A

a, a negative suffix to verbs, not; era útmakligt, at it is not unmeet that.

abbadis (pl. -ar), f. abbess.

abbast (), v. ref. to be angry, to quarrel (a. við e-n, upp á e-n).

abbindi (= afbindi), n. constipation.

aðal, n. nature, disposition.

aðal- in compds., chief, head, principal; -akkeri, n. sheet-anchor; -ból, n. manor; -borinn, pp. of noble birth, = óðal-borinn; -festr, f. see alaðsfestr; -fylking, f. the main body of troops, centre; -haf, n. the high sea; -henda, f. = alhenda; -hending, f. full or perfect rhyme, as góð: blóð (opposed to ‘skothending’); -hendr, a. (verse) with perfect rhymes; -kelda, f. chief well; -kirkja, f. chief part of a church, opp. to ‘forkirkja’; -liga, adv. completely, quite; -merki, n. chief banner; -ritning, f. chief writing; -skáli, m. the main hall, opp. to ‘forskáli, forhús’; -tré, n. trunk of a tree; -troll, n. downright ogre; -túlkr, m. chief spokesman.

aðild, f. chief defendantship or prosecutorship.

aðildarmaðr, m. = aðili.

aðili (-ja, -jar, later -a, -ar), m. chief defendant (varnaraðili) or prosecutor (sóknaraðili, sakaraðili).

af, prep. w. dat. I. Of place: (1) off, from; G. hljóp af hesti sínum, G. jumped off his horse; ganga af mótinu, to go away from the meeting; Flosi kastaði af sér skikkjunni, threw off his cloak; Gizzur gekk af útsuðri at gerðinu, from the south-west; hann hafði leyst af sér skúa sína, he had taken off his shoes; Steinarr vildi slíta hann af sér, throw him off; tók Gísli þá af sér vápnin, took off his arms; bréf af Magnúsi konungi, a letter from king Magnus; land af landi, from one land to the other; hverr af öðrum, one after another, in succession; vil ek þú vinnir af þér skuldina, work off the debt; muntu enga sætt af mér fá, no peace at my hand; rísa af dauða, to rise from the dead; vakna af draumi, to awaken from a dream; lúka upp af hrossi, to open a gate from off a horse; vindr stóð af landi, the wind blew from the land; (2) out of; verða tekinn af heimi, to be taken out of the world; gruflar hón af læknum, she scrambles out of the brook; Otradalr var mjök af vegi, far out of the way. Connected with út; föstudaginn fór út herrinn af borginni, marched out of the town. II. Of time; past, beyond: af ómaga-aldri, able to support oneself, of age; ek em nú af léttasta skeiði, no longer in the prime of life; þá er sjau vikur eru af sumri, when seven weeks of summer are past; var mikit af nótt, much of the night was past. III. In various other relations: (1) þiggja lið af e-m, to receive help from one; hafa umboð af e-m, to be another’s deputy; vera góðs (ills) maklegr af e-m, to deserve good (bad) of one; féll þar lið mart af Eyvindi, many of Eyvind’s men fell there; þá eru þeir útlagir ok af goðorði sínu, have forfeited their ‘goðorð’; þá skalt þú af allri fjárheimtunni, forfeit all the claim; ek skal stefna þér af konunni, summon thee to give up; (2) off, of; höggva fót, hönd, af e-m, to cut off one’s foot, hand; vil ek, at þú takir slíkt sem þér líkar af varningi, whatever you like of the stores; þar lá forkr einn ok brotit af endanum, with the point broken off; absol., beit hann höndina af, bit the hand off; fauk af höfuðit, the head flew off; (3) of, among; hinn efniligasti maðr af ungum mönnum, the most promising of the young men; (4) with; hláða, (ferma) skip af e-u, to load (freight) a ship with; fylla heiminn af sínu kyni, to fill the world with his offspring; (5) of (= ór which is more frequent); húsit var gert af timbr stokkum, was built of trunks of trees; (6) fig., eigi vita menn hvat af honum er orðit, what has become of him; hvat hefir þú gert af Gunnari, what hast thou done with Gunnar?; (7) denoting parentage, descent, origin; ok eru af þeim komnir Gilsbekkingar, are descended from them; kominn af Trójumönnum, descended from the Trojans; (8) by, of (after passive); ek em sendr hingat af Starkaði, sent hither by; ástsæll af landsmónnum, beloved of; (9) on account of, by reason of, by; úbygðr at frosti ok kulda, because of frost and cold; ómáli af áverkum, speechless from wounds; af ástæld hans, by his popularity; af því, therefore; af hví, wherefor why; af því at, because; (10) by means of, by; framfœra e-n af verkum sínum, by means of his own labour; af sínu fé, by one’s own means; absol., hann fekk af hina mestu sœmd, derived great honour from it; (11) with adjectives, in regard to; mildr af fé, liberal of money; góðr af griðum, merciful; fastr af drykk, close (stingy) in regard to drink; (12) used absol. with a verb, off away; hann bað hann þá róa af fjörðinn, to row the firth off; ok er þeir höfðu af fjörðung, when they had covered one forth of the way; sofa af nóttina, to sleep the night away.

afar, adv., used as an intensive before an adj. or another adv., very, exceedingly (a. auðigr, a. breiðr, a. vel, a. illa).

afarkosta-laust, adv. on fair terms.

afar-kostr, m. hard terms; -ligr, a. immense, huge; -menni, n. an outstanding man; -orð, n. overbearing word; -úðigr, a. overbearing; -yrði, n. pl. proud speech.

af-auðit, pp. n., e-m verðr afauðit um e-t, one has bad luck (fails) in a thing; -blómga (), v. to deprive of flowers; fig., afblómga frægð e-s, to detract from one’s fame; -boð, n. threats, high words; -bragð, n. paragon (afbragð annarra manna); in genitive as a prefix to nouns, surpassing, excellent (afbragðs vænleikr, afbragðs maðr).

afbragðligr, a. surpassing.

afbrigð, n. deviation, transgression.

afbrigðar-tré, n. tree of transgression.

af-brigði, n. (1) alteration; (2) = -brigð; -brot, n. offence, transgressi on; -brugðning, f. deviation; -brúðigr, a. jealous; -brýða (-dda, -ddr), v. to be jealous; -brýði, n. jealousy.

afburðar, gen. from ‘afburðr’, used as an intensive before adjectives and adverbs, very, exceedingly (a. digr, a. vænn, a. sterkliga, a. vel).

afburðar-maðr, m. man of mark; -samr, a. given to distinguish oneself; -skip, n. first-rate ship.

af-burðr, m. superiority; kvað honum eigi annat vænna til afburðar, to get the better of it; ok vilda ek, at hón yrði eigi með minnum afburðum, less glorious; -dalr, m. a remote, an out-oj-the-way, valley; -deilingr, m. part, portion, share; -dráttr, m. (1) diminution, deduction; (2) subtraction; -drif, n. pl. destiny, fate (líkligr til stórra afdrifa); -drykkja, f. = ofdrykkja; -dœma (-da, -dr), v. (1) to take away from one by judicial decision (afdœma e-n e-u); (2) to prohibit; -eggja (), v. to dissuade; -eigna (), v. to dispossess (afeigna e-m e-t); -eista (), v. to castrate; -erfa (-ða, -ðr), v. to disinherit; -eyringr, m. one whose ears have been cut off; -fall, n. diminution, abatement; selja e-t með afföllum, to sell at a discount.

affara-, gen. pl. from ‘afför’, departure; hence affara-dagr, m. the last day of a feast; -dagr jóla, Twelth Night; affara-kveld, n. the last evening of a feast.

af-feðrast (), v. to degenerate; -ferma (-da, -dr), v. to unload (afferma skip); -fletta (-tta, -ttr), v. to strip (affletta e-n e-u); -flutningr, m. (1) depreciation; (2) dissuasion; -flytja (see flytja), v. (1) to disparage (afflytja fyrir e-m); (2) to represent as unadvisable; -fœra, v. to misrepresent; -gamall, a. very old, decrepit; -ganga, f. (1) digression; (2) deviation from the right course (afganga guðs laga); -gangr, m. (1) surplus; hafa hey með afgöngum, to spare; afgangs, left over, remaining; (2) decease, death; -gelja, f. chattering; -gipt, f. indulgence, absolution.

afgiptar-bréf, n. letter of indulgence.

af-gjarn, a. eager to be off (afgjarnt er öfundarfé); -gjöf, f. tribute; -glapa (), v. to disturb an assembly or public meeting; -glapan, f. disturbance (þings afglapan); -glapi, m. fool, simpleton; -greizla, f. payment, contribution.

afgöngu-dagr, m. = affara-dagr.

af-gøra (-ða, -ðr), v. to do amiss, do wrong (ek hefi engan hlut afgørt við þik); -gørð, f. transgression, offence; -hallr, a. having a downward slope; -haugr, m. side-mound; -hefð, f. withholding, anothet’s property; -helgast (), refl. to become unholy, to be profaned; -hellir, m. side-cave; -henda (-nda, -ndr), v. (1) to hand over; (2) to pay (afhenda skuld); -hendis, adv. off one’s hand; -hendr, a. out of one’s hand; segja e-n (sér) afhendan, to give one up; -hent, a. n. unfit (e-m er e-t afhent); -heyrandi, pr. p. out of hearing; absent, opp. to ‘áheyrandi’; -heyris, adv. out of hearing, opp. to ‘áheyris’; -hlaup, n. surplus; -hlutr, m. share of a thing; -hlýðast (-dd), v. refl. to disobey; -hrapi, m. impoverishment; -hroð, n. damage, loss; gjalda mikit afhroð, to sustain a heavy loss; gera mikit afhroð, to make great havoc; -huga, a. indecl. having turned one’s mind from; verða afhuga e-u, to mind no more; -hugaðr, a. = -huga (-hugaðr við e-t); -hugast (), v. refl. to put out of one’s mind, with dat.; -hús, n. outhouse, side-apartinent; -hvarf, n. deviation from the direct path (opp. to ‘gagnvegr’); -hýða (-dda, -ddr), v. to scourge thoroughly; -hylja (see hylja), v. to uncover; -hyrning, f. by-corner, recess; -hæra (-ðs, -ðr), v. to cut off the hair; -höfða (), v. to behead; -högg, n. hewing off, mutilation; chippings.

afi, m. (1) grandfather; (2) man; a. eptir afa, in regular descent.

af-kaup, n. bad bargain (opp. to ‘hagkeypi’).

af-kárr, a. strange, prodigious.

afkleyfis-orð, n., -samstafa, f. a superfluous word, syllable (in a verse).

af-klæða (-dda, -ddr), v. to undress; refl., afklæðast, to undress oneself; -komandi (pl. -endr), m. descendant; -kvistr, m. lateral branch, offshoot; -kvæmi, n. offspring.

afkvæmis-maðr, m. descendant.

af-kynjaðr, pp. degenerate; -kynjast (), v. refl. to degenerate.

afl, m. hearth of a forge.

afl, n. (1) physical strength (ramr styrkr, at afli); (2) force, violence taka með afli, by force; (3) plurality of votes, majority; ok skal afl ráda, the majority shall decide; (4) virtue, inherent power; a. dauðfœrandi grasa, the virtue of poisonous herbs.

afla (), v. to gain, earn, procure (a. e-m e-s); a. sér fjár ok frama, to earn fame and wealth; aflaði þessi bardagi honum mikillar frægðar, brought him great fame; (2) with acc., to earn (aflaði hann þar fé mikit); refl., e-m aflast e-t, one gains a thing; (3) with dat., to perform, accomplish (hann aflaði brátt mikilli vinnu); with infin., to be able (ekki aflar hann því at standa í móti yður).

afla-fár, a. short of strength; e-m verðr afla-fátt, one fails in strength.

aflag, n. (1) slaughtering of cattle; (2) gen., aflags = afgangs, left over.

af-laga, adv. unlawfully; -lagliga, adv. = aflaga.

afla-lítill, a. deficient in strength, weak; -maðr, m. powerful man; -mikill, a. (1) strong; (2) powerful; -munr, m. odds; etja við -muninn, to fight against odds.

aflan, f. gain, acquisition.

aflanar-maðr, m. good steward.

afla-skortr, m. short-coming in power or strength; -stund, f. fishing season.

af-lausn, f. (1) discharge (release) from claim or obligation; (2) absolution, indulgence (aflausn synda); -lot, n. (1) leaving off, relinquishing (aflát synda, misverka); án afláti, incessantly; (2) remission, pardon (aflat misgerninga, synda); -láta (see láta), v. with infin. to cease; -leggja (see leggja), v. (1) to put aside; (2) to give up, abandon; -leiðing, f. (1) terms; góðar afleiðingar eru með þeim, they are on good terms; (2) metric., continuation; -leiðingr, m. = afleiðing (1); þeir skildu góðan afleiðing, they parted on friendly terms; -leiðis, adv. (1) out of the right path or course (sigla afleiðis); (2) fig., ganga afleiðis, to go astray; snua (draga, fœra) e-t afleiðis, to pervert, misrepresent (þú fœrðir orð þeirra afleiðis); snúa e-m afleiðis, to lead astray; -leifar, f. pl. leavings, remnants; -leitinn, a. of odd appearance; -leitliga, adv. perversely (illa ok afleitliga); -leitligr, a. perverse, deformed; -leitr, a. (1) strange, hideous, disgusting (hversu afleitir oss sýnast þeirra hættir); (2) with dat., deserted by; afleitr hamingjunni, luckless; -lendis, adv. abroad (= erlendis); -lendr, a. far from land, in open sea; -letja (see letja), v. to dissuade from (afletja e-n at gera e-t, afletja e-t fyrir sér); -létta (-tta, -tt), v. to cease; cf. létta af; -léttr, a. prompt, ready.

afl-fátt, a. n. short of strength; e-m verðr -fátt, one fails in strength.

afl-gróf, f. forge-fit; -hella, f. hearth-stone in a forge.

afli, m. (1) means, gain, earnings, proceeds (afli ok herfang); (2) might, power; hafa afla til einskis, to have means for nothing, be unable to do anything; (3) troops, forces; þeir draga afla at ýður, they gather forces against you; aflinn (the main body) Magnúss, konungs flýði allr.

af-lima (), v. to dismember, mutilate; -lima, a. indecl. (1) dismembered, mutilated; (2) fig., verða aflima, to lose the use of one’s limbs, to become paralysed; verða e-m aflima, to be parted from (ek kveð aflima orðnar þérdísir); -liman, f. dismembering, mutilation.

afl-lauss, a. nerveless, weak, palsied, paralytic; -leysi, n. weakness, nervelessness; -lítill, a. weak, feeble; -mikill, a. strong, of great strength.

af-lofa, v. to prohibit; -loka (), v. to open (afloka hurðina).

afl-raun, f. trial (proof) of strength (þótti þetta mikill -raun); pl. bodily exercises (Skallagrímr hendi mikit gaman at -raunum ok leikum); -skortr, m. lack of strength; (skortr við þik fyrrum).

afls-maðr, m. strong man; -munr, m. difference in strength, odds.

afl-vani, a. deficient in strength; verða afl-vani, to succumb, be over-powered.

afl-vóðvi, m. the biceps muscle.

af-lögliga, adv. unlawfully; -lögligr, a. unlawful, contrary to law; -má (see ), v. to blot out, destroy; -mœðra (), v. to wean; -nám, n. (1) taking away, extirpation, destruction; (2) at afnámi, by reservation (before division of property, spoil, or inheritance); (3) loss (ef hann verðr at skaða þeim mönnum, er oss mun þykkja afnám í); (4) surplus.

afnáms-fé, n., -gripr, m. goods, an article of value, taken before a division; cf. afnám (2).

af-nefjaðr, pp. having the nose cut off, noseless; -neita ( or -tta, -tt), v. (1) to renounce (afneita veröldinni); (2) deny, refuse (eigi vil ek því afneita); -neitan, -neiting, f. abnegation, renunciation, denial; -neyzla, f. use (afneyzla skógarins); -nita (-tta, -tt), v. = -neita.

afr, n. some kind of beverage.

afr, a. strong (a. í tvau áss brotnaði).

af-ráð, n. payment; gjalda afráð, to pay heavily, suffer severely.

af-reið, f. setting off on horseback.

af-reizla, f. outlay, payment.

af-rek, n. great achievement, deed of prowess (vinna afrek; margir lofuðu mjök afrek Egils).

af-reka (), v. to achieve, perform (munu þér mikit afreka).

afreks-gripr, m. a thing of great value; -maðr, m. a valiant man, hero; -verk, n. valiant deed, great achievement, exploit.

af-remma, f. restriction, encumbrance.

afrendi, f. strength, valour; afrendr, a. strong (a. at afli); cf. afr-hendr.

af-rétt, f. common pasture, = af-réttr.

afréttar-dómr, m. a court held for deciding causes concerning common pasture; -menn, m. pl. partners in common pasture.

af-réttr, m. common pasture (þat er afréttr, er tveir menn eigo saman eða fleiri).

afr-hendr, a. strong, = afrendr.

af-roð, n. = afhroð, afráð; -róg, n. justification, excuse; -ruðningr, m. clearing of, defence; -runr (pl. -ir), m. injury, wrong; -rœkja (-ta, -tr), v. to neglect, = úrœkja (afrœkja boð e-s); refl., afrœkjast e-u or e-t, to neglect; to leave off (konungar afrœktust at sitja at Uppsölum); -saka (), v. to excuse, exculpate; -sakan, f. excuse, exculpation; -sanna (), v. to prove to be false, refute; -segja (see segja), v. (1) to resign, renounce (afsagði hann sér heiminn); (2) to refuse, deny (þeir afsögðu leiðangr úti at hafa); -setning, f. deposition; -siða, a. indecl. immoral; -sifja (), v. to alienate from one’s family (afsifja sér e-t); -síða, adv. aside, apart; -skapligr, a. monstrous, huge, shocking (afskapligt áfelli); -skeiðis, adv. out of the right path, astray, = afleiðis, afvegis; -skipan, f. dismissal, deposition; -skipta, a. indecl. wronged, cheated; vera görr afskipta, to be wronged.

afskipta-lauss, a. having nothing to do with (gera sér -lauss -við e-n); -lítill, a. caring little about (um e-t); -samr, a. = afskiptinn.

af-skipti, n. pl. dealings (with), intercourse (ok engi afskipti veita heiðnum goðum); -skiptinn, a. meddlesome; -skiptr, pp. (1) wronged, cheated; (2) afskiptr af e-u, void of, leaving no interest in; -skrámligr, a. hideous, monstrous (afskrámligt illvirki); -skræmiliga, adv. hideously; óttast afskræmiliga, to be scared at; -skurðr, m. cutting, off; -skyld, f. obligation, encumbrance; -sliðra (), v. to unsheath; -smekkr, m. taste; -snið, n. a bit cut off, snip; -sniðning, f. cutting or snipping off.

afsniðningar-járn, n. chopper.

af-sniðis, adv. obliquely, aslant (afsniðis um handlegginn); -spraki, m. rumour, news; -springi, n. (1) offspring, progeny; (2) produce, growth of the earth; -springr, m. (1) = -springi; (2) band, detachment; (3) fig. offshoot (er mikill ván, at þar verði nökkur afspringr af þessum ófriði); (4) rumour, notice (fá nökkurn afspring um e-t); -spurn, f. news, information; -standa (see standa), v. to cease, part with; -stigr, m. bypath; -stúka, f. side-nook, side-room; -styrmi, n. manikin, pigmy; -svar, n. refusal; veita e-a afsvör, to refuse, deny; -svara (), v. to deny, refuse (afsvara e-u or um e-t); -sveipa (), v. to uncover (afsveipa líkit); -sviptr, pp. deprived of; afsviptr þinni ásjónu, cut off from thy countenance; -sýnis, adv. out of sight; -sæll, a. unfortunate, luckless.

af-tak, n. (1) taking away; (2) slaying, manslaughter; hvat hann vildi bjóða fyrir aftak Geirsteins, for the slaying of G.; -taka, f. (1) taking away, loss; (2) slaying, = aftak (hann hafði verit at aftöku Þorkels fóstra).

aftaka-maðr, m. a determined person (-maðr um e-t); -minni, a. compar. less stubborn, more pliable.

af-tekja, f. revenue (ábúð ok aftekja staðanna); -tekning, f. taking away; -tekt, f. (1) = aftekja; (2) = aftak 2; -telja (see telja), v. to represent as unadvisable, dissuade (aftelja e-t fyrir e-m); -tigna (), v. to strip of dignity or honour; -trúa, f. unbelief heresy; -trúa (), v. to make one abandon his religious faith; refl., aftrúast, to fall into unbelief; -tœkiligr, a. adviseable; -tœkr, a. blameworthy (at fáitt muni vera aftœkt um skapsmuni yðra); -tœma (-da, -dr), v. to empty; refl., aftœmast, to be emptied or cleared of (e-u).

afusa, f. gratitude; see ‘aufusa’.

af-valdr, a. vera afvaldr e-u or e-s, to be the cause of a thing; af-vega, adv. out of the right way, astray; -vegaðr, pp. led astray, misled; -vegar, -vegis, adv. = -vega; -velta, a. indecl. fallen on the back and unable to rise; -vensla, f. expenses, outlay; -vik, n. creek, recess; -vinna, f. = afvensla.

af-virða (-rða, -rðr), v. (1) to disgrace, dishonour (afvirða náunga sinn); afvirða fyrir e-m, to throw a slur on one; (2) to detest, abhor (afvirða ódáðirnar); refl., afvirðast, to think it unworthy of oneself, with infin.

afvirðiligr, a. detestable, mean.

af-virðing, f. disparagement, depreciation; -vænn, a. unexpected, = úvænn; -vöxtr, m. decrease, loss, opp. to ‘ávöxtr’.

af-þokka (), v. to disparage, discredit, to bring into discredit (afþokka fyrir e-m); refl., afþokkast e-m, to displease; -þokkan, f. (1) disparagement; (2) displeasure, dislike; -þvattr, m. washing off, ablution; -þýða (-dda, -ddr), v. = afvirða, afþokka; -æta, f. a great bully.

aga, v. impers., nú agir við, now there is a great uproar.

aga-lauss, a. (1) free from disturbances (var nú allt kyrt ok agalaust); (2) undiminished; -samligr, a. unruly; -samr, a. turbulent; agasamt mun þá verða í heraþinu, ef, there will be uproar in the district, if.

agi, m. (1) awe, terror (þá skelfr jörð óll í aga miklum); (2) uproar, turbulence (a. ok úfriðr); (3) discipline, constraint.

agn, n. bait; ganga á agnit, to nibble the bait; -sax, n. a knife for cutting bait; -ör, f. barb of a fish hook.

aka (ek, ók, ókum, ekinn), v. (1) to drive (a vehicle or animal drawing a vehicle), with dat.: gott er heilum vagni heim at a., it is good to get home safe and sound; a. þrennum eykjum, with three yoke of horses; (2) to carry or convey in a vehicle, to cart, with dat. or acc. (hann ók heyjum sínum á yxnum; hann ók skarni á hóla); a. saman hey, to cart hay; líkin váru ekin í sleða, carried in a sledge; (3) with the prep. í or á; Freyr ók í kerru með gelti; ríðr Þ. hesti þeim, er hann hafði ekit á; (4) absol., to drive in a vehicle (fóru þeir í sleðann ok óku alla nóttina); with acc. of the road (óku úrgar brautir); (5) naut., to trim the sail (a. seglum at endilöngum skipum); (6) to remove, with dat.; ók hann af sér fjötrinum, worked it off by rubbing; ók Oddr sér þar at, worked himself thither (of a fettered prisoner); a. e-m á bug or a. bug; á e-n, to make one give way, repel; intrans. = akast, to move slowly; hvárrgi ók (gave way) fyrir oðrum; a. undan, to retire, retreat; (7) impers., hart ekr at e-m, one is in great straits; ekr nú mjók at, I am hard pressed; e-m verðr nær ekit, one gets into straits, is hard pressed; refl., e-m ekst e-t í tauma, one is thwarted in a thing.

akarn, n. acorn.

ak-braut, f. carriage-road; -fmri, n. driving gear, carriage and harness.

akkeri, n. anchor; liggja um akkeri, to lie at anchor; leggjast um a., to cast anchor; heimta upp a., to weigh anchor; a. hrífr við, the anchor holds.

akkeris-fleinn, m. fluke of an anchor; -lauss, a. without anchor; -leggr, m. shank of an anchor; -lægi, n. anchorage; -sát, f. = -lægi; -stokkr, m. anchor-stock; -strengr, m. anchor-rope, cable; -sæti, n. = -sát.

akr (gen. akrs, pl. akrar), m. (1) field, corn-field (bleikir akrar en slegin tún); (2) crop (þeir hófðu niðrbrotit akra hans alla).

akra-ávöxtr, m. produce of the fields; -gerði, n. enclosure of arable land; -merkil, n. field-boundary; -skipti, n. parcelling out of fields; -spillir, m. destroyer of fields.

akr-dái, m. a kind of weed (galeopsis); -deili, n. patch of arable land; -for, f. plough-forrow; -gerð, f. agriculture.

akrgerðar-maðr, m. husbandman.

akr-gerði, n. enclosure of arable land; -hæna, f. quail; -karl, m. ploughman, reaper; -kál, n. potherbs; -kvísl, f. dung-fork, = mykikvísl; -land, n. arable land; -lengd, f. field’s length (svá at akrlengd var í millum þeirra); -lykkja, f. = -gerði; -maðr, m. = -karl, akrgerðarmaðr.

akrplógs-maðr, m. ploghman.

akr-rein, f. strip of arable land; -skipti, n. division of a field; -skurðr, m. reaping.

akrskurðar-maðr, m. reaper.

akr-súra, f. field-sorrel; -tíund, f. tithe paid on arable land; -verð, n. price of a corn field; -verk, field-work, harvest-work.

akrverks-maðr, m. husbandman; tiller of the ground.

akta (), v. (1) to number, tax, value (a. fólkit, a. vísaeyri konungs); (2) to examine, search into (aktið þér ok öll leyni þau, er hann má felast); (3) to devote attention to, to study (a. ýmisligar íþróttir, bókligar listir); (4) to procure (a. þá hluti er hinum sjúka henta); a. e-t inn, to furnish, supply; (5) to debate, discuss in parliament (nú sem þetta var aktat, gengu menn til lögréttu).

ak-tamr, a. tame under the yoke (griðungr -tamr); -taumr, m. esp. in pl. aktaumar, braces (straps) of a sail (cf. aka segli); Þórarinn hafði -taumana um herðar sér, had the braces round his shoulders; sitja í -taumum, to manage the sail; fig., to have the whole management of a thing.

ala (el, ól, ólum, alinn), v. (1) to beget; born ólu þau, they begat children; börn þau, er hann elr við þeirri konu, begets by that woman; (2) to bear, give birth to (þóra ól barn um sumarit); börn þau óll, er alin eru fyrir jól, who are born before Christmas; alnir ok úalnir (= úbornir), born and unborn, present and future generations; (3) to bring up (children); ala skal barn hvert er borit verðr, every child that is born shall be brought up; adding the particle ‘upp’ skal eigi upp alla, heldr út bera arn þetta, this child shall not be brought up, but be exposed to perish; of animals, to rear, breed (einn smásauð, er hann ól heima í húsi sínu); (4) to give food to, harbour, entertain (a. gest ok ganganda); guð elr gesti, God pays for the guests; (5) fig. in various phrases; a. aldr, a. aldr sinn, to pass one’s days; a. sút to grieve, mourn (= sýta); a. önn of e-t or at e-u, to take care of, see to; a. e-t eptir e-m, to give one encouragement in a thing (ól hann eptir engum mönnum ódáðir); a. á mál, to press or urge a matter (nú elr Gunnarr á málit við þórð ok segir).

alaðs-festr, f. the last ounce (eyrir) of the sum ‘fjörbaugr’ to be paid by a convict in the Court of Execution.

al-auðn, f. total devastation; -auðr, a. altogether waste; -bata, a. indecl completely cured, quite well; -berr, a. (1) quite bare, stark-naked; (2) manifest; -bitinn, pp. bitten all over; -bjartr, a. quite bright, brilliant; -blindr, a. stone-blind; -blóðugr, a. bloody all over; -breiðr, a. of the full breadth (albreitt lérept); -brotinn, pp. quite broken, shattered; -brynjaðr, pp. cased in mail; -búa (see búa), v. to fit out, furnish or equip completely (albúa kirkju); -búinn, pp. (1) completely equipped (ok er Björn var albúinn ok byrr rann á); (2) albúinn e-s, at gera e-t, quite ready (willing) to do a thing; -bygðr, pp. completely inhabited, at albygðu landi, after the colinization was finished.

alda, f. a heavy (swelling) wave, a roller.

alda, gen. pl. of ‘öld’.

aldafars-bók, f. = De Ratione Temporum, a work by Bede (svá segir heilagr Beda í -bók þeirri, er hann gerði um landaskipan í heiminum).

alda-mót, n. pl. the meeting of two (lunar) cycles, change of cycles.

aldar, gen. sing. of ‘öld’.

aldar-eðli, n. everlasting possession (at -eðli); -faðir, m. patriarch; -far, n. spirit or manners of the age; -mál, n. tenure for life; -menn, m. pl., hinir fyrstu -menn várir, our first ancestors; -rof, n. end of ages; -róg, n. strife of men; -tal, n. age (gamall at -tali); -trygðir, f. pl. everlasting truce; -þopti, m. = aldavinr.

alda-skipti, n. change of time; -tal, n. (1) chronology; (2) computation of time (by the various chronological cycles).

al-dauða, a. indecl. dead and gone, extinct (eptir dauða Haralds var aldauða hin forna ætt Danakonunga); aldauða arfr, inheritance to which there is no heir alive.

alda-vinr, m. old, trusty friend.

aldin, n. tree-fruit (nuts, acorns, apples); fig., blezat sé a. kviðar þíns, the fruit of thy womb.

aldin-berandi, pr. p. bearing fruit.

aldin-falda, a. indecl. wearing an old-fashioned head-dress.

aldin-garðr, m. garden, orchard.

aldini, n. = aldin.

aldin-lauss, a. bearing no fruit (-laust tré).

aldinn, a. old (inn aldni jötunn).

aldin-skógr, n. wood of fruit-trees; -tré, n. fruit-tree; -viðr, m. fruitbearing trees.

aldr (gen. aldrs), m. (1) age, life-time; sautján vetra at aldri, seventeen years of age; ungr at aldri, young; á ungum aldri, in (one’s) youth; á gamals aldri, in (one’s) old age; hniginn at aldri, in the decline of life; hniginn á efra aldr, stricken in years; á léttasta aldri, in the prime of life; lifa langan aldr, to enjoy a long life; nema, ræna e-n aldri, to take one’s life; týna (slíta) aldri, to lose one’s life; (2) old age; vera við a., to be up in years; aldri farinn or orpinn, very old; (3) long period, age (eptir marga vetr ok mikinn a.); allan a. through all time, always; of a., um a. (ok æfi), for ever and ever; after a negation, ever (þvílíka gersemi höfum vér eigi sét um a.); hverr um a. var svá djarfr, who ever was so bold?

aldraðr, a. elderly (öldruð kona).

aldr-dagar, m. pl., um -daga, for ever and ever (= um aldr); -fremd, f. everlasting honour.

aldri, adv. (1) never (a. skal ek heðan ganga fyrr en hann ríss upp); (2) ever, after a preceding negative or a comparative (er nú ørvænt at vér munum a. fá dýr skotit); gerðu þá verra en aldri fyrr, worst than ever before.

aldrigi (aldri-gi, dat. of aldr with the negative suffix -gi), adv. = aldri.

aldr-lag, n. (1) one’s appointed lot or fortune, destiny; (2) end of life, death; verða e-m at -lagi, to bring one to his end.

aldr-lok, n. pl. end of life, death; -máli, m. tenure for life; -nari, m. poet. name of fire; -runar, f. pl. life-runes, charms for preserving life; -sáttr, a. on terms of peace forever; -slit, n. pl. end of life, death (til -slita).

aldre-munr, m. difference in years.

aldr-stamr, a. fey, doomed to death; -tili, m. loss of life, death; -tjón, n. loss of life; -tregi, m. life-long sorrow.

ald-rœnn, a. elderly, aged.

aldyggiligr, -dyggr, a. faithful; -dæli, a. very easy to deal with, gentle.

aleiga, f. one’s entire property; aleigu-mál, n., -sök, f. a suit involving a person’s whole property.

al-eyða (-dda, -ddr), v. to lay totally waste, devastate; -eyða, f. devastation; gera aleyðu, to turn into a wilderness; -eyða, a. indecl. altogether waste, empty, void of people (þar var aleyða at mönnum); hann brennir ok gerir aleyða landit, makes the land an utter waste.

al-fari, a. fara (ríða í brott) al-fari, to go away (ride off) for good; -farinn, pp. worn out, far gone; -feginn, a. very glad; -frjáls, a. quite free; -fróðr, a. very wise; -fullr, a. quite full; -fúinn, a. quite rotten; -föðr, m. father of all (name of Odin); -gangsa, a. indecl. quite common; -geldr, a. quite gelded; -gera (-ða, -ðr), v. to finish, make perfect.

alger-leikr, m. perfection; -liga, adv. completely, fully; -ligleikr, m. = -leikr.

al-gerr, a. perfect, complete; finished; -gervi, f. (1) perfection; (2) full attire; -gildi, n. full value.

algildis-vitni, n. competent witness.

al-gjafta, a. indecl. stall-fed; -gleymingr, m. great glee; slá á algleyming, to become very merry; -góðr, a. perfectly good; -grár, a. quite grey; -gróinn, pp. perfectly healed; -grœnn, a. quite green; -gullinn, a. all-golden; -gæft, adv. fully.

al-gøraal-gørvi, see algera, &c.

al-heiðinn, a. utterly heathen; -heilagr, a. all-holy; -heill, a. (1) completely whole, entire; (2) perfectly healthy (alheill at líkam); -heilsa, f. perfect health; -henda, f. a metre having two pairs of rhyming words in every line; -hending, f. = -henda; -hendr, a. with full rhyme in every line (tvau kvæði alhend); -hreinn, a. quite pure, clean; -huga, a. indecl. wholehearted, in full earnest; -hugat, pp. n. resolved, fully determined; ef þér er þat alhugat, if you are in real earnest; adv. in earnest, sincerely (iðrast alhugat); -hugi, m. earnest; þetta er alhugi minn, I am in real earnest; -hugligr, a. sincere; -hungraðr, a. starving, famished; -húsa (), v. to build fully; -hvítr, a. quite white; -hýsa (-ta, -tr), v. = -húsa; alhýst, with all the buildings finished; -hýsi, n. all the farm-buildings; -hœgr, a. quite easy; smooth (alhœgt tungubragð).

ali-björn, m. tame bear; -dýr, n. domestic animal; -fískr, m. fish fattened in a pond; -fugl, m. tame fowl; -gás, f. tame goose.

alin (gen. sing. alnar or álnar; pl. alnar or álnir), f. = öln; (1) the old Icelandic ell (about half a yard); (2) unit of value, an ell of woollen stuff (a. vaðmáls), = one sixth of an ounce(eyrir).

ali-sauðr, m. home-fed (pet) sheep; -svín, n. tame swine.

al-jafn, a. quite equal; -járnaðr, pp. shod on all four feet; -keyptr, pp. dearly bought, = fullkeyptr; -klæðnaðr, m. a full suit of clothes; -kristinn, a. entirely Christian; -kristnaðr, pp. completely christianized; -kunna, a. indecl. (1) universally known, notorious (sem alkunna er orðit); (2) fully informed; unz alkunna, until I hnow the whole; -kunnigr, a., -kunnr, a. notorious; -kyrra, a. indecl. completely calm, tranquil.

all- may be prefixed to almost every adjective and adverb in an intensive sense, very, extremely; -annt, a. n. very eager; -apr, a. very harsh; -auðsóttligr, a. very easy to accomplish; -auðveldliga, adv. very easily; -auðveldr, a. very easy; -ágætr, a. very famous; -áhyggjusamliga, adv. very anxiously; -ákaftiga, adv. with much ardour; -ákaft, adv. very fast (riða -ákaft); -áræðiliga, adv. very oppositely; -áræðislítill, a. very timid; -ástúðligr, a. very hearty, intimate; -beinn, a. very hospitable; -beiskr, a. very harsh, bitter; -bitr, a. very sharp; -bjartr, a. very bright, splendid; -bjúgr, a. very much bent; -bliðliga, adv. very kindly; -blíðr, a. very mild, gentle; -bráðgórr, a. very precocious; -brosligr, a. very laughable, funny; -digr, a. very big; -djarfliga, adv. very boldly; -drengiliga, adv. very gallantly; -dræmt, adv. very boastfully; -dýrr, a. very dear; -eigulegr, a. very precious; -einarðliga, adv. very frankly, sincerely; -eldiligr, a. of a very aged appearance; -fagr, a. very bright, fair; -fast, adv. very firmly; drekka -fast to drink very hard; -fastorðr, a. very true to one’s word; -fámáligr, a. of very few words; -fámennr, a. followed or attended to by very few persons; -fáræðinn, a. very chary of words; -feginn, a. very glad; -fegin-samliga, adv. very gladly; -feigligr, a. having the mark of death plain on one’s face; -feitr, a. very fat; -fémikill, a. very costly; -fjarri, adv. very far, far from; -fjartekit, pp. n. very far fetched; -fjölkunnigr, a. very deeply versed in sorcery; -fjölmennr, a. followed or attended by very many people; in very great numbers; -fjölrœtt, pp. n. very much talked of; -forsjáll, a. very prudent; -frekr, a. very daring; -fríðr, a. very beautiful; -fróðr, a. very learned; -frægr, a. very famous; -fúss, a. very eager; -fýsiligr, a. very desirable.

All-föðr, m. father of all (a name of Odin).

all-gamall, a. very old; -gemsmikill, a. very wanton; -gerla, adv. very clearly, precisely; -gerviligr, a. very manly; -gestrisinn, a. very hospitable; -geysiligr, a. very impetuous; -glaðliga, adv. very joyfully; -glaðr, a. very joyfull; -glatt, adv. very bright (ljós brann -glatt); -gleymr, a. very gleefull, in high spirits (verða -gleymr við e-t); -glæsiligr, a. very shiny, splendid; -gløggsær, a. clearly visible, very transparent; -gløggt, adv. very precisely (vita e-t -gløggt); -góðr, a. very good; -góðvænliga, adv. very promisingly; -grimmr, a. very cruel or fierce; -grunsamliga, adv. very suspiciously; -gørla, adv. = -gerla; -gørviligr, a. = -gerviligr; -harðr, a. very hard, stern; -heimskr, a. very silly, stupid; -herðimikill, a. very broad-shouldered; -hjaldrjúgr, a. very talkative; -hógliga, adv. very gently; -hraustr, a. very valiant; -hrumliga, adv. very infirmly (from age); -hræddr, a. very much afraid; -hræðinn, a. very timid; -hugsjúkr, a. very much grieved, anxious; -hvass, a. blowing very hard (var -hvast í norðan); -hyggiligr, a. very prudent judicious; -hæðiligr, a. very scoffing; -hældreginn, a. very slow in walking, dragging the heels; -hœgliga, adv. gently, meekly (svara -hœgliga); -iðinn, a. very diligent; -illa, adv. very badly; -illr, a. very bad; -jafnlyndr, a. very calin, even-tempered.

al-ljóss, a. (1) quite light; dagr aljóss, broad daylight; (2) quite clear.

all-kaldr, a. very cold; -kappsamliga, adv. with zery much zeal, very liberally; -karlmannliga, adv. very manfully; -kaupmannliga, adv. in a very businesslike way; -kátligr, a. very funny; -kátr, a. very merry; -kerskiligr, a. very funny, pleasant; -kynligr, a. very strange; -kærr, a. very dear, beloved; -langr, a. very long; -laust, adv. very loosely; -lágr, a. very low, short of stature; -léttbrúnn, a. of very cheerful countenance; -léttmælt, pp. n. very cheerfully spoken; -léttr, a. very light (in weight); -líkliga, adv. in very agreeable terms; -líkligr, a. very likely; -líkr, a. very like; -lítill, a. very little; -lyginn, a. much given to lying; -mannhættr, a. very dangerous; -mannskœðr, a. very murderous; -mannvænn, a. (a man) of very great promise; -margliga, adv. very affably; -margmæltr, a. very talkative; -margr, a. very numerous; pl. allmargir, very many; -margrœtt, pp. n. very much spoken of; -málugr, a. very loquacious; -máttfarinn, a. very much worn out; -máttlítill, a. very weak; -meginlauss, a. very void of strength; -mikill, a. very great; -misjafnt, adv. very variously, in very different ways; -ljóss, a. very light; -mjór, a. very slim, slender; -mjök, adv. very much; -nauðigr, a. very reluctant; -nauðuliga, adv. very dangerously (-nauðuliga staddr); -náinn, a. very near, nearly related; -nær, adv. very near; -nærri, adv. = -nær.

al-loðinn, a. shaggy all over; -lokit, pp. n. entirely gone.

all-opt, adv. very often; -orðfátt, a. n., gera allorðfátt um, to be very chary of words as to; -ógurligr, a. very frightfull.

allr (öll, allt), a. (1) all, entire, whole; hón á allan arf eptir mik, she has all the heritage after me; af öllum hug, with all (one’s) heart; hvítr a., white all over; bú allt, the whole estate; allan daginn, the whole day; í allri veröld, in the whole world; allan hálfan mánuð, for the entire fortnight; with addition of ‘saman’; allt saman féit, the whole amount; um þenna hernað allan saman, all together; (2) used almost adverbially, all, quite, entirely; klofnaði hann a. í sundr, he was all cloven asunder, kváðu Örn allan villast, that he was altogether bewildered; var Hrappr a. brottu, quite gone; a. annarr maðr, quite another man; (3) gone, past; áðr þessi dagr er a., before this day is past; var þá óll þeirra vinátta, their friendship was all over; allt er nú mitt megin, my strength is exhausted, gone; (4) departed, dead (þá er Geirmundr var a.); (5) neut. sing. (allt) used as a subst. in the sense of all, everything; eigi er enn þeirra allt, they have not yet altogether won the game; þá var allt (all, everybody) við þá hrætt; hér er skammætt allt, here everything is transient; with a compar. all the more (því öllu þungbærri); with gen., allt missera (= öll misseri), all the year round; allt annars, all the rest; at öllu annars, in all other respects; alls fyrst, first of all; alls mest, most of all; in adverbial phrases: at öllu, in all respects, in every way; í öllu, in everything; með öllu, wholly, quite; neita með öllu, to refuse outright; (6) pl. allir (allar, öll), as adj. or substantively, all (þeir gengu út allir); ór öllum fjórðungum á landinu, from all the quarters of the land; allir aðrir, all others, every one else; flestir allir, nearly all, the greatest part of; gen. pl. (allra) as an intensive with superlatives, of all things, all the more; nú þykkir mér þat allra sýnst, er, all the more likely, as; allra helzt, er þeir heyra, particularly now when they hear; allra sízt, least of all.

allraheilagra-messa, f., -messudagr, m. All Hallow-mass, All Saints’ day.

all-rammskipaðr, pp. very strongly manned; -rauðr, a. very red; -ráðligr, a. very advisable; -reiðiligr, a. looking very angry; -reiðr, a. very angry; -ríkmannligr, a. very grand, magnificent; -rikr, a. very powerful; -röskliga, adv. very briskly.

alls, gen. sing. of ‘allr’, used as an adv.; (1) a. ekki (eigi), not at all, by no means; þeir ugðu a. ekki at sér, they were not a bit afraid; a. engi, no one at all; sometimes without a negative following it, quite, altogether; ær a. geldar, ewes quite barren; a. vesall, altogether wretched; hann var eigi a. tvítugr, not quite twenty years old; (2) in connection with numbers, in all; alls fórust níu menn, there perished nine in all; (3) far; alls of lengi, alls til lengi, far too long a time.

alls, conj. as, since (a. þú ert góðr drengr kallaðr); with addition of ‘er’ (a. er þú ert svá þráhaldr á þínu máli).

all-sannligr, a. very likely; -sáttfúss, a. very placable; -seinn, a. very slow; -seint, adv. very slowly.

alls-endis, adv., esp. with a preceding negative, in every respect, quite, thoroughly; also, til alls-endis; -háttar, adv. of every kind.

allsherjar-, general, public, common; -búð, f. the booth of the -goði; -dómr, m. public judgement; -fé, n. public property; -goði, m. the supreme priest (who opened the alþingi every year); -lið, n. public troops; -lýðr, m. the people, commonalty; -lög, n. pl. public law; -þing, n. general assembly.

all-sigrsæll, a. very successful in war; -skammr, a. very short; neut., -skammt, a very short way, short distance; -skömmu, a very short time ago; -skapliga, adv. very fittingly; -skapværr, a. of a very gentle disposition; -skapþungr, a. very depressed in spirit (e-m er -skapþungt); -skemtiligr, a. vey amusing; -skillítill, a. very-untrustworthy; -skjallkœnliga, adv. in a vey coaxing way; -skjótt, adv. very soon; -skygn, a. very sharp-sighted; -skyldr, a. (1) very obligatory, neut., -skylt, bounden duty; (2) very nearly related, near akin; -skynsamliga, adv. vely judiciously; -sköruligr, a. very striking or magnificent (allskörulig veizla); -slæliga, adv. very sluggishly; -slœliga, adv. very cunninly; -smár, a. very small; -snarpliga, adv. very sharply or smartly; -snarpr, a. very sharp; -snemma, adv. very early; -snjallr, a. vey shrewd or clever; -spakr, a. very gentle, very wise; -starsýnn, a. looking fixedly upon; -sterkligr, a. vey strong looking; -sterkr, a. very strong; -stilliliga, adv. very calmly, very composedly; -stirðr, a. very stiff; -stórhöggr, a. dealing very hard blows; -stórliga, adv. very haughtily; -stórmannliga, adv. very munificently; -stórorðr, a. using very big, words; -stórr, a. very great or big; -styggr, a. very ill-humoured, very cross; -styrkliga, adv. very stoutly; -styrkr, a. very strong.

alls-valdandi, pr. p. of God, Almighty; -valdari, m. almighty ruler; -valdr, a. = -valdandi; -vesall, a. utterly wretched.

all-svangr, a. very hungry.

all-svinnliga, adv. very wisely, prudently.

alls-völdugr, a. = alls-valdr.

all-sættfúss, a. very placable, very eager for peace.

all-sœmiligr, a. very honourable.

allt, neut. from ‘allr’; (1) right up to, all the way; Brynjólfr gengr a. at honum, close up to him; a. norðr um Stað all the way north, round Cape Stað; (2) everywhere; Sigröðr var konungr a. um Þrændalög, over all Drontheim; vóru svírar a. gulli búnir, all overlaid with gold; (3) already; vóru a. komin fyrir hann bréf, warrants of arrest were already awaiting him; (4) of time, all through, until (a. til Jónsvöku); (5) a. til, a. of, far too (þú ert a. of heimskr); (6) a. at einu, a. eins, all the same, nevertheless (ek ætla þó útan a. eins).

all-tillátsamr, a. very indulgent; -tíðrœtt, pp. n. very much talked of; -tíðvirkr, a. very quick at work; -torfyndr, a. very hard to find; -torfœrt, a. n. very hard to pass; -torsóttr, pp. very difficult to reach; -tortryggiliga, adv. very suspiciously; -trauðr, a. very slow, unwilling; -tregr, a. very tardy; -trúr, a. very true; -tryggr, a. very trusty; -undarligr, a. very strange; -ungr, a. very young; -úbeinskeytr, a. shooting very badly; -úblíðr, a. very harsh, unkind; -úbragðligr, a. very ill-looking; -údæll, a. very untractable; -úfagr, a. very ugly; -úfimliga, adv. very awkwardly; -úframliga, adv. very timidly; -úfrýnn, a. very sullen; -úfrægr, a. very inglorious; -úglaðr, a. very gloomy, sad; -úhœgr, a. very difficult; -úhöfðingligr, a. very plebeian; -úkátr, a. in very low spirits; -úknár, a. very weak of frame; -úkonungligr, a. very unkingly; -úkunnigr, a. quite unknown; -úlífligr, a. very unlikely to live; -úlíkliga, adv. very unlikely; -úlíkr, a. very unlike; -úmáttuliga, adv. very weakly; -úráðinn, a. very undecided; -úráðliga, adv. very unadvisedly or rashly; -úsannligr, a. very unjust, very unlikely; -úsáttfúss, a. very implacable; -úskyldr, a. far from being incombent on one (hitt ætla ek mér -úskylt); -úspakr, a. very unruly; -úsváss, a. very uncomfortable (var þá veðr -úsvást); -úsýnn, a. very uncertain, very doubtful; -úsæligr, a. of very wretched appearance; -úvinsæll, a. very unpopular; -úvísliga, adv. very unwisely; -úvænligr, a. of very unfavourable prospect; -úvænn, a. (1) very ugly; (2) very unpromising or unfavourable; neut., -úvænt, very unfavourably; -úþarfr, a. very unprofitable, injurious (e-m).

all-valdr, m. sovereign, king (heilit all-valdar báðir!).

allvalds-konungr, m. = allvaldr.

all-vandlátr, a. very difficult to please; -vandliga, adv. very carefully, exacctly; -vant, a. n., e-m er -vant um, one is in a very great strait; -varfœrr, a. very cautious, careful; -vaskr, a. very brisk or gallant; -veðrlítit, a. n. very calm; -vegliga, adv. splendidly, nobly; -vegligr, a. very grand; -vel, adv. very well; -vesall, a. very miserable, vile; -vingott, a. n. on very friendly terms (var -vingott með þeim); -vinsæll, a. very popular; -virðuligr, a. very worthy, dignified; -vitr, a. very wise; -vitrliga, adv. very prudently; -víða, adv. very widely; -vígliga, adv. in a very warlike manner; -vígmannliga, adv. very martially; -vígmóðr, a. quite wearied out with fighting; -víss, a. quite certain; -vænligr, a., -vænn, a. very promising; þykkja -vænt um e-n, to be delighted with one; -vænt, adv. very favourably (konungr tók þessu -vænt); -vörpuligr, a. of a very stately frame; -vöxtuligr, a. very tall; -þarfliga, adv. very pressingly; biðja -þarfliga, to beg very hard; -þéttr, a. very crowded; -þrekligr, a. of a very robust frame; -þungliga, adv. very heavily; taka -þungliga á e-m, to be very hard upon; -þungr, a. (1) very disagreeable, hard; (2) hostile, badly disposed towards (til e-s); -þykkr, a. very thick; féllu þeir -þykkt, in great numbers; -œfr, a. very furious; -œgiligr, a. very terrible; -œstr, pp. greatly excited; -örordr, a. very frank, outspoken; -øruggr, a. very unflinching.

almanna-bygð, f. a well-peopled district; -fœri, n. public way; -leið, f. public road; -lof, n. universal praise; -skript, f. general confession; -stofa, f. the common hall, opp. to ‘litla stofa’; -tal, n. (1) common reckoning (at -tali); (2) general census; -vegr, m. high road, = þjóðvegr, þjóðleið.

al-máttigr, a. almighty; -máttr, m. almightiness, omnipotence; -menni, n. the people, public; -menniliga, adv. generally, commonly; -menniligr, a. general, common.

almenning, f., almenningr, m. (1) common land; (2) common or public pasture; (3) public thoroughfare (in Norse towns); (4) the people, public in general; (5) levy, conscription; fullr (allr), hálfr almenningr, a full (complete) or half levy of men and ships.

almennings-bréf, n. proclamation; -drykkja, f. public banquet; -far, n. public ferry; -gata, f. public road; -glófar, m. pl. common gloves; -hús, n. a house for the use of travellers; -mörk, f., -skógr, m. public forest; -stræti, n. public thoroughfare; -tollr, m. public tax; -trú, f. Catholic faith (= almennilig trú); -vegr, m. public way; -öl, n. common ale.

almennr, a. common, general, public.

al-múgi, m. the commons, common people (konungrinn ok almúginn); -múgr, m. = al-múgi; -mæli, n. (1) common saying, general report; þat er almæli, at, all people say (agree) that; (2) saying, proverb; þótt almælit sannaðist, at móðurbrœðrum verði menn líkastir, though the saying proved true, that; -mæltr, pp. spoken by all; -mælt tíðindi, common news; (2) of a child that has learnt to talk; -mætti, n. = almáttr.

al-naktr, a. quite naked.

alna-mál, n. measure by the ell (see alin).

al-nýr, a. quite new; -nöktr, a. = alnaktr.

al-ogat, a., -ogi, m., -ogligr, a., see -hugat, -hugi, -hugligr.

alr (-s, -ir), m. awl; skjálfa þótti húsit, sem á als oddi léki, as if it were balanced on the point of an awl.

al-rauðr, a. quite red; -ráðinn, pp. quite determined; -ránn, a. utterly plundered; -reyndr, pp. fully proved.

alri, m. elder tree, see elri.

al-roskinn, a. quite grown up; -rotinn, a. quite rotten; -rœmdr, pp. rumoured by all; alrœmt er, every one says; -sagðr, pp. spoken of by all; -sátt, f., alsáttum sáttir, completely reconciled; -sáttr, a. fully reconciled; -sekr, a. an outlaw in the greater degree = skógarmaðr; -siða, a. indecl., er Kristni var alsiða, when the Christian faith had become universal; -skip-aðr, pp. (1) of a ship, fully manned; (2) of a bench, quite full; -skjaldaðr, a. closely set with shields; -skrifaðr, pp. written all over; -skygn, a. fully seeing; -skyldr, a. (1) quite bound in duty, obliged; (2) quite binding; -slitinn, pp. quite worn out; -slíkr, a. quite the same; -smíðaðr, pp. completely built; -snauðr, a. very poor; -snotr, a., -spakr, a. all-wise, very clever; -stýfðr, pp. (a metre) in masculine rhymes; -stýfingr, m. an animal with close-cropped ears (= afeyringr); -svartr, a. quite black; -sveittr, a., -sveitugr, a. perspiring all over; -sviðr, -svinnr, a. all-wise; -sýkn, a. altogether free or guiltless (al-sýkn saka); -sýkna, f. complete rehabilitation; -sæll, a. altogether happy; -sætt, f., -sætti, n. complete reconciliation.

altari, n. and m. altar.

altaris-blæja, f. altar-cloth; -bók, f. altar-book; -brík, f. altar-piece; -búnaðr, m. altar-furniture; -dagr, m. anniversary of the consecration of an altar; -dúkr, m. altar-cloth; -embætti, n. service of the altar; -fórn, f. offering on the altar; -gólf, n. the floor round an altar; -horn, n. corner of an altar; -hús, n. chapel; -klæði, n. altar-cloth; -líkneski, n. image placed on an altar; -messa, f. mass at an altar; -staðr, m. the place where an altar stands; -steinn, m. altar-slab; -stika, f. candlestick for an altar; -þjónusta, f. altar service.

al-tjaldaðr, pp. hung all round with tapestry; -ugat, a. = alhugat.

al-úð, f. (older form ölúð) affection, sincerity.

alúðar-maðr, m., -vinr, m. sincere or devoted friend.

al-valdr, a. = allvaldr.

alvara, f. (1) seriousness, earnest; taka e-t fyrir alvöru, to take it in earnest; vissa ek eigi, at þér var a., that you were in earnest; (2) affection = alúð; er öll hans a. (inclination) til Ólafs konungs.

alvar-liga, adv. (1) seriously, earnestly; (2) heartily (fagna e-m -liga); (3) entirely (-liga hreinn); -ligr, a. hearty, affectionate (-lig vinátta).

al-vaskligr, a. most valiant, martial; -vaxinn, pp. quite grown up; -vapnaðr, pp. in full armour; -vátr, a. thoroughly wet, wet through; -al-verki and -verkja, a. indecl. aching, feeling pains all over the body.

al-virkr, a. alvirkr dagr, a full working day; -víst, a. with full certainty; -vitr, a. all-wise; -væpni, n. complete arms; hafa alvæpni, með alvæpni, (to be) fully armed.

al-vítr, f. fairy maid, Valkyrie.

alvöru-liga, adv. earnestly, sincerely; -ligr, a. = alvarligr; -samliga, adv. = -liga; -samligr, a. sincere, devoted (-samlig þjónusta).

al-yrkr, a. = alvirkr (dagr); -þakinn, pp. thatched all over; -þiljaðr, pp. completely wainscotted or panelled.

alþingi, n. the annual parliament or general assembly of the Icelandic Commonwealth (held in June).

al-þingis, adv. quite, altogether (= öllungis).

alþingis-dómr, m. court of justice at the alþingi; -för, f. journey to the a.; -helgun, f. inaugeration of the a.; -lof, n. permission, leave, given by the a.; -mál, n. parliamentary rules or proceedings; -nefna, f. nomination of judges in courts of the a.; -reið, f. journey to the a.; -sátt, f. agreement entered into at the a.; -sáttarhald, n. the keeping of alþingissátt.

al-þjóð, f. people in general (alþjóð manna).

al-þykkr, a. quite thick, foggy (veðr alþykkt).

al-þýða, f. (1) the whole people (bauð hann alþýðu ríkis síns at göfga líkneskjuna); (2) people in general, the majority or bulk of the people (var þat heit þá fest ok játat af altri alþýðu); vera lítt við alþýðu skap, to be upopular; (3) the common people (ánauð ok úlfrelsi gekk yfir fólk allt, bæði ríka menn ok alpýðu).

al-þýðast (dd), v. refl., alþýðast til e-s, to incline towards, attach oneself to; -þýði, n. = þýða.

alþýðis-fólk, n. the common people.

alþýðligr, a. common, general; -ligr maðr = mennskr maðr, a common man; í ligri rœðu, in ordinary speech; hitt væri -ligra, more plain.

alþýðu-drykkja, f. common banquet; -leið, f. high-road (= almannaleið); -lof, n. general praise, popularity; -mál, n. general report; -tal, n. common reckoning, opp. to ‘rímtal’; -vápn, n. ordinary weapon; -vegr, m. = -leið; -virðing, f. public opinion; -vitni, n. universal testimony; -þyss, m. general tumult.

al-þægr, a. quite acceptable or pleasing (to one); -œstr, pp. quite excited, stirred up.

ama (), v. to vex, molest; refl., amast við e-n, e-t, to inconvenience, trouble (ömuðust liðsmenn lítt við hana); to object to, disapprove, show dislike to (a. við bygð e-s).

amalera (), v. to enamel (foreign word).

amban, f. (Norse) = ömbun.

ambátt, f. (1) bondwoman; (2) concubine.

ambátta-fang, n. tussle between bondwomen.

ambáttar-barn, n., -dóttir, f. child, daughter of a bondwoman; -ligr, a. vile, like an ambátt; -mót, n. exfiression (mien) of a bondwoman (er eigi -mót á henni); -sonr, m. son of a bondwoman.

amboð, n. = andboð, annboð.

amma, f. grandmother (fóður-móðir, móður-móðir).

ampli, m., ampúll, m. jug (ampulla).

amra (), v. to howl or yell piteously (of cats).

an, conj. than (an old form for ‘en’).

and-, a prefix denoting whatever is opposite, against, towards, and fig. hostile, adverse; often spelt an- or ann-.

anda (), v. to breathe, live (meðan þeir megu a.); refl., andast, to breathe one’s last, die; andaðr, pp. dead; hún var þá önduð, had breathed her last.

anda-gift, f. inspiration; -kast, n. breathing; -lauss, a. without breathing (lifa -lauss); -liga, adv. spiritually; -ligr, a. spiritual (-lig fœða).

andar-, gen. from ‘önd’; -auga, n. spiritual eye; -dauði, m. spiritual death; -dráttr, m. breath, respiration.

andar-egg, n. duck’s egg; -fygli, n. ducks.

andar-gjöf, f. = -gift; -gustr, m. breath of wind; -heilsa, f. spiritual welfare; -kraptr, m. strength of mind; -rúm, n. breathing time; -sár, n. mental wound.

andar-steggi, -steggr, m. drake.

andar-sýn, f. vision; -tak, n. breath; -vani, -vanr, a. breathless, lifeless.

and-blásinn, pp. blown up, inflated with wind or air.

and-boð, n. utensil (= annboð).

and-dyri, n., -dyrr, f. pl. porch.

and-fang, n. reception, hospitality.

and-fælur, f. pl. fright; vakna með -fælum, to awake in a fright.

and-fœtingr, m. (1) a person whose feet are turned backwards; (2) pl. and-fœtingar, Antipodes.

and-hlaup, n. suffocation.

and-hvalr, m. bottle-nosed whale.

andi, m. (1) breath, breathing; a. Ingimundar er ekki góðr, his breath smells, is foul; (2) current of air (a handar þinnar); (3) gramm., aspiration (linr, snarpr a.); (4) soul (guð skapaði líkamann ok andann); gjalda guði sinn anda, to die; (5) spirit, spiritual being; úhreinn a., an unclean spirit; heilagr a., the Holy Ghost.

and-kostr, m. see annkostr.

and-lauss, a. breathless, lifeless.

and-lát, n. (1) death (þá er þú fregn andlát mitt); (2) the last gasp; þá var konungr nær andálti, was almost breathing his last.

andláts-dagr, m., -dœgr, n. day of death; -sorg, f. grief for a death; -tíð, f., -tími, m. time of death.

and-liga, adv. spiritually; -ligr, a. spiritual (biskup hefir andligt vald til andligra hluta).

andlit, n. face countenance.

andlits-björg, f. visor; -bliða, f. mild expression of the countenance; -mein, n. cancer in the face; -skepna, f. form or make of the face; -sköp, n. pl. = -skepna; var vel sköpum, had well formed features; -vænn, a. fine-featured; -vöxtr, m. form of the face, features; and-marki, m. see annmarki.

and-málugr, a. contentious, quarrelsome; -mæli, n. pl. contradiction, objection.

and-nes, n. promontory, headland; -orða, a. indecl., at verða andorða, to come to words with; -óf, n. paddling with the oars, so as to keep a boat from drifting (cf. andœfa).

and-rammr, a. having foul breath.

andrar, m. pl. snow-shoes.

andrjá, f. tumult, uproar.

and-róði, m. pulling against tide and wind; þeir tóku (áttu) mikinn -róða, they had a hard pull; -róðr (-ra), m. = andróði; -saka (), v. to reprimand (hann -sakaði sveinana harðliga); -sakan, f. reprimand, rebuke; -skoti, m. (1) opponent, adversary; (2) the devil, satan.

and-spilli, n. colloquy, discourse.

and-spjall, n. (1) = andspilli; (2) pl. andspjöll, answer, reply.

and-stefja (), v. to respond, answer; -stefna (-da, -t), v. = -stefja; -streymi, n. adversity; -streymr, a. strongly adverse (-streym ørlög); Sighvatr var heldr -streymr um eptirmálin, hard to come to terms with; -stygð, f. disgust; e-m er -stygð af e-u, one feels abhorrence for; -styggiligr, -styggr, a. abominable, odious; -svar, n. answer, reply, decision (vera skjótr í -svörum); -svara (), v. (1) to answer (e-m); (2) to respond (= andstefja); (3) to answer for, be responsible for (e-u).

andsvara-maðr, m. respondent, defender.

and-syptir, m. difficulty in breathing.

and-sœlis, adv. against the course of the sun, widdershins (-rangsœlis), opp. to ‘réttsœlis’.

and-vaka, f. (1) sleeplessness; (2) vakefulness; and-vaki, a. sleepless (liggja -vaki).

and-vana or -vani, a. destitute of, wanting, with gen. (auðs andvani ok alls gamans); -vanr, a. = -vani; andvanr átu, famished for food.

andvara-gestr, m. unwelcome guest; -lauss, a. free from care or anriety.

and-varða (), v. to hand over (= afhenda).

and-vari, m. care, anxiety.

and-varp, n. (1) breath, breathing; (2) sigh; -varpa (), v. to heave a sigh (-varpa öndinni); -varpan, f. sighing, sobbing.

and-vegi, n. throne (= öndvegi); -verðr, a. = öndverðr; -viðri, n. head wind; -virði, n. worth, equivalent, price; andvirði hvalsins, the value of the whale.

and-virki, n. (1) hay, haystacks, croft; nautafjöldi var kominn í tún ok vildi brjóta -virki, throw down the cocks; -virki (fodder) gekk þar upp fyrir hestum; (2) Norw. agricultural implements; viðarköst, timbr, grindr, sieða eða önnur -virki; (3) fig., legit hafa mér -virki nærr garði en at berjast við þik, I have had business more urgent than to that with you.

and-vitni, n. contradictory testimony; -vígr, a. a match for (bann var eigi betr en -vígr öðrum þeirra brœðra); -yrði, n. pl. objection, contradiction; -æra, f. resistance; -æris, adv. adversely, unfavourably (ganga mun ykkr -æris); -œfa (-ða, -t), v. to keep pulling against wind and tide so as to prevent a boat from drifting astern; -œpa (-ta, -t), v. to reply against (ekki er þess getit, at þórðr andœpti þessarri vísu).

ang, n. fragrance (með unað ok a.).

anga (), v. to exhale odour or fragrance; angan, f. sweet odour; a. Friggjar, the love of Frigg.

angi, m. sweet odour.

angi, m. prickle, sting (þetta mál hefir anga).

angist, f. anguish.

angistar-ár, n. year of misery; -neyð, f. great distress; -tími, m. hour of distress.

angr (gen. -rs), m. grief, sorrow; gera e-m angr, to do one harm; vera e-m at angri = angra e-n.

-angr (gen. -rs), m. in Norse local names, bay, firth.

angra (), v. to grieve, vex, distress (mik hefir angrat hungr ok frost); with dat. (hvárt sem mér angrar reykr eða bruni); impers. to be grieved (angraði honum mjök); refl., angrast af e-u, to be vexed at, take offence at; a. við e-n, to fall out with.

angraðr, pp. sorrowful, sad, vexed (reiðr ok a.).

angran, f. sorrow, affliction.

angr-fullr, a. sorrowful, sad; -gapi, m. rash, foolish person; -lauss, a. free from care; -ligr, a. sad; -ljóð, n. pl. mourning songs, dirges; -lyndi, n. sadness, low spirits; -mœðast (), v. refl. to be in low spirits; -samliga, adv. sorrowfully, sadly; -samligr, a. = -fullr; -samr, a. (1) troublesome (-söm fluga); (2) depressed, downcast; e-m er -saint, one is in low spirits; -semd, -semi, f. depression of spirits; -væri, f. dejection; -œði, n. moody temper, sullenness.

ankanna-fullr, a. full of faults; -laust, adv. with flawless title (Magnús konungr hafði þá ríki einn saman ok ankannalaust).

ann-, in several compds. = and-.

anna (), v. to be able to do (a. e-u); cf. ‘annast’.

annarligr, a. strange, alien.

annarr (önnur, annat), a., indef. pron., ord. numb.; (1) one of the two, the one (of two); Egill þessi hefir aðra hönd (only one hand) ok er kaliaðr einhendr; á aðra hönd, on the one side; a. … a. one … the other (hét a. Sörli, en a. Þorkell); (2) second; í annat sinn, for the second time; høggr hann þegar annat (viz. högg), a second blow; (3) the next following; á öðru hausti, the next autumn; annat sumar eptir; fig., next in value or rank; annat mest hof í Noregi, the next greatest temple; fjölmennast þing annat eptir brennu Njáls, the fullest assembly next to that after the burning of N.; (4) some other (hón lék á gólfinu við aðrar meyjar); Þórarinn ok tíu menn aðrir, and ten men besides; hann var örvari af fé en nokkurr a., than anybody else; (5) other, different; öl er a. maðr, ale (a drunken man) is another man, is not the same man; þau höfðu annan átrúnað, a different religion; (6) in various combinations; a. slíkr, such another, another of the same sort; gekk a. til at öðrum (one after another) at biðja hann; hverja nótt aðra sem aðra, every night in turn; annat var orð Finns harðara en annat, each word of Finn was harder than another; aðrir … aðrir, some … others; einir ok aðrir, various; ymsir ok aðrir, now one, now another (nefna upp ymsa ok aðra); hvárr (or hverr) … annan, each other, one another (hétu hvárir öðrum atförum); við þau tíðindi urðu allir giaðir ok sagði hverr öðrum, one told the news to another, man to man.

annarra-brœðra, gen. pl. used ellipt. in the sense of children of ‘næsta brœðra’, third cousins; -brœtri, m. third cousin.

annarr hvárr, indef. pron., one or other of two persons, either (drepa annan hvárn þeirra sona Skallagríms); at öðru hváru, every now and then, aðrir hvárir, one or other of the two parties; neut. used as adv., annat hvárt … eða, either … or.

annarr hverr, indef. pron. every other alternately; annan hvern dag, every other day; annat hvert orð, every other (second) word; at öðru hverju, every now and then.

annarr tveggi, annarr tveggja, indef. pron. one or other of the two = annarr hvárr; er aðrir tveggju eru lengra í burt komnir en ördrag, when either of the two parties has got further away than an arrow’s flight; annat tveggja … eða, either … or.

annars, gen. from ‘annarr’, used as adv. otherwise, else (stendr a. ríki þitt í mikilli hættu).

annarsligr, a. = annarligr.

annarstaðar, adv. elsewhere, in another place = annars staðar.

annast (), v. refl. (1) to take care of (mál þetta mun ek a.); (2) to provide for, support (a. börn, ómaga); a. sik, to support oneself; (3) a. um e-t, to be busy about, to occupy oneself with (a. um matreiðu).

annáll (-s, -ar), m. chronological register, annals.

ann-boð, n. agricultural implements.

ann-friðr, m. cessation from lawsuits during the spring farming.

ann-kostr, m. = önnkostr.

ann-kvista, v. to take care of.

annmarka-fullr, a. faulty, full of faults; -lauss, a. faultless.

ann-marki, m. (1) defect, flaw, fault (þú leyndir -marka á honum); (2) adversity (þú gaft mér varygð í farsælu, huggan í -marka).

ann-rikt, a. n., eiga -ríkt, to be very busy; -samligr, a. toilsome, laborious; -samt, a. n., e-m er -samt, one is very busy; -semd, f. business, care, concern; bera mikla -semd fyrir e-u, to be concerned about.

annt, a. n., e-m er a., eager, anxious; mörgum var a. heim, many were eager to get home; hví mun honum svá a. at hitta mik, why is he so eager? ekki er a. um þat, it is not pressing; hvat er nú a. mínum einga syni, what has my only son at heart? sagði sér a. (that he was busy) um daga; vera a. til e-s, to be eager for.

antikristr, m. antichrist.

anza (), v. (1) to heed, take notice of (a. e-u); (2) to reply, answer (a. til e-s).

apa (), v. to mock, make sport of, to befool (margan hefir auðr apat); refl., apast at e-u, to become the fool of.

apaldr (gen. -rs or -s, pl. -rar or -ar), m. apple-tree.

apaldrs-garðr, m. orchard; -klubba, -kylfa, f. club made of apple-tree; -tré, n. apple-tree.

apal-grár, a. dapple-grey.

api, m. (1) ape, monkey; (2) fool (margr verðr af aurum api).

apli, m. bull = þjórr, graðungr.

appella, appellera (), v. to cite, summon to the pope.

apr (öpr, aprt), a. (1) hard, sharp; en aprasta hríð, the sharpest fighting; aprastr við at eiga, the worst to deal with; (2) sad, dispirited.

aprligr, a. cold, chilly (-ligt veðr).

aptan, adv. from behind behind, opp. to ‘framan’; þá greip hann a. undir hendr honum, from behind; fyrir a., as prep. with acc., behind; ek hjó varginn í sundr fyrir a. bóguna, just behind the shoulders.

aptann (gen. -s, dat. aptni; pl. aptnar), m. evening; síð um aptaninn, late in the evening; miðr a., middleeve, 6 o’clock.

aptan-drykkja, f. evening carouse; -kveld, n. = aptann; -langt, adv. all the evening; -skæra, f. twilight; -stjarna, f. evening star; -söngr, m. evensong, vespers.

aptansóngs-mál, n. the time of evensong.

aptan-tíðir, f. pl. = aptansöngs tíðir; -tími, m. the time of evening.

aptari, a. compar. = eptri.

aptarla, adv. behind, far in the rear.

aptarr, adv. compar. farther back.

aptast, adv. superl. farthest back.

aptastr, a. superl. farthest back.

aptna (), v. impers. to become evening; refl., aptnast = aptna.

aptr, adv. (1) back; fara (snúa, koma, senda, sœkja, hverfa) a., to go (turn &c.) back; reka a., to drive back, repel; kalla a., to recall, revoke; (2) backwards; fram ok a., backwards and forwards, to and fro; þeir settu hnakka á bak sér a., they bent their necks backwards; (3) lúka (láta) a., to shut, close; hlið, port, hurð er a., is shut; (4) at the back, in the rear; þat er maðr fram, en dýr a., the fore part a man, the hind part of a beast; bæði a. ok fram, stem and stern (of a ship); Sigurðr sat a. á kistunni, S. sat aft on the stern-chest; (5) again; Freyja vaknar ok snerist við ok sofnar a., and falls asleep again.

aptra (), v. to take back, withdraw, recall; a. ferð sinni, to desist from, give up; a. sér, to withdraw, waver, hesitate.

aptran, f. withdrawal, keeping back.

aptr-bati, m. convalescence; vera í -bata, to be on the way to recovery; -bati, a. convalescent, getting better, recovering; -beiðiligr, a. reciprocal; -borinn, pp. born again, regenerate; -byggi, m. (esp. pl. -byggjar opp. to frambyggjar) a man in the stern in a ship of war; -dráttr, m. reflux of the tide (-dráttr hafsins); -drepa, f. relapse, shock; -elding, f. dawning; -ferð, f. journey back, return; -fœrsla, f. bringing back; -för, f. = -ferð; -ganga, f., -gangr, m. ghost, apparition; -gjald, n. repayment; -hald, n. checking, holding back.

aptrhald-samr, a. saving, close.

aptrhalds-maðr, m. one who impedes the progress of a thing.

aptr-hlaup, n. runing back; -hnekking, f. repulse; -huppr, m. haunch; -hvarf, n. (1) return; illr -hvarfs, disinclined to face the enemy again; (2) relapse, apostasy; (3) turning away from sin (rare); -kall, n. recalling, revocation; -kast, n. hurling back, repulse; -kaup, n. repurchase; -koma or -kváma, f. coming back, return; -kvæmt, a. n. admitting of return; esp. eiga -kvæmt, to be allowed to return (from exile); -lausn, f. redemption; right of redeeming; -mjór, a. tapering behind; -mundr, m. regret, loss; mér er mikill -mundr at e-u, I miss a thing greatly; -reka, a. indecl. driven back (by stress of weather); -rekstr, m. driving back, repulse; -sjá, f. regret, longing (= eptirsjá); -skipan, f. restoration (-skipan allra hluta); -velting, f. rolling back.

apynja, t she-ape, she-monkey.

ara-hreiðr, n. eagle’s nest, eyrie.

arðar-, gen. from ‘örð’; -leiga, f. rent for one yeay’s crop; -máli, m. contract, agreement for one year.

arðr (gen. arðrs), m. a simple form plough.

arðr-for, f. furrow, trench made by plough; -gangr, m. coulter; -járn, n. plough-iron; -járn þat er ristill (coulter) heitir; -uxi, m. plough-ox.

arðs-geldingr, m. = arðruxi.

arfa, f. heiress (Norse, rare).

arfa-sáta, f. a heap, or small tick, of chickweed (arfi).

arfa-þáttr, m. section of law treating of inheritance (arfr).

arf-borinn, pp. by birth entitled to inherit, legitimate (= til arfs alinn); -deild, f. = arfskipti; -gengr, a. entitled to inherit.

arfi, m. heir, heiress; a. e-s or at e-u, heir to a property.

arfi, m. chickweed.

arf-kaup, n. sum paid for another’s expectation of inheritance; -leiða (-dda, -ddr), v. to adopt as an heir (= ættleiða); -leiðing, f. adoption of an heir; -nyti (gen. -nytja), m. heir, inheritor (poet.).

arfr (gen. arfs), m. (1) inheritance; taka arf, to take possession of an inheritance; taka arf eptir e-n, to be heir to a person, to inherit; standa til arfs eptir e-n, to be entitled to inherit a person; hón á allan arf eptir mik, she is my sole heir; selja arf, to sell the expectation of inheritance (= selja arfván); (2) patrimony = föðurleifð.

arf-rán, n. unjust taking of one’s inheritance; -ræning, f. = arf-rán; -ræningr, m. one stripped of his inheritance; -sal, n. cession of right of inheritance (on condition of getting maintenance for life).

arfsals-maðr, m. one who has made another his heir on condition of being maintained by him for life; -máldagi, m. deed concerning ‘arfsal’.

arf-skipti, n. partition of an inheritance; -skot, n. fraud in matters of inheritance; -sókn, f. suit in a case of inheritance; -svik, n. pl. defrauding in matters of inheritance; -svipting, f. taking- away of one’s inheritance; -tak, n. the act of taking one as arfsalsmaðr (taka e-n arftaki); -taka, f. receiving, taking possession of, an inheritance; -takari, -taki, m. inheritor; -tekinn, pp. taken by inheritance; -tekja, f. = -taka.

arftekju-land, n. land obtained by inheritance.

arf-tœki, n. = arftaka; -tœkr, a. = arfgengr; verða arftœkr e-s, to receive by inheritance.

arftöku-karl, m. one taken as arfsalsmaðr; -maðr, m. inheritor, successor to an inheritance.

arf-ván, f. expectancy of inheritance; -þegi, m. heir.

arg-hola, f. harlot.

argr, a. (1) unmanly, effeminate, cowardly (sem fyrir úlfi örg geit rynni); (2) lewd; (3) wicked, pernicious (þú hit argasta dýr).

argskapr, m. effeminacy, cowardice, wickedness.

ari, m. eagle (= örn).

arin-dómr, m. fireside gossip; -eldr, m. hearth-fire; -elja, f. a home-rival to a wife; -greypr, a. encompassing the hearth (bekkir aringreypir); -hella, f. hearth-stone.

arinn (gen. arins; dat. arni; pl. amar), m. (1) hearth (eldr var á arni); as a law term, fara eldi ok arni, to remove one’s homestead, taking fire and hearth together; (2) an elevated platform.

arins-horn, n. corner of the hearth; -járn, n. poker.

arka (), v. to walk heavily, trudge; a. at auðnu, to take whatever course fate may decide.

arkar-fótr, m. the foot of a chest (örk); -smíð, f. the building of Noah’s Ark.

arma, f. pity; dróttinn sá örmu á mannkyni, took pity upon.

arm-baugr, m. armlet, bracelet; arm-bryst, n. cross-bow.

arm-fylking, f. = fylkingar-armr.

armingi (pl. -jar), m. poor fellow (= aumingi).

arm-leggr, m. arm (= armr).

armligr, a. pitiful, miserable.

armr (-s, -ar), m. (1) arm; leggja arma um e-n, to embrace (of a woman); koma á arm e-m, to come into one’s embraces (of a woman marrying); (2) the wing of a body, opp. to its centre; armar úthafsins, the arms of the ocean, viz. bays and firths; armr fylkingar, a wing of an army.

armr, a. (1) unhappy, poor; (2) wretched, wicked; hinn armi Bjarngrímr, the wretch, scoundrel B.; hin arma kerlingin, the wicked old woman.

arm-skapaðr, pp. misshapen miserable, poor; -vitki, f. compassion; -vitugr, a. charitable, compassionate; lítt armvitugr, hard-hearted.

armœða, f. distress, trouble; armœðast, v. refl. to distress oneself.

arnar-, gen. from ‘örn’; -hamr, m. eagle’s plumage; -hreiðr, n. eagle’s nest, eyrie; -kló, f. talon of an eagle; -líki, n. eagle’s shape; -ungi, m. eaglet.

arning, f. tillage, ploughing (related to ‘erja’).

arn-súgr, m. the rushing, sound caused by the flight of an eagle.

ars, m. posteriors, = rass.

arta, f. a species of teal, garganey.

aska, f. ashes (mold ok a.; dust eitt ok a.). Cf. ösku-.

aska-smiðr, m. shipwright?

aska-spillir, m. ship spoiler?

ask-limar, f. pl. branches of an ash.

ask-maðr, m. shipman, viking, pirate; cf. askr (3).

askr (-s, -ar), m. (1) ash, ash-tree; (2) ash-spear; (3) small ship (þeir sigla burt á einum aski); (4) wooden vessel or dish (stórir askar fullir af skyri); (5) a Norse measure for liquids equal to four bowls (bollar), or sixteen ‘justur’.

ask-rakki, m. marten; -viðr, m. ash-tree.

asna, f. she-ass.

asna-höfuð, n. ass’s-head; -kjálki, m. jawbone of an ass.

asni, m. ass, donkey.

at, prep. A. with dative. I. Of motion; (1) towards, against; Otkell laut at Skamkatli, bowed down to S.; hann sneri egginni at Ásgrími, turned the edge against A.; (2) close -up to; Brynjólfr gengr alit at honum, quite up to him; þeir kómust aldri at honum, they could never get near him, to close quarters with him; (3) to, at; koma at landi, to come to land; ganga at dómi, to go into court; (4) along (= eptir); ganga at stræti, to walk along the street; dreki er niðr fór at ánni (went down the river) fyrir strauminum; refr dró hörpu at ísi, on the ice; (5) denoting hostility; renna (sœkja) at e-m, to rush at, assault; gerði þá at þeim þoku mikla, they were overtaken by a thick fog; (6) around; vefja motri at höfði sér, to wrap a veil round one’s head; bera grjót at e-m, to heap stones upon the body; (7) denoting business, engagement; ríða at hrossum, at sauðum, to go looking after horses, watching sheep; fara at landskuldum, to go collecting rents. II. Of position, &c.; (1) denoting presence at, near, by, upon; at kirkju, at church; at dómi, in court; at lögbergi, at the hill of laws; (2) denoting participation in; vera at veizlu, brullaupi, to be at a banquet, wedding; vera at vígi, to be an accessory in man-slaying; (3) ellipt., vera at, to be about, to be busy at; kvalararnir, er at vóru at pína hann, who were tormenting him; var þar at kona nökkur at binda (was there busy dressing) sár manna; (4) with proper names of places (farms); konungr at Danmörku ok Noregi, king of; biskup at Hólum, bishop of Holar; at Helgafelli, at Bergþórshváli; (5) used ellipt. with a genitive, at (a person’s) house; at hans (at his house) gisti fjölmenni mikit; at Marðar, at Mara’s home; at hins beilaga Ólafs konungs, at St. Olave’s church; at Ránar, at Ran’s (abode). III. Of time; (1) at, in; at upphafi, at first, in the beginning; at skilnaði, at parting, when they parted; at páskum, at Easter; at kveldi, at eventide; at þinglausnum, at the close of the Assembly; at fjöru, at the ebb; at flœðum, at the floodtide; (2) adding ‘komanda’ or ‘er kemr’; at ári komanda, next year; at vári, er kemr, next spring; generally with ‘komanda’ understood; at sumri, hausti, vetri, vári, next summer, &c.; (3) used with an absolute dative and present or past part.; at sér lifanda, duing his lifetime; at öllum ásjándum, in the sight of all; at áheyranda höfðingjanum, in the hearing of the chief; at upprennandi sólu, at sunrise; at liðnum sex vikum, after six weeks are past; at honum önduðum, after his death; (4) denoting uninterrupted succession, after; hverr at öðrum, annarr at öðrum, one after another; skildu menn at þessu, thereupon, after this; at því (thereafter) kómu aðrar meyjar. IV. fig. and in various uses; (1) to, into, with the notion of destruction or change; brenna (borgina) at ösku, to burn to ashes; verða at ormi, to become a snake; (2) for, as; gefa e-t at gjöf, as a present; eiga e-n at vin, to have one as friend; (3) by; taka sverð at hjöltum, by the hilt; draga út björninn at hlustunum, by the ears; kjósa at afli, álitum, by strength, appearrance; (4) as regards as to; auðigr at fé, wealthy in goods; vænn (fagr) at áliti, fair of face; (5) as a law term, on the grounds of, by reason of; ryðja (to challenge) dóm at mægðum, kvið at frændsemi; (6) as a paraphrase of a genitive; faðir, móðir at barni (= barns, of a child); aðili at sök = aðili sakar; (7) with adjectives denoting colour, size, age, of; hvítr, svartr, rauðr at lit, while, black, red of colour; mikill, lítill at stœrð, vexti, tall, small of stature; tvítugr at aldri, twenty years of age; kýr at fyrsta, öðrum kálfi, a cow that has calved once, twice; (8) determining the source from which anything comes, of, from; Ari nam ok marga frœði at Þuríði (from her); þiggja, kaupa, geta, leigja e-t at e-m, to receive, buy, obtain, borrow a thing from one; hafa veg (virðing) styrk at e-m, to derive honour, power, from one; (9) according, to, after (heygðr at fornum sið); at ráði allra vitrustu manna, by the advice of; at landslögum, by the law of the land; at vánum, as was to be expected; at leyfi e-s, by one’s leave; (10) in adverbial phrases; gróa (vera grœddr) at heilu, to be quite healed; bíta af allt gras at snøggu, quite bare; at fullu, fully; at vísu, surely; at frjálsu, freely; at eilífu, for ever and ever; at röngu, at réttu, wrongly, rightly; at líku, at sömu, equally, all the same; at mun, at ráði, at marki, to a great extent. B. with acc., after, upon (= eptir); sonr á at taka arf at föður sinn, to take the inheritance after his father; eiga féránsdóm at e-n, to hold a court of execution upon a person; at þat (= eptir þat), after that, thereafter; connected with a past part. or adj., at Gamla fallinn, after the fall of Gamli; at Hrungni dauðan, upon the death of Hrungnir.

at, (1) as the simple mark of the infinitive, to; at ganga, at ríða, at hlaupa, to walk, to ride, to run; (2) in an objective sense; hann bauð þeim at fara, sitja, he bade (ordered) them to go, sit; gefa e-m at eta, at drekka, to give one to eat, to drink; (3) denoting design or purpose, in order to (hann gekk í borg at kaupa silfr).

at, (1) demonstrative particle before a comparative, the, all the, so much the; hón grét at meir, she wept the more; þykkir oss at líkara, all the more likely; þú ert maðr at verri (so much the worse), er þú hefir þetta mælt; (2) rel. pron., who, which, that (= er); þeir allir, at þau tíðindi heyrðu, all those who heard; sem þeim er títt, at (as is the custom of those who) kaupferðir reka.

at, conj., that; (1) introducing a subjective or objective clause; þat var einhverju sinni, at Höskuldr hafði vinaboð, it happened once that H.; vilda ek, at þú réðist austr í fjörðu, I should like you to go; (2) relative to ‘svá’, denoting proportion, degree; svá mikill lagamaðr, at, so great a lawyer, that; (3) with subj., denoting end or purpose, in order that (skáru þeir fyrir þá (viz. hestana) melinn, at þeir dœi eigi af sulti); (4) since, because, as (= því at); (5) connected with þó, því, svá; þó at (with subj.), though, although; því at, because, for; svá at, so that; (6) temp., þá at (= þá er), when; þegar at (= þ. er), as soon as; þar til at (= þ. t. er), until, till; áðr at (= á. en), before; (7) used superfluously after an interrog. pron. or adv.; Olafr spurði, hvern styrk at hann mundi fá honum, what help he was likely to give him; in a relative sense; með fullkomnum ávexti, hverr at (which) þekkr ok þægiligr mun verða.

at, negative verbal suffix, = -a; var-at, was not.

at, n. an incited conflict or fight (see etja); odda at, Yggs at, battle.

ata (), v. to stain, smear.

atall (ötul, atalt), a. fierce; ötul augu, fierce, piercing., eyes.

at-beini, m. assistance, help.

atblástrar-maðr, m. instigator.

atburða-lauss, a. eventless, uneventfull.

at-burðr, m. (1) occurrence, event; verðr sá atburðr, at, it so happens that; dráp Bárðar ok þá atburði er þar höfðu orðit, and the events that had happened there; (2) incident, circumstance; Ó. sagði honum alla atburði (all the circumstances, particulars) um sitt mál; í hverjum atburðum, under what circumstances; með hverjum atburðum, in what manner, how; (3) chance, accident; slíkt kalla ek atburð, en eigi jartegn, such a thing I call an accident, and not a miracle; af atburð, by chance; accidentally; með atburð, by chance; per adventure, perhaps; (4) attack; (5) gesture (með atburð kallaði hann mik til sín); var hón en fríðasta jungfrú ok vel at atburðum, of good manners, well-bred.

at-búnaðr, m. proper outfit, equipment, &c.; veita atbúnað dauðum mönnum, to lay out dead bodies.

at-djúp, n. deep water close to shore; -djúpr, a. deep close to the shore.

atdráttar-maðr, m., mikill -maðr, a good housekeeper.

at-dráttr, m. provisions, supplies for household use; hafði hann atdrátt at þeirra búi, he supplied their household; atdrættir ok útvegar, ways and means.

at-dugnaðr, m. assistance, help.

at-eggjan, f. egging on, = áeggjan.

at-fall, n. rising tide, flood-tide.

atfanga, gen. pl. from atföng, provisions; -dagr, m., -kveld, n. the day, or evening, preceding a church festival; atf. jóla, Christmas Eve; -lauss, a. destitute of means of subsistence, without resources; -maðr, m. = atdráttarmaðr.

atfara-laust, a. n. without onslaught or armed aggression (see atför).

atfarar-dómr, m. sentence of execution (for payment); -þing, n. court of execution.

at-ferð, f. (1) proceeding, conduct, behaviour (skynsamlig atferð); víkjast eptir atferðum enna fyrri frænda þinna, to follow their (good) example; (2) activity, energy; (3) assault; veita e-m atferð, to set upon one; (4) a law term, execution (með dómrofum ok atferðum).

atferðar-bót, f. improvement of conduct; -góðr, a. well-behaved; -leysi, n. inactivity, idleness; -maðr, m. energetic man.

atterðligr, a. fit or manly.

at-ferli, n. action, proceeding, procedure hann spurðist fyrir um aiferli heraðsmanna, what they were doing; -flutning, f. conveyance to a place, supply; -frétt, f. asking, inquiry.

atfréttar-maðr, m. inquirer (e-s, after something).

at-fundull, a. fault-finding, censorious; -fylgi, n., -fylgja, f. help, backing, support; -fyndiligr, a. blameable, reprehensible; -fyndli, f. censoriousness; -fœrsla, f. exertion, activity.

atfœralu-maðr, m. a man of vigour.

at-för, f. (1) proceeding, method; (2) attack; gera atför at e-m, veita e-m atför, to make an attack upon; (3) a law term, execution (dómr ok atför); -ganga, f. (1) attack, onslaught; veita e-m atgöngu, to attack; (2) help, assistance; -gangr, m. (1) fighting, combat; (2) inroad, intrusion; veita e-m atgang, to intrude upon; (3) help, cooperation.

atgangs-mikill, a. energetic.

atgeirr, m. bill or halberd.

atgengiligr, a. acceptable, inviting.

at-gerð, at-gervi, see atgørð, atgørvi.

at-geyminn, a. careful, mindful, attentive; -geymsla, f. attention, heedfulness; -gæzla, f. care, caution.

at-gørð, f. (1) achievement (þessa heims atgørðir); (2) accomplishment, ability; (3) surgical operation (cf. gøra at meini); (4) pl., measures, steps taken; litlar atgørðir, small measures; var eigi vænt til atgørða, there were few expedients.

atgørða-lauss, a. inactive, idle; -laust er um e-t, no steps are taken; -maðr, m. a ready man.

atgørðar-maðr, m. = atgørvimaðr; -mikill, a. active, energetic; -vinr, m. a friend in deed.

at-gørvi, f. (or neut.), accomplishments, ability.

atgørvi-maðr or atgørvis-maðr, m. a man of great (physical) accomplishments.

athafnar-lauss, a. inactive; -maðr, m. an enterprising man.

at-hald, n. (1) constraint, restraint; (2) ascetic abstinence.

athalds-maðr, m. ascetic; -taumr, m. constraining force.

at-hjúkan, f. nursing, attendance on a sick person.

at-hlaup, n. onset, attack; í einu athlaupi, in one rush (in a battle); tókst nú þegar athlaup, a hand to hand fight.

at-hlátr, m. mockery, laughing-stock; -hlœgi, n. = -hlátr; -hlœgiligr, a. ridiculous.

athuga-lauss, a. heedless, careless; -leysi, n. heedlessness; -lítill, a. rather heedless.

at-hugall, a. heedful, thoughtfull, carefull.

athuga-maðr, m. devout person; -samliga, adv. attentively; -samligr, a. (1) attentive; (2) = -verðr; -samr, a. heedful, attentive; -verðr, a. worthy of attention.

at-hugi, m. attention, meditation; af öllum athuga, carefully; flytja fram bœnir sínar með athuga, with devotion; leiða e-t athuga, to reflect upon, to take into consideration.

athugliga, adv. attentively.

at-hvarf, n. courteous attentions to any one, in the phrases, gøra e-m athvarf, gøra at athvarfi við e-n.

at-hyggja, f. attention (með allri hugarins athyggju); -hygli, f. heedfulness, attentiveness; -hyllast, v. refl., to cultivate one’s friendship; to side with (e-n); -hœfi, n. conduct, behaviour, proceeding (í öllu sínu athœfi); -hœfiligr, a. fit, fitting; -höfn, f. (1) doings, business; fengin var þeim önnur athöfn, occupation; (2) behaviour, conduct; -kall, n. demand, claim; -kast, n. rebuke, reproach.

atkeri, m. anchor; see ‘akkeri’.

at-koma, -kváma, f. (1) arrival; (2) pain, visitation; -kominn, pp. situated (vel, illa atkominn).

atkvæða-lauss, a. unimportant, of no consequence; -maðr, m. a man of importance; -mikill, a. of weight, influential.

at-kvæði, n. (1) technical term; skal sœkja sem þjófssök fyrir utan atkvæði, with exception of the technical terms, without calling it theft; (2) word, expression; (3) sound, pronunciation (atkvæði nafns hvers þeirra); (4) decision; var því vikit til atkvæða Marðar, referred to Mard’s decision; S. veitti atkvæði (ordered, decreed), at hætta skyldi áverkum; af atkvæði guðanna, by the gods’ decree; (5) spell, charm; atkvæði Finnunnar, the spell of the Finnish witch.

at-laga, f. (1) laying the ships alongside for attack in a sea-fight, attack, assault (also on land); (2) landing without notion of fight (jarl skipði svá fyrir um atlöguna).

at-lát, n. coinpliance; atlát synda, indulgence in sin.

atlátsamr, a. compliant (e-u).

atlogu-skip, n. a ship engaged in battle.

atmælasamr, a. fault-finding.

at-mæli, n. blame, censure; -rás, f. charge, attack; -reið, f. (1) riding at; (2) charge of horse.

atreiðar-áss, m. quintain-post.

at-rekandi, m. vigorous efforts, great exertions.

at-renna, f. running knot, noose, slip-knot.

atrennu-lykkja, f. = atrenna.

atrið, n. movement; hann hafði allt eitt atriðit, he did both things at once.

at-róðr, m. (1) rowing towards; (2) rowing against the enemy (to make an attack).

atsamr, a. quarrelsome, contentious.

at-seta, f. residence; hafa atsetu e-s staðar, to reside, esp. of kings; -setr, n. = -seta.

at-skelking, f. derision, ridicule.

atskiljanligr, a. various, different.

atskjaldaðr, a. covered with shields.

atskjótaðr, a. situated; illa atskjótaðr, badly off.

at-sókn, f. (1) onslaught, attack; (2) run of visitors or guests seeking hospitality (föng vóru lítil, en atsókn mikil).

atsóknar-maðr, m. aggressor.

at-spurning, f. inquiry; leiða atspurningum um e-ð, to make inquiries about a thing.

at-staða, f. (1) assistance, support; (2) zeal; (3) importunity, obtrusion; -staddr, a. situated, circumstance (vel, illa atstaddr); -stuðning, f., -stuðningr, m., -stóð, f. support, assistance; -súgr, m., only in the phrase, bora frekan atsúg til e-s, to lay vigorous claim to; -svif, n. incident, bearing; -tekinn, pp. = -staddr; -tekt, f. state, condition.

at-tónn, f. tusk, = vígtönn (cf. at, n.).

at-veizla, f. assistance (cf. ‘veita at’); -vorknaðr, m. work, esp. in haymaking; var þórgunnu ætlat nautsfóðr til atverknaðar, to toss and dry it.

at-vik, n. (1) esp. in plur., details, particulars; eptir atvikum, according to the circumstances of the case; greina e-t með atvikum, circumstantially; (2) concession; (3) onset, assault, = atvígi.

at-vinna, f. (1) assistance, support; (2) means of subsistence.

atvinnu-lauss, a. without means of subsistence.

at-vist, f. presence, esp. the act of being present at a crime; vera í atsókn ok atvist, to be present and a partaker in the onslaught; atvistar-maðr, m. aider and abettor.

at-vígi, n. onset, onslaught.

atyrða (-rta, -rðr), v. to rebuke; -yrði, n. pl. abusive words.

auð-, adverbial prefix to a great many adjectives, adverbs, and participles (opp. to tor-), easily; -béðinn, pp. easily persuaded; -bœnn, a. easily moved by entreaty; -bœttr, pp. easily compensated for; -eggjaðr, pp. easily egged on; -fenginn, pp., -fengr, a. easy to get; -fundinn, pp., -fyndr, a. easy to find; -fundit (-fynt), easy to perceive, clear; -fœrr, a. (1) easy to pass (-fœrr vegr); (2) easily accessible.

auðga (), v. to enrich (a. e-n e-u); refl., auðgast, to grow wealthy.

auð-gengr, a. easy to pass (stígr -gengr); -gætligr, a., -gætr, a. easy to get; -görr, pp. easily done; -heyrt, pp. n. easily heard, clear.

auð-hóf, n., -hœfi, n. pl. riches, = auðœfi.

auðigr and auðugr, a. rich, wealthy (a. at fé); skip mikit ok auðigt, with a rich lading.

auðit, pp. n. of an obs. verb; e-m verðr e-s au., it falls to one’s lot; oss varð eigi þeirrar hamingju au., this good fortune was not destined for us; þó at mér verði lífs au., though life be granted to me; hafði au., they had won the day; varð þeim eigi erfingja au., to them no heir was granted; au. fé, means possessed.

auð-kendr, pp. easy to recognize, of distinguished appearance; -kenni, n. mark, distinction; -kenniligr, a. easy to recognize; -keyptr, pp. easily bought, cheap; -kjörinn, pp. easily chosen, easy to decide on; -kumall, a. tender, delicate, easily hurt or wounded; -kumall í skapi, irritable; -kvaddr, pp. easily moved (váru menn til þass -kvaddir).

auð-kvisa, f., -kvisi, m.; see ‘aukvisi’.

auð-kvæðr, a. easily talked over, easily moved, pliable.

auð-kymli, f. weakness (þá varp hón af sér -kymli konunnar).

auð-kýfingr, m. a man of great wealth.

auð-lattr, pp. easily kept in check; -látinn, pp. of easy, affable manners, complaisant.

auð-legð, f. wealth, riches; -maðr, m. wealthy man; -mildingr, m. generous, free-handed man.

auð-mjúkliga, adv. (1) humbly; (2) easily; -mjúkligr, a. humble (auðmjúkligt bœnarbréf); -mjúkr, a. (1) humble, meek; (2) pliable, docile; -munaðr, pp. easily remembered; -mýkja (-ta, -tr), v. (1) to humble; auð-mýkja sik, to humble oneself; (2) to make pliable; -mýkt, f. meekness, humility.

auðn, f. (1) wilderness, desert (úfœriligar auðnir); (2) uninhabited and uncultivated tract of land, waste (bygðust þá margar auðnir landsins); (3) deserted farm or habitation (sá bœr hét síðan á Hrappstöðum, þar er nú auðn); (4) desolation; ríki mitt stendr mjök til auðnar, is in a state of desolation; liggja (leggja) í auðn, to lie (to lay) waste; (5) destruction (auðn borgarinnar).

auðna, f. (1) fate; a. mun því ráða, Fate must settle that; (2) good fortune; með auðnu þeirri, at Þorkatli var lengra lífs auðit, by that good fortune that longer life was destined for Thorkel.

auðna, f. desolation, = auðn.

auðna (), v. impers. to fall out by fate; ef honum auðnaði eigi aptr at koma, if he did not have the good fortune to return; ef guð vill, at þess auðni, that it shall succeed; sem auðnar, as luck decides.

auðnar-glutr, n. squandering, prodigality; -hús, n. deserted house; -maðr, m. destroyer; -óðal, n. impovetished estate; -sel, n. deserted shieling; -staðr, m. a desert place.

auðnu-lauss, a. luckless; -maðr, m. lucky man, favourite of fortune; -samliga, adv. fortunately.

auð-næmiligr, a. easy to learn.

auð-næmr, a. easily learned, soon got by heart.

auðr, a. empty, void, desolate; húsin voru auð, uninhabited; auð skip (= hroðin), empty ships, all the crew being slain or put to flight; a. af mönnum, void of people; a. at yndi, devoid of pleasure, cheerless.

auðr, m. riches, wealth; auðr fjár, great wealth; auðr er valtastr vina, wealth is the ficklest of friends.

auð-ráð, n. wealth, = auðræði.

auð-ráðinn, pp. (1) easily explained (of a dream); (2) easy to manage (of a boat); -ráðr, a. pliable, yielding.

auð-rann, n. rich house; -ræði, n. pl. means, property, wealth; -salir, m. pl. rich (splendid) halls.

auð-sénn, pp. easily seen, evident; -skilligr, a. easy to understand; -skreiðr, a. = örskreiðr; -skœðr, a. easily damaged, delicate, tender; -sóttligr, a. (1) easy to perform, an easy task (þótti þetta eigi vera -sóttligt); (2) that can easily be taken by force (borg -sóttlig); -sóttr, pp. easy to win (mal -sótt); auðsóttr til bœna, pliable, yielding.

auð-stafr, m. poet. wealthy man.

auð-sveipr, a. pliable, yielding.

auð-sýna (-da, -dr), v. to show, exhibit; refl., -sýnast, to appear clearly; -sýniliga, adv. clearly; -sýniligr, a. evident, clear; -sýning, f. making evident, explanation; -sýnn, a. easily seen, clear, evident; -sæligr, a. = -sýniligr; -sær, a. = -sýnn; -trúa, a. indecl., -trúinn, a. credulous; -tryggi, f. simplicity, credulity; -tryggr, a. simple-hearted, credulous.

auðugr, a., see ‘auðigr’.

auð-velda (), v. to make easy, take lightly.

auðvelda-verk, n. an easy task.

auð-veldi, n. easiness, facility; með -veldi, easily; -veldliga, adv. (1) easily, lightly, taka -veldliga í e-u, to make light of; (2) without reluctance, willingly; -veldligr, a. easy to overcome (hversu -veldlig sú borg var); -veldr, a., -velliligr, a. (1) easy; (2) compliant.

auð-virða, &c.; see ‘afvirða’.

auð-vitað, pp. n. easy to know, clear, evident; -víst, a. n., = -vitað.

auð-þrifligr, a. weakly, feeble.

auð-œfi, n. pl. opulence, wealth, riches.

aufi, interj. woe! alas!; a. mér or a. mik, woe is me!

aufusa or aufúsa, f. thanks, gratitude, satisfaction, pleasure; kunna e-m aufúsu fyrir e-t, to be thankful, obliged to one, for a thing; gefa e-m aufúsu, to thank; e-m er au. á e-u, one is pleased, gratified, with; ef yðr er þar nökkur au. á, if it be any pleasure to you; var mönnum mikil au. á því, were much pleased by it.

aufúsa-gestr, m. a welcome guest, opp. to ‘andvara-gestr’; -lauss, a. ungrateful, unthankful; -orð, n. thanks; -svipr, m. friendly mien.

auga (gen. pl. augna), n. eye; lúka (bregða) upp augum, bregða augum í sundr, to open (lift up) the eyes; lúka aptr augum, to shift the eyes; renna (bregða, leiða) augum til e-s, to turn the eyes to; leiða e-n augum, to measure one with the eyes; berja augum í e-t, to take into consideration; koma augum á e-t, to set eyes on, become aware of; hafa auga á e-u, t have, keep, an eye upon; segja e-m e-t í augu upp, to one’s face, right in the face; unna e-m sem augum í höfði sér, as one’s own eye-balls; e-m vex e-t í augu, one has scruples about; náit er nef augum, the nose is neighbor to the eyes; gløggt er gests augat, a guest’s eye is sharp; mörg eru dags augu, the day has many eyes; eigi leyna augu, ef ann kona manni, the eyes cannot hide it if a woman loves a man; (2) hole, aperture in a needle (nálarauga), in a millstone (kvarnarauga) or an axe-head; (3) pit full of water.

auga-bora, f. socket of the eye; -bragð, n. (1) twinkling of an eye, moment; á einu augabragði, in the twinkling of an eye; (2) glance, look; snart -bragð, a keen glance; hafa -bragð af e-u, á e-u, to cast a look at; (3) a butt for ridicule, hafa en at -bragði, to make sport of ridicule verða at -bragð to become a laughingstock; -bragðligr, a. (1) momentary; (2) instantaneous; -staðr, m. socket of the eye; -steinn, m. apple (or pupil) of the eye.

augbrá, f. eye-lashes; -dapr, a. weak-sighted; -fagr, a. = augnafagr; -lit, n. face, countenance; fyrir (or í) gúðsaugliti, before the face of God; -ljós, n., in the phrase, koma í -ljós, to come to light, appear; -ljóss, a. clear, manifest.

augna-bending, f. a warning look or glance; -bragð, n. = augabragð; -fagr, a. fair-eyed, having beautiful eyes; -fullr, a. full of eyes; -gaman, n. delightfull of the eyes; -karl, m. pan of the hip-joint; -kast, n. wild glance; -lag, n. look; -mein, n. disease of the eye; -myrkvi, m. dimness of the eye; -sjáldr, n. eyeball, pupil; -skot, n. (1) look, glance of the eye; (2) measure by the eye (at augnaskoti); -staðr, m. = augastaðr; -sveinn, m. a Iad leading a blind man; -verkr, m. pain in the eye; -þungi, m. heaviness of the eye.

aug-sjándi, pr. p. seeing with one’s own eyes; at augsjándum postulum sínum, in sight of his apostles; -sjón, f. = augsýn; -súrr, a. blear-eyed, = súreygr; -sýn, f. sight; koma í -sýn e-m, to appear before him; í -sýn e-m, in the face of; -sýnast (d), v. refl. to appear clearly; -sýniliga, adv. visibly; -sýniligr, a. visible; -sýnn, a. = auð-sýnn, aug-ljóss.

auk, adv. and conj. (1) besides, = at auki (hundrað manna ok auk kappar hans); (2) also, = ok.

auka (eyk, jók, jókum, aukinn), v. (1) to augment, increase (a. virðing e-s; a. ætt sína; a. vandræði); to prolong (a. þing); aukanda ferr am e-t, something goes on increasing; eigi er þat aukit (it is no exaggeration) þó at hann sé sagðr ríkastr maðr á Íslandi; orðum aukit, exaggerated; aukin (more than) þrjú hundruð manna; (2) to add, with dat. (jók ek því es mér varð síðar kunnara); a. synd á synd ofan, to heap sin upon sin; a. e-u við, to add; aukast orðum við, to come to words, to converse; with acc., a. ný vandræði (= nýjum vandræðum) á hin fornu, to add new difficulties to old ones; impers., jók stórum hans harm, his grief increased greatly; (3) to surpass, exceed; þat er eykr sex aura, þá á konungr hálft þat er eykr, if it exceeds six ounces, the king takes half the excess.

auka (), v. (a Norse form) = the preceding.

auka-gørð, f. unnecessary work.

auka-hlutr, m., at -hlut, in addition, to boot, = at auk.

aukan, f. increase, augmenttation.

auka-nafn, n. nickname, additional name; -smíði, n. superfluous thing; -tungl, n. intercalary moon; -verk, n. superfluous work.

auki, m. (1) addition, increase (a. fagnaðar, pínsla); verða at moldar auka, to become dust, to die; til auka, in addition, to boot; fœrast í alla auka (afls síns), to exert to the utmost one’s bodily strength; (2) seed, progeny, offspring (eigi gaft þú mér auka eðr afkvæmi); (3) produce of the earth; (4) interest of capital.

auk-nefna (-da, -dr), v. to nickname; -nefni, n. contemptuous name, nickname (eigi em ek bastarðr nema at -nefni, of William the Conqueror).

aukning, f. increase.

aukvisi, m. degenerate person, laggard (einn er au. ættar hverrar).

auma, f. misery, in the phrase, sjá aumu or aumur á e-m, to take pity upon; cf. ‘arma’.

aum-hjartaðr, a. tender-hearted, charitible.

aumingi (-ja), m. miserable person, wretch (guð aumingi).

aumka (), v. to commiserate, to feel pity for (a person, &c.).

aumkan, f. lamentation, wailing.

aum-leikr, m. misery, wretchedness; -liga, adv. piteously, wretchedly; -ligleikr, m. = -leikr; -ligr, a. poor, miserable (aumligr ok hörmuligr).

aumr, a. poor, miserable, unhappy, wretched.

aum-staddr, pp. in a poor, wretched state; miserably situated.

aura-, gen. pl. from aurar; see ‘eyrir’.

aura-dagr, m. pay-day; -lag, n. standard of money; -lán, n. wordly luck; -lógan, f. squandering money, profuseness; -lykt, f. payment; -skortr, m. scarcity of money; -taka, f. receipt of money.

aur-borð, n. the second plank from the keel of a boat.

aur-gáti, m.; see ‘ørgáti’.

aurigr (acc. aurgan), a. clayey, muddy.

aurr, m. moist earth, clay, mud (aurr etr iljar, en ofan kuldi).

aurriða-bekkr, m. trout-stream; -flski, n. trout-fishery; -net, n. troutnet; -vatn, n. a lake with trout.

aurriði, m. salmon-trout.

aur-skór, m. ‘mud-shoe’, horse-shoe; -skriða, f. landslip.

ausa (eys, jós, jósum, ausinn), v. to sprinkle, pour, with dat.; þær taka hvern dag vatn í brunninum ok ausa (viz. því) upp yfir askinn, pour it over the ash-tree; a. síld ór netjum, to empty the nets of the herrings; fig., a. sauri á e-n, to bespatter with abuse; a. e-m e-u í augu upp, to throw … in one’s face; (2) a. e-n (or e-t) e-u, to besprinkle with a thing; a. e-n moldu, to sprinkle with earth, to bury; a. barn vatni, a sort of baptism in the heathen age (Sigurðr jarl jós sveininn vatni ok kallaði Hákon); (3) with acc., to bale; a. skip upp, to bale the ship out; fig., a. bát sinn, to make wetter; (4) of a horse, to kick or lash out with the hind legs.

ausa, f. ladle; ekki er enn sopit, þó í ausuna sé komit, there’s many a slip ‘twixt the cup and lip.

aus-ker, n. = austrs-ker.

ausli, m.; see ‘auvisli, usli’.

austan, adv. from the east; á austan, blowing from east; fyrir austan (as a prep. with acc.), east of; (2) without motion, on the eastern side (þrjú hlið vóru austan á borginni); (3) with gen., to the east of (austan árinnar; austan fjarðar).

austan-ferð, f. journey from the east; -gols, f. light breeze from the east; -kváma, f. arrival from the east; -marð, m. a man from the east; -veðr, n. easterly gale; -verðr, a. eastern, easterly; -vindr, m. east wind.

austar-liga, adv., -ligr, a. easterly.

austarr, adv. compar. more to the east; austast, adv. superl. most to the east; austastr, a. superl. most easterly, easternmost.

aust-firðingr, m. one from the east of Iceland; -firðir, m. pl. the east firths of Iceland; -firzkr, a. from the east firths (of Iceland); aust-ker, n. = austrs-ker.

aust-maðr, m. ‘eastman’, a man from the east; in Iceland and in the Orkneys, a man from Norway.

austr, n. (1) the east (sól í austri; til austrs); (2) as adv., in the east (ek var a. ok ána varðak); towards the east (þú vart a. sendr).

austr (-ra or -rar), m. (1) the act of baling out water; standa í austri, to be engaged in baling; (2) bilge-water (skipit fullt af austri).

austr-átt, f. = austrætt.

austr-biti, m. a cross-beam near the baling place (in a ship).

austrfarar-knórr, m., -skip, n. vessel bound for the Baltic.

austr-ferð: -för, f. voyage to the east, esp. to Russia or the eastern Baltic.

austr-hálfa, f. (1) the eastern part; hennar (of Europe) -hálfa; (2) Asia (-austr-hálfa heimsins).

austrhálfu-lýðr, m., -þjóð, f. people of the east.

austr-kendr, a. easterly (var veðrit austrkennt).

austr-ker, n. scoop, = austrs-ker.

austr-ligr, a. eastern.

austr-lönd, n. pl. the East.

austr-mál, n. turn at baling.

austr-oka (), v. to lavish, squander (-oka fé sínu).

austr-ríki, n. the eastern empire, esp. the east of Europe; also of Asia.

austr-rúm, n. the baling place in a ship.

austrs-ker, n. scoot, bucket for bating out water.

austr-vegr, m. the east, esp. the eastern Baltic, Russia.

austrvegs-konungr, m. king of Russia; -konungar, the three kings from the east; -maðr, m. inhabitant of the austrvegr.

austr-ætt, f. eastern region of the heaven, east.

aust-rœnn, a. eastern, coming from the east; -rœn gola, easterly breeze; -rœnn maðr = austmaðr; -rœnn viðr, timber from Norway.

aust-skota, f. scoop, = austrs-ker.

auvi, interj. alas! = aufi (auvi mér veslugri).

auvirðast (), v. refl., to become worthless, = afvirðast.

auvirði, n. (1) worthless wretch; (2) a law term, damage, anything impairing the value of a thing.

auvirðiligr, a. worthless, wretched.

auvirðis-maðr, m. a worthless wretch.

auvirðskapr, m. worthlessness.

auvisla-bót, f. compensation for damage.

auvisli (af, vesall), m., contr. ausli, usli; (1) a law term, damage; bœta auvisla, to pay compensation for damage done; (2) hurt, injury in general; setja undan öllum auvisla, to get off unscathed.

ax, n. ear of corn.

axar-, see ‘øxar-’.

ax-helma, f. stalk and ear of corn.

axlar-bein, n. shoulder-bone, shoulder-blade; -liðr, m. shoulder-joint.

axl-byrðr, f. load borne on the shoulder (öxl); -hár, a. as high as a man’s shoulder (axlhár e-m).

ay, interj. = auvi (ay mér veslugri).

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