Y

yðarr or yðvarr, poss. pron. your; yður fór, your journey; yðvart ríki, your kimgdom; tvá hesta skal hafa hverr yðarr, each of you shall have two horses.

ydda (yddi), v. to show the point on the other side (S. lagði sverðinu í gegnum hann, svá at út yddi um bakit).

yðr, pron., dat. and acc. pl. you.

yfir, prep. with dat. and acc.; I. with dat. over, above (hvers manns alvæpni hekk y. rúmi hans); sitja y. borðum, to sit at table; s. yfir málum manna, to sit at, attend to cases, as judge; konungr y. Englandi, king over E.; vaka y. e-m, to wake or watch over; II. with acc. (1) over, above (Skaði tók eitr-orm, ok festi upp y. hann); hann tók y. sik skikkjuna, he put on the mantle; komast y. e-t, to come by a thing; (2) over, across, through (síðan fóru þeir y. Norðrá); (3) fig. over, beyond; hafa vöxt y. e-n, to have growth over, be taller than; fram y. aðra menn, beyond, above other men; (4) adverbial usages, sá kvittr kom y., passed over; kveld kemr y., evening draws on.

yfir-afli, m. superior force; -afligr, a. over-strong, very strong; -band, n. string to fasten the mouth of a bag; -berligr, a. surpassing, extraordinary; -berr, a. surpassing, extraordinary; -biskup, m. high priest; -bjóða, v. to rule over; -boð, n. rule, command, authority; -boðari, m. superior, master; -bóði, m. superior, master; -bót, f. (1) penance, penitence (iðran ok -bót); (2) pl., -bœtr, compensation, atonement (bjóða e-m sætt ok -bœtr); -bragð, n. (1) outward look, appearance, demeanour; með miklu -bragði, of very imposing demeanour, magnificent; (2) show, pretence, outer appearance (með sáttgjarnligu -bragði); (3) surface (allt jarðarinnar -bragð).

yfirbragð-ligr, a. extraordinary.

yfirbragðs-lítill, -mikill, a. poor, grand, in look or appearance.

yfir-breizl, n. coverlet; -breizla, f. coverlet; -buga (), v. to overcome, surpass; -burðr, m. excess (-burðr um þat, er lögin segja); -bæriliga, adv. surpassing; -bæriligr, a. surpassing; -bœta (-tta, -ttr), v. to atone for; -dómandi, -dómari, m. over-judge.

yfirdrepskapr (gen. -ar), m. dissimulation, pretence.

yfir-dróttning, f. sovereign queen; -engill, m. archangel; -faðir, m. patriarch; -fat, n. over-garment; -ferð, f. a passage over or through a country; visitation.

yfirferðar-illr, a. difficult to pass.

yfir-fœriligr, a. passable; -för, f. (1) = yfirferð (banna e-m fór); (2) visitation (hafa -fór um sýslu sína); -ganga, f. (1) passing through; (2) transgression; -gangr, m. (1) passing through; (2) overbearing conduct, tyranny, oppression.

yfirgangs-maðr, m. lordly man.

yfir-gefa, v. to forsake, abandon; -girnd, f. excessive ambition; -gjarn, a. ambitious; -gjarnligr, a. ambitious; -gnæfa (-ða, -t), v. (1) to hang over, with dat.; (2) to impend, threaten; -gyðingr, m. Pharisee.

yfirhafnarlauss, a. without an upper garment (vápnlausir ok -lausir).

yfir-hlaup, n. skipping; -hylma (-da, -dr), v. to hide; -höfðingi, m. over-captain, ruler; -höfn, f. over-coat; -kennimaðr, m. high-priest; -klerkr, m. over-clerk, one of the highest clergy; -klæði, n. over-cloak; -koma, v. to overcome; geta -komit e-n, fá e-n -kominn, to manage to overcome one; -kominn af mœði, exhausted; -konungr, m. supreme king; -kussari, m. corsair-chief; -land, n. land on the other side; -lát, n. honour, favour; hafði S. minnst -lát, S. was made least of; -leðr, n. upper leather, of shoes; -lesning, f. perusal; -ligr, a. lying above, celestial; -lit, n. look, personal appearance (-lit hennar ok kurteisi); esp. in pl., líkr feðr sínum at -litum ok skaplyndi; -litr, m. = -lit; -læti, n. = -lát; vera með e-m í miklu, góðu -læti, to be in high favour with one; -maðr, m. superior, master (Ólafr er betr til -manns fallinn en mínir synir); -mannligr, a. chieftain-like; -meistari, m. head-master; -port, n. lintel, = ofdyri; -ráðandi, m. master, commander (-ráðandi skipanna); -reið, f. ‘riding over’, visitation; -seta, f. (1) task, business (ekki ætlaða ek, at þat væri min -seta at dœma milli þeira); (2) nursing a sick person.

yfirsetu-kona, f. midwife.

yfir-sjón, f. (1) supervision, inspection; (2) appearance, look; -skikkia, f. overcloak; -skipan, f. authority; -skygnari, m. supervisor; -sloppr, m. outer gown; -sókn, f. = -ferð; -sterkari, a. compar. stronger; verða, -sterkari, to get the upper hand; -stiginn, pp. overcome; -stigning, f. hyperbaton; -stígari, m. conqueror; -stórmerki, n. pl. great wonders; -stöplan, f. transgression, infringement; -sýn, f. (1) appearance, look (friðr at -sýn); (2) superintendence; -sýnd, f. = -sýn I; ljótr -sýndar = l. at -sýn; -sögn, f. decision; -söngr, m. singing, service; -tak, n. transgression; -taka, v. = taka yfir; -tyrma (-da, -dr), v. to overwhelm; -vald, n. (1) power, rule (Sveinn jarl hafði -vald í Nóregi); (2) the authorities (-vald staðarins); -varp, n. outward show; -vettugis, adv. to excess; -vinna, v. to vanquish, overcome; -vættis, adv. exceedingly; -vættligr, a. exceedingly great.

yfrinn, a. over-great, abundant, large, = ýrinn, œrinn (nil eru ok yfrin efni til, því at ekki skortir oss lið); neut. as adv. very (yfrit mikill, djarfr, lengi).

yggjungr, m. ‘the wise one’; y. ása, Odin.

yggr, a. anxious (yggt vas þeim síðan).

ygla (-da, -dr), v. to wrinkle; hann yglir brýnn, he knits the brows, he frowns; refl., yglast á e-n, to frown at or upon one (konungrinn ygldist á sveininn); ygldr, pp. frowning.

ygli-brún, frowning brow.

ykkarr, possess. pron., dual, your; ferð ykkur, your journey; hvárngan ykkarn Hákonar jarls mun hann spara, he will spare neither of you, neither Hacon nor thee.

ylfskr, a. wolfish, treacherous.

ylgjast (ð), v. refl. to frown, look gloomy (tekr veðrit at y.).

ylgr (gen. ylgjar, dat. and acc. ylgi), f. she-wolf (kom þar y. ein).

ylja (), v. to warm, = verma.

ylmast (d), v. to chafe, rage (er hann fann þat, ylmdist hann í móti).

ylr (-jar, -ir), m. warmth.

yl-samligr, a. warm.

ymja (ym, umda, umit), v. to whine, cry (svá bar hann prúðliga sóttina, at engi maðr heyrði hann y.) ymr it aldna tré, the old tree grows umdu ölskálir, the ale-beakers rang.

ymni, m. hymn (syngja helga ymna).

ymr, m. humming-sound, groaning (þá heyrðu þau ym mikinn ok gný) ára y., splashing of oars.

ymta (), v. to talk of, mutter.

ymtr, m. rumour (y. leikr í e-u).

yndi, n. delight, happiness; njóta yndis, to enjoy happiness, live in bliss; þeira samfarar urðu ekki at y., their married life was not happy; nema, festa y. á e-m stað, to feel happy in a place; ok hvárki nam hann y. á Íslandi né í Nóregi, he found no rest in Iceland or in Norway.

yndi-fall, n. bereavement; -liga, adv. charmingly; -ligr, a. pleasurable (með fagnaði ok -ligu lífi).

yndis-bót, f. increase of bliss; -staðr, m. place of bliss (of Eden).

ynglingr, m. young-person, youth.

ynni-ligr, a., -samligr, a. lovely.

yppa (-ta, -t), v. to lift up, raise; y. hurðum, to open the doors; y. hans lofi, to extol him.

yppi-mannliga, adv. like a great man (þeir létu hit -mannligasta).

yr, prep. out of, = ór, úr, or.

yrkis-efni, n. pl. subject of a poem.

yrkja (yrki, orta, ortr), v. (1) to work, esp. to fill, cultivate (y. jörðina, landit); (2) to make verses (y. kvæði, drápu, lof, níð, háðung um e-n); absol., hann var kærr konungi ok orti vel, he was beloved by the king, and a good poet; (3) y. á e-t, to set about; en er þeir fundust, ortu bœndr þegar á til bardaga, the peasants at once set upon them; Eiríkr jarl orti ekki á at berjast við Erling, Eirik made no attempt to fight Erling; y. á e-n, to work upon; hvárki eldr né járn orti á þá, neither fire nor iron did them any harm; y. orða á e-n, to address one, speak to one (hann svaraði stirt ok strítt, þá er menn ortu orða á hann); (4) refl., yrkist í um e-t, it begins; (gerist nú svá sem dœmi finnast til, at á ortist um mannfallit); recipr. to attack one another (síðan fylktu þeir liði sínu ok ortust á ok börðust); þeir ortust á vísur, they competed in verse-making.

yrkr, a. working, when one may work = virkr (yrkir tímar).

yrmlingr, m. ‘wormling’, little snake (ötul augu sem yrmlingi).

yrmt, a. n. swarming with vermin (hér er víða y.).

yss, m. noise, bustle of a crowd (þá var yss mikill í skálanum).

ystast, v. refl. to curdle (þat rennr saman ok ystist sem mjölk).

ytri, better ýtri, a. compar., yztr, better ýztr, superl. outer, outermost.

yxn, m. pl. or n. pl. oxen, see ‘uxi’.

yxna, a. indecl. in heat (kýr y.).

yxna-flokkr, m. a herd or drove of oxen; -liki, n. the shape of oxen; -réttr, m. oxfold.

yxni, n. ox (y. fimm vetra gamalt).

yxnis-fall, n. carcass of an ox; -húð, f. hide of an ox; -hvarf, n. disappearance of an ox.

yztr, a. superl., see ‘ytri’.

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