way, now another, 677. 2; endr ok sinnum, mod. endrum og sinnum, from time to time, now and then, Sks. 208; endr ok stundum, id., 703 B. endra-nær and endrar-nær, adv. at other times, otherwise; bæði þá ok endra-nær, Bs. i. 533; sem jafnan endra-nær, as always else, 526, 538; sem ávalt endrar-nær, Fas. ii. 144; at enum sama hætti sem e., Rb. 28; en þat er endra-nær, at …, but else, that …, Fms. viii. 410. II. again; svá kom Óðins son endr at hamri, Þkv. 32. Mostly as prefix to nouns and verbs, answering to Lat. re-, chiefly in a biblical and theological sense, esp. after the Reformation.

endr-beiða, d, to beg again, Thom. 462, Post.

endr-borinn, part. born again, Sæm. 118, Sturl. iii. 269, Fas. iii. 68.

endr-bót, f. making good again, repentance, Hom. 41.

endr-búa, bjó, to restore, 655 xiii B. 3.

endr-bæta, tt, to repair, restore, 671. 3, 655 A. 13: reflex., 625. 69, Fms. ii. 212, Greg. 34, Stj. 53, 228, 632.

endr-bæting, f. restitution, restoration, Stj. 52, 632, 625. 69.

endr-bætingr, m. a thing repaired, patchwork, N. G. L. i. 75.

endr-fórn, f. an offering, presenting again, Stj. 49.

endr-fórna, að, to offer, present again, Stj. 49.

endr-fæða, dd, to regenerate, Hom. 154, 1 Peter i. 3.

endr-fæðing, f. regeneration, Matth. xix. 28.

endr-gefendr, part. those who give again, Hm. 40.

endr-geta, gat, to bear (give birth to) again; sonu þína sem Heilög Kristni endrgat, 623. 28; endrgetinn fyrir vatn ok Helgan Anda, Hom. 55, Fms. iii. 166; endrgetinn af vatni ok Helgum Anda, Hom. 3: reflex. to be born again, Post. 656 B. 11, Niðrst. 104.

endr-getnaðr, m. the being horn again, Niðrst. 104.

endr-getning, f. = endrgetnaðr, 655 vi. 2, Titus iii. 5.

endr-gjalda, galt, to reward, Mar. 175, Bs. ii. 25, Rom. xii. 19.

endr-gjaldari, a, m. a rewarder. Heb. xi. 6.

endr-græða, dd, to heal again. Barl. 148.

endr-göra, ð, to restore, reconstruct, K. Á. 28.

endr-hreinsa, að, to purify again, Hom. (St.)

endr-hræra, ð, to move again, Barl. 130.

endr-kaupa, t, to redeem, 2 Peter ii. 1.

endr-laginn, part. replaced, Skv. 3. 65.

endr-lausn, f. redemption, Luke xxi. 28, 1 Cor. i. 30; this and the following two words were scarcely used before the Reformation.

Endr-lausnari, a, m. the Redeemer, Job xix. 25, etc.

endr-leysa, t, to redeem, Matth. xvi. 26, Luke xxiv. 21.

endr-lifna, að, to come to life again, Stj. 221, Greg. 58, Luke xv. 32.

endr-lífga, að, to call to life again, Stj. 30.

endr-lífgan, f. a refreshing, revival, Acts iii. 19.

endr-minnask, t. dep. to remember, call to mind, Stj. 23, 40, 51.

endr-minning, f. remembrance, recollection, Hom. 9, Skálda 204.

endr-mæðing, f. tribulation, Stj. 49.

endr-mæla, t, to repeat, Matth. vii. 2.

endr-mæling, n. repetition, Sturl. iii. 71 C.

endr-nýja, að, to renew, repeat, Fms. ix. 248, 499, Jb. 156, K. Á. 28: impers., Eb. 278: reflex. to grow again, Str.

endr-nýjung, f. renovation, renewing, Titus iii. 5.

endr-næra, ð, to refresh, Matth. xi. 28, Rom. xv. 32, 2 Cor. vii. 13.

endr-næring, f. refreshing.

endr-reisa, t, to raise again, Fms. x. 276.

endr-rjóða, adj. ind. downcast, forlorn; Ketill kvað þá mjök e., K. said that they were much cast down, disheartened, Fas. ii. 16, Fspl. 12; it occurs only in these two passages, see a note of Dr. Scheving to Fspl. l. c., where he says that the word still survives in the east of Icel.

endr-semja, samði, to recompose, renew, Bs. i. 735.

endr-skapa, að, to create anew, Eluc. 52, Str. 52.

endr-skikka, að, to restore, Acts iii. 21.

endr-taka, tók, to retake, Stj. 29.

endr-tryggja, ð, to reconcile, Bs. i. 686.

endr-vinda, vatt, to turn back (of things), Orkn. 202.

endr-vitkast, að, to recover one’s senses, Vídal.

endr-þága, u, f. retribution, Hm. 4.

ENG, f., pl. engjar, (spelt æng, O. H. L.), [Dan. eng; Swed. äng; A. S. ing, found in local names in North. E., as Ings, Broad Ing]:—a meadow; opp. to akr, in the allit. phrase, akr né eng, Grág. i. 407, Hrafn. 21, Gþl. 136, 360, K. Þ. K. 90; í enginni, Stj. 193; veitti hann lækinn á eng sína, Landn. 145; hálfs mánaðar eng, half a month’s meadow-land, Dipl. ii. 12: in pl. engjar is in Icel. used of the outlying lands, opp. to tún, the home-field, and hagi, the pasturage, vide Grett. ch. 50; engjar manna, Grág. ii. 264: þótt fé gangi í engjar, 233: used in many COMPDS: engja-brigð, f. the escheatage of an eng, Grág. ii. 277. engja-grasnautn, f. right of grazing, making hay in the eng, Vm. 48. engja-hey, n. hay of the eng, = út-hey, ‘out-field hay,’ opp. to taða, hay from the well-manured home-field. engja-merki, m. marks, borders of the eng, Grág. ii. 219. engja-rós, botan. = comarum palustre, marsh cinque-foil, Hjalt. engja-skipti, n. division of the eng, Grág. ii. 259. engja-sláttr, m. the time of mowing the eng, in August, opp. to túna-sláttr, mowing of the home-field, in July. engja-vinna, f. and engja-verk, n. making hay in the eng. engja-vöxtr, m. meadow-produce, Jb. 146.

engi, n. (= eng), meadow-land, a meadow, Grág. i. 123, ii. 264, Háv. 51. COMPDS: engis-höfn, f. possession of a meadow, Grág. ii. 274. engis-lé, m. a scythe to mow a meadow, Korm. 40 (in a verse), (engissler, MS.); this seems to be the correct reading of the passage. engis-maðr, m. the owner of a meadow, Grág. ii. 289.

engi-búi, a, m. a neighbour who has to appear in an engidómr.

engi-dalr, m. a meadow-valley, Stj. 163.

engi-dómr (or engja-dómr), m. a court to decide the possession of n meadow, sitting on the spot, Grág. (L. Þ. ch. 17) ii. 269 sqq.

ENGILL, m. [Gr. αγγελος; Lat. eccl. angelus: hence in the Teut. dialects, Goth. aggilus; A. S. and Germ. engel; Engl. angel]:—an angel, Rb. 78, Nj. 157, 625. 4, N. T., Pass., Vídal., etc.; englar, höfuð-englar, veldis-englar, Hom. 133; engils andlit, 623. 55. COMPDS: engla-fylki, n, a host of angels, Stj., Hom. 133, Fms. v. 340, Mar. 656 A. 8. engla-lið, n. a host of angels, Greg. 37, Hom. 49, 154. engla-líf, n. life of angels, Hom. 16. engla-mjöl, n. ‘angel-meal,’ i. e. manna, Stj. 145. engla-sveit, f. a host of angels, Hom. 154. engla-sýn, f. a vision of angels, 625. 84.

engil-ligr, adj. angelical, Stj. 4, Niðrst. 4.

Engilskr, adj. English, D. N. (freq. but mod., vide Enskr).

Engils-nes, n. the ness of Achaia; ? the Peloponnesus; Achaia-landi, þat köllu vér Engilsnes, Post. 252, v. l. 4, cp. Orkn.

engi-mark, n. the boundary of a meadow, Grág. ii. 233, 287.

engi-skipti, n. = engja-skipti; engiskiptis-búi, m. = engi-búi, Grág. ii. 276.

engi-spretta, u, f. [Swed. grässhoppa; Dan. græshoppe], a grasshopper, locust, Matth. iii. 4, Exod. x.

engi-teigr, m. a piece of meadow-land, Grág. ii. 259, Eg. 745, Vm. 15.

engi-verk, n. meadow work, Eb. 150; = engja-sláttr; um e., during the time of mowing the meadows, Grág. i. 149, K. Þ. K. 136.

engi-vöxtr, m. meadow-produce, Grág. ii. 287.

engja, ð, [Gr. αγχω; Lat. ango; Germ. engen], to press tight, compress; engdr (vexed) með ufriði, Str.: with dat., hón engvir honum (makes him anxious, vexes him), ok angrar, id.: the mod. phrase, engja sig (or engjask), Swed. wrida sig, = to writhe with pain, chiefly used of a worm.

engja, u, f. and enging, f. [Germ. enge], narrowness (rare): medic., garn-engja, constriction of the bowels.

eng-liga, adv. narrowly; vera e. staddr, to be in a strait, Str.

Englis-maðr (Engils-maðr), m. an Englishman, Fms. v, Fas. iii. 354.

ENGR, adj. [Lat. angustus; Goth. aggvus; A. S. enge; Germ. eng], narrow, close; í engri gæzlu, in close watch, Str.; vide öngr.

enn, art. the, = hinn.

enn, v. en.

enna, adv. [en with a demonstrative -na], in the phrase, eigi enna, not yet or not forsooth! Glúm. 378, Fms. vi. 360, viii. 119.

ENNI, n. [a word peculiar to the Scandin.; Swed. änne, but usually in mod. Swed. and Dan. panna or pande; root uncertain]:—the forehead; þó spratt honum sveiti í enni, Nj. 68, Pr. 471; um þvert ennit, Fms. i. 178: also brow, metaph. a steep crag, precipice, Landn., Eb.

enni-brattr, adj. having a straight forehead, Sd. 146.

enni-breiðr, adj. having a broad forehead, Eg. 304, Fms. v. 238.

enni-dúkr, m. a fillet worn round the head by heathen priests at sacrificial ceremonies, Lat. vitiae, Kormak (απ. λεγ.)

enni-leðr, n. the skin of the forehead of animals, Fas. i. 80.

enni-snauðr, adj. having a low forehead, Fms. vii. 343.

enni-spænir, m. pl. [cp. Swed. ännespan = bead-wreath, ornament], carved work, such as dragon-heads on old ships of war, both fore and aft, Fms. v. 304, vi. 120, viii. 197, Orkn. 332, Fas. iii. 113.

enni-svell, n. boulders of ice, Sturl. i. 61.

Enska, u, f. the English tongue, Skálda 161.

ENSKR, adj. English, Grág. i. 504, Eg. 517; Enskir menn, m. Englishmen, Fms., Orkn., Hkr.

EPJA, u, f. [apr], chilliness, Björn.

EPLI, n. [A. S. æppel; Engl. apple; Swed. äple; Dan. æble; O. H. G. aphol; mod. Germ. apfel]:—an apple, Fms. xi. 9, Rb. 346; it occurs even in old poems, Skm. 19, 20; cp. Edda 17, the apples of Idunna, of which the gods ate and became young again, cp. also Völs. S. ch. 2; Heljar e., the apple of death, Ísl. ii. 351 (in a verse). COMPDS: epla-át, n. eating of an apple, Stj. 40. epla-garðr, m. [Dan. abildgaard], an ‘apple- yard,’ orchard, Gþl. 144, Vígl. 17. epla-kyn, n. ‘apple-kind,’ Stj. 175. epla-stöng, f. an apple-stalk, a cognom., Fms. viii.

epli-berandi, part. apple-bearing, Stj. 14.

eplóttr, adj. = apal-grár, q. v., Karl. 306, 334.

EPTIR, better spelt eftir, in common pronunciation ettir, a prep. with dat. and acc. and also used as adv. or ellipt. without a case: an older form ept or eft only occurs in poetry, Skm. 39, 41, Ýt. 2, Edda 91 (in a verse); ept víg, Hkr. i. 349 (in a verse), iii. 50 (Arnór); [cp. Goth. afar; Runic stone in Tune, after; A. S. æft; Engl. after, aft; Swed.-Dan. efter]:—after.

A. WITH DAT., LOC.; with verbs denoting following, pursuing, or the like; hann reið e. þeim, Eg. 149; hann bar merkit eptir honum, he bore the standard after him, 297; róa e. þeim, to pull after them, Ld. 118; þegar e. Kara, on the heels of Kari, Nj. 202; varð ekki e. honum gengit, none went after him, 270. β. with the notion to fetch; senda e. e-m, to send after one, Eb. 22, Nj. 78, Fms. i. 2; ríða í Hornafjörð e. fé yðru, ride to H. after your things, Nj. 63. γ. ellipt., viljum vér eigi e. fara, we will not follow after them. Eb. 242; ek mun hlaupa þegar e., Nj. 202. 2. metaph., α. with verbs denoting to look, stara, líta, sjá, gá, horfa, mæna, etc. e. e-u, to stare, look after a thing while departing, Ísl. ii. 261: leita, spyrja, frétta etc. e. e-u, to ask, ‘speer,’ seek after a thing, Nj. 75, Eg. 155, 686, Fms. i. 71, x. 148, etc. β. segja e. e-m, to tell tales, report behind one’s back in a bad sense, 623. 62; þó at ek segða eigi óhapp eptir tengda-mönnum mínum, Sturl. i. 66; sjá e. e-u, to look after, miss a thing, Nj. 75; leggja hug e. e-u, to mind a thing, Ísl. ii. 426; taka e., to mind, mark a thing; ganga e. e-u, to retain a thing, Fms. x. 5. γ. verbs denoting to expect; bíða, vænta e. e-u, to expect, wait for a thing; vaka e. e-m, to sit up waiting for one, but vaka yfir e-m, to sit up nursing or watching one, cp. Fas. ii. 535. II. denoting along, in the direction of a track, road, or the like; niðr e. hálsinum, down the hill, Fms. iii. 192; út e. firði, stood out along the firth, i. 37; innar e. höllinni, Nj. 270; upp e. dal, Eb. 232; ofan e. dalnum, Nj. 34; ofan e. eyrunum, 143; upp e. eyrunum, 85; innar e. búðinni, 165; út e. þvertrénu, 202; ofan e. reykinum, Eb. 230; inn e. Skeiðum, 224; inn e. Álptafirði, id.; innar e. ísum, 236; inn e. ísum, 316; út e. ísnum, 236; út e. Hafsbotnum, Orkn. 1; e. endilöngu, from one end to another, Fms. x. 16; e. miðju, along the middle, vii. 89. 2. metaph. after, according to; e. því sem vera ætti, Ld. 66; e. sið þeirra ok lögum, Fms. i. 81; e. þínum fortölum, ii. 32; hann leiddisk e. fortölum hennar, he was led by her persuasion, v. 30; gékk allt e. því sem Hallr hafði sagt, Nj. 256; gékk allt e. því sem honum hafði vitrað verit, all turned out as he had dreamed, Fms. ii. 231; e. minni vísan, i. 71. β. denoting proportion, comparison; þó eigi e. því sem faðir hans var, yet not like his father, Eg. 702; fátt manna e. því sem hann var vanr, few men in comparison to what he used to have, Sturl. ii. 253; þat var orð á, at þar færi aðrar e., people said that the rest was of one piece, Ld. 168. γ. with verbs denoting imitation, indulgence, longing after, etc.; lifa e. holdi sínu, to live after the flesh, Hom. 25; lifa e. Guði, 73; lifit e. mér, follow after me, Blas. 45; láta e. e-m, to indulge one; mæla e. e-m, to take one’s part, Nj. 26: breyta e. e-m, to imitate; dæma e. e-m, to give a sentence for one, 150; fylgja e. e-m, to follow after one, N. T.; herma e. e-m, to mimic one’s voice and gesture, as a juggler; mun ek þar e. gera sem þér gerit fyrir, I will do after just as you do before, Nj. 90; hann mælti e. (he repeated the words) ok stefndi rangt, 35; leika e. e-m, to follow one’s lead; telja e., to grudge; langa e., to long after, Luke xxii. 15. δ. kalla, heita e. e-m, to name a child after one; kallaði Hákon eptir föður sínum Hákoni, Fms. i. 14; kallaðr e. Mýrkjartani móður-föður sínum, Ld. 108: lcel. now make a distinction, heita í höfuðit á e-m, of a living person, and heita e. e-m, of one deceased. III. denoting behind; fundusk e. þeim Írskar bækr, Irish books were found which they had left behind, Landn. (pref.), Fms. xi. 410; draga þik blindan e. sér, vi. 323; bera e-t e. sér, to drag behind one; hann leiddi e. sér hestinn, he led the horse after him, Eg. 766. β. as an adv., þá er eigi hins verra e. ván er slíkt ferr fyrir, what worse can come after, when such things went before? Nj. 34. 2. but chiefly ellipt. or adverb.; láta e., to leave behind, Sturl. i. 60; sitja e., to sit, stay behind, Fms. i. 66; bíða e., to stay behind; vera e., Grett. 36 new Ed., Bs. i. 21; standa e., to stay behind, remain, be left, Fms. ii. 231, vi. 248; dveljask e., to delay, stop, Sturl. ii. 253; leggja e., to lay behind, but liggja e., to lie behind, i. e. be left, Karl. 439; eiga e., to have to do, Nj. 56; ef ekki verðr e., if naught remain behind, Rb. 126; skammt get ek e., þinnar æfi, I guess that little is left of thy life, Nj. 182; þau bjoggu þar e., they remained, stayed there. 25.

B. WITH ACC., TEMP, after; vetri e. fall Ólafs, Eb. (fine); sextán vetrum e. dráp Eadmundar konungs …, vetrum e. andlát Gregorii, … e. burð Christi, Íb. 18; e. fall jarls, Eg. 297; e. verk þessi, Nj. 85: esp. immediately after, var kom e. vetr, spring came after winter, Eg. 260; hvern dag e. annan, one day after another, Hom. 158; ár e. ár, year after year, Rb. 292; dag e. dag, day after day, Fms. ii. 231; e. þat, or e. þetta, after that, Lat. deinde, deinceps, Nj. 151, Eb. 58, Bs. i. 5, etc. etc.; e. þingit, after the meeting, Eb. 108; e. sætt Eyrbyggja, 252. 2. denoting succession, inheritance, remembrance, etc.; eptir in this sense is frequent on the Runic stones, to the memory of, after; hón á arf allan e. mik, Nj. 3; tekit í arf e. föður þinn, inherited after thy father, Fms. i. 256; ef skapbætendr eru eigi til e. bauga, i. e. to receive the weregild, Grág. ii. 184; þeir er sektar-fé eiga at taka e. þik, Nj. 230; tók konungdóm e. föður sinn, took the kingdom after his father, Fms. i. 2; Þorkell tók lögsögu e. Þórarinn, Thorkel took the speakership after Thorarin, Íb. ch. 5, cp. ch. 8, 10: metaph., vita þá skömm e. sik, to know that shame [will be] after one, i. e. leave such a bad report, Ld. 222; skaði mikill er e. menn slíka, there is a great loss in such men, Eg. 93; hann fastaði karföstu e. son sinn, he fasted the lenten fast after his son’s death, Sturl. ii. 231; sonr … e. genginn guma, a son to succeed his deceased father, Hm. 71; mæla e. en, or eiga vígsmál (eptir-mál) e. e-n, to conduct the suit after one if slain, Nj. 254 (freq.), hence eptir-mál; eptir víg Arnkels vóru konur til erfðar ok aðildar, Eb. 194; í hefnd e. e-n, to revenge one’s death, Nj. 118; heimta gjöld e. menn sína, to claim weregild, Fms. viii. 199. β. the phrase, vera e. sig, to be weary after great exertion. II. used as adv. after; síðan e. á öðrum degi, on the second day thereafter, Hom. 116: síðan e., Lat. deinceps, Fms. x. 210; um várit e., the spring after, Eb. 125 new Ed.; annat sumar e., the second summer after, Nj. 14; annat haust e., Eb. 184; annan dag e., the second day after, Nj. 3; um daginn e., the day after, Fms. vii. 153, Bs. i. 21; næsta mánuð e., Rb. 126. β. by placing the adverb. prep. at the beginning the sense becomes different, later; e. um várit, later during the spring, Eb. 98. III. used adverb. with the relat. particles er, at; e. er, Lat. postquam, Grág. i. 10; e. at, id., K. Þ. K. 32. β. eptir á, afterward; the proverb, eptir (mod. eptir á) koma ósvinnum ráð í hug, the fool is wise too late, Vápn. 17, Fas. i. 98; eptir á, kvað hinn …, ‘after a bit,’ quoth the …, (a proverb.)

eptir-á, adv. afterwards, Safn i. 35.

eptir-bátr, m. an ‘after-boat,’ ship’s boat, Eg. 374, Fms. vii. 195, 214, Orkn. 420: metaph. a laggard, Fær. 49, Ísl. i. 236.

eptir-bið, f. waiting for.

eptir-breytni, f. imitation, following, (eccl.)

eptir-bræðrasynir, m. pl. second cousins (Norse), N. G. L. i. 189.

eptir-burðr, m. second birth, Stj. Gen. xxxviii. 29.

eptir-drag, n. a trail, track; hafa í eptirdragi.

eptir-dæmi, n. example, Stj. 132, Fms. i. 141, Fær. 137, Bs. i. 263.

eptir-farandi, part. following, Stj. 10, Bs. i. 263.

eptir-ferð, f. pursuit, Eb. 296, Orkn. 442.

eptir-frétt, f. asking after, inquiry, Sks. 52, Bs. i. 632.

eptir-fylgð, f. following after one.

eptir-færilegr, adj. = Lat. investigabilis, Hom. 16.

eptir-för, f. pursuit, Eg. 593.

eptir-ganga, u, f. a going after, following, attendance, Eb. 112, Sturl. i. 14, iii. 10: prosecution of a thing, Fms. vii. 358. eptirgöngu-maðr, m. a follower, Eb. 112.

eptir-gangr, m. = eptirganga. COMPDS: eptirgangs-munir, m. pl. importunity. eptirgangs-samr, adj. pressing-one’s claims, importunate. eptirgangs-semi, f. insisting upon a claim.

eptir-gengi, n. id., Bs. i. 852.

eptir-glíkjari, a, m. an imitator, follower, Bs. i. 90.

eptir-grenzlan, f. investigation.

eptir-görð, f. ‘after-making,’ i. e. funeral-honours, esp. gifts for the soul of the dead, Fms. x. 103, 234, Gþl. 61.

eptir-hermur, f. pl. mimicking one’s voice and gesture.

eptir-hreyta, u, f. the ‘after-milk,’ Grönd. 182.

eptir-komandi, part. following, future, Edda 150 (pref.): a successor, Fms. ix. 328, v. l., Dipl. i. 2: in pl. offspring, Landn. 254, Stj. 386.

eptir-kæra, u, f. prosecution, Rd. 275.

eptir-köst, n. pl. after-whims.

eptir-látligr, adj. pleasing, Bs. i. 636.

eptir-látr, adj. buxom, complaisant, obedient, Nj. 68, Fms. xi. 71, Fas. iii. 196, Stj. 71, Fs. 80.

eptirlát-samr, adj. id., Stj. 11.

eptir-leiðis, adv. for the future.

eptir-leifar, f. pl. remains, Stj. 543.

eptir-leikr, m. after-play; in the proverb, óvandari er eptirleikrinn.

eptir-leit, f. search, pursuit, Nj. 133, Eb. 218, Fms. xi. 240.

eptir-leitan, f. searching for, pursuing, Fms. i. 68, vii. 106, x. 268: metaph. request, Sturl. ii. 80, Sks. 234.

eptir-lit, n. looking after a thing. eptirlits-samr, adj. (eptirlits-semi, f.), careful, attentive.

eptir-lífi, n. indulgence, Stj. 155, Rb. 384, Sks. 619.

eptir-lífr, adj. indulgent, Mar.

eptir-líking (-glíking), f. imitation, 623. 26, Hom. 44, Fms. vi. 28, Stj. 51, Bs. ii. 157. 2. a parable, N. T.

eptir-líkjandi, part. imitator, Hom. 48, 51.

eptir-læti, n. enjoyment, Stj. 31, 51, 144, 509, Nj. 13. 2. fond indulgence (esp. foi a child), Ld. 88, Gísl. 85, Gþl. 64. COMPDS: eptirlætis-barn, n. a pet child, spoilt child. eptirlætis-líf, n. a life of indulgence, Ver. 28, 625. 28. eptirlætis-þjónusta, u, f. an act of indulgence, Stj. 78.

eptir-löngun, f. a longing after, desire for.

eptir-mál, n. an ‘after-suit,’ i. e. prosecution undertaken after a person is slain, properly by the next heir (aðili, q. v.), Nj. 120, 128, 166, Fms. i. 224. COMPDS: eptirmáls-maðr, m. a prosecutor, Bárð. 171. eptirmála-staðr, m. = eptirmál, Háv. 55.

eptir-máli, a, m. an epilogue, (mod.)

eptir-máll, adj. indulgent, consenting, Nj. 13.

eptir-mjölt, f. = eptirhreyta.

eptir-mynd, f. a copy, drawing, (mod.)

eptir-mælandi, part. the prosecutor in an eptirmál, Js. 40, Nj. 175.

eptir-mæli, n. fond indulgence. Fms. x. 375, Nj. 26. 2. = eptirmál. Nj. 176. 3. good report, Mar., Róm. 289.

eptir-rás, f. a running after, pursuit, Grág. i. 440, Js. 39.

eptir-reið, f. pursuit on horseback, Nj. 254, Landn. 152.

eptir-rekstr, m. a driving one to go on.

eptir-rit, n. an after-writ, copy (mod.), opp. to frumrit.

eptir-róðr, m. the rowing in pursuit of one, Hkr. iii. 94.

eptir-rýning, f. the prying into a thing, Eb. 54. COMPDS: eptirrýninga-maðr, m. a prying, inquisitive person. eptirrýninga-samr, adj. a prying man, Eb. 54, v. 1.

eptir-seta, u, f. sitting back, i. e. remaining behind, N. G. L. i. 156.

eptir-sjá (-sjón), f. the looking with desire after a lost thing, hence loss, grief, Fms. i. 258, vii. 104, Ld. 194: attending to, 298, Sturl. i. 27.

eptir-skoðun, f. a looking after, 655 xxxii. 13.

eptir-sókn, f. a seeking after, pursuing, Blas. 38, Fms. i. 222.

eptir-spurn, f. speering after, inquiring for.

eptir-staða, u, f. (-stöðvar, f. pl.), remains, arrears, B. K. 118.

eptir-staðsi, adj. remaining behind, Fms. xi. 1.

eptir-sýn, f. looking after one, Ó. T. eptirsýnar-maðr, m. = eptirmálsmaðr, N. G. L. i. 170.

eptir-takanlegr, adj. (-liga, adv.), perceptible.

eptir-tekja, u, f. produce, revenue.

eptir-tekt, f. attention: eptirtektar-samr, adj. mindful.

eptir-tölur, f. pl. an ‘after-counting,’ grudging.

eptir-vænting, f. expectation, N. T.

eptir-þörf, f., in the phrase, koma ekki í e., to be not amiss.

eptir-ætlandi, part. one who intends to prosecute, N. G. L. i. 165.

EPTRI, compar., and EPTSTR or epztr, superl. (also sometimes aptari, aptastr), the aftermost, hinder, hindmost: 1. loc., eptra fæti, the hind leg, Edda 28; báða fætr hina eptri, Vígl. 21 (aptr-fætr, hind leg’s); til hins eptra austr-rúms, the hindmost, opp. to fremri, Fms. viii. 139; framstafninn ok hinn eptri (viz. stafn), ii. 304; eptra (aptara) hjalt (of a sword), Fas. iii. 244; at aptara stafni, 429; eigi vil ek vera aptastr allra minna manna, I will not be the hindmost of all my men, Fms. ii. 307; er raddar-staf hefir eptra í nafninu, Skálda 165. 2. temp. later, last; en eftri burðar-tíð en hin fyrri, Hom. 56; hina eftri hingatkomu Krists, 106; þá eru þeir skrökváttar er eftri báru, that last bore witness, N. G. L. i. 32; vide efri and aptr.

ER, old form es, mod. sometimes eð, but usually ‘er;’ indecl. Particle used as relat. pron. or as relat. adv.; in very old MSS. always es, and rhymed so by old poets; in the 12th century it changed into er. In poems and in law phrases the particle ‘es’ is suffixed to the pronoun or adverb, as s or z, e. g. thus: as pron., sá’s = sá es (so in ‘people’s Engl.’ he as, him as, for he who, etc.), Hkr. iii. 11 (Sighvat); dat. þeim’s = þeim es, illi qui, Hm. 3, Fms. vi. 38 (Sighvat); acc. masc. þann’z or þann’s = þann es, illum qui, Vsp. 45 (MS.), Od. i, Hm. 44, 120, Hým. 39, Am. 90; neut. þatz = þat es, illud quod, Hm. 39, Am. 37, Hkv. Hjörv. 3, Fms. iii. 9 (Hallfred): as conj. or adv., hvárt’z … eða = hvárt es … eða, utrum … an, Grág. (Ed. 1853); hvárt’z hann vill at reiða eða …, i. 25, 145, 152, 155, 156, 161, 233, ii. 50: as adv., þegar’s = þegar es, as soon as, Grág. (Ed. 1853) i. 94, Am. 30; síðan’s = síðan es, since (Old Engl. sithens, sithence), 78; even sem’s = sem es, Am. 103; hvar’s = hvar es, wherever, 47, Mork. 138, Hm. 138; hve’s = hve es, however, 140 (MS. hvers), Skálda 190 (in a verse); þar’s = þar es, there where, i. e. where, Grág. i. 46, 153, Hm. 66, Hbl. 60, Gm. 8, Ls. 50, Mork. 18, 34, 37, 62, 170, Skálda 189 (Bragi), Edda (Ht.) 124, where this anastrophe is called bragar-mál, poetical diction; hvarge’s = hvarge es, wherever, Grág. ii. 44. The Icel. has no relat. pron. but only the relat. particles er and sem, both of them indecl. in gender, case, and number; in simple sentences the sense (gender etc.) is clear from the context; and the language has certain expedients to meet the deficiency.

A. Used as relat. pron. which, who, that: I. used alone, where there is perhaps an ellipse of the demonstrative, er = er hann (þeir, þær, þeim, etc.); α. nom., á þeim bæ, er Abia heitir, 625. 83; Mörðr hét maðr, er kallaðr var Gigja, Nj. 1; hann átti dóttur eina, er Unnr hét, id.; þá skulu þeir, er fær eru (who are) saman, Grág. i. 9; maðr, er þessa þurfi, id.; at þeim svörum, er verða, 19; lið þat, er þeim hafðI þangat fylgt, Fms. i. 62; konur þær, er völfur vóru kallaðar, iii. 212; þeim unga manni, er þar sitr hjá þér, id. β. acc., þingfesti manna þeirra, er (quos) menn vilja sækja, Grág. i. 19; sakar þeirrar, er (quam) ek hefi höfðað, id. γ. gen., aðra hluti þá, er (quorum) menn viidu vísir verða, Fms. iii. 212. δ. dat., þann einn, er (cui) hann ann lítið, Fms. i. 86. ε. joined to a demonstrative; allir Þrændir, þeir er …, all the Th., who …, Fms. i. 62. II. with a prep., which, as often in Engl., is placed at the end of the sentence; er hann kom til, whom he came to; land, er hann kom frá, the land he came from; so Lat. quocum venit = er hann kom með sub quibus = er … undir; in quibus = er … í, etc.: the prep. may also be a penultimate, e. g. the phrase, er mér er á ván, wlich I have a hope of; or, er hann var yfir settr, whom he was set over, etc.; this use of the pronoun is undoubtedly elliptical, the corresponding demonstrative pronoun being left out, although the ellipse is not felt; þvengrinn sá er muðrinn Loka var saman rifjaðr með (Kb. omits the prep.), the lace that the mouth of Loki was stitched with, Edda 71; öðrum höfðingjum, þeim er honum þótti liðs at ván (that is to say, þeim, er honum þótti liðs van at þeim), at whose hands, i. e. from whom he thought help likely to come, Fms. i; þeir er ek mæli þetta til (= er ek mæli þetta til þeirra), those to whom I speak, xi. 12; er engi hefir áðr til orðit, Nj. 190; in stórúðgi jötunn, er ór steini var höfuðit á (= er ór steini var höfuðit á honum), whose head was of stone. Hbl. 15; því er vér urðum á sáttir, Fms. xi. 34; við glugg þann í loptinu, er fuglinn hafðI áðr við setið. the window close to which the bird sat. Eg.: nokkurum þeim höfðingja, er mér sé eigandi vinátta við (viz. þá). Ó. H. 78: þá sjón, er mér þykir mikils um vert (viz. hana), 74; er mér þat at sýn orðit, er ek hefi opt heyrt frá sagt (= frá því sagt), 57; til vatns þess, er Á en Helga fellr ór, 163: til kirkju þeirra, es bein eru færð til, Grág. i. 13 new Ed. 2. ellipt. the prep. being understood, esp. to avoid the repetition of it; ekirinn sá er brendr vár Ásgarðr (viz. með), Edda (pref.); hann gékk til herbergis þess, er konungr var inni (viz. í), he went to the house that the king was in, Ó. H. 160, Fb. iii. 251; dyrr þær, er ganga mátti upp á húsit (viz. gegnum, through), the doors through which one could walk up to the house, Eg. 421; ór þeim ættum er mér þóttu fuglarnir fljúga (viz. ór), the airt (quarter) that I thought the birds flew from, Ísl. ii. 196; yfir þeim manni, er Mörðr hafði sök sína fram sagt (viz. yfir), the man over whose head (to whom) Mord had pleaded his suit, Nj. 242; þrjú þing, þau er menn ætluðu (viz. á), three parliaments, in (during) which men thought …, 71; nær borg þeirri, er konungr sat (viz. í), near the town the king resided in, Eg. 287; Montakassin, er dyrkast Benedictus, Monte Cassino, where B. is worshipped, Fms. xi. 415; þeir hafa nú látið lif sitt fyrir skömmu, er mér þykir eigi vert at lifa (viz. eptir), they, whom methinks it is not worth while to outlive, 150; fara eptir með hunda, er þeir vóru vanir at spyrja þá upp (viz. með), er undan hljópusk, they pursued with hounds, that they were wont to pick up fugitives with, i. e. with bloodbounds, v. 145; þat er í þrem stöðum, er dauðum má sök gefa (viz. í), it is in three places that a man can be slain with impunity, N. G. L. i. 62; þat er í einum stað, er maðr hittir (viz. í), it is in one place that …, id. III. a demonstrative pron. may be added to the relat. particle, e. g. er þeirra = quorum, er þeim = quibus, er hans, er hennar = cujus; but this is chiefly used in old translations from Lat., being rarely found in original writings; þann konung, er undir honum eru skatt-konungar, that king under whom vassals serve, Edda 93; ekkja heitir sú, er búandi hennar (whose husband) varð sótt-dauðr; hæll er sú kona kölluð er búandi hennar er veginn, 108; sú sam-stafa, er raddar-stafr hennar er náttúrlega skammr, that syllable, the vowel of which is naturally short, Skálda 179; sá maðr, er hann vill, that man who wishes, Grág. i. 19; sá maðr, er hann skal fasta, 36; nema ein Guðrún, er hón æva grét, G. that never wailed, Gh. 40; þess manns, er hann girnisk, Hom. 54; sæl er sú bygghlaða … er ór þeirri …, felix est illud horreum … unde …, Hom. 15; engi er hærri speki en sú, er í þeirri …, nulla melior est sapientia quam ea, qua …, 28; varðveita boðorð hans, fyrir þann er vér erum skapaðir, ejusque mandata custodire, per quem creati sumus, 28; harða göfugr er háttr hófsemi, fyrir þá er saman stendr …, nobilis virtus est valde temperantia, per quam …, id.; elskendum Guð þann er svá mælti, Deum diligentibus qui ait, id.; skírn Græðara várs, er í þeirri, 56; er á þeim = in quibus, 52: rare in mod. writers, enginn kann að játa eðr iðrast réttilega þeirrar syndar, er hann þekkir ekki stærð hennar og ílsku, Vídal. i. 226. IV. in the 14th century, the relat. pron. hverr was admitted, but by adding the particle er; yet it has never prevailed, and no relative pronoun is used in Icel. (except that this pronoun occurs in the N. T. and sermons, e. g. Luke xi. 1, whose blood Pilate had mingled, is rendered hverra blóði Pilatus hafði blandað; an old translator would have said, er P. hafði blandað blóði þeirra): hvern er þeir erfðu, M. K. 156; hverjar er hón lauk mér, id.; af hverju er hann megi marka, Stj. 114; hvat er tákna mundi, Fms. xi. 12. V. the few following instances are rare and curious, er þú, er ek, er mér, er hón; and are analogous to the Germ. der ich, der du, I that, thou that; in Hm. l. c. ‘er’ is almost a superfluous enclitic, eyvitar fyrna er maðr annan skal, Hm. 93; sáttir þínar er ek vil snemma hafa, Alm. 7; ójafnt skipta er þú mundir, Hbl. 25; þrár hafðar er ek hefi, Fsm. 50; auði frá er mér ætluð var, sandi orpin sæng, Sl. 49; lauga-vatn er mér leiðast var eitt allra hluta, 50; ærr ertu Loki, er þú yðra telr, Ls. 29, cp. 21, Og. 12, Hkv. 2. 32; tröll, er þik bíta eigi járn, Ísl. ii. 364. ☞ This want of a proper relat. pron. has probably preserved Icel. prose from foreign influences; in rendering Lat. or mod. Germ. into Icel. almost every sentence must be altered and broken up in order to make it vernacular.

B. Conj. and adv. joined with a demonstrative particle, where, when: 1. loc., þar er, there where = ubi; þar er hvárki sé akr né eng, Grág. i. 123; hvervetna þess, er, N. G. L. passim. 2. temp. when; ok er, and when; en er, but when: þá er, then when; þar til er, until, etc., passim; annan dag, er menn gengu, Nj. 3; brá þeim mjök við, er þan sá hann, 68; sjaldan fór þá svá, er vel vildi, Ld. 290; ok í því er Þórgils, and in the nick of time when Th., id.: þá lét í hamrinum sem er (as when) reið gengr, Ísl. ii. 434; næst er vér kómum, next when we came, Eg. 287; þá er vér, when we, id. II. conj. that (vide ‘at’ II, p. 29); þat er (is) mitt ráð er (that) þú kallir til tals, Eg. 540; ok þat, er hann ætlar, Nj. 7: ok fansk þat á öllu, er (that) hon þóttisk vargefin, 17; en þessi er (is) frásögn til þess, er (that) þeir vóru Heljar-skinn kallaðir, Sturl. i. 1; ok finna honum þá sök, er (en MS.) hann hafði verit, that he had been, Fms. vii. 331; af hverju er hann megi marka, from which he may infer, Stj. 135; hvárt er (en MS.) er (is) ungr eða gamall, either that he is young or old, N. G. L. i. 349; spurði hann at, hvárt er, asked him whether, Barl. 92; mikill skaði, er slíkr maðr, that such a man, Fms. vi. 15; hlægligt mér þat þykkir, er (that) þú þinn harm tínir, Am. 53; er þér gengsk illa, that it goes ill with thee, 53, 89; hins viltú geta, er (that) vit Hrungnir deildum, Hbl. 15. 2. denoting cause; er dóttir mín er hörð í skapi, for that my daughter is hard of heart, Nj. 17. β. er þó, although, Skálda 164. 3. þegar er, as soon as, when, Fms. iv. 95, cp. þegar’s above: alls er þú ert, for that thou art, i. 305; síðan er, since, after that, Grág. i. 135; en siðan er Freyr hafði heygðr verít, Hkr. (pref.); but without ‘er,’ N. G. L. i. 342. In the earliest and best MSS. distinction is made between eptir er (postquam), þegar er (quum), meðan er (dum), síðan er (postquam), and on the other hand eptir (post), þegar (jam), meðan (interdum), síðan (post, deinde); cp. meðan’s, síðan’s, þegar’s, above; but in most old MSS. and writers the particle is left out, often, no doubt, merely from inaccuracy in the MSS., or even in the editions, (in MSS. ‘er’ is almost always spelt  and easily overlooked): again, in mod. usage the particle ‘at, að,’ is often used as equivalent to ‘er,’ meðan að, whilst; síðan að, since that; þegar að, postquam, (vide ‘at’ V, p. 29.)

ER, 3rd pers. pres. is, vide vera.

ÉR, pl., and it, dual, spelt ier, Ó. H. 147 (twice), 205, 216 (twice), 227; [Goth. jus = ὑμεις; A. S. ge; Engl. ye, you; Germ. ihr; Swed.-Dan. I]:—ye, you. That ér and not þér is the old form is clear from the alliteration of old poems and the spelling of old MSS.: allit., ér munuð allir eiða vinna, Skv. 1. 37; it (σφώ) munut alla eiða vinna, 31; hlaðit ér jarlar eiki-köstinn, Gh. 20; lífit einir ér þátta ættar minnar, Hðm. 4; æðra óðal en ér hafit, Rm. 45 (MS. wrongly þér); ér sjáið undir stórar yðvars Græðara blæða, Lb. 44 (a poem of the beginning of the 13th century). It is often spelt so in Kb. of Sæm.; hvers bíðit ér, Hkv. 2. 4; þó þykkisk ér, Skv. 3. 36; börðusk ér bræðr ungir, Am. 93; urðu-a it glíkir, Gh. 3; ef it, id.; en ér heyrt hafit, Hým. 38; þá er (when) ér, ye, Ls. 51; er it heim komit, Skv. 1. 42: ér knáttuð, Edda 103 (in a verse): in very old MSS. (12th century) no other form was ever used, e. g. er it, 623. 24: þat er ér (that which ye) heyrit, 656 A. 2. 15; ér bræðr …, mínnisk ér, ye brethren, remember ye, 7; treystisk ér, 623. 32; hræðisk eigi ér, 48. In MSS. of the middle of the 13th century the old form still occurs, e. g. Ó. H., ér hafit, 52; ér skolu, 216; þegar er ér komit, so soon as ye come, 67; sem ér mynit, 119; ér hafit, 141; til hvers er ér erot, that ye are, 151; ef ér vilit heldr, 166; ér erot allir, ye are all, 193; sem ér kunnut, 196; sem ier vilit, 205; sem ér vitoð, as ye know, 165; ef ér vilit, 208; þeim er ér sendoð, those that ye sent, 211: the Heiðarv. S. (MS. of the same time)—unz ér, (Ísl. ii.) 333: ef ér þurfut, 345; er it farit, 346 (twice); allz ér erut, id.; er ér komið, as ye come, id.; en ér sex, but ye six, 347; ok ér, and ye, 361; ér hafit þrásamliga, 363; eða it feðgar, 364: Jómsvík. S.—ef ér, (Fms. xi.) 115, 123: Mork. 9, 63, 70, 98, 103, 106, passim. It even occurs now and then in Njála (Arna-Magn. 468)—ér erut, ye are, 223; hverrar liðveizlu ér þykkisk mest þurfa, 227: ér ertuð hann, Skálda 171; Farið-a ér, fare ye not, Hkr. i. (in a verse). It is still more freq. after a dental ð, t, þ; in old MSS. that give þ for ð it runs thus—vitoþ ér, hafiþ ér, skoluþ ér, meguþ er, lifiþ ér, etc., wot ye, have ye, shall ye, may ye, live ye, etc.; hence originates by way of diæresis the regular Icel. form þér, common both to old and mod. writers; vide þú, where the other forms will be explained.

ERÐI, n. [akin to arðr], a heavy balk of timber, Grett. 125; hence the phrase, þungt sem erði, heary as a balk.

erenda, d, to perform an errand. Vígl. 29.

erendi, etc., v. eyrendi.

erfa, ð, with acc. to honour with a funeral feast, cp. the Irish phrase to ‘wake’ him, Eg. 606; síðan lét Egill e. sonu sína eptir fornri síðvenju, 644, Fms. i. 161, xi. 67. 2. to inherit, N. T. and mod. writers. β. metaph. in the phrase, e. e-t við e-n, to bear long malice, to grumble.

ERFÐ, f. [(Germ. erbe], inheritance; for the etymology vide arfr; the law distinguishes between frænd-erfð, family inheritance, and út-erfð, alien inheritance, N. G. L. ii. 146; within the frænd-erfð the law records thirteen degrees of kin, Gþl. 232–242, N. G. L. i. 49, Jb. 128 sqq., Grág. i. 170. sqq.: special kinds of ‘út-erfð’ are, brand-erfð (q. v.). gest-erfd, skip-erfð, gjaf-erfð, land-erfð, félaga-erfð, litla-erfð, leysings-erfð, N. G. L. i. 50: again, in mod. usage erfð implies the notion of a family, and út-erfð, út-arfar are used of distant kinsfolk, inheritance in a different line, or the like; vide Grág., Nj., and the Sagas freq. β. inheriting, succession, Gþl. 48–55. COMPDS: erfða-bálkr, m. the section of law treating of inheritance. Ann. 1273. erfða-einkunn, f. an hereditary mark (on cattle), Grág. ii. 304. erfða-fé, n. an heirloom, inheritance, Grág. i. 206. erfða-goðorð, n. hereditary priesthood, Sturl. i. 198. erfðá-land, n. patrimony, land of inheritance, Stj. 50, 66, Orkn. 126, Fms. iv. 224, vi. 20. erfða-maðr, m. an heir, Js. 38. erfða-mark, n. = erfða-einkunn, Grág. i. 422, 423. erfða-mál, n. a lawsuit as to inheritance, Nj. 6, 92. erfða-partr, m. share of inheritance, Stj. 110. erfða-skipan, f. a law, ordinance of inheritance, N. G. L. i. 49. erfða-staðr, m. hereditary estates, used in a special sense of church demesnes held by lay impropriators, vide Arna S., Bs. i. 794. erfða-tal, n. the section of law respecting inheritance, Gþl. 55. erfða-úmagi, a, m. an ‘úmagi’ having an inherited right to support, Grág. i. 134, 237. erfða-öldr, n. [Dan. arveöl], a funeral feast, N. G. L. i. 432.

erfi, n. a wake, funeral feast, Nj. 167, Fms. i. 161, xi. 68, Ld. 16, Gþl. 275, Rb. 344, N. G. L. i. 391, Am. 83, Gh. 8. For the sumptuous funeral feasts of antiquity, vide esp. Landn. 3. 10, where the guests were more than fourteen hundred, Ld. ch. 26, 27; var nú drukkit allt saman, brullaup Ólafs ok erfi Unnar, ch. 7, Flóam. S. ch. 2, Jómsv. S. ch. 21, 37. COMPDS: erfis-drykkja, u, f. a funeral feast, Pass. 49. 16. erfis-görð, f. = erfi, Fms. xi. 69.

erfiða or erviða, að, [Goth. arbaidjan = κοπιαν; early Germ. erbeiten; mod. Germ. arbeiten; mod. Dan. arbeide is borrowed from Germ.]:—to toil, labour, Edda 149 (pref.), 677. 11; allir þér sem erviðið og þunga eruð hlaðnir, Matth. xi. 28: metaph., e. e-m, to cause one toil and trouble, Bs. i. 726: trans., e. jörðina, to till the earth, Stj. 30: impers., sóttar-far hans erfiðaði, his illness grew worse, Fms. x. 147. In the Icel. N. T. it is sometimes used in the same passages which have arbaidjan in Ulf., e. g. heldr hefi eg miklu meir erfiðað en allir þeir aðrir, 1 Cor. xv. 10; öllum þeim sem styrkja til og erfiða, xvi. 16; að eg hafi til einskis erfiðað hjá yðr, Gal. iv. 11; heldr erfiði og afli með höndum, Ephes. iv. 28; hvar fyrir eg erfiða og stríði, Col. i. 29; þá sem erfiða meðal yðar, 1 Thess. v. 12; því at til þess hins sama erfiðum vér einnig, 1 Tim. iv. 10; in 2 Tim. ii. 6 the Icel. text has ‘sá sem akrinn erjar.’

erfið-drægr, adj. difficult, Sturl. iii. 271.

erfiði or erviði (ærfaði, N. G. L. i. 391; ærfuð, id. I. 10), n. [Ulf. arbaiþs = κόπος; A. S. earfoð; O. H. G. arapeit; mod. Germ. arbeit, which shews that mod. Dan. arbeide and Swed. arbete are borrowed from the Germ.; lost in Engl. The etymology of this word is uncertain; the Icel. notion is to derive it from er- priv. and viða = vinna, to work, but it is scarcely right; Grimm, s. v. arbeit, suggests it to be akin to Lat. labor; Max Müller refers it to the root AR, to plough, Science of Language, p. 258, 3rd Ed.; but arfiði (Björn, p. 41) instead of erviði is a fictitious form, and the statement that in old Norse or Icel. it means ploughing rests only on a fancy of old Björn (Dict. l. c.), to which he was probably led by the similarity between Lat. arvum to Germ. and mod. Dan. arbeit, arbeide: in fact the Icel., ancient or modern, conveys no such notion; even in the old heathen poems the word is used exactly in the present sense, which again is the same as in Ulf.]:—toil, labour, and metaph. toil, trouble; in the allit. phrase, e. en eigi eyrendi, toil but no errand, i. e. lost labour, Þkv. 10, 11, Hkv. Hjörv. 5; víl ok e., toil and trouble (of travelling), Hbl. 58, Skálda 163; kváðusk hafa haft mikit e. ok öngu á leið komið, Fms. v. 21, Post. 645. 58, Sks. 235, v. l., N. G. L. l. c. 2. metaph. distress, suffering; drýgja e., to ‘dree’ distress, Gm. 35 (heathen poem),—in N. G. L. i. 391 this phrase is used of a priest officiating; hungr, þorsti, e., Hom. 160: in pl., meðr mörgum erfiðum er á hana leggjask, Stj. 51: an old poet (Arnor) calls the heaven the erfiði of the dwarfs, vide dvergr. In the Icel. N. T. erfiði is often used in the very same passages as in Ulf., thus—yðvart e. er eigi ónýtt í Drottni, 1 Cor. xv. 58; í erfiði, í vökum, í föstu, 2 Cor. vi. 5; og hrósum oss eigi tram yfir mælingu í annarlegu erfiði, x. 15; og vort e. yrði til ónýtis, 1 Thess. iii. 5, cp. Ulf. l. c. β. medic. asthma, difficulty in breathing; brjóst-erfiði, heavy breathing. COMPDS: erfiðis-dauði, a, m. a painful, hard death, 655 xxxii. 17. erfiðis-laun, n. pl. a recompense for labour or suffering, Niðrst. 5, Fms. vi. 149, Barl. 95. erfiðis-léttir, m. a reliever of labour, Stj. 19. erfiðis-munir, m. pl. toils, exertion, Bárð. 180, Fas. i. 402, Fb. i. 280. erfiðis-nauð, f. servitude, grinding labour, Stj. 247, 265. erfiðis-samr, adj. toilsome, Stj. 32. erfiðis-semi, f. toil. erviðis-verk, n. hard work, Stj. 263, 264.

erfið-leiki, m. hardship, difficulty.

erfið-liga, adv. with pain and toil; er hann sótti e. til hans, he strove hard to get up to him, Edda 60; e-t horfir e., looks hard, Nj. 139; búa e. við e-n, to treat one harshly, Fas. ii. 96; at skipi þessu farisk e., that his ship will fare ill, make a bad voyage, vi. 376; varð mér þar erviðligast um, there I met with the greatest difficulties, Nj. 163.

erfið-ligr, adj. toilsome, difficult, adverse; margir hlutir e. ok þungligir, adverse and heavy, Fms. viii. 31, Sks. 235.

erfið-lífi, n. a life of toil, 655 viii. 2.

erfiðr, adj. toilsome, hard, difficult; ok var af því honum erfitt búit, a heavy, troublesome household, Bs. i. 63; erfiða ferð hafa þeir fengit oss, they have made a hard journey for us, Fms. v. 22; Guðrún var erfið á gripa-kaupum, G. was troublesome (extravagant) in buying finery, Ld. 134; e-m verðr e-t erfitt, one has a difficulty about the thing, Fms. vi. 54. β. hard, unyielding; var Flosi erfiðr, en aðrir þó erfiðri miklu, F. was hard, but others much harder, Nj. 186, 187; jarl var lengi erfiðr, the earl long remained inexorable, 271: ek var yðr þá erfiðr, 229. γ. hard breathing; ok er hann vaknaði var honum erfitt orðit, when he awoke he drew a deep breath, after a bad dream, Ísl. ii. 194; hvíldisk Helgi, því at honum var orðit erfitt, H. rested, because he was exhausted (from walking), Dropl. 22; þó honum væri málið erfitt, though he spoke with difficulty (of a sick person), Bs. i. 110. δ. var þess erfiðar (the more difficult) sem…, Fas. i. 81: so in the phrase, e-m veitir erfitt, one has hard work, Bs. i. 555, Nj. 117; erfitt mun þeim veita at ganga í móti giptu þinni, 171.

erfi-drápa, u, f. a funeral poem, Fbr. 16, Fms. vi. 198, v. 64.

erfið-samligr, adj. (-liga, adv.), toilsome, hard, 677. 10.

erfið-vinnr, adj. hard to work, Grett. 114 A.

erfi-flokkr, m. a short funeral poem, Fms. vi. 117.

erfi-kvæði, n. a funeral poem, = erfidrápa. Eg. 605.

erfingi, ja, m., (arfingi, Fms. ix. 328, Gþl. 287), pl. erfingjar, [arbingjas (pl.), Runic stone in Tune; Ulf. renders κληρονόμος by arbja or arbinumja; Dan. arving; Swed. arfvinge]:—an heir, Grág. i. 217, Eg. 25, Nj. 3, 656 C. 36, Fms. l. c., etc. etc. erfingja-lauss, adj. without heirs, Fms. v. 298, x. 307.

erfi-veizla, u, f. a funeral banquet, Bs. i. 837.

erfi-vörðr, m. [A. S. erfeveord], an heir, poët., Gh. 14, Akv. 12, cp. the emendation of Bugge to Skv. 3. 60.

erfi-öl, n. [Dan. arveöl], a wake, funeral feast, N. G. L. i. 14.

ERG, n., Gael. word, answering to the Scot. shiel or shieling; upp um dalinn þar sem var erg nokkut, þat köllu vér setr = der som vaar noget erg, det kalde vi. sætter (in the Danish transl.), Orkn. 448 (Addit.), cp. local names in Caithness, e. g. Ásgríms-erg, Orkn. 458.

ERGI, f. [argr], lewdness, lust; ergi, æði ok óþola, Skm. 36, Fas. iii. 390; e. keisara dóttur, Bær. 15, El. 10; ílsku ok e. ok hórdóm, Barl. 138: wickedness, með e. ok skelmisskap, Gísl, 31, Yngl. S. ch. 7: in mod. usage ergja, f., means greediness for money or the like; the rare sense of moodiness is quite mod., and borrowed from Germ. through Dan.

ergja, u, f. a squabble; opt eru ergjur meðal granna, Hallgr.

ergjask, ð, dep. to become a coward, only in the proverb, svá ergisk hverr sem eldisk, Hrafn. 25, Fms. iii. 192, iv. 346.

erill, m. [erja], a fuss, bustle.

ERJA, arði, pres. er, sup. arit: mod. pres. erjar, erjaði, 2 Tim. ii. 6; [A. S. erjan; Old Engl. to ear; cp. Lat. arare, Gr. ἀρουν]:—to plough; prælarnir skyldi erja, Landn. 35, v. l., cp. Fms. i. 240; eitt nes þat fyrírbauð hann at e., löngum tíma eptir örðu menn hlut af nesinu, Bs. i. 293; þér hafit arit með minni kvígu, Stj. 412: in the saying, seint sá man erja, he will be slow to put his hand to the plough, will be good for nothing, Glúm. 341. β. metaph. to scratch; hann lætr e. skóinn um legginn útan, O. H. L. 45; kom blóðrefillinn í enni Ketils ok arði niðr um nefit, Fas. ii. 126.

erjur, f. pl. brawl, fuss, quarrels.

ERKI-, [Gr. ἀρχι-; Engl. arch-, etc.] I. eccl. arch-, in COMPDS: erki-biskup, m. an archbishop, Gþl. 263, Fms. i. 106, N. G. L. i. 166. erkibiskups-dæmi and erkibiskups-ríki, n. archbishopric, Fms. xi. 392, vii. 300, x. 88, 155; e. stóll. an archiepiscopal seat, Rb. 422. erki-biskupligr, adj. archiepiscopal, Bs. Laur. S., Th. 12. erki-djákn, m. an archdeacon, Fms. ix. 325. xi. 416, 625. 45, Stj. 299. erki-prestr, m. an archpriest, Bs. i. 173, Stj. 299. erki-stóll, m. an archiepiscopal seat. Symb. 28, Fms. iv. 155. II. = great, portentous; erki-býsn, f. portent, Bs. i. 423.

erlendask, d, to go into exile, Stj. 111, but in 162 spelt ör-.

erlending, f. [Germ. elende], an exile, Stj. 223.

erlendis, adv. abroad, in a foreign land, Grág. i. 167. Gþl. 148, K. Þ. K. 158; e. drep, committing manslaughter in a foreign land, Grág. ii. 142; e. víg, a manslaughter committed abroad, i. 183.

ERLENDR, adj., ör-lendr, Gþl. 148, [Hel. elilendi = a foreigner; Germ. elende], foreign, Grág. i. 217, Sks. 462; the spelling with er- and ör- is less correct than el- or ell-, cp. aulandi, p. 34. II. m. a pr. name, Orkn.

Erlingr, m. a pr. name; prop. a dimin. of jarl, an earl.

erma, ð, [armr], to commiserate, Post. 69.

erm-lauss, adj. arm-less, sleeve-less, Fms. vii. 21, Sturl. iii. 219.

ERMR, f., mod. ermi, dat. and acc. ermi, pl. ermar, [armr], an arm, sleeve, Fms. v. 207, vi. 349, xi. 332, Nj. 35, Clem. 54, Landn. 147: so in the saying, lofa upp í ermina á sér, to make promises in one’s sleeve, i. e. to promise without meaning to keep one’s word. COMPDS: erma-drög, n. pl. sleeve-linings, Bret. erma-kápa, u, f. a cape with sleeves, Band. 5. erma-kjós, f. the armpit, 656 C. 28. erma-langr, adj. with long sleeves, Fas. ii. 343. erma-lauss, adj. sleeve-less, Fms. xi. 272, Sks. 406. erma-stuttr, adj. with short sleeves. erma-víðr, adj. with wide sleeves. erma-þröngr, adj. with tight sleeves.

Ermskr, adj. Armenian, K. Þ. K. 74, Íb. 13, Fas. iii. 326.

erm-stúka, u, f. a short sleeve, Karl.

ERN, adj. brisk, vigorous, Bs. i. 655, Fms. v. 300; hence Erna, u, f. a pr. name, Rm. 36, Bs. i. 32, v. l.

ern-ligr, adj. of brisk, stout appearance, Nj. 183, Eb.

erpi, n. a sort of wood, Al. 165.

erri-ligr, adj. = ernligr, Fms. iii. 222, Eb. 94 new Ed.

erring, f. a brisk, hard struggle, Fbr. (in a verse).

errinn, adj. = ern, Lex. Poët.; fjöl-e., very brisk and bold, Hallfred.

ERTA, t, to taunt, tease, with acc., Rd. 302, Hkr. iii. 130, Skálda 171, Fms. vi. 323; er eigi gott at e. íllt skap, a saying, Mirm.: reflex., ertask við e-n, to tease one, Fms. ix. 506.

erting, f. teasing, provoking, Lv. 26; engi ertinga-maðr, a man who stands no nonsense, Eg. 417.

ertinn, adj. taunting; ertni, f. a taunting temper.

ERTLA, u, f., proncd. erla or atla, [arta], the wagtail, motacilla alba, now called Máríatla or lín-erla.

ERTR, f. pl. [early Germ. arbeiz; mod. Germ. erbse; Dutch erwt or ert; Dan. ært; Swed. ärter]:—peas; the Scandin. word is probably borrowed from Dutch or Fris. and occurs in the 13th century; in old writers the r is kept throughout, ertr, ertrnar, Stj. 161; ertrum (dat.), 655 xxxiii. 4; ertra (gen.), Gþl. 544; ertra-akr, a pea-field, id.; ertra-reitr, a bed of peas, N. G. L. ii. 172; ertra-vellingr, Stj. 160, 161, Gen. xxv. 29: in mod. usage it is declined erta, u, f., gen. pl. ertna, ertum, etc.

es, older form of er.

ESJA, u, f. a kind of clay, freq. in Norway in that sense, vide Ivar Aasen; the name of the mountain Esja in Icel. no doubt derives its name from this clay, which is here found in abundance, Eggert Itin. ch. 21; hence Esju-berg, n. name of a farm, Landn., [eisa, and even Germ. esse, Dan. esse, Swed. ässa are kindred words.]

Esk-hyltingr, m. one from the farm Eskiholt, Sturl. ii. 145.

eski, n. [askr], an ashen box, Edda 17, 21, Fms. ii. 254, Fas. i. 237, Ísl. ii. 79; mod. spelt askja, and used of any small box.

eski-mær, f. a lady’s maid, Gm. (pref.)

eskingr, m. [aska], ashes or fine snow driven by a gale, Bárð. 20 new Ed.

eski-stöng, f. an ashen pole, Róm. 232.

ESPA, að, to exasperate, irritate, probably = to make one shake like an aspen, Vídal.

espi, n. aspen wood (vide ösp), hence Espi-hóll, m. a farm, Landn.: Esphælingar, m. the men from E., id.

espingr, m. [Swed. esping], a ship’s boat, Fr.

ess, n. [for. word; old Swed. örs], a steed, Fms. x. 139, Fas. iii. 471, 582, much used in romances.

ETA, proncd. éta; pret. át, pl. átu; pres. et, proncd. iet, Greg. 82; part. etið; pret. subj. æti; imperat. et; [Lat. ĕdere; Gr. ἔδειν; Ulf. ïtan; A. S. and Hel. etan; Engl. eat; O. H. G. ezan; mod. Germ. essen; Swed. äta; Dan. æde]:—to eat, Grág. ii. 347; sem þú mátt vel e., Nj. 75; e. dagverð, Ld. 10; þar’s ek hafða eitt etið, Hm. 66; e. kjöt, Greg. l. c.; at engi er hér sá inni er skjótara skal eta mat sinn en ek, Edda 31 (hence fljót-ætinn, sein-ætinn, rash or slow eating); át hvárrtveggi sem tíðast, id.; Logi hafði ok etið slátr allt, id.; et mat þinn, tröll. Fas. iii. 179. 2. metaph. to eat, consume; eigu at eta alla aura ómagans sem hann sjálfr, Grág. i. 288; eyddir ok etnir, Fms. xi. 423; sorg etr hjarta, sorrow eats the heart, Hm. 122; etandi öfund, consuming envy, Str.; Gyðingar átusk innan er þeir heyrðu þetta, the Jews fretted inwardly on hearing this, 656 C. 17. β. medic., 655 xxx. 8. γ. the phrase, eta orð sín, to eat one’s own words, Karl. 478; or, eta ofan í sig aptr, id., of liars or slanderers. δ. the dubious proverb, úlfar eta annars eyrendi, wolves eat one another’s fare or prey, Ld. 92; and recipr., etask af úlfs munni, to tear one another as wolves, Ísl. ii. 165; ok hefir mér farit sem varginum, þeir eta þar (etask?) til er at halanum kemr ok finna eigi fyrr. Band. 12, where MS.—þat ætla ek at mér verði vargsins dæmi, þeir finnask eigi fyrr at en þeir hafa etisk ok þeir koma at halanum, 26: as to this proverb cp. also the allusion, Hðm. 30: the mod. turn is—úlfr rekr annars erindi, so used by Hallgr.—annars erindi rekr úlfr og löngum sannast það—and so in paper MSS. of Ld. l. c., but prob. a corruption.

eta, u, f., mod. jata, a crib, manger, Hom. 36, 127, Mar. 26; in the proverb, standa öllum fótum í etu, to stand with all feet in the crib, to live at rack and manger. Gísl. 46. etu-stallr, m. a crib, manger, Orkn. 218. II. medic. cancer, Magn. 480: mod. áta or átu-mein.

etall, adj. eating, consuming, Lat. edax, 655 xxix. 6.

ETJA, atti; pres. et; part. att; but etjað, Andr. 625. 73; [it means probably ‘to make bite,’ a causal of eta]:—to make fight, with dat., esp. etja hestum, of horse fights, a favourite sport of the ancients; for a graphic description of this fight see Bs. i. 633. Arons S. ch. 18, Glúm. ch. 18, Rd. ch. 12, Nj. ch. 58, 59, Vígl. ch. 7, N. G. L. ii. 126; vide hesta-þing, hesta-at, víg-hestr, etc. 2. gener. to goad on to fight; atta ek jöfrum en aldri sætta’k, Hbl. 24. β. etja hamingju við e-n, to match one’s luck with another, Fms. iv. 147; e. kappi við e-n, to match one’s force against one, Ld. 64, Eg. 82; e. vandræðum við e-n, 458; e. saman manndrápum, to incite two parties to manslaughter, Anecd. 14: in a good sense, to exhort, ok etjað þá þolinmæði, Andr. l. c. (rare). γ. ellipt., etja við e-t, to contend against; e. við aflamun, to fight against odds, Al. 110; e. við liðsmun, id., Fms. i. 42, ix. 39, Fs. 122; e. við ofrefli, id., Fms. iii. 9; e. við reiði e-s, Fb. i. 240. 3. to stretch forth, put forth; hann etr fram berum skallanum, he put forth his bare skull to meet the blows, Fms. xi. 132; (Icel. now use ota, að, in this sense.) II. reflex., lét eigi sama at etjask við kennimenn gamla, said it was unseemly to hoot old clergymen, Sturl. i. 104; er ofstopi etsk í gegn ofstopa, if violence is put against violence, 655 xxi. 3. 2. recipr. to contend mutually; ef menn etjask vitnum á, if men contend (plead) with witnesses, N. G. L. i. 247; ok ef þeir vilja andvitnum á etjask, Gþl. 298. III. the phrase, ettja heyvi (spelt with tt), to fodder (cattle) upon hay, Grág. ii. 278, 340; ettja andvirki, to fodder upon a hayrick, Gþl. 357.

etja, u, f. fighting, biting. COMPDS: etju-hundr, m. a deer-hound, fox-hound, Sturl. ii. 179. etju-kostr, m. a beastly choice, Ísl. ii. 89, Fms. viii. 24, v. l. etju-tík, f. = etju-hundr; bóndi átti e. stóra, Fb. ii. 332, Bárð. 32 new Ed.

expens, n. (for. word), expences, Stj. 127, Bs. i. 742.

EY, gen. eyjar; dat. eyju and ey, with the article eyinni and eyjunni; acc. ey; pl. eyjar, gen. eyja, dat. eyjum; in Norway spelt and proncd. öy; [Dan. öe; Swed. ö; Ivar Aasen öy; Germ. aue; cp. Engl. eyot, leas-ow, A. S. êg-land, Engl. is-land; in Engl. local names -ea or -ey, e. g. Chels-ea, Batters-ea, Cherts-ey, Thorn-ey, Osn-ey, Aldern-ey, Orkn-ey, etc.]:—an island, Fas. ii. 299, Skálda 172, Eg. 218, Grág. ii. 131, Eb. 12; eyjar nef, the ‘neb’ or projection of an island, Fb. iii. 316. 2. in various compds; varp-ey, an island where wild birds lay eggs; eyði-ey, a deserted island; heima-ey, a home island; bæjar-ey, an inhabited island; út-eyjar, islands far out at sea; land-eyjar, an island in an inlet, Landn.: a small island close to a larger one is called a calf (eyjar-kálfr), the larger island being regarded as the cow, (so the southernmost part of the Isle of Man is called the Calf of Man): it is curious that ‘islanders’ are usually not called eyja-menn (islandmen), but eyjar-skeggjar, m. pl. ‘island-beards;’ this was doubtless originally meant as a nickname to denote the strange habits of islanders, Fas. i. 519 (in a verse), Fær. 151, 656 C. 22, Fms. ii. 169, viii. 283, Grett. 47 new Ed.; but eyja-menn, m. pl., Valla L. 228, Eb. 316 (and in mod. usage), cp. also Götu-skeggjar, the men of Gata, a family, Landn.; eyja-sund, n. a sound or narrow strait between two islands, Eg. 93, Fms. ii. 64, 298. 3. in local names: from the shape, Lang-ey, Flat-ey, Há-ey, Drang-ey: from cattle, birds, beasts, Fær-eyjar, Lamb-ey, Sauð-ey, Hrút-ey, Yxn-ey, Hafr-ey, Svín-ey, Kið-ey, Fugl-ey, Arn-ey, Æð-ey, Má-ey, Þern-ey, Úlf-ey, Bjarn-ey: from vegetation, Eng-ey, Akr-ey, Við-ey, Brok-ey, Mos-ey: from the quarters of heaven, Austr-ey, Norðr-ey, Vestr-ey, Suðr-ey (Engl. Sudor): an island at ebb time connected with the main land is called Örfiris-ey, mod. Öffurs-ey (cp. Orfir in the Orkneys): from other things, Fagr-ey, Sand-ey, Straum-ey, Vé-ey (Temple Isle), Eyin Helga, the Holy Isle (cp. Enhallow in the Orkneys). Eyjar is often used κατ ἐξοχήν of the Western Isles, Orkneys, Shetland, and Sudor, hence Eyja-jarl, earl of the Isles (i. e. Orkneys), Orkn. (freq.); in southern Icel. it is sometimes used of the Vestmanna eyjar. β. in old poets ey is a favourite word in circumlocutions of women, vide Lex. Poët.; and in poetical diction ey is personified as a goddess, the sea being her girdle, the glaciers her head-gear; hence the Icel. poetical compd ey-kona. For tales of wandering islands, and giants removing islands from one place to another, vide Ísl. Þjóðs. i. 209. 4. in female pr. names, Þór-ey, Bjarg-ey, Landn.: but if prefixed—as in Eyj-úlfr, Ey-steinn, Ey-mundr, Ey-vindr, Ey-dís, Ey-fríðr, Ey-vör, Ey-þjófr, etc.—ey belongs to a different root. COMPD: eyja-klasi, a, m. a cluster of islands.

ey-, a prefix, ever-, vide ei-.

ey-búi, a, m. an islander, Lex. Poët.

EYÐA, dd, [auðr; A. S. éðan; Dan. öde; Germ. öden; Swed. öda], to waste: I. with dat. denoting to waste, destroy, of men or things; hann eyddi (slew) öllum fjölkunnigum mönnum, Stj. 491, Fms. ii. 41, vii. 8; ekki muntu með þessu e. öllum sonum Haralds konungs, i. 16. β. of money; eyða fé, etc., to spend money, Eg. 70, Grág. i. 327, Nj. 29, Fms. i. 118: to squander, 655 iii. 1, Nj. 18, Fms. xi. 423, Fs. 79: reflex., hann átti land gott en eyddusk lausafé, but his loose cash went, Fms. vi. 102. II. with acc. to lay waste, desolate, or the like; upp eyða (lay waste) alla þeirra bygð, Fms. v. 161; þá vóru eydd skip Svía-konungs átjan, eighteen of the Swedish king’s ships were made void of men, x. 353; hann eyddi bygðina, iv. 44. 2. to desert, leave; en skyldi út bera ok e. skemmuna, Fms. v. 262; féllu sumir en sumir eyddu (deserted from) hálfrýmin (in a battle), viii. 226; skip brotið eða eytt, a ship wrecked or abandoned, Grág. i. 91; en hón er nú eydd af mönnum, forlorn or deserted of men, Al. 1. β. impers., eða héruð eyði, if counties be laid waste, K. Þ. K. 38; hence eyði-hús, etc. (below). 3. as a law term, of a meeting, to terminate, dissolve; ef þeir eru eigi samþinga, eðr vár-þing eru eydd, or if it be past the várþing, Grág. ii. 271; en er sá dagr kom er veizluna skyldi eyða, when men were to depart, break up the feast, Fms. xi. 331. 4. a law term, eyða mál, sókn, vörn, to make a suit void by counter-pleading; e. dæmð mál, Grág. ii. 23; munu vér e. málit með öxar-hömrum, Fs. 61; ok eyðir málit fyrir Birni, 125; eyddi Broddhelgi þá enn málit, Vápn. 13; at hann vildi í því hans sök e., ef hann vildi hans mál í því e., of unlawful pleading, Grág. i. 121; vera má at Eysteinn konungr hafi þetta mál eytt með lögkrókum sínum, Fms. vii. 142; eyddusk sóknir ok varnir, Nj. 149: with dat., eytt vígsmálum, 244; hélt þá Snorri fram málinu ok eyddi bjargkviðnum, Eb. 160, Arnkels (but no doubt less correct).

eyða, u, f. [auðr], a gap, lacuna, in a book, (mod.)

eyði, n. [auðr, Germ. öde], waste, desert; leggja í e., to leave in the lurch, desert, Jb. 277; jörðin var e. og tóm, Gen. i. 2; yðart hús skal yðr í e. látið verða, Matth. xxiii. 38: in COMPDS, desert, forlorn, wild; eyði-borg, f. a deserted town (castle), Stj. 284. eyði-bygð, f. a desert country, Fs. 19. eyði-dalr, m. a wild, desolate vale, Hrafn. 1. eyði-ey, f. a desert island, Fms. x. 154. eyði-fjall, n. a wild fell, Sks. 1. eyði-fjörðr, m. a desert firth county, Fs. 24. eyði-haf, n. the wild sea, Stj. 636. eyði-hús, n. deserted dwellings, Hkr. ii. 379. eyði-jörð, f. a deserted household or farm, Dipl. iii. 13, Jb. 183. eyði-kot, n. a deserted cottage, Vm. 61. eyði-land, n. desert land, Hkr. i. 96. eyði-mörk, f. a desert, wilderness, Fms. i. 118, iv. 336, v. 130, Fær. 62, Stj. 141, 283. eyði-rjóðr, n. a desert plain, Stj. 527, 2 Sam. xv. 28. eyði-skemma, u, f. a desert barn, Hkr. ii. 383. eyði-sker, n. a wild rock, skerry, Fs. 18. eyði-skógr, m. a wild ‘shaw’ (wood), Stj. 485. eyði-staðr, m. a barren place, 655 xiii B, Bs. i. 204. eyði-tröð, f. a desolate lane. Sturl. ii. 209, cp. auða tröð, Hkm. 20. eyði-veggr, m. a deserted building, ruin, Karl. 2.

eyði-legging, f. desolation, Matth. xxiv. 15.

eyði-leggja, lagði, to lay waste, N. T.

eyði-liga, adv. in a forlorn state, Stj. 113.

eyði-ligr, adj. empty, in metaph. sense, sad, cheerless; veikligr ok e., weakly and cheerless, Fas. ii. 30; e. veraldar riki, v. 343; ýmislegt né e., 677. 2: medic., e-m er eyðiligt, one feels empty (hollow) and uneasy: also in the phrase, e-t er eyðiligt, strange, unpleasant.

eyðla, u, f. [early Swed. oydla; cp. Dan. ögle, ‘der er ögler i mosen’]:—a lizard, also a toad, ÓH.: hence eðl-vina, adj. the friend of lizards and toads, epithet of a witch, Hdl.; cp. the charm in Macbeth.

eyðsla, u, f. waste, squandering. COMPDS: eyðslu-maðr, m. a spendthrift, þorst. hv. 35. eyðslu-semi, f. extravagance.

Ey-firzkr, adj., Ey-firðingar, m. pl. men from Eyjafirth in Icel., Landn.

eygir, m. one who frightens, a terror, Lex. Poët.

eygja, ð, to furnish with a loop or eye, Fins. xi. 304. β. [Dan. öjne], to see, esp. to see far off, Clar. 176.

ey-gló, f. the ever-glowing, poët. the sun, Alm. 17.

ey-góðr, adj. [Dan. ejegod], ‘ever-good,’ cognom. of a Danish king, Fms. xi.

EYGR, later form eygðr, which, however, is freq. in MSS. of the 14th century, adj. [auga]:—having eyes of a certain kind; vel e., with fine eyes, Stj. 460. I Sam. xvi. 12, Nj. 39: e. manna bezt, Ísl. ii. 190, Fms. vi. 438, xi. 79; mjök eygðr, large-eyed, Þorf. Karl. 422; eigi vel eyg, not good looking, Fms. iii. 216; e. mjök ok vel, with large and fine eyes, Eb. 30, Fb. i.545; e. forkunnar vel, with eyes exceeding fine, Fms. iv. 38; esp. freq. in compds: in the Sagas a man is seldom described without marking the colour, shape, or expression ol his eyes, fagr-e., bjart-e., dökk-e., svart-e., blá-e., grá-e., mó-e.; the shape also, opin-e., út-e., inn-e., smá-e., stór-e., etc.; the lustre of the eye, snar-e., fast-e., hvass-e., frán-e., dapr-e., etc.; expressing disease, vát-e., rauð-e., ein-e.; expressing something wrong in the eye, hjá-e., til-e., rang-e., etc., Fél. ix.192.

eyj-óttr, adj. full of islands, Fb. i. 541.

eyk-hestr, m. a cart-horse, Eg. 149, Fb. ii. 332.

eyki, n. a vehicle; hestr ok e., Dropl. 26.

EYKR, m., pl. eykir, gen. eykia, [Swed. ök; Dan. ög; akin to ok, a yoke]:—a beast of draught; úlfalda ok eyki, Stj. 393; hross eðr eyk, Grág. i. 434; þat er einn e. má draga, ii. 362; þeir hvildu sik þar ok eyki sína, Eg. 586 (travelling in a sledge); eykja fóðr, fodder for eykr, N. G. L. i. 38: eykr includes oxen, horses, etc.,—eykjum, hestum ok uxum, cattle, whether horses or oxen, Fms. v. 249; eyk, uxa eðr hross, Jb. 52; uxa ok asna, þá sömu eyki …, Mar.; hefi ek öngva frétt af at nokkurr þeirra hafi leitt eyki Þórs (of Thor in his wain with the he-goats), Fb. i. 321: metaph., Bs. i. 294. II. the passage Bs. i. 674—þar er þeir höfðu eykinn búit—ought to be read ‘eikjuna,’ vide eikja. eykja-gerfi, n. the harness of an eykr, Ýt. 10; jötuns-e., the giants’ e., i. e. a wild ox, poët., 14: in poetry ships are called the eykir of the sea-kings and the sea.

eyk-reiði, n. the harness of an eykr, Gþl. 358.

EYKT, eykð, f. three or half-past three o’clock P. M.; many commentaries have been written upon this word, as by Pal Vídalín Skýr., Finn Johnson in H. E. i. 153 sqq. note 6, and in Horologium, etc. The time of eykð is clearly defined in K. Þ. K. 92 as the time when the sun has past two parts of the ‘útsuðr’ (q. v.) and has one part left, that is to say, half-past three o’clock P. M.: it thus nearly coincides with the eccl. Lat. nona (three o’clock P. M.); and both eykt and nona are therefore used indiscriminately in some passages. Sunset at the time of ‘eykð’ is opposed to sunrise at the time of ‘dagmál,’ q. v. In Norway ‘ykt’ means a luncheon taken about half-past three o’clock. But the passage in Edda—that autumn ends and winter begins at sunset at the time of eykt—confounded the commentators, who believed it to refer to the conventional Icel. winter, which (in the old style) begins with the middle of October, and lasts six months. In the latitude of Reykholt—the residence of Snorri—the sun at this time sets about half-past four. Upon this statement the commentators have based their reasoning both in regard to dagmál and eykt, placing the eykt at half-past four P. M. and dagmál at half-past seven A. M., although this contradicts the definition of these terms in the law. The passage in Edda probably came from a foreign source, and refers not to the Icel. winter but to the astronomical winter, viz. the winter solstice or the shortest day; for sunset at half-past three is suited not to Icel., but to the latitude of Scotland and the southern parts of Scandinavia. The word is also curious from its bearing upon the discovery of America by the ancients, vide Fb. l. c. This sense (half-past three) is now obsolete in Icel., but eykt is in freq. use in the sense of trihorium, a time of three hours; whereas in the oldest Sagas no passage has been found bearing this sense,—the Bs. i. 385, 446, and Hem. l. c. are of the 13th and 14th centuries. In Norway ykt is freq. used metaph. of all the four meal times in the day, morning-ykt, midday-ykt, afternoon-ykt (or ykt proper), and even-ykt. In old MSS. (Grág., K. Þ. K., Hem., Heið. S.) this word is always spelt eykð or eykþ, shewing the root to be ‘auk’ with the fem. inflex. added; it probably first meant the eke-meal, answering to Engl. lunch, and thence came to mean the time of day at which this meal was taken. The eccl. law dilates upon the word, as the Sabbath was to begin at ‘hora nona;’ hence the phrase, eykt-helgr dagr (vide below). The word can have no relation to átta, eight, or átt, plaga coeli. At present Icel. say, at eykta-mótum, adv. at great intervals, once an eykt, once in three hours. I. half-past three; þá er eykð er útsuðrs-átt er deild í þriðjunga, ok hefir sól gengna tvá hluti en einn ógenginn, K. Þ. K. 92; net skal öll upp taka fyrir eykð, 90; helgan dag eptir eykð, 88; ef þeir hafa unnit á eykð, 94; enda skal hann undan honum hafa boðit fyrir miðjan dag en hinn skal hafa kosit at eykþ, Grág. i. 198; ok á maðr kost at stefna fyrir eykþ ef vill, 395; í þat mund dags er tók út eyktina, Fms. xi. 136; eptir eykt dags, rendering of the Lat. ‘vix decima parte diei reliqua,’ Róm. 313; þeir gengu til eyktar, ok höfðu farit árla morguns, en er nón var dags, etc., Fs. 176; at eykð dags þá kómu heim húskarlar Barða. Ísl. ii. 329; nú vættir mik at þar komi þér nær eykð dags, 345; var þat nær eykð dags, 349; var hón at veraldligu verki þangat til er kom eykð, þá fór hón til bænar sinnar at nóni, Hom. (St.) 59. COMPDS: eykðar-helgr, adj. = eykthelgr, Hom. (St.) 13. eyktar-staðr, m. the place of the sun at half-past three P. M.; meira var þar jafndægri en á Grænlandi eðr Íslandi, sól hafði þar eyktar-stað ok dagmála-stað um skamdegi, Fb. i. 539,—this passage refers to the discovery of America; but in A. A. l. c. it is wrongly explained as denoting the shortest day nine hours long, instead of seven; it follows that the latitude fixed by the editors of A. A. is too far to the south; frá jafndægri er haust til þess er sól setzk í eykðarstað, þá er vetr til jafndægris, Edda 103. eykðar-tíð, n. the hour of eykð, = Lat. nona, Hom. (St.) 1. c. II. trihorium; en er liðin var nær ein eykt dags, Bs. i. 446; at þat mundi verit hafa meir en hálf eykt, er hann vissi ekki til sín, 385; þessi flaug vanst um eina eykð dags, Hem. (Hb.)

eykt-heilagr, adj. a day to be kept holy from the hour of eykt, or half-past three P. M., e. g. Saturday, Grág. i. 395.

ey-kyndill, m. ‘isle-candle,’ cognom. of a fair lady, Bjarn.

ey-land, n. an island, Fms. i. 233, xi. 230, Eb. 316. β. the island Öland in Sweden, A. A. 290.

ey-lífr, v. eilífr.

EYMA, d, [aumr], to feel sore; in the phrase, e. sik, to wail, Hom. 155: reflex., eymask, id., Post. (Fr.) β. impers., in the metaph. phrase, það eymir af e-u, one feels sore, of after-pains, Fas. iii. 222: in mod. usage also of other things, whatever can still be smelt or felt, as if it came from eimr, q. v.

eyma, ð, [aumr], to commiserate, Post. 69.

eymd (eymð), f. misery, Fms. i. 223, ii. 126, vi. 334, viii. 242: in pl., Stj. 38; af lítilli e., Fas. i. 215. COMPDS: eymðar-skapr and eymdar-háttr, m. wretchedness. eymðar-tíð, f. and eymðar-tími, a, m. time of misery, 655 xxxii. 2. Stj. 404, Karl. 248.

eymðar-ligr, adj. (-liga, adv.), pitiful, piteous, Post.

eymstr, n., medic. a sore, sore place.

ey-negldr, part. studded with islands, poët. epithet of the sea, Lex. Poët.

EYRA, n., pl. eyru, gen. eyrna, [Lat. auris; Goth. ausô: A. S. eâre; Engl. ear; O. H. G. ôra; Germ. ohr; Swed. öra, öron; Dan. öre, ören]:—an ear; eyrum hlýðir, en augum skoðar, he listens with his ears, but looks with his eyes, Hm. 7:—proverbs, mörg eru konungs eyru, many are the king’s ears, Orkn. 252; þar eru eyru sæmst sem óxu, the ears fit best where they grow, i. e. a place for everything and everything in its place, Nj. 80; láta inn um eitt eyrat en út um hitt, to let a thing in at one ear and out at the other; láta e-t sem vind um eyrun þjóta, to let a thing blow like the wind about one’s ears, i. e. heed it not; Grími var sem við annat eyrat gengi út þat er Þorsteinn mælti, Brand. 60; svá var sem Kálfi færi um annat eyrat út þótt hann heyrði slíkt talað, Fms. xi. 46; skjóta skolla-eyrum við e-u, to turn a fox’s ear (a deaf ear) to a thing; þar er mér úlfs ván er ek eyru sé’k, I can guess the wolf when I see his ears, Fm. 35, Finnb. 244; við eyra e-m, under one’s nose, Ld. 100; mæla í e. e-m, to speak into one’s ear, Fg. 549; hafa nef í eyra e-m, to put one’s nose in one’s ear, i. e. to be a tell-tale, Lv. 57; leiða e-n af eyrum, to get rid of one, Ísl. ii. 65; setja e-n við eyra e-m, to place a person at one’s ear, of an unpleasant neighbour, Ld. 100; setr (hnefann) við eyra Hými, gave Hymir a box on the ear, Edda 36; e-m loðir e-t í eyrum, it cleaves to one’s ears, i. e. one remembers, Bs. i. 163; reisa, sperra eyrun, to prick up the ears, etc.; koma til eyrna e-m, to come to one’s ears, Nj. 64; roðna út undir bæði eyru, to blush from ear to ear. COMPDS: eyrna-blað, n. (Sks. 288, v. l.), eyrna-blaðkr, m., eyrna-snepill, m. (Korm. 86, H. E. i. 492), the lobe of the ear. eyrna-búnaðr, m. (Stj. 396), eyrna-gull, n. (Stj. 311, 396), eyrna-hringr, m. ear-rings. eyrna-lof, n. ‘ear-praise,’ vain praise, Barl. 63. eyrna-mark, n. ear-cropping, of animals, Grág. ii. 308, cp. 309, Jb. 291. eyra-runa, u, f. a rowning of secrets in one’s ear, poët. a wife, Vsp. 45, Hm. 116. eyrna-skefill, m. an ear-pick. II. some part of a ship, Edda (Gl.) β. a handle, e. g. on a pot. γ. anatom., óhljóðs-eyru, the auricles of the heart. δ. hunds-eyru, dogs-ears (in a book).

eyra-rós, f., botan. a flower, epilobium montanum, Hjalt.

EYRENDI or örendi, erendi, n. [A. S. ærend = mandatum; Engl. errand; Hel. arundi; O. H. G. arunti; Swed. ärende; Dan. œrende; akin to árr, a messenger, vide p. 45, and not, as some suggest, from ör-andi; the reference Edda l. c. is quite isolated; there is, however, some slight irregularity in the vowel]:—an errand, message, business, mission; eiga e. við e-n, to have business with one, Eg. 260; reka eyrendi, to do an errand, message (hence erind-reki), 15; þess eyrendis, to that errand or purpose, Stj. 115, 193; hann sendi menn sína með þessháttar erendum, Fms. i. 15; báru þeir fram sín erindi, 2, Íb. 11; hón svaraði þeirra erindum, Fms. i. 3; ok láti yðr fram koma sínu eyrendi, 127; koma brátt þessi örendi (news) fyrir jarlinn, xi. 83; hann sagdi eyrendi sín þeim af hljóði, Nj. 5; mun annat vera erindit, 69; gagna at leita eðr annarra eyrenda, 235; tók Þorgils þeim eyrendum vel, Sturl. iii. 170; síns örendis, for one’s own purpose, Grág. i. 434; ek á leynt e. (a secret errand) við þik, Fs. 9; erviði ok ekkí örendi, Þkv. (vide erfiði); hafa þeir hingat sótt skapnaðar-erindi, a suitable errand or end, Þiðr. 202; ef eyrindit evðisk, if my errand turns to naught, Bs. ii. 132; ek em ósæmiligr slíks erendis, unwortby of such an errand, Sturl. i. 45; þannog var þá mikit eyrendi margra manna, many people flocked to that place, Bs. i. 164. β. the phrase, ganga örna sinna, to go to do one’s business, cacare, Eb. 20, Landn. 98, Stj. 383 (where eyrna), Judges iii. 24, Bs. i. 189, Fs. 75 (spelt erinda); setjask niðr at eyrindi, id., Bs. ii. 24; stíga af baki örna sinna, Sturl. 172. 2. a message, speech; talði hann mörg örendi með mikilli snild, Fms. x. 274; Snorri Goði stóð þá upp ok talaði langt eyrindi ok snjallt, then Snorri Godi stood up and made a long and fine speech (in parliament), Nj. 250; en er Sigurðr jarl hafði heyrt svá langt ok snjallt eyrendi, Orkn. 34; konungr talaði snjallt eyrindi yfir greptinum, of a funeral sermon, Fms. x. 151, v. l.; þá mælti Gizurr Hallsson langt erendi ok fagrt, Bs. i. 299; ok áðr hann væri smurðr mælti hann mjök langt örindi, 296; allir rómuðu þetta eyrendi vel, all cheered this speech, Sturl. ii. 217; talaði Hafliði langt e. um málit, i. 35; langt e. ok snjallt, id.; skaut konungr á eyrindi, the king made a speech, Fms. i. 215; en er þing var sett stóð Sigmundr upp ok skaut á löngu eyrendi, Fær. 140. 3. a strophe in a secular poem, vers (a verse) being used of a hymn or psalm; ok jók nokkurum erendum eðr vísum, Hkr. ii. 297; hversu mörg vísu-orð (lines) standa í einu eyrendi, Edda (Ht.) 120; eptir þessi sögu orti Jórunn Skáldmær nokkur erendi í Sendibít, Hkr. i. 117; gef ek þér þat ráð at snúum sumum örendum ok fellum ór sum, O. H. L. 46; allt stafrofið er svo læst | í erindin þessi lítil tvö, a ditty. 4. the breath; en er hann þraut eyrendit ok hann laut ór horninu, when the breath left him and he ‘louted’ from the drinking horn, removed his lips from the horn, of Thor’s draught by Útgarða-Loki, Edda 32. COMPDS: erindis-lauss, n. adj. going in vain; fara at erindislausu, to go in vain. Fs. 5. eyrindis-leysa, u, f. the failure of one’s errand, Hg. 21. eyrindis-lok, n. pl. the result of one’s errand, Fms. xi. 69.

eyrend-laust, n. adj. purpose-less; fara e., to go in vain, Fms. vi. 248, Glúm. 351, Th. 18, Al. 34.

eyrend-reki (örend-reki and erind-reki), a, m. [A. S. ærend-raca], a messenger, Post. 645. 27, Gþl. 12, 42, Greg. 44, Stj. 524, Barl. 52.

eyri-lauss, adj. penniless, N. G. L. i. 52.

EYRIR, m., gen. eyris, dat. and acc. eyri; pl. aurar, gen. aura, dat. aurum; a word prob. of foreign origin, from Lat. aureus, Fr. or, Engl. ore; (A. S. ora is, however, prob. Danish.) The first coins known in Scandinavia were Roman or Byzantine, then Saxon or English; as the old word baugr (q. v.) denoted unwrought, uncoined gold and silver, so eyrir prob. originally meant a certain coin: I. an ounce of silver or its amount in money, the eighth part of a mark; an eyrir is = sixty pennies (penningar) = three ertog; tuttugu penningar vegnir í örtug, þrír örtugar í eyri. átta aurar í mörk, 732. 16; silfr svá slegit at sextigir penninga görði eyri veginn, Grág. i. 500; penning, þat skal hinn tíundi (prob. a false reading, x instead of lx) hlutr eyris, 357; hálfs eyris met ek hverjan, I value each at a half eyrir, Glúm, (in a verse); leigja skip þrem aurum, to hire a boat for three aurar, Korm.; einn eyrir þess fjár heitir alaðsfestr, Grág. i. 88: the phrase, goldinn liverr eyrir, every ounce paid; galt Guðmundr hvern eyri þá þegar, Sturl. i. 141; gjalda tvá aura fyrir einn, to pay two for one, Grág. i. 396, ii. 234; verðr þá at hálfri mörk vaðmála eyrir, then the eyrir amounts to half a mark in wadmal, i. 500; brent silfr, ok er eyririnn at mörk lögaura, pure silver, the ounce of which amounts to a mark in lögaurar, 392; hring er stendr sex aura, a ring worth or weighing six aurar, Fms. ii. 246; hence baugr tví-eyringr, tvítug-eyringr, a ring weighing two or twenty aurar, Eb., Glúm. β. as a weight of other things beside silver; hagl hvert vá eyri, every hail-stone weighed an ounce, Fms. i. 175; stæltr lé ok vegi áttjan aura, eggelningr, þeir skulu þrír fyrir tvá aura, a scythe of wrought steel and weighing eighteen aurar, an ell-long edge, three such cost two aurar (in silver), the proportion between the weight in wrought iron and the worth in silver being 1:28, Grág. i. 501. γ. the amount of an ounce, without any notion of the medium of payment, hence such phrases as, tólf aura silfrs, twelve aurar to be paid in silver, Nj. 54; eyrir brendr, burnt eyrir, i. e. an eyrir sterling, pure silver, D. N. II. money in general; skal þar sinn eyri hverjum dæma, to every one his due, his share, Grág. i. 125; in proverbs, ljósir aurar verða at löngum trega, bright silver brings long woe, Sl. 34; margr verðr af aurum api, Hm. 74; illr af aurum, a miser, Jd. 36; vára aura, our money, Vkv. 13; leggja aura, to lay up money, Eg. (in a verse); gefin til aura (= til fjár), wedded to money, Ísl. ii. 254 (in a verse); telja e-m aura, to tell out money to one, Skv. 3. 37, cp. 39: the phrase, hann veit ekki aura sinna tal, he knows not the tale of his aurar, of boundless wealth. Mar. 88: the allit. phrase, lönd (land, estate) ok lausir aurar (movables, cp. Dan. lösöre, Swed. lösören), Eg. 2; hafa fyrirgört löndum ok lausum eyri, K. Á. 94. 2. money or specie; the allit. phrase, aurar ok óðal, money and estates, N. G. L. i. 48; ef hann vill taka við aurum slíkum (such payment) sem váttar vitu at hann reiddi honum, 93; þeim aurum öllum (all valuables) sem til bús þeirra vóru keyptir, Grág. i. 412; Flosi spurði í hverjum aurum hann vildi fyrir hafa, F. asked in what money he wished to he paid, Nj. 259; lögaurar, such money as is legal tender; þú skalt gjalda mér vaðmál, ok skilrað hann frá aðra aura, other kinds of payment, Grág. i. 392; útborinn eyrir, in the phrase, mér er það enginn utborinn (or útburðar-) eyrir, I do not want to part with it, offer it for sale; eyrir vaðmála, payment in wadmal (stuff), 300, Bs. i. 639: for the double standard, the one woollen (ells), the other metal (rings or coin), and the confusion between them, see Dasent’s Burnt Njal, vol. ii. p. 397 sqq.: at different times and places the ell standard varied much, and we hear of three, six, nine, twelve ell standards (vide alin, p. 13): in such phrases as ‘mörk sex álna aura,’ the word ‘mörk’ denotes the amount, ‘sex álna’ the standard, and ‘aura’ the payment = payment of ‘a mark of six ells,’ cp. a pound sterling, K. Þ. K. 172; hundrað (the amount) þriggja álna (the standard) aura, Sturl. i. 141, 163, Boll. 362, Ísl. ii. 28; mörk sex álna eyris, Fsk. 10, N. G. L. i. 65, 101, 389, 390; þrem mörkum níu álna eyris, 387–389; sex merkr tólf álna eyrir, 81. β. in various compds, etc.; land-aurar, land tax, Jb. ch. i, Ó. H. 54; öfundar-eyrir, money which brings envy, Fs. 12; sak-metinn e., sak-eyrir, sakar-eyrir, money payable in fines, Fms. vii. 300; ómaga-eyrir, the money of an orphan, K. Þ. K. 158, Grág. ii. 288; liksöngs-eyrir, a ‘lyke-fee,’ burial fee (to the clergyman); vísa-eyrir, a tax: góðr e., good payment, D. N.; verð-aurar, articles used for payment, id.; forn-gildr e., standard, sterling payment, id.; færi-eyrir = lausir aurar, Skv. 3. 50; flytjandi e., id., Fr.; kaupmanna e., trade money; búmanna e., D. N.; Norrænn e., Norse money, Lv. 25; Hjaltenzkr e., Shetland money, D. N. (vide Fritzner s. v.); fríðr e., ‘kind,’ i. e. sheep and cattle, Grág. COMPDS: I. pl., aura-dagr, m. pay-day, D. N. aura-lag, n. the standard of money, Fms. vii. 300, 304. aura-lán, n. worldly luck, 656 i. 3. aura-lógan, f. the squandering of money, 655 iii. 1. aura-lykt, n. payment, D. N. aura-skortr, m. scarcity of money, D. N. aura-taka, u, f. receipt of money, N. G. L. i. 93, Gþl. 298. II. sing., eyris-bót, f. fine of an eyrir, Grág. i. 158. eyris-kaup, n. a bargain to the amount of an eyrir, Gþl. 511. eyris-land, n. land giving the rent of an eyrir, Fms. x. 146. eyris-skaði, a, m. loss to the amount of an eyrir, Jb. 166. eyris-tíund, f. tithe of an eyrir, K. Þ. K. 148. eyris-tollr, m. toll of an eyrir, H. E. ii. 95.

EYRR, f., mod. eyri, gen. eyrar, dat. and acc. eyri, pl. eyrar, [aurr; Dan. öre; Swed. ör: it remains also in Scandin. local names, as Eyrar-sund, the Sound; Helsing-ör, Elsinore, qs. Helsingja-eyrr]:—a gravelly bank, either of the banks of a river (ár-eyrar, dals-cyrar) or of small tongues of land running into the sea, Fms. v. 19, Eg. 196, Nj. 85, Grág. ii. 355, N. G. L. i. 242, and passim in local names, esp. in Icel., vide Landn.: eyrar-oddi and eyrar-tangi, a, m. the point or tongue of an eyrr, Gísl. 93, Grág. ii. 354, Jb. 314, Háv. 47; Eyrar-maðr, m. a man from the place E., Sturl. iii. 11, Band. 9; Eyr-byggjar, m. pl. id., hence Eyrbyggja Saga, the history of that name, Landn., Eb., Bs. i. 409. A great meeting used to be held at Haleyr, now Copenhagen (P. A. Munch), Fær. ch. 2, hence Eyrar-floti, a, m. the fleet at Eyrar, Eg. 78. Another meeting was held in Drondheim (Niðarós) on the gravel banks of the river Nid, hence Eyrar-þing, n., Fms. vi. 24, viii. 49, ix. 91, 449, etc. II. duels usually took place on a gravel bank or on an island, hence the phrase, ganga út á eyri, to go to fight, Ísl. ii. 256 (in a verse); mér hefir stillir stökt til eyrar, the king has challenged me to fight a duel, Hkv. Hjörv. 33. β. in poetry used in circumlocutions of a woman, Lex. Poët.

eyr-silfr, n. ‘ore-silver,’ mercury, 655 xxx. 7; mod. kvika-silfr.

eyrskr, adj. a dub. απ. λεγ., in the phrase, jó eyrskan, a shod (?) horse, Akv. 32; vide aurskór.

eyr-uggi, a, m. the breast-fin, of a fish.

eysill, m., dimin. [ausa], little ladle, a nickname, Fms. xii.

eystri, [austr], compar. the more eastern; austastr, superl. the most eastern, Nj. 8, 281, Hkr. i. 137, Eg. 100, Fms. i. 252, vii. 259, xi. 414. Eystra-salt, n. the Baltic, Fms. i. 100, Fær. 10, etc.

Ey-verskr, adj. from the Orkneys, Landn. 27, B. K. 29, Lex. Poët.

ey-vit or ey-fit, ey-fvit, ey-vitar, adv. [ey = not, and vit = wight], naught; used as subst. eyvitar, gen., Hm. 93; eyvitu, dat., 27; but else used as adv., blandask eyvitar (blend not) við aðra ísa, Sks. 40 new Ed.: the proverb, eyfit týr (it boots not) þótt skyndi seinn, Mkv.; eyfit hef ek fé, I have no money, Fbr. 49 new Ed.; en biskup hafði þó eyfvit at sök við þenna mann, the bishop could do nothing with this man, Bs. i. 170; hón matti eyfit mæla eðr sofa, she could neither speak nor sleep, 180; hón mátti ok eyfit sofa, 195.

eyx, vide öx.

eyxn = öxn, see uxi.

ey-þolinn, m. the rivet in a clasp knife, now called þolin-móðr, Edda (Gl.)

© Tim Stridmann