B

bað, n. bath, esp. steam- or vapour-bath (fara or ganga til baðs, koma ór baði, ganga frá baði; taka bað).

baðast (), v. refl. to take a bath, to bathe.

bað-ferð, f. going to the bath (vera í -ferð); um -ferðir, about the time for bathing; -kápa, f. bathing-cloak; -kona, f. female bathing attendant.

baðmr, m. (1) tree; (2) bosom.

bað-stofa, f. bath-room, bathing room, in later times, sitting room.

baðstofu-gluggr, m. opening (window) in the roof of a baðstofa.

bagall, m. a bishop’s staff or crozier.

bagal-stafir, m. = bagall.

baggi, m. pack, bundle.

baglaðr, a. crooked, deformed.

bak, n. (1) back (binda bagga á b. sér); fig. bera sök á baki, to be guilty; leggja bleyðiorð á b. e-m, to charge one with being a coward; hafa marga vetr á baki, to be advanced in years; snúa baki við, to turn the back, flee; ganga á b. heitum, orðum, to go back on one’s word; (2) = hestbak; fara á b., to mount; fara, stíga, spretta af baki, to dismount; (3) the backside of a thing (cf. handarbak, hurðarbak, húsbak); á baki húsunum, at the back of the houses; gøra e-t á baki e-m, in one’s absence, behind one’s back; ríða at baki e-m, behind him on the same horse; berr er hverr at baki nema sér bróður eigi, bare is one’s back without a brother behind it; á bak, (a) behind; koma á b. e-m, to attack in the rear; (b) after; á b. jólum, after Christmas; hvat sem á b. kemr, whatever may come after or follow; (c) absol., falla á b. aptr, to fall backwards; brjóta á b. orð e-s, to refute, make them null and void; brjóta á b. Rómverja, to defeat them.

baka (), v. (1) to bake (b. brauð); (2) to warm and rub the body, and limbs, at a large fire (see ‘bakeldr’) esp. refl. bakast (við eld); (3) to rub = strjúka; bakaði Helgi fótinn, he rubbed the (broken) leg.

bakan, n. bacon (rare).

bakara-meistari, m. master-baker; -ofn, m. baker’s oven.

bakari, m. baker.

bak-bit, n. back-biting slander; -bítari, m. backbiter, slanderer; -borði, m. the larboard side of a ship, port, opp. to ‘stjórnborði’; -brjóta (see brjóta), v. to violate, = brjóta á bak; -byrðingar, m. pl. the crew on the larboard side opp. to ‘stjórnbyrðingar’; -byrðr, f. a burden to carry on the back.

bakelda-gørð, f. the action of making a bakeldr, or the rubbing of the back at a bakeldr.

bak-eldr, m. a fire at which to bake (warm and rub) the body and limbs (sitja við -elda).

bak-fall, n. (1) falling backwards, esp. in pl., róa -föllum, knýja árar með stórum -föllum, to take long pulls with the oars; (2) attack in the rear, = -slag; veita e-m -fall, to attack in the rear; -ferð, f. mounting, on horseback; -ferla (), v. to drive back, annul, make void; -hlutr, m. the hind part, backside; -hold, n. pl. the flesh on the btick of cattle; -hverfast (ð), v. refl., to turn one’s back upon (við e-ð); -jarl, m. a foe attacking in the rear.

bakka-kólfr, m. a kind of blunt headed arrow; -stokkar, m. pl. stocks on which a ship is built; setja fram af -stokkum, to launch.

bakki, m. (1) bank (of a river, lake, chasm, &c.); (2) ridge, bank (hann settist undir bakka í hrísrunni); (3) a mound on which the target is set up; setja spán í bakka, to set up a target; (4) bank of clouds above the horizon; (5) back of a knife or other cutting instrument, opp. to ‘egg’.

bak-klæði, n. tapestry; -lengja, f. the back-strip of a hide; -máll, -málugr, a. backbiting, slanderous; -mæla (-ta, -t), v. to backbite (-mæla e-m); -mælgi, f., -mæli, n. backbiting, slander.

bakmælis-maðr, m. calumniator.

bak-rauf, f. anus, a nickname; -sárr, a. having a sore back (of a horse); -setja (see setja), v. to neglect, omit (-setja at gera e-t); -skyrta, f. the hind part of a shirt; -slag, n., -sletta, f. attack in the rear, = bakfall (2); -slettr, m. = baksletta; -stakkr, m. the hind part of a cloak; -stokkar, m. pl. bakkastokkar.

bakstr (-rs), m. (1) baking; (2) baked bread esp. communion bread; (3) poultice, fomentation; (4) warming, rubbing (of the body).

bakstr-brauð, n. baked bread; -buðkr, m. a box in which the communion bread was kept; -eldr, m. (1) = bakeldr; (2) fire for making bread (gera þeir -elda stóra til brauðs); -hús, n. bakehouse; -járn, n. an iron plate for baking communion bread; -kona, f. female baker; -ofn, m. baking-oven; -sveinn, m. baker-boy.

bak-vana, a. indecl. having a sore back (of horses); -verkr, m. pain in the back; -verpast (t), v. (1) to turn away from, disregard (við e-t or við e-m); (2) to flee before one (-verpast við sínum úvinum).

baldikin, n. baldaquin, rich brocade.

baldinn, a. untractable, unruly.

baldrast (), v. refl. to crowd to together in a confused throng.

baldriði, m. = ballriði.

bali, m. grassy bank.

ballr, a. dangerous, dire; böll ráð, fatal schemes; ballir draumar, bad, ill-boding dreams; böll þrá, heavy grief.

ballrast (), v. refl. = baldrast.

ball-riði, m. poet., ‘bold rider’, hero (Freyr er beztr allra ballriða).

balsamr, m. balsam.

bana (), v. to kill, with dat.

bana-bloð, n. blood shed in slaying; -dagr, m. day of death; -drykkr, m. baneful drought, poison; -dœgr, n. = -dagr; -högg, n. death-blow (fá -högg; varð þat hans -högg); -lag, n. stabbing to death; bana-maðr, m. killer, slayer; -orð, n. (1) tidings of one’s death (segja -orð e-s); bera -orð af e-m, to slay one in fight; (2) death; þiggja -orð af e-m, to be killed by one; kenna e-m -orð, to charge with slaying one; -ráð, n. planning a person’s death; ráða or veita e-m -ráð, to bring about one’s death; -sár, n. death-wound, a mortal wound; -skot, n. mortal shot; -sótt, f. death sickness, mortal illness; -spjót, n., in the phrase, berast -spjót eptir, to be deadly enemies; -tilræði, n. mortal attack (veita e-m -tilræði); -þúfa, f. a knoll that causes one’s death; hníga við -þúfu, to die; drepa fótum við -þúfu, to stumble against or over a fatal knoll.

band, n. (1) the act of binding or settling, opp. to ‘lausn’; fig., lausn ok b. allra vandamála, the decision in all difficult cases; (2) band, cord (mjótt b.); (3) in pl., (a) bonds, fetters (hafa e-n í böndum); (b) bond, confederacy (ganga í bönd ok eið); (c) poet., the gods, cf. ‘höpt’; blóta bönd, to worship the gods; at mun banda, at the will of the gods.

banda (), v. to make a sign by waving the hand; b. á móti fénu, to drive away the sheep; with dat., b. höndum; to wave the hands.

banda-maðr, m. confederate, one who is in league with others.

bandingi (-ja), m. prisoner.

band-vetlingr, m. a kind of glove.

bang, n. hammering; banga (), v. to hammer, knock; b. dyrr or á dyrr, to knock at the door.

bang-hagr, a. knowing how to use the hammer.

bani, m. (1) death; fá (bíða, hafa, taka) bana, to die; ráða sér bana, to commit suicide; leiða e-n til bana, to cause one’s death (of an illness); kominn at bana, sinking fast; (2) that which causes death, bane; slayer (fjögurra manna b.).

bann, n. (1) excommunication, anathema, interdict; hit meira b, the greater exc.; hit minna b. (the lesser exc.) þat sem forboð er kallat á norrœnu; (2) prohibition, opp. to ‘lof’ (hlýða boði ok banni e-s); leggja b. fyrir e-t, to prohibit.

banna (), v. (1) to forbid, prohibit (b. e-m e-t or with infin.); (2) to curse (b. e-m); refl. bannast um, to swear (to do a thing).

bannaðar-orð, n. = bannanarorð.

bannan, f. curse, imprecation.

bannanar-orð, n. pl. = bannan.

bann-fœra (-ða, -ðr), v. to place under the ban.

banns-atkvæði, n. sentence of excommunication; -áfelli, n., -dómr, m. = -atkvæði.

bann-setja (see setja), v. (1) to place under the ban; (2) to curse; -setning, f. excomunication; -settliga, adv. wickedly; -settligr, a. execrable, detestable; -settr, pp. (1) placed under the ban; (2) accursed.

banns-mál, n. a case liable to excommunication; -pina, f. punishinent of excommunication; -spjót, n. spear of excommunication; -verk, n. an act liable to excommunication.

bann-syngja (see syngja), v. to pronounce an anathema against.

banns-sök, f. an offense liable to excommunication.

ban-orð, f. = banaorð; -vænligr, a. mortal, deadly; -vænn, a. (1) = -vænligr (-vænt sár); (2) deadly sick; ok er dró at því at hann var -vænn, when all hope of life was gone.

barar, f. pl. (1) hand-barrow, stretcher (Þ. var borinn í börum um fjallit); (2) funeral bier carried by horses (mœddust hestarnir undir börunum).

barátta, f. (1) contest, fighting; (2) fight, battle.

baráttu-fullr, a. combative, fond of fighting; -maðr, m. warrior; -samr, a. given to fighting.

barð, n. (1) beard (rare); (2) brim, of a hat or helmet; (3) the beak or armed prow of ships (of war), stem; róa fyrir b. e-m (= róa fyrir stafn e-m), to thwart one.

barða, f. a kind of axe.

bardaga-búinn, pp. ready for battle; -frest, n. delay of battle; -fullr, a. = -gjarn; -fýst, f. love of combat; -gjarn, a. eager for combat; -guð, m. god of battle; -gyðja, f. goddess of battle; -laust, adv. without battle; -list, f. art of war; -lykt, f. the close of a battle; -maðr, m. warrior; -stef, n., -stefna, f. a time fixedfor a battle.

bardagi, m. (1) beating, thrashing; (2) fight, battle (heyja, eiga bardaga við e-n); (3) calamity, scourge.

barð-hvalr, m. a sort of whale.

barði, m. a sort of ship, ‘ram’.

barð-mikill, a. with a great ‘barð’ (3).

barir, f. pl. = barar (rare).

barka-kýli, n. Adam’s apple.

barki, m. windpipe, weazand.

barki, m. a sort of small boat, launch.

bark-lauss, a. without bark (börkr).

barlak, n. barley, = bygg.

barmi, m. poet., brother.

barmr, m. brim, rim (of a vessel or a steel cap).

barm-tog, n. a rope for hauling the nets ashore.

barn, n. (1) bairn, child; vera með barni, to be with child; ganga með barni, to go with child; barns hafandi or hafandi at barni, with child, pregnant; frá blautu barni, from one’s tender years; (2) = mannsbarn; hvert b., every man, every living soul.

barna (), v. to get with child.

barna-börn, n. pl. grandchildren; -eldi, n. procreation of children; -fœri, n. in the phrase, ekki -fœri, no task for children; -gaman, n. child’s play; -karl, m. children’s friend.

barn-aldr, m. = barnsaldr.

barna-leikr, m. child’s play.

barn-alinn, pp. native; -alinn á Íslandi, a native of Iceland.

barna-mál, n. childish affair; gera e-t at -málum, to treat as a trifle, trifle with; -mesba, f. Holy Innocents’ Day; -skap, n. childish temper; hafa ekki -skap, to be no baby; -vipr, n. childish trifles, gewgaws; -þáttr, m. the section of law concerning infants.

barn-beri, a. with child, pregnant; -burðr, m. childbirth; -bærr, a. capable of bearing children, opp. to ‘úbyrja’; -dómr, m. childhood; -eign, f. (1) getting or having children; (2) children, family (furðu illa -eign gat Loki); -eskja, f. childhood, = barnœska; -faðir, m. a childs alleged father; -fóstr, n. fostering of a child (a kind of adoption in olden times); bjóða e-m -fóstr, to offer to do this for another man; -fóstra, f. foster-mother; -fóstri, m. foster-father; -fúlga, f. pay for the maintenance of a child; -fœddr, pp. = -alinn; borinn ok -fœddr, born and bred; -fœði, n. native place, birthplace (eiga -fœði e-s staðar); -getnaðr, m. (1) procreation of children; (2) pregnancy (hón hafði fengit -getnað af þeirra samvistu); -gœlur, f. pl. nursery songs, lullabies.

barningr, m. thrashing, see ‘lamabarningr’.

barn-lauss, a. childless; -leikr, m. = barnaleikr; -leysi, n. childlessness; -ligr, a. childish, childlike.

barns-aldr, m. (time of) childhood (nýkominn af -aldri); -bein, n., in the phrase, frá (or af) blautu -beini, from childhood; -full, a. f. pregnant; -fylgja, f. the after-birth, = eptirburðr; -grátr, m. the crying of a baby; -húfa, f. child’s cap.

barn-skikkja, f. childs cloak; -skírn, f. christening of an infant; -skirnar-orð, n. pl. words used in christening, baptismal formula.

barn-sótt, f. pains, throes of childbirth (taka -sótt); -sæll, a. fortunate in one’s children; -sæng, f. childbed; -teitr, a. glad as a child; -ungr, a. very young, youthful; -úmagi, m., -úmegð, f. (see these words); -œska, f. childhood (bráð er barnœska).

barr, n. (1) acicular leaves, needles of the fir or pine (wrongly applied by Snorri, who speaks of the ‘barr’ of the ash); (2) barley.

barr-axlaðr, a. high-shouldered, with sharp, prominent shoulder bones; -haddaðr, a. poet., barley-haired (of the earth).

Barreyskr, a. from Barra (in the Hebrides).

barr-skeptr, a. high-shafted, of an axe (breiðöx barrskept).

barr-viðr, m. pine-forest; the wood of the fir.

bar-smíð, m. (1) thrashing, flogging; (2) in pl., fight, row.

barún (pl. barúnar), m. baron.

bar-viðri, n. beating storm, violent blasts (b. ok regn mikit).

bassi, m. bear, = bersi.

bast, n. (1) bast, the inner bark of the lime-tree (bleikr sem b.); (2) cord or string of bast (sá, þeir á b. bauga dregna).

basta (), v. to bind with a rope of bast (úbastaðr ok úbundinn).

bastarðr, m. bastard.

bastari, m. bastrope-maker.

bast-bleikr, a. pale as bast (= bleikr sem b.); -lina, f. cord of bast; -taug, f. rope or cord of bast; -vesall, a. = -bleikr; -øx, f. a kind of axe.

bati, m. improvement, advantage.

batna (), v. (1) to improve, get better; (2) impers., e-m batnar, one recovers (after sickness); the disease is added in gen. (e-m batnar síns meins, sjúkleika).

batnaðr (gen. -ar), m. improvement (berja e-n til batnaðar).

bauga-brot, n. fragments of rings (given in payment); -tal, n. enumeration of ‘rings’ (baugar), the section of law dealing with weregilds.

baug-bót, f. supplemental payment to the ‘baugr’ (baugþak, þveiti); -broti, m. ‘ring-breaker’, free-handed man; -bœtandi (pl. -endr), m. one who has to pay the weregild (baugr); -eiðr, m. the oath upon the sacred temple ring; -gildi, n. (1) the ‘weregild’ to be paid to the ‘agnates’ of the slain, opp. to ‘nefgildi’, the same amount to be paid to the ‘cognates’; (2) agnatic relationship.

baug-gildingr, m. see next entry.

bauggildis-maðr, m., usually pl. -menn, agnates who are bound to pay or receive the ‘bauggildi’.

baug-gildr, a. payable, fit to pay as ‘bauggildi’ (-gildr eyrir, -gilt fé).

baugr (-s, -ar), m. (1) ring, armlet (of gold or silver) worn on the wrist, esp. the sacred ring (stallahringr) on the altar in heathen temples, cf. ‘baugeiðr’; (2) in olden times, before minted gold or silver came into use, such rings were commonly used as a medium of payment; hence ‘baugr’ simply means money; (3) fine of varying amount for manslaughter, weregild; (4) gaff-hook? (5) in the phrase, eiga (kost) á baugi, to have a (single) chance left; ef sá væri á. baugi, if there were no other chance; þú munt eiga slíkan á baugi brátt, thou wilt soon have the very same chance or lot (viz. death); (6) the painted circle on a round shield.

baug-rýgr (-rýgjar, -rýgir), f. an only daughter entitled to receive and pay weregild.

baugs-helgr, f. personal sacredness (so that one’s death must be atoned for by a weregild).

baug-variðr, pp. adorned with rings; -þak, n. ‘ring-covering’, supplemtal payment to be added to the ‘baugr’ (3); at -þaki, fig., in addition, to boot; -þiggjandi (-endr), m. receiver of weregild.

bauka (), v. to dig, to rummage.

baula, f. cow; baulu-fall, n. the carcass of a slaughtered cow; -fótr, m. cow’s foot, a nickname.

baun (pl. -ir), f. bean; bauna-lögr, m. bean-broth.

bauta, v. beat, chase? (svá bautu vér björnuna).

bautaðar-, bautar- or bauta-steinn, m. stone monunent, memorial stone (reisa, setja bautastein).

baztr, a. superl. = beztr.

báðir (báðar, bæði, gen. beggja), a. both (báðir tveir).

bági, m. poet., adversary.

bágr, a. uneasy, awkward (verðr honum nú bág höndin); bágt var mjök um matbjargir, provisions were very scarce.

bágr, m. contest, resistance, in such phrases as, brjóta bág við e-n, to contend against, offer resistance to; fór í bág með þeim, a conflict arose between them; they quarrelled.

bág-ráðr, a. difficult to deal with, opp. to ‘auð-ráðr’; -rækr, a. difficult to drive (of geese).

bákn, n. beacon, signal.

bákna (), v. to beckon, make signals (þeir báknuðu vápnunum til þeirra Hákonar).

bál, n. (1) fire; slá b. = drepa eld; (2) flame, blaze; gera b., to make a blaze; (3) pyre, funeral pile; bera e-n á b., to carry to the pyre; stíga á b., to mount the pyre.

bál-för, f. funeral.

bálkr, m. (1) partition, balk (b. um þveran hellinn); (2) section in a code of laws; (3) body, group, host.

bára, f. wave, billow; vant er at sigla milli skers ok báru, between Scylla and Charybdis.

bára (), v. to fall and rise in waves (vatnit hrœrðist mjök ok báraði).

báróttr, a. undulated, wavy (haussinn var allr b. útan sem hörpuskel).

bár-stórt, a. n., var -stórt, the waves ran high.

báru-fall, n. heavy sea; -skot, n. swell; -stormr m. storm with heavy sea; -stórt = bár-stórt.

bása (), v. to drive into a stall, with dat. = bæsa.

bás-hella, f. a flagstone separating two stalls in a cowhouse.

báss, m. boose or stall in a cowhouse (binda kú í bás).

básún, m. bassoon (for. word).

bát-festr, f. a rope by which a boat is made fast; -lauss, a. having no boat; -leysi, n. want of a boat; -maðr, m. boatman.

bátr (-s, -ar), m. boat; sjá fyrir báti sínum, to go one’s own course, to mind one’s own business.

báts-borð, n. the side of a boat; -farmr, m. boat’s freight; -haki, m. boat-hook.

bát-stafn, m. boat’s prow.

beðja, f. poet., bed-fellow, wife.

beð-mál, n. pl. bed-talk.

beðr (-jar, -ir), m. bolster, bedding; ganga á beð e-m, to go to bed with one, to marry.

beiða (-dda, -ddr), v. to ask, beg, request; b. e-n e-s, or b. e-m (for one) e-s; b. e-s af e-m, to ask a thing of or from a person; b. e-n máls, orða, to address one; with acc., b. lögbeiðing, to make a lawful request; refl., beiðast, to request on one’s own behalf (b. laga, griða); beiddr, pp. unwilling reluctant (b. fór ek heiman at biðja þín, Guðrún).

beiðing, f., beiðni, f., beiðsla, f. request, demand.

beiðslu-maðr, m. a person asking.

beimar, m. pl. poet., men, heroes.

bein, n. (1) bone; láta með beini ganga, to deal blows to the very bone, give no quarter; hafa b. í hendi, to be well off; (2) leg, = fótleggr; (3) pl. mortal remains; bera bein or beinin, to be buried (hér mun ek b. bera á Íslandi).

beina (-da, -dr), v. (1) to stretch out, put into motion; b. flug, to stretch the wings for flight; b. skrið sinn, to creep, of a serpent; b. raustina, to raise the voice, speak aloud; (2) to further, promote; b. för (ferð) e-s, to help one forwards; b. at or til með e-m, to lend one help, to assist one; b. e-u til e-s, to contribute to a thing; b. at e-u, to lend a hand to; b. fyrir e-m, to support, entertain.

beina-, gen. pl. from ‘bein’ and gen. sing. from ‘beini’.

beina-bót, f. accommodation, comfort for guests.

beina-fœrsla, f. removal of bones (from one churchyard to another); -hrúga, f. heap of bones; -lag, n. burying of one’s bones, death.

beina-spell, n. spoiling the comfort of guests; -þurfi, a. in need of hospitable treatment.

bein-brjóta (see brjóta), v. to break one’s bones; -brot, n. fracture of a bone; -fastr, a., -fast sár, a wound to the bone; -fiskr, m. a kind of fish; -gróinn, pp. grown fast to the bone; -högg, n. a blow injuring the bone (svöðusár ok eigi beinhögg).

beini, m. (1) help, benifit; (2) esp. hospitable entertainment, hospitality (vinna, veita e-m beina); ganga um beina, to wait upon the guests.

beinir, m. = beini (1).

beini-samr, a. ready (willing) to help; -semi, f. readiness to help.

bein-knúta, f. joint-bone; -kross, m. cross of bone; -lauss, a. boneless, without bones.

bein-leiðis, adv. straight, directly.

bein-leiki, m. hospitable treatment, hospitality, = beini (2).

beinn, a. (1) straight; bein rás, straight course; beinstr vegr, the straightest (shortest) way; (2) hospitable (bóndi var beinn við þá); gera beint við e-n, to treat one kindly.

-beinn, a. -legged (berbeinn, bare-legged; digrbeinn, thick-legged).

beinn, m. a kind of tree, ebony?

bein-skeyti, f. straight shooting, marksmanship; -skeytr, a. straight shooting, a good shot.

beins-litr, m. colour of a bone.

bein-stórr, a. big-boned (maðr mikill ok beinstórr).

beint, adv. (1) straight, in a straight line, straight on; (2) just (þat kom mér b. í hug); b. sex tigir skipa, precisely sixty ships; nú b., just now; þá b., b. í þessu, just then.

bein-verkir, m. pl. pain in the legs.

bein-vitr, m. holly.

bein-vöxtr, m. bone-growth, size of bones (lítill beinvöxtum).

beiska, f. bitterness, sourness.

beiska (), v. to embitter.

beisk-leikr, m. bitterness, harshness; -liga, adv. bitterly (gráta -liga); -ligr, a. bitterish; -lundaðr, a. bitterhearted, malevolent.

beiskr, a. (1) bitter, acrid (b. drykkr); (2) exasperated, angry (hón varð beisk við); (3) painful, sore (beiskr bruni).

beit, f. pasturage, pasture.

beit, f. a plate of metal mounted on the brim (of a thing).

beit, n. poet., ship.

beita, f. bait, esp. for fish.

beita (-tta, -ttr), v. (1) to ‘cause to bite’, graze, with the animals in dat. (b. nautum), the pasture in acc. (b. haga, land, engi); absol. to pasture cattle (b. í skógi); b. upp land, to exhaust by grazing; b. upp (to consume) engjum ok heyjum; (2) to handle, use a weapon (b. sverði); (3) to hunt or chase (with dogs or hawks); b. e-n hundum, to set dogs on one; (4) fig., b. e-n brögðum, úlögum, illu, to deal cunningly, unlawfully, badly with one; recipr., við höfum opt brögðum beizt, schemed against each other; (5) to harness (a horse, &c.) to a vehicle (b. hest fyrir vagn); beittu enn blakka mar, saddle thy black steed; fig., b. e-n fyrir e-t, to put one at the head of; refl., beitast fyrir e-t or e-u, to lead the cause; (6) to furnish (a vehicle) with horses (vagn at b.); (7) to steer or sail near the wind, to cruise (beita þeir í brot, frá landinu); fengu þeir beitt fyrir Skotland, they weathered S.

beit-fiskr, m. fish to be caught with bait? (al. ‘beinfiskr’).

beiti, n. pasturage.

beiti, n. heather (beiti tekr við bitsóttum).

beiti-áss, m. sail-yard.

beiting, f. (1) grazing; (2) sailing by the wind (cf. þrá-beiting).

beitinga-mál, n. a lawsuit about right of grazing or pasturage.

beittr, a. sharp, keen (of cutting instruments).

beizl, n. bridle; leggja b. við hest, to bridle a horse.

beizla (), v. to bridle.

beizla, f. = beiðsla.

beizl-ál, f. bridle-rein; -hringr, m. bridle-ring; -tamr, a. used to the bridle; -taumr, m. bridle-rein.

beizlu-maðr, m. = beiðslumaðr.

bejur, bæjur, f. pl. fetters, irons (foreign word).

bekkjar-gjöf, f. ‘bench-gift’ (a gift which the bridegroom offered to the bride at the wedding festival).

bekkjar-kvern, f. water-mill.

bekkjast (t), v. refl. to strive to get a thing (b. til e-s); b. til við e-n, to pick a quarrel with one.

bekkju-nautr, m. bench-fellow.

bekk-klæði, n. covering of a bench.

bekkr (gen. -s or -jar, pl. -ir), m. bench; œðri b., the upper bench (along the north side of the hall, looking towards the sun); úœðri b., the lower (inferior) bench (along the southern side); breiða, strá bekki, to cover, strew the benches (in preparation for a feast or wedding).

bekkr (gen. -s or -jar, pl. -ir), m. beck, brook (poet.).

bekk-skrautuðr, m. adorner (ornament) of the bench (poet.).

bekk-sœmr, a. adorning the bench.

bekri, m. ram; brjóta bekrann, to break one’s neck (rare).

belg-fláttr, m. flaying or taking off the skin of an animal entire (flá hafrana -flætti).

belgja (-ða, -ðr), v. to inflate, puff out (b. hvápta, augun).

belgr (gen. -s or -jar, pl. -ir), m. (1) the skin (of a quadruped) taken off whole (cf. kálfsbelgr, kattbelgr, hafrbelgr, otrbelgr); (2) skin-bag, skin-case (draga belg á or yfir hofuð e-m); (3) bellows (smiðju-belgr).

belja (), v. to bellow (b. sem naut).

beljan, f. bellowing, lowing.

bella (bell, ball, —), v. to hit, hurt, with dat. (ball þér nú?); ekki má ófeigum b., one not fated to die is proof against all shots.

bella (-da, -t), v. to dare, venture, with dat.; (hverr mun hafa þessu bellt?); to deal in, display (bella svikum, lygi, gleði).

belli-bragð, n. knavish trick.

bellinn, a. tricky, trickish.

bell-visi, f. trickishness.

belta-dráttr, m. a close struggle.

belti, n. belt (cf. gjörð, lindi).

beltis-púss, m. a pouch attached to the belt; -staðr, m. waist.

ben (-jar, -jar), f. (1) mortal wound (ben, ef at bana verðr); (2) small bleeding wound; also of the wound produced by letting blood.

ben, n. wound = ben, f.

benda (-nda, -ndr), v. to beckon, make a size with the head or hand (b. e-m til sín, at fylgja sér); with acc., b. e-t fyrir, to forebode, betoken.

benda (-nda, -ndr), v. to bend (b. sverð um kné sér); b. boga, to bend a bow; b. höfuðit, to bow the head; refl., bendast á um e-t, to dispute, contest about.

benda, f. band, tie (cf. höfuðbenda).

bendi, n. cord.

bendill, m. small cord, string.

bending, f. (1) sign, token; gera e-m bending, to make a sign to one; (2) foreboding, betokenig (víst eru þetta bendingar stórra bardaga).

bendr, pp. bended, bent (skjóta af bendum boga).

benja (), v. to wound mortally (bróður minn hefr þú benjaðan).

benja-lýsing, f. a sort of coroner’s inquest upon a slain man; -váttr, m. a sort of coroner’s juryman; -vætti, n. the verdict of a benjaváttr.

ben-lauss, a. free from wounds; -logi, m. poet. ‘wound-flame’, sword; -rögn, n. ‘wound-drops’; -vöndr, m. poet. ‘wound-wand’, sword.

benzl, n. pl. bent state of a bow; taka boga af benzlum, to unbend it.

ber (gen. pl. berja), n. berry.

bera (ber; bar, bárum; borinn), v. I. (1) to bear, carry, convey (bar B. biskup í börum suðr í Hvamm); b. (farm) af skipi, to unload a ship; b. (mat) af borði, to take (the meat) off the table; b. e-t á hesti, to carry on horseback; (2) to wear (b. klæði, vápn, kórónu); b. œgishjálm, to inspire fear and awe; (3) to bear, produce, yield (jörðin berr gras; tré bera aldin, epli); (4) to bear, give birth to, esp. of sheep and cows; kýr hafði borit kálf, had calved; absol., ván at hón mundi bera, that the cow would calve; the pp. is used of men; hann hafði verit blindr borinn, born blind; verða borinn í þenna heim, to be born into this world; þann sóma, sem ek em til borinn, born to; borinn e-m, frá e-m (rare), born of; Nótt var Nörvi borin, was the daughter of N.; borinn Sigmundi, son of S.; (5) b. e-n afli, ofrafli, ofrliði, ofrmagni, ofríki, to bear one down, overcome, oppress, one by odds or superior force; b. e-n ráðum, to overrule one; b. e-n málum, to bear one down (wrongfully) in a lawsuit; b. e-n sök, to charge one with a fault; b. e-n bjóri, to make drunk with beer; verða bráðum borinn, to be taken by surprise; borinn verkjum, overcome by pains; þess er borin ván, there is no hope, all hope is gone; borinn baugum, bribed; cf. bera fé á e-n, to bribe one; (6) to lear, be capable of bearing (of a ship, horse, vehicle); þeir hlóðu bæði skipin sem borð báru, with as much as they could carry; fig., to sustain, support (svá mikill mannfjöldi, at landit fekk eigi borit); of persons, to bear up against, endure, support (grief, sorrow, &c.); absol., bar hann drengiliga, he bore it manfully; similarly, b. (harm) af sér, berast vel (illa, lítt) af; bar hon sköruliga af sér, she bore up bravely; hversu berst Auðr af um bróðurdauðann, how does she bear it? hon berst af lítt, she is much cast down; b. sik vel upp, to bear well up against; (7) b. e-t á, e-n á hendr e-m, to charge or tax one with (eigi erum vér þess valdir, er þú berr á oss); b. (kvið) á e-n, to give a verdict against, declare guilty (í annat sinn báru þeir á Flosa kviðinn); b. af e-m (kviðinn), to give a verdict for; b. e-t af sér, to deny having done a thing; b. or b. vitni, vætti, to bear witness, testify; b. or b. um e-t, to give a verdict in a case; b. e-n sannan at sök, to prove guilty by evidence; b. e-n undan sök, to acquit; b. í sundr frændsemi þeirra, to prove (by evidence) that they are not relations; b. e-m vel (illa) söguna, to give a favourable (unfavourable) account of one; refl. (pass.), berast, to be proved by evidence (þótt þér berist þat faðerni, er þú segir); (8) to set forth, report, tell; b. e-m kveðju (orð, orðsending), to bring one a greeting, compliments (word, message); b. or b. fram erindi sín fyrir e-n, to state (tell) one’s errand or to plead one’s case before one; b. e-m njósn, to apprise one; b. e-t upp, to produce, mention, tell; b. upp gátu, to give (propound) a riddle; b. upp erindi sín, to state one’s errand; b. saman ráð sín, to consult together; eyddist það ráð, er þeir báru saman, which they had designed; (9) to keep, hold, bear, of a title (b. jarlnafn, konnungsnafn); b. (eigi) giptu, gæfu, hammingju, auðnu til e-s, (not) to have the good fortune to do a thing (bar hann enga gæfu til at þjóna þér); b. vit, skyn, kunnáttu á e-t, to have knowledge of, uniderstanding about; vel viti borinn, endowed with a good understanding; b. hug, áræði, þor, traust til e-s, to have courage, confidence to do a thing; b. áhyggju fyrir e-u, to be concerned about; b. ást, elsku, hatr til e-s, to bear affection, love, hatred to; (10) to bear off or away, carry off (some gain); b. sigr af e-m, af e-u, to carry off the victory from or in; hann hafði borit sigr af tveim orustum, he had been victorious in two battles; b. hærra (lægra) hlut to get the best (the worst) of it; b. efra (hærra) skjöld, to gain the victory; b. hátt (lágt) höfuðit, to bear the head high (low), to be in high (low) spirits; b. halann bratt, lágt, to cock up or let fall the tail, to be in high or low spirits; (11) with preps.; b. af e-m, to surpass; en þó bar Bolli af, surpassed all the rest; b. af sér högg, lag to ward off, parry a blow or thrust; b. eld at, to set fire to; b. fjötur (bönd) at e-m, to put fetters (bonds) on one; b. vápn á e-n, to attack one with sharp weapons; b. á or í, to smear, anoint (b. vatn í augu sér, b. tjöru í höfuð sér); b. e-t til, to apply to, to try if it fits (b. til hvern lykil af öðrum at portinu); b. e-t um, to wind round; þá bar hann þá festi um sik, made it fast round his body; b. um með e-n, to bear with, have patience with; b. út barn, to expose a child; (12) refl., berast mikit (lítit) á, to bear oneself proudly (humbly); láta af b., to die; láta fyrir b. e-s staðar, to stay, remain in a place (for shelter); b. e-t fyrir, to design a thing (barst hann þat fyrir at sjá aldregi konur); at njósna um, hvat hann bærist fyrir, to inquire into what he was about; b. vápn á, to attack one another; b. at or til, to happen; þat barst at (happened) á einhverju sumri; ef svá harðliga kann til at b., if that misfortune does happen; b. í móti, to happen, occur; hefir þetta vel í móti borizt, it is a happy coincidence; b. við, to be prevented; ok nú lét almáttugr guð við b. kirkjubrunann, prevented, stopped the burning of the church; II. impers., denoting a sort of passive or involuntary motion; (1) with acc., it bears or carries one to a place; alla berr at sama brunni, all come to the same well (end); bar hann (acc.) þá ofan gegnt Ösuri, he happened to come down just opposite to Ö.; esp. of ships and sailors; berr oss (acc.) til Íslands eða annarra landa, we drift to Iceland or other countries; þá (acc.) bar suðr í haf, they were carried out southwards; Skarpheðin (acc.) bar nú at þeim, S. came suddenly upon them; ef hann (acc.) skyldi bera þar at, if he should happen to come there; e-n berr yfir, one is borne onwards, of a bird flying, a man riding; hann (acc.) bar skjótt yfir, it passed quickly (of a flying meteor); (2) followed by preps.; Gunnar sér, at rauðan kyrtil bar við glugginn, that a red kirtle passed before the window; hvergi bar skugga (acc.) á, there was nowhere a shadow; e-t berr fram (hátt), is prominent; Ólafr konungr stóð í lyptingu ok bar hann (acc.) hátt mjök, stood out conspicuously; e-t berr á milli, comes between; leiti (acc.) bar á milli, a hill hid the prospect; fig. e-m berr e-t á milli, they are at variance about a thing; mart (acc.) berr nú fyrir augu mér, many things come now before my eyes; veiði (acc.) berr í hendr e-m, game falls to one’s lot; e-t berr undan, goes amiss, fails; b. saman, to coincide; bar nöfn þeirra saman, they had the same name; fig., with dat.; bar öllum sögum vel saman, all the stories agreed well together; fund várn bar saman, we met; (3) b. at, til, við, at hendi, til handa, to befall, happen, with dat. of the person; svá bar at einn vetr, it happened one winter; þó at þetta vandræði (acc.) hafi nú borit oss (dat.) at hendi, has befallen us; bar honum svá til, it so befell him; þat bar við (it so happened), at Högni kom; raun (acc.) berr á, it is proved by fact; (4) of time, to fall upon; ef þing (acc.) berr á hina helgu viku, if the parliament falls in the holy week; b. í móti, to coincide, happen exactly at the same time; (5) denoting cause; e-t berr til, causes a thing; konungr spurði, hvat til bæri úgleði hans, what was the cause of his grief; ætluðu þat þá allir, at þat mundi til b., that that was the reason; berr e-m nauðsyn til e-s, one is obliged to do a thing; (6) e-t berr undir e-n, falls to a person’s lot; hon á arf at taka, þegar er undir hana berr, in her turn; e-t berr frá, is surpassing; er sagt, at þat (acc.) bæri frá, hvé vel þeir mæltu, it was extraordinary how well they spoke; (7) e-t berr bráðum, happens of a sudden; e-t berr stóru, stórum (stœrrum), it amounts to much (more), it matters a great deal (more), it is of great (greater) importance; (8) absol. or with an adv., vel, illa, with infin.; e-m berr (vel, illa) at gera e-t, it becomes, beseems one (well, ill) to do a thing (berr yðr vel, herra, at sjá sannindi á þessu máli); used absol., berr vel, illa, it is beseeming, proper, fit, or unbeseeming, improper, unfit (þat þykkir eigi illa b., at).

bera (), v. to make bare (hon beraði likam sinn).

bera, f. she-bear, = birna.

ber-bakt, adv. bare-backed, without saddle (ríða -bakt); -beinn, a. barelegged; -brynjaðr, a. wearing a coat of mail with no garment over it; -dreymr, a. having clear dreams as to the future.

ber-fjall, n. bear-skin (cf. ‘bera’).

ber-fœttr, a. bare-footed, barelegged; berfœttr bróðir, bare-footed friar, minorite.

berg, n. (1) rock, boulder; (2) cliff, precipice (framan í bergi).

berg-búi, m. rock-dweller, giant; -danir, m. pl. = -búar; -hamarr, m. rocky precipice; -hlíð, f. the side of a berg, mountain slope; -högg, n. a quarrying tool.

bergi-biti, m. a bit to taste, small bit; -ligr, a. inviting to taste.

berging, f. tasting, taste.

bergisamligr, a. = bergiligr.

bergja (-ða, -ðr), v. to taste, with dat.; þárgunna vildi øngum mat b., Th. would taste no food; b. ölvi, to taste (drink) ale; b. dauða, to taste death; also b. á e-u (enn höfum við eigi á dauða bergt).

bergning, f. = berging (rare).

berg-nös, f. = bergsnös; -rifa, f. fissure in a rock, = bjargrifa; -risi, m. hill-giant; -skor, f. rift in a rocky hill, = bjargskora; -snös, f. a rocky projection; -tollr, m. rock-toll, paid for catching fowl thereon; -vörðr, m. a watch or lookout for rocks and cliffs (halda bergvörð).

ber-höfði, a. indecl. bare-headed; -högg, n. in the phrase, ganga í (or á) -högg við e-n, to enter into open fight with; Jóan gekk á berhögg at banna allar þær úhœfur, interdicted these abuses boldly and openly.

berill, m. vessel, barrel for fluids (mjöðrinn var borinn í berlum).

berindis, adv. openly (rare).

berja (ber; barða, börðum; barðr, bariðr), v. (1) to beat, strike, smite (b. e-n); hár svá fagrt sem barit gull, as beaten gold; b. korn af hálmi, to thresh; b. húð af e-m, to scourge severely; b. e-n grjóti, to stone (= grýta); b. e-n illyrðum, ávítum, to abuse, reproach one; b. á e-m, to attack one with blows, give one a thrashing; b. á hurð, dyrr, at hurðu, at dyrum, to knock, rap at a door; b. sér á brjóst, to smite one’s breast (in repentance); b. til e-s = b. á e-m; b. e-n til e-s, to drive one with blows to do a thing (verða barðr til bœkr); (2) with dat., b. grjóti í andlit e-m, to throw stones in one’s face; b. saman vápnum, skjöldum, to dash weapons, shields against each other; b. (to neglect, slight) guðs boðum; b. e-u niðr (opp. to ljósta e-u upp), to hush up; (3) intrans., hjarta hans barði (beat, throbbed) undir síðunni; (4) impers., skýjagrjóti barði í augu þeim, hailstones dashed in their eyes; þeim barði saman, they dashed against each other; (5) refl., berjast, to fight (við e-n, with or against a person; við veðr, against bad weather; við e-m, for a person); b. á e-t, to assail attack (b. á borgina, á guðs lýð); þótt hann berðist lengi mót (offered resistance).

berja-vin, n. berry-wine.

berkja (-ta, -t), v. to boast, brag.

ber-kyrtlaðr, a. wearing the kirtle only, without cloak or mantle; -leggjaðr, -leggr, a. bare-legged; -liga, adv. (1) openly, barely; (2) quite, altogether (berliga úviljandi); -ligr, a. open, manifest, clear.

berlings-áss, m. pole (-áss digr þrettán alna langr).

ber-málugr, a. outspoken; -mælgi, f., -mæli, n. pl. outspokenness, frankness; -mæltr, a. = -málugr.

bernska, f. childhood (hann var þá í bernsku).

bernsk-liga, adv. childishly; -ligr, a. childish; bernskr, a. childish, childlike.

bernsku-aldr, m. years, days, of childhood; -bragð, n. childish trick; -ligr, a. belonging to childhood, childish; -maðr, m. childish person, youth; -ráð, n. childish design.

berr, a. (1) bare, naked (lík bert ok blóðugt); undir berum himni, in the open air; hvíla á berri jörðu, on the bare ground; (2) open, clear, manifest; segja e-t berum orðum, in plain words verða berr at e-u, to be convicted of a thing; gøra e-t bert, to make known; gøra sik beran í e-u, to reveal, show one’s mind in a thng; vóru berastir í því þrændir, the Th. were most undisguised in it.

ber-serkr (-s, -ir), m. ‘bear-sark’, berserker, a wild warrior of the heathen age.

berserks-gangr, m. fury of the berserkers.

bersi, m., see ‘bessi’.

ber-shjaldaðr, a. without a shield; -syndugr, a. guilty of open sin (bersyndugr maðr); -sögli, f. outspokenness, freedom of speech.

bert, adv. openly, clearly (mæla b.).

ber-yrði, n. pl. = bermæli, bersögli.

bessi (for ‘bersi’, cf. ‘bera’, f.), m. he-bear, Bruin.

besti, n. = bast.

betr, adv. compar., (1) better; b. þœtti mér, I would rather; vánu b., better than expected; hafa b., to get the better of it; (2) more; leggit fram b. hit mikla skipit, bring further forward; þrjú hundruð ok þrír tigir ok sex b., to boot; ef hann orkar (or má) b., if he can do more; ekki máttu sumir inenn b. en fá staðizt, they were just able to keep up against him; svá hár, at engi annarra tók b. en í öxl honum, reached higher than to his shoulder.

betra (), v. to better, improve (b. líf sitt); refl. to become better; impers., þeir sögðu, at konungi betraðist mjök, that the king felt, much better.

betran, f. bettering, improvement.

betranligr, a. improvable.

betr-feðrungr, m. a man better than his father, = feðr-betrungr.

betri, a. compar., beztr, superl. better, best; þeim þótti betra at, they thought it better to; beztr bóndi, an excellent farmer; er mér hefir beztr verit, best (kindest) towards me; with gen., meðan bezt er sumars, during the best part of the summer.

beygja (-ða, -ðr), v. to bend, bow (b. hálsinn fyrir e-m); b. e-m krók, to make it awkward for one.

beyglast (), v. refl. to become bent (spjótit beyglaðist).

beysta (-sta, -str), v. to beat; b. korn, to thresh; b. bakföllum, to pull hard at the oars.

beysti, n. ham, gammon of bacon.

beytill, m. fescue-grass (?), cf. ‘góibeytill’.

bezt (older ‘bazt’), adv., superl. to ‘vel’, best; b. búinn, best equipted; b. allra manna, best of all men.

beztr (older ‘baztr’), a. superl., see ‘betri’.

biblia, f. the Bible; also ‘biflía’.

bið, n. pl. waiting, delay; góðr í bíðum, patient.

biða (), v. to wait; b. e-s, to wait for (þeir biðuðu þeirra).

biða, f. awaiting (rare).

biðan, f. delay, biding.

bið-angr, m. = biðan, biðvangr.

biðill (pl. biðlar), m. wooer, suitor.

biðja (bið; bað, báðum; beðinn), v. (1) to ask, beg a thing of one (b. e-n e-s); with infin., to beg one to do a thing; inn bið þú hann ganga, ask him to step in; with the infin. sign ‘at’, to beg leave; biðr hann at fara norðr á Hálogaland, asked for furlough to go to H.; with ‘at’ and a subj. (biðja viljum vér, at þú sér í liðsbóninni með oss); b. e-s, to beg for a thing (b. miskunnar, matar); b. e-m e-s, to beg for a thing on behalf of one; b. e-m lífs, griða, to beg for one’s life, to sue for quarter for another; b. sér ölmusu, to ask for alms; b. (sér) konu, to ask in marriage; b. fyrir e-m, to intercede (pray) for one; (2) to pray to God (b. til guðs); b. bœn sína (bœnar sinnar, bœn sinni), to say one’s prayer; (3) refl., biðjast fyrir, to say one’s prayers; b. undan, to excuse oneself (from doing a thing).

bið-leika (), v. to wait, stay, tarry (= ‘biða’).

bið-lund, f. forbearance, patience.

biðlundar-góðr, a. patient; -mál, n. a matter that can wait.

bið-lyndi, n., -stóll, m. (rare), = bið-lund.

bið-stund, f. time passed in waiting delay, respite.

biðstundar-tími, m. = biðstund.

bið-vangr, m. = biðangr.

bifast (ð and að), v. refl. (1) to shake, tremble (allr Ása salr undir bifðist); (2) to be moved; vagninn bifast hvergi, cannot be moved.

bif-röst, f. poet., mythical name of the rainbow.

bik, n. pitch (svartr sem b.; biki svartari); bika (), v. to pitch.

bikarr, m. large drinking cup, beaker (cf. ‘sáttar-bikarr’).

bikkja, f. bitch (= grey, tík).

bikkja (-ta, -tr), v. to plunge into water; hann bikkti sér út af borðinu, hann bikkti í sjóinn, he plunged overboard.

bikkju-hvelpr, m. bitch’s whelp; -sonr, m. son of a bitch; -stakkr, m. skin of a bitch.

bil, n. (1) an open space left (b. er þarna); (2) moment; þat bil, that very moment; í því bili, at the same moment, just then.

bila (), v. (1) to give way, break, crack; þá er skipit hljóp af stokkunum, þá bilaði í skarar nökkurar, some of the seams gave way; (2) with dat., flestum bilar áræðit, most people lose heart; with infin., Þórr vill fyrir engan mun b. at koma til einvígis, Th. will by no means fail to meet; (3) impers., hug ok áræði mun mik aldregi b., I shall never be wanting in courage and pluck.

bil-bugr, m. failing of heart, giving way; láta engan -bug á sér sjá, to show no sign of fear, stand firm.

bilt, a. n., only in the phrase, e-m verðr b., one is startled, alarmed; Þór (dat.) varð b. einu sinni (for once Thor’s heart failed him) at slá hann með hamrinum.

bimbult, a. n., in the phrase, e-m er b., one feels uneasy (kerling fær ekki sofnat um nóttina, svá var henni bimbult).

binda (bind; batt, bundum; bundinn), v. (1) to bind, tie, fasten, tie up; b. hest, hund, to tie up a horse, dog; b. skó, þvengi, to tie shoes, thongs; b. stein við háls e-m, to fasten a stone to one’s neck; b. fyrir augu e-m, to blindfold one; (2) to bind in parcels, to pack up (b. varning til skips); b. hey á hest, to truss hay on a horse’s back; b. korn, to tie up sheaves of corn; b. klyf, to tie up a pack; (3) b. e-t um e-t, to bind round; hann batt silkiræmu um fót sér, he bound a strip of silk round his leg; b. um e-t, to put a bandage on; batt Yngvildr um fót honum, bound up his (wounded) leg; b. um sár, to bind up a wound; fig., hefir margr hlotit um sárt at b. fyrir mér, many a man has had wounds to tie up by my means (i. e. inflicted by me); þykkir mér bezt um heilt at b., to bind a sound limb, to keep safe and sound; b. sár = b. um sár; b. hönd e-s, to bind his hand; (4) to make, form, contract, enter into (b. samfélag, vináttu, tengdir, hjúskap); b. sætt ok frið, to make a reconciliation and peace; b. ráð, to resolve; absol. with infin., to fix, engage (bundu þeir Þórir at hittast á ákveðnum stáð); (5) refl., to bind or engage oneself; em ek þó eigi þess búinn, nema fleiri bindist, unless more persons bind themselves, enter the league; b. á hendi (höndum) e-m, to bind oneself to serve another (b. á hendi konungum); b. fyrir e-u, to put oneself at the head of an undertaking; b. (= binda sik) í e-u, to engage in a thing (b. í heitum); b. í banns atkvæði, to bring on oneself the sentence of excommunication; with gen. (b. e-s = b. af or frá e-u), to refrain from a thing; eigi bazt hann ferligra orða, he did not refrain from bad words.

bindandi, f. = bindendi.

bindandis-tími, m. time of abstinence.

bindendi, f. and n. abstinence (b. matar ok drykkjar ok margra annara girnda).

bindendis-kraptr, m. virtue of abstinence; -lauss, a. licentious; -lif, n. life of abstinence; -maðr, m. an ascetic.

bingr, m. bed, bolster (statt upp úr binginum).

birgðir, f. pl. stores, provisions.

birgiligr, a. serviceable, useful.

birgja (-ða, -ðr), v., b. e-n at e-u, to furnish, provide one with a thing (nú vil ek b. bú þitt at málnytuísumar).

birgr, a. well-furnished, provided (at e-u) with a thing- (b. at kosti).

birki-, in compds., birch-.

birkinn, a. birchen; only in ‘birkinn viðr’ = birkiviðr.

birki-raptr, m. birch-rafter; -viðr, m. birch-wood.

birkja (-ta, -tr), v. to bark, strip off the bark from a tree (b. við).

birkja, f. birch-juice.

birna, f. she-bear, = bera.

birta (-rta, -rtr), v. (1) to brighten, light up, illuminate; var birt allt hlýrit (the bow of the vessel was made bright) bæði hvítum steini ok rauðum; stjörnur birta náttina, light up the night; b. blinda, to make the blind see; b. hjörtu vár, to enlighten our hearts; b. rœðu, to elucidate, make it clearer; impers., veðrit (acc.) birtir, it clears up; þokunni (dat.) birtir, the fog lifts; (2) to reveal, manifest, show (skjótt mun ek b. mitt skaplyndi); with dat., b. ást sinni, to manifest one’s love; refl., birtast, to appear (birtist þá skaði þeirra); dagrinn birtist, the day dawns; b. e-m, to appear to one.

birta, f. (1) brightness, fair complexion; (2) = birti.

birtari, m. revealer.

birti, n. brightness, light.

birting, f. (1) brightness; (2) revelation; birtingar tíð, the Epiphany.

birtingr, m. a kind of fish, sea-trout (?).

biskup (-s, -ar), m. (1) bishop; (2) the Jewish high-priest.

biskupa (), v. to confirm (b. börn), = ferma.

biskupa-fundr, m., -mót, n. synod of bishops.

biskupan, f. confirmation, = ferming.

biskupa-Þing, n. council of bishops.

biskup-dómr, m. = biskupsdómr; -liga, adv. episcopally; -ligr, a. episcopal; biskupligt embætti, the office of bishop.

biskups-búningr, m. bishop’s robes; -búr, n. bishop’s larder; -dómr, m. (1) dignity or rank of a bishop; (2) the period during which a bishop holds office, episcopate (í -dómi e-s); (3) episcopal see, bishopric; -dóttir, f. bishop’s daughter; -dœmi, n. = -dómr (3); -efni, n. bishop-elect; -frændi, m. relative of a bishop; -garðr, m. bishop’s manor; -gisting, f.; -herbergi, n. pl. bishop’s apartments; -kør, n., -kosning, f. election of a bishop; -lauss, a. without a bishop (landit er -laust); -maðr, m. one in the service of a bishop; -mark, n. sign of a bishop; -mágr, m. brother-in-law of a bishop; -messa, f. a mass celebrated by a bishop; -mítr, n. bishop’s mitre; -nafn, n. title of a bishop; -ríki, n. episcopal see, bishopric; -sekt, f. a fine to be paid to the bishop; -skattr, m. a duty to be paid to the bishop (in Norway); -skrúð, n., -skrúði, m. bishop’s robes; -sonr, m. son of a bishop; -stafr, m. bishop’s staff, crosier; -stjórn, f. administration of a bishop; -stóll, m. (1) episcopal seat; (2) bishopric; -sýsla, f. (1) = -stjórn; (2) province of a bishop, diocese; -tign, f. dignity or rank of a bishop; -tíund, f. the tithe to be paid to the bishop (in Iceland); -vatn, n. water consecrated by the bishop Guðmund; -veldi, a. episcopal power; -vígsla, f. consecration of a bishop.

bismara-pund, n. a certain weight.

bismari, m. steel-yard (mælir ok pundari ok bismari).

bisund, f. a gold coin, besant (foreign word).

bit, n. (1) bite (at tönnunum er bitsins ván); (2) sharpness, edge (of cutting instruments); (3) pasture = beit (Norse).

bita (), v. (1) to cut into bits; (2) b. út (útbita), with dat., to extend, distend, stretch out.

bit-bein, n. bone of contention (hafa ríki þessi lengi at öfund orðit ok -beinum); -hundr, m. snappish dog.

biti, m. (1) bit, mouthful; biðja bitum, to go begging; (2) eyetooth (upp eru komnir bitar ok jaxlar); (3) cross-beam, cross-girder.

bitill, m. = bitull.

bitlaðr, pp. bitted, bridled; cf. ‘gullbitlaðr’.

bitlingr, m. bit, morsel; stela bitlingum, to steal trifles.

bitr (acc. bitran), a. (1) biting, snapping (b. naðra); (2) cutting, sharp (bitrt sverð); (3) painful, bitter (b. tregi); -leikr, m. bitterness; -ligr, a. sharp, keen (-ligt sverð).

bit-sótt, f. disease (of cattle, sheep) from vermin.

bitull, m. the bit of a bridle.

bíða (bíð; beið, biðum; beðit), v. (1) to abide, wait for, with gen., bíð þú mín hér, wait for me here; þeir biðu byrjar, they waited for favourable wind; b. sinnar stundar, to bide one’s time; b. e-s ór stað (þaðan, héðan), to stand waiting in the same place (there, here); var eigi langt at b., at (it was not long before) sannaðist saga ábóta míns; (2) to suffer, undergo, sustain, with acc., b. bana (dauða, hel), skaða, to suffer death, loss; b. ámæli, to be blamed; b. ósigr, to be defeated; b. enga ró, to feel no peace, be uneasy; b. bót (bœtr) e-s, to recover, overcome; (3) e-t bíðr e-s, is in store for one, awaits one (fagnaðu, vin minn, því at þín bíðr eilífr fagnaðr); (4) impers., e-t (acc.) bíðr, there is, there is to be had, with a preceeding negative; hvárki bíðr þar báru né vinds blæ, there is felt neither wave nor breath of air; varla beið brauð eðr fœðu, was scarcely to be had.

bíðandi, f. biding, waiting, delay.

biðendr, m. pl. those who wait; b. eigu byr, get a fair wind.

bíldóttr, a. spotted on the cheeks (of a sheep).

bíldr, m. an instrument for letting blood, lancet (örit var sem bílds spor yæri, a scar as from a b.).

bíld-ör, f. a kind of arrow.

bílífi, n. luxury, = býlífi.

bíta (bít; beit, bitum; bitinn), v. (1) to bite with the teeth (hundr bítr mann; E. beit skarð ór horninu); b. gras, to graze, also absol. (naut bitu á velli); b. af e-m eyrun, to bite his ears; b. e-t í sundr, to bite asunder or through; b. á vörrinni, kampinum, to bite the lip, the beard; impers., of fish, to bite, take the bait (bítr vel á um daginn); (2) of sharp instruments, weapons; þeir er eigi bitu járn, those whom iron could not bite; sverðit beit eigi, did not cut; e-m bítr, one’s weapon (scythe) cuts well (allt bitu honum annan veg vápnin); fig., beit þetta ráð, was effective; (3) of a ship, to go near the wind; skip, er vér köllum b. allra skipa bezt, the best sailer; impers., beit þeim eigi fyrir Reykjanes, they could not clear or weather Reykjaness; (4) fig., to bite, sting, hurt (þik skulu allir eiðar b., þeir er Helga hafðir unna); sekt, sök bítr e-n, one is convicted or found guilty; þau mál, sem sekt bítr, matters liable to punishment; b. á e-n, to affect, make an impression on one; þetta lét Kjartan á sik b., K. took this to heart; láta e-t eigi á sik b., to be proof against, to be unaffected by a thing; (5) e-t bítr fyrir, is decisive, decides or settles the matter, esp. so as to render it impossible; b. e-m at fullu, to prove fatal to (hafa mik nú at fullu bitit hans ráð); (6) refl., bítast (of horses), to bite, in fighting (var honum mikil forvitni, hvé bítast vildi hestrinn) to bite one another (bítast sem hundar eða hestar).

bjalla, f. bell (hann vígði klukkur ok bjöllur).

bjannak, n. benediction (from Irish beannacht).

bjarg, n. (1) rock, boulder; (2) precipice, cliff (by the sea).

bjarga (berg; barg, burgum; borginn), v. (1) to help, save, with dat.; nema Þ. byrgi honum, unless Th. helped him; sá er öldum bergr, who saves mankind (viz. against the giants, i. e. Thor); guðs son er öllum heimi barg, who saved the whole world; impers., e-m er borgit, one is saved, comes safe and sound out of danger (brutu skip sitt ok týndu fé öllu, en mönnum varð borgit flestum); b. skipshöfn, to rescue the shipwrecked; b. skipi, to haul a ship out of the reach of the tide; b. hval, to secure a dead whale (by dragging it ashore); b. konum, to help labouring women (cf. ‘bjargrúnar’); b. kúm, to attend cows calving; b. nám, to render the last service to dead bodies (cf. ‘nábjargir’); b. sök, máli, to succeed in winning a case, a suit; (2) refl., bjargast, to keep up the heart, esp. against cold or hunger; Oddr bargst vel á fjallinu (in a snow storm); b. sjálfr, to gain one’s bread; b. á sínar hendr, to support oneself with one’s own hands; b. úti, to find one’s food (graze) in the field (of cattle); Snorri góði fann, at nafni hans bargst lítt við ostinn, that he got on slowly with eating the cheese; verði þér nú at b. við slík sem til er, you must now put up with what you can get.

bjarga (), v. (rare), = preceding (bjargat mun málinu verða).

bjargar-vist, f. a situation which yields food and clothing.

bjarg-aurar, m. pl. means enough for support.

bjarg-gengr, a. clever at climbing on fowling cliffs (cf. ‘ganga í bjarg’).

bjarg-hagr, a. a dexterous carpenter or smith for household work.

bjarg-högg, n. instrument for hewing steps in a rock.

bjarg-kostr, m. means of support; -kviðr, m. verdict of acquital; -leysi, n. starvation, destitution; -ráð, n. (1) means of salvation; (2) advice given to an outlaw with intent to save his life.

bjarg-rifa, f. rift in a rock, = bergrifa.

bjarg-rúnar, f. pl. runes for helping women in labour; -rýgr (rýgjar, -rýgir), f. midwife.

bjarg-skora, f. rift in a rocky hill, = bergskor.

bjargs-maðr, m. a self-supporting person.

bjarg-snös, f. = bergsnös; -steinn, m. boulder, craig.

bjarg-vel, adv. well enough.

bjarg-vættr, f. helping sprite, good genius.

bjarkan, n. the runic letter B.

bjarkeyjar-réttr, m. town-law.

Bjarmar, m. pl., name of a people or tribe of the Russian empire, the Perms of the present day.

bjarnar-báss, m. = bjarnbáss; -hamr, m. the hide, shape of a bear; -híð, n. a black bear’s lair; -hold, n. bear’s flesh; -hrammr, m. bear’s paw; -slátr, n. meat of a slaughtered bear.

bjarn-báss, m. a pit for catching bears; -dýr, -dýri, n. bear; -eggjan, f. brutal provocation; -feldr, m. bear-skin cloak; -fell, n. bear’s fell, bear’s skin; -gjöld, n. pl. reward for killing a bear; -húnn, m. bear’s cub; -igull, m. a kind of sea-urchin; -ólpa, f. = bjarnskinnsólpa; -skinn, n. bearskin.

bjarnskinns-ólpa, f. a bearskin cloak.

bjarn-staka, f. bearskin; -sviða, f. large knife for killing bears; -veiðar, f. pl. bear-hunting (fara á -veiðar); -ylr, m. bear’s warmth, the vital warmth of an ice-bear.

bjart-eygðr, -eygr, a. bright-eyed; -haddaðr, a. fair-haired; -leikr, m. brightness; -leitr, a. fair-complexioned; -liga, adv. clearly, plainly; -litaðr, a. light-coloured.

bjartr, a. (1) bright, shining (bjart ljós, sólskin); (2) illustrious (með björtum sigri).

bjart-viðri, n. clear weather.

bjálfi (or bjálbi), m. fur, skin, esp. in compds., hreinbjálfi, geitbjálfi.

bjálki, m. balk, beam.

bjóð, n. (1) small table; (2) small bowl.

bjóða (býð; bauð, buðum; boðinn), v. (1) to offer; þeir höfðu boðit honum laun, they had offered him rewards; Þ. bauð at gefa (offered to give) Gunnlaugi hestinn; b. grið, to offer pardon; b. e-t til lífs sér, as a ransom for one’s life; b. e-t fram, to proffer, produce (b. fram vitni); b. e-t upp, af hendi, to give up, leave off; þá býðr hann upp hornit, gives up the horn, will not drink more; b. e-t undan e-m, to offer to take a thing off one’s hands (er þá kostr at b. undan þeim manni varðveizluna fjárins); b. e-t við, to make a bid; b. við tvenn verð, to bid double; refl., bjóðast, to offer oneself, volunteer one’s service; Þóroddr bauzt (offered himself) til þeirrar farar; (2) to do a thing to one, in a bad sense; b. e-m ógn, to wage war against one; b. e-m ójöfnuð, ofriki, to treat unfairly, oppress; b. e-m ógn, to affright, terrify; b. e-m rangt, to treat one unjustly; (3) to bid, invite (b. e-m til sín or heim); b. mönnum til boðs, to bid guests to a banquet, wedding; (4) to bid, order; sem lög buðu, as the law prescribed; b. e-m erendi, to commit a thing to one’s charge; b. e-m varnað á e-u, to forbid; b. e-m af landi, to order one out of the land; b. e-m af embætti, to depose one; b. út liði, skipum, to levy, troops, ships; b. e-m um, to delegate to one, to commit to one’s charge (þeim manni er biskup hefir um boðit at nefna vátta); (5) to proclaim, announce; b. trú (kristni), to proclaim, preach a religion (the Christitian faith); b. messudag, to proclaim a holy day; (6) of a mental state, to have presentiment of; e-m býðr e-t í hug (skap), one has a fore boding, presentiment of; mér býðr e-t fyrir, I forebode; mér býðr hugr við e-u, I abhor, dislike; impers., mér býðr ávallt hita (acc.), er ek kem í þeirra flokk, I feel uneasy whenever …; mér bauð ótta, I felt a fear; bauð þeim mikla þekt (they felt much pleasure), er þeir sá líkit; ef yðr býðr svá við at horfa, when you are in such a frame of mind; (7) býðr e-m, it beseems, becomes one; sem konungsbarni býðr, as befits a princess; eptir þat fór vígsla fram eptir því sem býðr, as it is due, or proper.

bjór-blandaðr, pp. mixed with beer.

bjórr, m. beer (öl heitir með mönnum, en með Ásum b.).

bjórr (-s, -ar), m. (1) triangular cut off piece of skin (bjórar þeir, er menn sníða ór skóm sínum fyrir tám eða hæl); (2) triangular strip of land, = geiri (b. lá ónuminn fyrir austan Fljót); (3) front wall, party wall; engi var bjórrinn milli húsanna, there was no partition between the houses; (4) a sort of tapestry of triangular shape (var stofan vel tjölduð ok settir upp bjórar).

bjórr (-s, -ar), m. beaver, esp. the beaver’s skin (b. ok safali).

bjór-reifr, a. cheerfull from beer drinking; -sala, f. vending of beer; -salr, m. beer-hall.

bjór-skinn, n. beaver skin; -skinnfeldr, m. cloak made of beaver skin.

bjór-tunna, f. barrel of beer; -veig, f. beer; -verpill, m. beer-cask.

bjúga (pl. bjúgu), n. sausage (cf. ‘mörbjúga’).

bjúg-leikr, m. crookedness; -leltr, a. of crooked countenance; -nefjaðr, a. hook-nosed, = nefbjúgr.

bjúgr, a. bowed, hooked, crooked, bent; hann var b. á baki, he sat bent or bowed (from age) on horseback; hvárt er yðr þykkir bjúgt eða beint, whether it seems to you crooked or straight, whether you like it or not.

bjöð, f. flat land; áðr Börs synir bjöðum of yptu, ere the sons of B. raised the ground.

björg (gen. bjargar, pl. bjargir), f. (1) help, deliverance, out of need or danger, esp. help (food, shelter, transport) given to an outlaw (veita e-m b., einnar nætr b.); lögmæt b., lawful point of defence (in pleading in the Court); (2) means of subsistence, stores, provisions (fjögurra missera b.).

björk (gen. bjarkar), f. birch, birchtree.

björn (gen. bjarnar, pl. birnir, acc. björnu), m. bear (hvítabjörn, the white bear; híðbjörn, skógbjörn, urðbjörn, viðbjörn, the black bear).

blað, n. (1) leaf of a plant; (2) leaf in a book; (3) blade of a knife (knífsblað), of an oar (árarblað); (4) skirt of a kirtle, shirt, cloak (kyrtilblað, skyrtublað, feldarblað).

blaðra (), v. (1) to flutter to and fro, as a leaf in the wind (sá þeir, at tungan blaðraði); (2) with dat., to move (the tongue) to and fro (hann blaðraði tungunni ok leitaði við at mæla); to wag the tail (b. halanum); (3) absol., to utter inarticulately (blaðrar ok bendir hann); with acc. (blaðrandi þessi orð).

blaðra, f. bladder; brain.

blak, n. slap (with the open hand).

blaka ( and -ta), v. (1) to flutter, wave (of the leaves of a tree); (2) with dat., b. vængjunum, to flap the wings; (3) with acc., b. e-n, to give one a slap.

blaka, f. (1) veil (cf. ‘silkiblaka’); (2) fan.

blakk-fjallr, a. with black hide (birnir blakkfjallir).

blakkr, a. black, dun-coloured (beittu, Sigurðr, enn blakka mar).

blakkr, m. poet. a dun-coloured horse.

blakra (), v. to flutter with the wings.

bland, n. (1) mixture; í b. við e-n, in company with; í b. með e-m, among; (2) sexual intercourse (hafa konu í b. = til lags við sik).

blanda (blend; blétt, bléndum; blandinn), v. to blend, mix, e-t e-u, with a thing (b. mjöð, drykk, eitri); b. e-t saman, to mix together (b. saman hvítt ok rautt); more common, b. e-u við e-t; b. vatni við vín, to mix wine with water; b. mötuneyti (dat.,) við e-n, to eat together with one; refl., blandast við e-n, to have intercourse with one, esp. of sexual intercourse (blandast við konur af heiðnum þjóðum).

blanda (), v. = prec.

blanda, f. mixture of two fluids (fór fyrst ór blóð, síðan blanda), esp. sour whey mixed with water.

blandan, f. mixing, blending.

blandinn, pp. (cf. ‘blanda’, v.) mixed; Helgi var b. mjök, had a mixed creed; hón er blandin mjök, she is a woman of mixed report.

blauðast (), v. refl., = bleyðast.

blauð-hugaðr, a. = blauthugaðr; -liga, adv. cowardly.

blauðr, a. (1) weak, cowardly; bíð nú, ef þú ert eigi b., if thou art not a coward; (2) feminine, opp. to ‘hvatr’, but only used of animals, dogs, cats, fishes; hafit nú hendr á hundinum, þótt b. sé, take the dog, though it be a bitch.

blaut-barn, n., in the phrase, frá -barns beini = frá blautu barns beini, see ‘blautr’; -fiskr, m. fresh fish; -holdr, a. having soft, smooth flesh (mærin var væn ok -hold); -hugaðr, a. faint-hearted (opposed to ‘harðhugaðr’); -klæddr, pp. clothed in soft raiment (eða vildut þér sjá -klæddan mann?); -leikr, m. softness; -lendr, a. soft, moist-soiled; -liga, adv. effeminately (klæddr -liga); -ligr, a. soft, voluptuous (blautligir kossar) blautlig kvæði, amorous ditties.

blautr, a. (1) soft (b. sem silkiræma); b. fiskr, fresh fish, opp. to ‘harðr fiskr’; frá blautu barns beini, from very babyhood; (2) effeminate, timorous, weak (fár er gamall harðr, ef hann er í bernsku b.); (3) wet, soaked (þar vóru vellir blautir, því at regn höfðu verit).

blá-ber, n. blueberry, bilberry; -brúnaðr, a. bluish brown; -djúp, n. the blue deep sea; -eygðr, -eygr, a. blue-eyed; -fastr, a. quite immovable; -fáinn, -fár, a. with a bluish polish; -feldr, m. cloak of blue fur; -flekkóttr, a. speckled with blue; -hvítr, a. bluish white; -kápa, f. blue cloak; -kinn, f. blue cheek; -klæddr, pp. dressed in blue; -leitr, a. blue-faced, black-faced; -lendingr, m. Ethiopian; -lenzkr, a. Ethiopian, from Bláland, Ethiopia; -maðr, m. a black man, negro.

bláman, f. the livid colour of a bruise.

blá-mengdr, -mengjaðr, a. blue-mingled; -merktr, pp. marked with blue.

blámi, m. lividness, = bláman.

blána (), v. to become blue or livid (þrútna ok b. í andliti).

blár, a. (1) blue, livid (b. ok bóðugr); (2) black (b. sem kol); falda blá, to wrap the head in black.

blá-rendr, a. blue-striped (-rendar brœkr).

blása (blæs; blés, blésum; blásinn), v. (1) to blow, of the wind; blásandi byrr, a spanking breeze; (2) to blow with the mouth (hann blés í kross yfir drykk sínum); to pant (hestrinn tók at frýsa ok b.); b. við, to draw a deep breath, to sigh (jarl blés þá við mœðiliga); fig., b. móti e-m, to be unfavourably disposed towards one; (3) with dat., to set in motion by blowing or breathing; blés mœðiliga öndinni, breathed hard; b. e-m e-u í brjóst, to inspire, suggest a thing to one (guð blés henni því í brjóst); b. eldi, eitri, of serpents; (4) to blow with a musical instrument; b. lúðri, horni, to blow the trumpet, horn; b. liði (troops) til landgöngu; b. til stefnu, to a meeting; b. herblástr, to sound an alarm; (5) to melt, cast (b. gullmálm, rauða); yxn tveir ór eiri blásnir (cast); (6) to blow up, inflate (sem belgr blásinn); (7) impers., blés upp fótinn, kviðinn, the leg, belly, swelled up; of land, to be laid bare, stripped of the turf (hafði blásit hauginn ok lá silfrit bert).

blásari, m. blower of a trumpet or horn.

blá-silfr, n. bad silver, opp. to ‘skírt silfr’.

blásinn, pp. (1) inflated (belgr b.); (2) swollen (sýndist fótrinn b.); (3) stripped of turf, bare, barren (mel-torfa blásin mjök).

blá-stafaðr, a. blue-striped (segl blástafat).

blástr (gen. blástrar and blástar, dat. blæstri and blæsti), m. (1) blast, blowing of the wind; (2) blowing of an animal, hissing of a serpent (heyrði blást drekanna); (3) breathing, breath (málit gørist af blæstrinum); (4) blast of a trumpet; (5) blowing of a bellows; (6) swelling of the body or a limb, mortification.

blástr-belgr, m. bellows; -horn, n. trumpet, horn; -járn, n. blast iron (cast, not wrought); -pipa, f. flute; -samr, a. windy; -svalr, a. cold-blowing.

blá-svartr, a. raven-black; -tönn, f. blue-black tooth, a nickname.

bleðgi or blegði, m. wedge, plug.

bleðja (bleð, bladda, bladdr), v. (1) to pick off (leaves or fruit); fig. to kill off one by one (b. hirðina or b. hirðina af); (2) to tear asunder (b. klæði sín); (3) to cover, as with a leaf (b. ásjónuna).

bleik-álóttr, a. fawn-coloured with a dark stripe down the back (-álóttr hestr); -hárr, a. fair-haired; -hvítr, a. yellowish white.

bleikja (-ta, -tr), v. to bleach (b. lérept); b. hadda sína, to wash the hair (said of women).

bleikja, f. chalk or white clay.

bleikr, a. pale, whitish; bleikt hár, fair hair; b. á hár, fair-haired; (wan, pallid) ok blóðlauss; b. sem nár, deadly pale; b. sem bast, pale as bast.

blek, n. ink; -horn, n. inkstand.

blekki-liga, adv. delusively; -ligr, a. delusive (blekkilig er þessa heims hamingja).

blekking, f. derision, fraud.

blekkinga-maðr, m. deceiver.

blekkingar-andi, m. lying spirit.

blekkja (-ta, -tr), v. to impose upon, deceive; refl., blekkjast, to be disappointed.

blek-skortr, m. lack of ink.

blendingr, m. (1) blending, mixture; (2) a being half man and half giant (b. en ekki fullkomit troll).

blesóttr, a. having a blaze or white mark, on the forehead (b. hestr).

blest-mæltr, blestr, a. lisping.

bletsa (), v. = bleza.

bleyða, f. craven, = bleyðimaðr.

bleyða (-dda, -ddr), v. to dishearten, humble (ef þú bleyðir hjarta þitt); refl., bleyðast, to lose heart or courage (= verða blauðr).

bleyði, f. cowardice; -maðr, m. coward; -mannligr, a. cowardly, craven; -mark, n. mark of cowardice; -orð, n. charge of cowardice; leggja -orð at baki e-m, to charge one with being a coward (blauðr); bera bleyðiorð fyrir e-m, to be called a coward by one.

bleyta, f. mud, mire.

bleyta (-tta, -ttr), v. to make soft, moisten (b. húð); b. hjarta, skaphöfn e-s, to soften one’s heart, temper.

bleza (), v. to bless (blezaði guð þá hinn sjaunda daginn); also with dat. (guð blezaði bæði fuglum ok fiskum).

blezaðar-fullr, a. rich in blessing.

blezan, f. blessing, benediction.

blezanar-andi, m. spirit of blessing; -orð, n. pl. words of blessing.

bliat or bliaz, n. a kind of costly stuff (for. word).

blik, n. (1) gleam, sheen; (2) bleaching (liggja á bliki); (3) vizor of a helmet.

blika (), v. to gleam, twinkle (of shields).

blik-hvítr, a. white-gleaming (of a shield).

blikna (), v. to grow (turn) pale or pallid (b. af hræzlu, hugleysi).

bliknan, f. growing pale.

blikra (), v. impers., e-m blikrar, one feels uneasy or anxious.

blinda (), v. to blind, derive of sight (dróttinn blindaði augu þeirra); hann blindar sjálfan sik allra sanninda, he blinds himself lo all truth.

blindi, f. blindness.

blindingr, m. hidden peg, dowel.

blind-leiki, -leikr, m. blindness.

blindr, a. blind; b. báðum augum, blind of both eyes; hann háfði verit b. borinn, born blind; with gen., b. ens sauna um e-t, blind as to the truth or reality about a thing; e-m er e-t blint, it is obscure, hidden to one; Einarr lét sér þat blint vera, E. professed ignorance about it.

blíða, f. friendliness, gentleness; hófst þá enn at nýju b. (friendly relations) með þeim mágum.

blíða (-dda, -ddr), v. = blíðka.

blíðast (), v. refl. = blíðkast.

blíðindi, n. pl. comforts, delights.

blíðing, f. enticement, allurement.

blíðka (), v. to soften, mitigate (b. e-n með gjöfum); refl., blíðkast, to grow mild; b. e-m, to insinuate oneself into one’s favour.

blíðkan, f. caressing, caresses.

blíð-látr, a. displaying friendliness or kindness; -leikr, m. (1) friendliness, gentleness; (2) mildness, blaminess (-leikr loptsins); -leitr, a. of mild countenance; -liga, adv. kindly, with kindness (taka, fagna e-m -liga); -ligr, a. (1) gentle, friendly (-ligr í yfirbragði); (2) delightful; -lundabr, a. of gentle disposition; -leati, n. caressing; -mæli, n. pl. fair words, blandishments; -mæltr, a. affable, bland.

blíðr, a. (1) gentle, friendly (vera b. ok þekkr við menn); (2) plesant, agreeable; þat er þér blíðara, that pleases you better; (3) mild, balmy (blítt veðr).

blíðskapar-orð, n. friendly word.

blíð-skapr (-ar), m. friendliness, kindness; caresses (eiga -skap með konu).

blíðu-bragð, n. friendly mien (= blítt yfirbragð); caressing; -fullr, a. friendly.

blíð-viðri, n. mild weather; -yrði, pl., = blíðmæli.

blígja (-ða, -t), v. to gaze (blígja augum).

blíkja (blík; bleik, bliku; -), v. an obsolete verb, = blika.

blístra, f. the mouthpiece of bellows.

blístra (), v. to whistle; b. í spor e-m or e-s, to whistle after one who has run away.

blístran, f. whistling (with the mouth).

blota-maðr, m. effeminate person.

blotna (), v. to become soft or moist; fig., to give way, yield (b. við e-t, fyrir e-m).

blóð, n. (1) blood; rann honum mjök b., he lost much blood; nema (taka) e-m b., to bleed one; vekja e-m b., to draw blood of one; ganga blóði, to have a hemorrhage or dysentery, blanda bloði saman, to enter into foster-brothership by mixing blood together; (2) offspring, blood-relations.

blóð-band, n. bandage to stop bleeding, esp. pl. (-bönd); -bogi, m. gush or jet of blood; -bolli, m. = blótbolli; -drefjar, f. pl. scattering of blood; -dreif, f. sprinkling (streak) of blood; -drekkr, m. one who drinks blood; -drif, n. flowing of blood; -dropi, m. drop of blood; -drykkja, f. drink of blood; -drög, n. pl., = -dreif; -fall, n. hemorrhage.

blóðfalls-sótt, f. the bloody flux, dysentery.

blóð-flekkr, m. fleck or stain of blood; -fors, m. gush of blood; -fullr, a. full of blood.

blóðga (), v. to make bloody, to smear with blood; refl., blóðgast, to become bloody.

blóð-kýll, m. blood-bag; fig., blood-sucker; -lauss, a. bloodless; -lát, n. (1) loss of blood; (2) blood-letting, bleeding; -látinn, pp. (that has been) bled; -lifr, f. clotted blood; -ligr, a. bloody; -lœkr, m. stream of blood; -maðkr, m. maggot bred in putrefying blood; -nætr, f. pl. ‘blood-nights’, in the prov., ‘blóð-nætr eru hverjum bráðastar’, referring to the fierce desire to revenge a homicide newly committed; -ormr, m. poet. ‘blood-serpent’, sword; -rauðr, a. blood-red; -rás, f. hemorrhage; -refill, m. point of a sword; -reiðr, a. very wrathful (= dreyrrauðr af reiði); -reitr, m. field of blood; -rekinn, pp. stained with blood; -risa, a. indecl. bruised and blootly (blár ok blóðrisa); -segi or -sigi, m. clot of blood; -sjúkr, a. dysenteric.

blóðs-litr, m. colour of blood.

blóð-sótt, f. dysentery; -spýga, f. spitting of blood.

blóðs-teigr, m. = blóðreitr.

blóð-stjarna, f. the bloody star, Venus; -stokkinn, pp. bespattered with blood; -storkinn, a. stiff with gore, gory; -straumr, m. stream of blood.

blóðs-úthelling, f. shedding of blood.

blóð-tjörn, f. pool of blood.

blóðugr (acc. blóðgan), a. bloody.

blóð-vaka, f. drawing of blood (svá hart, at -vaka yrði); cf. ‘vekja e-m blóð’; -varmr, a. warm-blooded; -ær, f. a ewe fit for slaughter; -örn, m. ‘blood eagle’, in the phrase, rísta -örn á baki e-m, a cruel method of putting captured enemies to death in the heathen times; -øx, f. ‘bloody axe’, a nickname.

blóm, n. bloom, blossom, flower; fig., í œsku blómi, in the flower of youth.

blóma-kinn, f. ‘red cheek’, a nickname; -ligr, a. blooming, shining; -mikill, a. rich-blossoming.

blómandi, pr. p. blooming, flourishing (b. grös).

blóma-samligr, a. = blómaligr.

blóm-berandi, pr. p., -beranligr, a. bloom-bearing, flourishing.

blómga (), v. to fertilize; refl., blómgast, to blossom, bloom; fig., to thrive, flourish, prosper (réttir siðir skyldu b. fagrliga um norðrlönd); blómgaðr, pp. which has blossoms upon it; blómgan, f. the fact of blooming or flourishing; blómgandi, pr. p., blómganligr, a. blooming, flourishing.

blómi, m. = blóm; fig., standa (vera) með blóma, miklum blóma, to thrive, prosper, flourish; í blóma aldrs síns, in the flower of his age.

blómstr (-rs), m. = blóm (allan akrsins b.).

blóra-maðr, m. a person to put the blame upon.

blót, n. (1) sacrifice, sacrificial feast or banquet (efna, efla b.); (2) idol worship in general; (3) idol, = blœti (öll b. braut hann niðr); (4) swearing, cursing.

blóta (blœt; blét, blétum; blótinn), v. (1) to worship, to worship with sacrifice, with acc. of that which is worshipped; b. hof, lund, fors, heiðit goð, álfa, heiðnar vættir, lifandi menn, to worship temple, grove, waterfall, &c.; very rare with dat. (b. goðum); (2) to sacrifice, with dat. of the object sacrificed (b. mönnum ok fé); absol., b. til friðar, sigrs, langlífis, árs, byrjar, to make a sacrifice for peace, victory, long life, good season, fair wind.

blóta (), v. (1) = blóta (blœt, &c.); (2) to curse, with dat. = ‘banna’ (bið þú fyr þeim, er þér blóta); absol., to swear; refl., blótast, to go about swearing.

blótan, f. (1) sacrificing; (2) cursing, swearing.

blót-auðigr, a. rich in sacrifices (-auðigt hof); -biskup, m. heathen priest; -bolli, m. sacrificial bowl; -dómr, m. idolatry; -drykkja, f. sacrificial feast; -fé, n. sacred or accursed goods; -girni, f. inclination for idolatry; -goði, m. heathen sacrificing priest; -gröf, f. sacrificial pit; -guð, n. heathen god; -gyðja, f. heathen priestess; -haugr, m. sacrificial mound or cairn; -hof, n. heathen temple; -hús, n. heathen house of worship; -höfðingi, m. heathen chief; -hörgr, m. stone altar for sacrifice; -kalfr, m. calf worshipped with sacrifices; -kennimaðr, m. heathen priest; -klæði, n. pl. garments worn at sacrifices; -kona, f. idolatress; -koppr, m. = -bolli; -lundr, m. sacred grove, heathen place of sacrifice; -maðr, m. heathen worshipper, idolater; -matr, m. food eaten at the sacrificial feast.

blótnaðr, m. sacrificing to heathen Gods, idolatry.

blót-naut, n. (1) an ox worshipped as in idol; (2) a bull to be sacrificed; -neyti, n. (rare) = -naut; -risi, m. a giant worshipped as an idol.

blótskapar-tími, m. the time of heathenism.

blót-skapr (-ar), m. (1) heathen worship, idolatry; (2) things belonging to worship; (3) sacrifice; -skógr, m. sacred or sacrificial forest; -spánn, m. chip used in divination; fella -spán, to consult the gods; -staðr, m. a place of heathen sacrifice; -stallr, m. heathen or sacrificial altar; -tré, n. sacred tree; -stöpull, m. a pillar on which an idol stands; -trygill, m. small sacrificial trough (trog); -veizla, f. sacrificial banquet; -viðr, m. = -lundr; -villa, f. heathenish or idolatrous heresy; -völlr, m. heathen sacrificial field.

blunda (), v. to shut the eyes (b. báðum augum).

blundr, m. dozing, slumber (occurs as a nickname).

blundshaka (), v. to blink with the eyes; stafir, m. pl. soporiferous runes; bregða stöfum, to break the slumberspells.

blygð, f. shame; blygða (), v. to put to shame, seduce.

blygðarlauss, a. blameless.

blys, n. torch.

blý, n. lead (søkkva sem b.); -band, n. leaden band; -kleppr, m. plummet; -ligr, a. leaden; -skeyti, n. leaden missile; -steyptr, pp. cast in lead; -stika, f. leaden candlestick; -stokkr, m. leaden box; -þekja (see þekja), v. to roof with lead; þungi, m. leaden weight.

blæja, f. (1). fine coloured cloth (hon hafði knýtt um sik blæju ok vóru í mörk blá); (2) cover of a bed; koma undir eina blæju, to be married; (3) burial sheet (svipti hon blæju af Sigurði); (4) cover of an altar table.

blæju-endi, m. the end of a ‘blæja’; -horn, n. corner of a b.; -hvalr, m. a kind of whale.

blær, m. gentle breeze, puff of air; kenna blæ (to feel a draught) á andliti sér.

blœða (-dda, -tt), v. to bleed; blœddu nasar hans, he was bleeding, at the nose; impers., e-m blœðir, one bleeds or loses blood (engum blœdi hans manna).

blœsma, a. indecl. at heat (of ewes and goats).

blœti, n. a thing worshiped, idol.

blöðrusótt, f. stone in the bladder.

blöskra (), v. to blink with the eyes, to, flinch (hann blöskraði ekki); also impers., e-m blöskrar.

boð, n. (1) bid, offer; bjóða b. fyrir e-n, to make bids or offers for one; hvat er í boði, what is the offer; eiga b. á jörð, to have the right of being offered an estate, before it is sold to another; (2) banquet, wedding feast; hafa e-n í boði sínu, to entertain one at one’s feast; fóru þeir allir til boðsins, to the wedding feast; (3) bidding, order, commandment; ganga undir b. e-s, to submit to one’s bidding; eptir boði e-s, at or by one’s order; (4) message; gera e-m b., to send to one, send one word; a summons, a sign or token of summons, being an arrow, axe or the like to call people to battle or council (hefja boð).

boða (), v. (1) to announce, proclaim; b. kristni, to preach Christianity; b. helga trú, to proclaim the holy faith; (2) to bid, order, with dat., konungr boðaði honum á sinn fund or til sín, the king bade him come to him; b. e-m saman, to call together, to summon; (3) to bode, signify (hvat þetta mundi b.).

boða-fall, n. dash of a breaker (boði) on a reef or shoal.

boðan, f. announcement, preaching, proclaiming (boðan nafns hans); hátíð dróttinligrar boðanar, the feast of the Annunciation.

boðanar-nótt, f., nótt sællar guðs móður Marie, the night before the Annunciation of the Virgin Mary; -tíð, f. time of announcement.

boðari, m. proclaimer, announcer.

boða-slóð, f. the surf of breakers (cf. ‘boði’ 2).

boð-burðr, m. carrying, of the message arrow (cf. ‘boð’ 4); -fall, n. neglect to send on the boð (4); -fasta, f. a fast ordered by the canonical law; -ferð, f. the course of a boð (4); -greizla, f. = boðburðr.

boði, m. (1) announcer, messenger (cf. ‘sendiboði, fyrirboði’); (2) a breaker (on hidden rocks).

boðinn, pp. (cf. ‘bjóða’), vera b. ok búinn til es, to be ready and willing to do a thing.

boð-leggja (see leggja), v. = lögbjóða; -leið, f. = -ferð; -ligr, a. fit to be offered; -orð, n. order, bidding, commandment (guðs -orð).

boðorða-breytni, f. alteration of an ordinance; -brot, n. breach (neglect) of an order; -maðr, m. public officer.

boð-reizla, f. = boðgreizla; -rífr, a. ready to make an offer.

boðs-fólk, n. guests, = boðsmenn.

boð-skapr (-ar), m. bidding, order; -skopti, m. = -slotti; -skurðr, m. message, summons to a meeting; -sletta, f., -slotti, m. intruder at a feast, uninvited guest; -slóð, f. = boðleið.

boðs-maðr, m. guest at a feast.

boð-sœmiligr, a. fit for wearing at a feast (-sœmilig klæði).

boga-háls, m. the tip of a bow (bogi), where the string, is fastened; -mynd, f. form of a bow; -skot, n. bowshot, shooting with a bow; -strengr, m. bowstring; -vápn, n. bow (used as a weapon).

bogi, m. (1) bow; skjóta af boga, to shoot with a bow (cf. álmbogi, handbogi, hornbogi, lásbogi, ýbogi); (2) arch (of a bridge), vault; fig., bera mál ór boga, to disentangle a case; (3) gush, jet (cf. ‘blóðbogi’).

boginn, pp. (from a lost strong verb, bjúga), bowed, bent, curved; b. af elli, bent with age.

bog-limir, m. pl. ‘curved limbs’, arms and legs; maðr, m. bowman, archer; mannliga, adv. bowmanlike.

bogmanns-merki, n. the zodiacal sign Sagittarius.

bogna (), v. (1) to become curved, to bend; (2) to give way, yield (b. við, b. fyrir eu).

bogra (), v. to creep along bowed or stooping; þá boru bograr hann inn, he creeps in through that hole; b. fyrir e-m, to bow before one.

bog-styrkr, a. strong at the bow; sveigir, m. bowswayer, archer (cf. sveigja boga’).

bokki, m. ‘buck’, fellow; Höttr heiti ek, b. sæll, my dear fellow!; stœrri bokkar, bigger men.

bokkr, m. = bukkr.

bola (), v. to cut to pieces (b. í sundr, brytja ok bola).

bol-fimligr, a. agile of body.

Bolgara-land, n. Bulgaria.

Bolgarar, m. pl. the Bulgarians.

bol-hlíf, f. covering for the body.

boli, m. bull, = graðungr.

bol-járn, n. = boløx.

bol-klæði, n. pl. body-garments.

bolli, m. (1) small vessel, bowl; (2) a measure = ¼ askr.

bolr, m. = bulr; (1) the bole or trunk of a tree; (2) the trunk of the body; ganga milli bols ok höfuðs á e-m, to pass between one’s trunk and head, to slay one.

bols-vöxtr, m. = bolvöxtr.

bolungr, m. = bulungr.

bol-vöxtr, m. the growth, form of the body (far þú af klæðum ok vil ek sjá vöxt þinn).

bol-øx, f. woodaxe.

bops, n. bump, thump (mikit fall, svá at b. kvað í skrokkinum).

bora, f. bore, hole; bora (), v. to bore, to bore holes in; b. rauf, to bore a hole; refl., borast fram, to push one’s way through a crowd.

borð, n. (1) board, plank; (2) the side of a ship (hlóðu skipin sem b. báru); borð á stjórn = stjórnborði; hlaupa (steypast, detta) fyrir b., overboard; mikill borði, prop. = borðhár, borðmikill, of a ship floating high out of the sea, fig., proud of mind (= skapstórr); bera e-n (hlut e-s, mál e-s) fyrir borð, to neglect, slight one; verða (allr) fyrir borð borinn, verða allr fyrir borði, to be (quite) thrown overboard, i.e. slighted; ganga at borði við e-n, to submit, yield to, to come to terms with one; e-n brestr á borði, one fails, is beaten; á annat borð, on the other hand; otherwise, else; þykkir vera harðr á annat b., a hard one to pull against; (3) the inner margin of a vessel between the rim and the liquid (er nú gott berandi b. á horninu); (4) board, table (used for meals); fara, ganga, koma til borðs or undir b., to go, come to table; setjast yfir b., undir b., to sit down at table; sitja yfir b. or borðum, to sit at table; rísa (standa upp) frá borði, to rise from table; ryðja b., to clear the table; þjóna fyrir borðum, to wait at table; setja e-m b., to set a table before one; borð eru uppi or upp tekin, the tables are set up; but ‘borð eru upp tekin’ may also mean the tables are removed, = borð eru ofan; (4) board, food, maintenance at table (veita, halda e-m b.); (5) chessboard; bjóða e-m undir b., to invite one to play at chess.

borða (), v. (1) to sit down at table; (2) to set a table, serve up (b. fyrir þurftugum).

borða-hríð, f. the time that a meal lasts; -munr, m. difference in the height of ships; -stund, f. = -hríð; -víti, n. table-sconce.

borð-búnaðr, m. table-service (cloth, dishes, &c.); -diskr, m. dish, plate; -dúkr, m. tablecloth; -fastr, a. maintained at one’s table; -fjöl, f. thin board; fœri, n. in the phrase, taka sér fœri = ganga ørna sinna (1); hald, n. taking, food, maintenance at table; hár, a. rising high out of the sea (of a ship); hús, n. a room where the plate is kept; hæð, f. the heighit of a ship out of the water.

borði, m. textile fabric, tapestry (tjalda höll, kirkju, borða) slá borða, rekja borða, to weave; sitja við borða, to sit weaving; byrða et á borða, to ornament tapestry with figures woven in it.

borð-ker, n. a cup used at table; -kista, f. a box for keeping the table service; -klerkr, m. clerical attendant at table; -knífr, m. table knife; -lægr, a., (viðr, timber) fit for cutting into planks; -maðr, m. table-companion; -mikill, a. = -hár; -munr, m. = borðamunr; -prestr, m. a priest who says grace at a bishop’s table; -prýði, f. ornaments of a table; -sálmr, m. ‘boardpsalm’, grace; -skutill, m. a small movable table, esp. for a single person.

borðs-tilganga, f. going to table (at mealtimes).

borð-stokkr, m. gunwale.

borð-sveinn, m. attendant at table, waiter; -tafl, n. chessboard; -veggr, m. a plank wall; -vegr, m. = -stokkr; -vers, n. verse of grace (cf. borðsálmr); -viðr, m. boards, planks; -þak, n. covering of planks; -þakiðr, pp. covered, lined with planks; -þili, n. the bulwarks of a ship.

borg (-ar, -ir), f. (1) a small dome-shaped hill; (2) stronghold, fortification, castle; (3) fortified town, city.

borga (), v. to be a surety, guarantee, for; b. e-m e-t, to guarantee something to one; b. fyrir en, to become bound for, to be security for (anza ek lítt, þóti þú játir at lúka, ef engi borgar fyrir þik).

borgan, f. guarantee, surety, security; ganga í b. fyrir en = borga fyrir en.

borganar-maðr, m. a guarantee, a surety.

borgar-armr, m. arm, wing of a fort; -auðn, f. destruction of a castle or fortified town; -gata, f. a road leaving to a borg; -greifi, m. burggrave, governor of a town; -gørð, f. building of a fort; -hlið, n. gate of a fort; -hreysi, n. ruins of a fort; -höfðingi, m. leading citizen.

borgari, m. inhabitant of a borg, burgher.

borgar-klettr, m. a rock on which a fort is built; -kona, f. townswoman; -lið, n. garrison; -lím, n. lime for building a fort; -lýðr, m. townsfolk; -maðr, m. (1) garrisoner; (2) townsman, citizen; (3) fellowcitizen (maðr engla); -múgr, m. the mob of a city; -múrr, m. city-wall; -port, n. = -hlið; -siðr, m. citymanners, urbanity; -smíð, f. building of a fort or town; -staðr, m. site of a town; -veggr, m. wall of a fort or town.

borga-skipan, f. a list of cities.

borg-firzkr, a. belonging to the district Borgarfjörðr, in the west of Iceland.

borg-hlið, f. = borgarhlið.

borgin-orðr, a. cautious in words, reserved.

borgit, pp. n., from bjarga; e-m er b., one is safe; era hera at borgnara þótt hœna beri skjöld, a hare is none the better off than a hen shield him.

borg-staðr, m. = borgarstaðr.

borg-veggr, m. = borgarveggr.

botn (gen. botns or botz, pl. botnar), m. (1) bottom (of a vessel, of a haycock, of the sea); (2) the head of a bay, firth, lake, valley (fjarðar-, vatns-, dals-botn).

botn-hola, f. pit, in the phrase, vera kominn í -holu, to have got into a scrape.

bóandi, m., see ‘búandi’.

bófi, m. knave, rogue, used as a nickname.

bógr (gen. bógar, dat. bœgi; pl. bœgir, acc. bógu), m. shoulder (of an animal).

bók (gen. bókar and bœkr; pl. bœkr), f. (1) beech, beechtree; (2) poet. textile fabric with figures woven in it (bœkr þínar enar bláhvítu); (3) book; lesa á b., to read a book; rita á b., setja á bœkr, to set down in writing, to put on record; kunna (festa) et útan bókar, to know (to get) by heart; heilög b., the divine book, the Bible; (4) the gospel (vinna eið at bók; cf. ‘bókareiðr’); (5) Latin; kenna e-m á bók, to teach one Latin; nema á b., to learn Latin; setja en til bókar, to put one to school (in order to make him a priest); hann heitir á b. (in Latin) Jaskonius; svá segir (er sagt) í bókum (in Latin books); (6) lawbook, code of law (lögbók, Jónsbók).

bóka (), v. to affirm by oath on the book (Gospel); bókaðr eiðr = bókareiðr.

bóka-fullting, n. help derived from books; -gørð, writing (transcription) of books; -kista, f. book-box; -lán, n. lending of books; -lesning, f., lestr, m. reading of (Latin) books; -list, f. booklore.

bókar-blað, n. leaf of a book; -eiðr, m. oath upon the gospel; -eiðstafr, m. wording of a bókareiðr; -gørð, f. bookwriting; -lag, n. lawful price fixed in the code; -skeyting, f. conveyance of an estate by help of the Iawbook; -tak, n. the touching of the gospel (in taking an oath); -verð, n. the price of a book; -vitni, n. evidence confirmed by a bókareiðr (= bókat vitni).

bóka-skilningr, m. book-learning.

bóka-stóll, m. a reading, desk, lectern.

bók-fell, n. parchment, vellum; -fróðr, a. book-learned; -frœði, f. book-knowledge, book-lore, learning; -lauss, a. bookless, unscholarly; -laust, adv. by heart (allar ritningar helga man hann laust); -lestr, m. = bókalestr; -ligr, a. literary; ligar listir, the liberal arts; -list, book-lore, learng; -lærðr, pp. book-learned; -mál, n. (1) book language, learned language, Latin (á bók nam ek aldri ok eigi heyrða ek frá máli sagt); (2) the canon law; blót þau, sem fyrirboðin eru at máli, in the canon of the church; (3) the Justinian calendar; at máli, according to the calendar; -mánaðr, m. calendar month, opp. to the Icel. months; -nám, n. book training, study (vera at námi, setja en til náms); -næmi, n. = nám; -rúnar, f. pl. runes engraved on beechwood; -saga, f. written narrative; -setja (see setja), v. to commit to writing; -skygn, a. seeing well enough to read a book; -speki, f. book-wisdom, book-knowledge; -stafr, m. character, letter; -sögn, f. = -saga; -tal, n. = -mál 3; -vit, n. learning, erudition; -víss, a. = -lærðr.

ból, n. (1) lair or lying place (of beasts and cattle); (2) couch, bed (tóku sumir heyhjálma nökkura ok gerðúu sér af b.); (3) farm, esp. in Norway, = bólstaðr, bœr, jörð.

bóla, f. (1) the boss of a shield; (2) blain, botch.

ból-festa, f. estate held by a lease, leasehold.

bólginn, a. swollen; b. bræði, b. af reiði, swollen with anger.

bólgna (), v. to swell, become swollen.

bólna-sótt, f. (1) disease of blains or boils; (2) smallpox.

bólstaðar-gørð, f. the building of a homestead.

ból-staðr, m. (1) abode, homestead (hón í þar staði mikla); (2) farm.

bólstr (gen. bólstrs, pl. bólstrar), m. bolster, pillow (hníga við bólstri).

bón, f. request, petition = bœn.

bónar-maðr, m. beggar-man.

bónda-bani, m. slayer of a woman’s husband; -dóttir, f. daughter of a bóndi; -eiðr, m. a bóndi’s oath of allegiance; -far, a bóndi’s ferryboat; -fé, n. district fund; -fólk, n. peasantry, farmers; -fylking, f. host of peasants; -herr, m. army of peasants; -hlutr, m. one fourth of the tithe to be distributed among the peasants; -kirkja, f. the church belonging to the bóndi in Thingvalla; -kirkjugarðr, m. the churchyard belonging to the kirkja; -lauss, a. husbandless, widowed; -lið, n. = -herr; -múgr, m. crowd, host of peasants; -nafn, n. the name, title of bóndi; -réttr, m. the right of a bóndi; -safnaðr, m. = bónda-múgr; -skapr, m. the estate of the bœndr, opp. to the clergy; -son, m. son of a bóndi; -tala, f., vera í -tölu, to be counted among bœndr; -ungi, m. young farmer; -val, n. the élite of bœndr; var þá gott val, there were choice bœndr to be found; -ætt, f. a bóndi’s extraction (hann er ættar).

bóndi (pl. bœndr, gen. bónda), m. (1) husbandman, farmer, peasant (dóttir eins lítils bónda); a yeoman, franklin, landowner (hinir stœrri bœndr); (2) master, head of a household (= húsbóndi); (3) husband (nú er b. dauðr, en kona lifir eptir).

bón-hús, n. = bœnhús (rare); -leið, f. begging path; fara leið, to go begging from house to house; -orð, n. (1) request, petition; (2) wooing, courtship; hefja, vekja orð, to make a proposal.

bónorðs-ferð, -för, f. wooing journey; fara -för, to go awooing; -mál, n. the business of wooing.

bón-ríki, n. importunity or persistence in begging.

bót (pl. bœtr, also poet. bótir), f. (1) bettering, cure, remedy; fá b. sinna meina, to get cure for one’s evils; ráða e-u b., ráða es bœtr, to remedy, retrieve; vinna e-m b., to relieve one (in sickness); bíða es b., to get over, recover (a loss, misfortune); bera et til bóta, to amend; þótti mikilla bóta ávant, at; much seemed wanting that; et berr til bóta (impers.), it is a comfort, satisfaction; (2) atonement, compensation, esp. pl. = mannbœtr, weregild; sœtar syndir verða at sárum bótum, sweet sins are turned to sore penance; (3) patch (svört bót var á millum herða honum).

bóta-lauss, a. without redress or compensation (hafa sár laust; vígin vóru laus); -maðr, m. a person who has to receive ‘bœtr’ for hurt and damage suffered (opp. to úbótamaðr); -verðr, a. worth redress.

bóti, m. boot (for wearing).

bót-lausliga, adv. irreparably; -lauss, a. irreparable; -sama (), v. to repair (sama um búðir, hús); -þarfa, a. indecl. needing ‘bœtr’ or satisfaction.

bót-leysi, n. ‘bootlessness’; lemja e-n til -leysis, past reparation.

braga (), v. to flicker, flash (of the northern lights).

bragar-full, n. toast, esp. at a funeral banquet; -laun, n. pl. gift for a poem.

bragð, n. (1) sudden or brisk movement; moment; bragðs, af bragði, at once; af (or á) skömmu bragði, shortly, quickly, in a short time; (2) fig., in many phrases, verða fyrri (skjótari) at bragði, to make the first move, to be beforehand with (þeir hafa orðit fyrri at bragði at stefna en vér); vera í bragði með e-m, skerast í b. með e-m, to lend one a helping hand; taka et bragðs or til bragðs, to take some step (to get out of difficulties); úviturligt b., a foolish step; úheyriligt b., an unheard of proceeding; gerðist þar at sví mikit b., at, it went so far that; lítit b. mun þá at (it must be very slight), ef þú finnr ekki; (3) trick, scheme, device, chiefly in pl.; beita en bröðum, hafa brögð við en, to deal cunninly with, impose upon; ferr at fornum brögðum, in the old way; búa yfir brögðum, to brood over wiles; leika e-m b., to play or serve one a trick hefir hann miklu bragði á oss komit, he has played a bad trick upon us; (4) countenance, look, expression þannig ertu í bragði sem, thou lookest as if; með betra bragði, in a better mood; bleyðimannligr í bragði, having the look of a coward; Sturla gerði þat b. á (made as if), at hann hefði fundit Pál prest; (5) embroidered figure (hekla saumuð öll brögðum).

bragða (), v. (1) to move, stir (þat bragðar alit, sem kvikt er); (2) to flicker, flash (of light).

bragða-drykkr, m. poisoned drink.

bragða-karl, m. sly fellow.

bragð-alr, m. ‘twirling awl’, a kind of fire-drill; bragðals-eldr, m. fire produced by a bragðalr.

bragð-illr, a. ill-looking; -ligr, a. expedient, suitable; -mikill, a. expressive-looking; -samr, a. crafty; -vísi, f. craft, subtlety; -vísliga, adv. cunningly; -vísligr, a. cunning.

bragnar, m. pl. poet. heroes, men.

bragr, m. (1) poetry, = skáldskapr; (2) the best, foremost (Ása bragr = Thor; bragr kvenna); most eloquent.

brak, n. creaking noise, crack.

braka (), v. to creak, crack (brakaði mjök í skipinu).

brakan, f. creaking, cracking.

brakki, m., brakun, m. intermediary, broker.

branda-dyrr, f. pl. main entrance, front door, so called because of the ‘brandar’ (ships’ beaks) fixed as ornaments over or beside it.

brand-gás, f. common sheldrake.

brand-krossi, m. the name given to a brandkrossóttr uxi.

brand-krossóttr, a. brindled brown with a white cross on the forehead.

brandr (-s, -ar), m. (1) brand, firebrand (brandr af brandi brennr); (2) ship’s beak (= svíri); fellr brattr breki bröndum hæri, the waves break high above the ‘brandar’; (3) ships’ beaks put up as ornaments over or at each side of the chief entrance of dwellings (brandana af knerrinum lét hann setja yfir útidyrr sínar); (4) the blade of a sword (brast sverðit undir hjaltinu ok fór brandrinn grenjandi niðr í ána).

brand-reið, f. gridiron, brander (steikja á -reið).

brand-øx, f. a sort of axe.

branga, f. (Hamðismál 20)?

brasta (), v. to bluster, swagger (þeir brasta illmikit).

bratt-gengni, f. skill in climbing; -gengr, a. skilful in climbing; -leitr, a. with prominent forehead; -lendi, n. steep ground.

brattr, a. (1) steep; brött brekka, a steep slope; brattar bárur, high waves; bera bratt halann, to carry the tail high; reynt hefi ek fyrr brattara, I have been in a worse plight; (2) sudden, = bráðr (brött fyrirætlan).

bratt-steinn, m. stone column.

brauð, n. bread; hleifr brauðs, a loaf of bread.

brauð-bakstr, m. breadbaking; -diskr, m. breadplate; -gørð, f. breadmaking; -hleifr, m. a loaf of bread; -járn, n. girdle, griddle (for baking bread); -kass, m. bread-basket; -laupr, m., meiss, m. bread-box; -moli, m. crumb of bread; -ofn, m. bread-oven; -skífa, f. slice of bread; -sufl, n. whatever is eaten with bread.

braukun or brökun, f. ? violent behaviour (b. berserkja).

braut (pl. brautir), f. (1) road (cut through rocks, forests, &c.); ryðja b., to cut a road; (2) as adv. away, either with or without the prep. ‘á’ or ‘í’ (fara, ganga, komast b. or á b., brauta; vera í b. or brautu; kasta e-u í b., hverfa í b., vera í b. or brautu). Cf. brott, burt.

braut, m. compds., see ‘brott’.

brauta-mót, n. meeting of roads.

brautar-gengi, n. help, furtherance.

brautingi (-ja), m. a wayfairer, tramp, begger; bráð eru brautingja erendi, the wanderer’s errand is urgent.

brá (gen. brár, pl. brár), f. eyelash.

bráð, f. meat, raw flesh; varmar bráðir, the corpses of the newly slain.

bráð, n. tar, pitch.

bráð, f. haste, only used in adverb. phrases, í b., soon, shortly, = bráðliga; bæði í b. ok lengðar, now and ever.

bráða-bugr, m., in the phrase, gøra -bug at e-u, to hasten to do a thing, do it without delay; -fangs, adv. at once, = bráðfengis.

bráða-hola, f. a hole where the wild beasts, carry their prey (bráð).

bráða-hrið, f. sudden storm.

bráða-lauss, without prey (haukar bráðalausir).

braðan, adv. soon, shortly, = brátt.

bráða-sótt, f. sudden illness, plague; -þeyr, m. sudden thaw.

bráð-dauði, m. sudeen death; -dauðr, a., in the phrases verða dauðr, to die suddenly; -endis, adv. of a sudden; -fara, a. indecl., verða -fara, to travel in haste; -feginn, a. exceedingly glad; -feigligr, a. rushing to death; -fengis, adv. suddenly, at once; -fengr, a. quick to act, prompt; -geðr, a. hottempered, hasty (-geð er bernskan); -gerr, a. matured early in life, precocious; -gerviligr, a. of early promise; -hættligr, a. most dangeous; -kallaðr, pp., verða -kallaðr, to die suddenly; -kjörit, pp. n. hastily chosen; -komliga = bráðliga; -la, adv. = bráðliga.

bráð-lauss, a. not pitched.

bráð-látinn, pp. = bráðdauðr; -látr, a. eager, impatient; -liga, adv. hastily, at once; -liga er, as soon as; -ligr, a. sudden (-ligr dauði); -litit, pp. n., gera -litit á e-t, to look hastily at a thing; -lyndi, a. hot temper, hastiness; -lyndr, a. hot-tempered, hasty; -læti, n. impatience; -mælt, pp. n. hastily spoken.

bráðna (), v. to melt, of snow, &c.

bráð-orðr, a. hasty of speech.

bráðr (neut. brátt), a. (1) sudden (b. bani); (2) hasty, hottempered; þú hefir verit hølzti b. (too eager, too rash) í þessu máli.

bráð-ráðinn, pp. hastily or rashly decided; -reiðr, a. very wrathfull; -ræði, n. rashness; -sjúkr, a. taken suddenly ill; -skapaðr, a. of hasty disposition (= skapbráðr); -skeyti, n. hastiness, rashness; -skeytiligr, a. rash; -skeyttr, a. heedless, rash; -sýnn, a. seen at a glance.

bráðum, adv. soon, shortly.

bráðung, f. haste; bráðungar þarf við, one must make haste; af bráðungu, in a hurry.

bráð-þroskaðr, pp. early matured or grown-up.

brá-hvítr, a. with white eyelashes.

bráss, m. cook? (tóku þeir brás Búðla ok brugðu til knífi).

brátt, adv. soon; b. er, as soon as.

breða-fönn, f. a great heap or drifted mass of snow.

bréf, n. letter, witten deed.

bréfa (), v. to give an account, to write (b. af e-u).

bréfa-bók, f. registerbook; -brot, n. breach of ordinances; -gørð, f. letterwriting; -maðr, m. letter carrier, public courier; -sveinn, m. letterboy.

bréf-laust, adv. without a written document.

bregða (bregð; brá, brugðum; brugðinn), v. with dat. (1) to cause to move (quickly); b. sverði, knífi, to draw a sword, knife; b. fingri, hendi í e-t, to put (thrust) the finger, hand, into; hón brá hárinu undir belti sér, she put (fastened) her hair under her belt; b. kaðli um e-t, to pass a rope round a thing; b. augum sundr, to open the eyes; b. e-m á eintal, to take one apart; b. sér sjúkum, to feign illness; (2) to deviate from, disregard (vér höfum brugðit af ráðum þínum); (3) to alter, change; b. lit, litum, to change colour, to turn pale; b. e-m í e-s líki, to turn one (by spell) into another shape (þú brátt þér í merar líki); (4) to break up, leave off, give up; b. tjöldum, to strike the tents; b. samvist, to leave off living together; b. ráðahag, to break off an engagement (wedding); b. boði, to countermand a feast; b. sýslu, to leave off working; b. svefni, blundi, to awake; b. tali, to break off talking; b. orrustu, kaupi, to break off a battle, bargain; (5) to break (b. trúnaði, heiti, sáttmáli); (6) b. e-m e-u, to upbraid, reproach one with a thing (Kálfr brá mér því í dag); (7) with prepp., b. e-m á loft, to lift one aloft; b. e-u á, to give out, pretend (hann brá á því, at hann mundi ríða vestr til Miðfjarðar); absol., b. á e-t, to begin (suddenly) doing a thing; b. á leik, to begin playing or sporting; Kimbi brá á gaman, took it playfully, laughed at it; þeir brugðu á glímu ok á glens, they started wrestling and playing; hestrinn brá á leik, broke into play, ran away; hönd bregðr á venju, is ready for its old work; þá brá Ingimundr til útanferðar, I. started to go abroad; b. e-u undan, to put it out of the way, to hide it; b. upp hendi, höndum, to hold up the hand; b. e-u við, to ward off with (b. við skildi); fig. to put forth as an example, to praise, wonder at (þínum drengskap skal ek við b.); absol., b. við, to start off, set about a thing without delay; brá hann við skjótt ok fór, he started off at once and went; (8) refl., bregðast, to fail, come to naught (þat mun eigi b.); b. e-m, to deceive, disappoint one (Gunnar kvaðst aldri skyldu b. Njáli né sonum hans); þeim brást frumhlaupit, they failed in the onslaught; b. brögðum, to play one another tricks; b. orðum, brigzlum, to upbraid one another; b. við, to make a sudden motion with the body (Hrútr brást skjótt við undan högginu); b. við fast, to turn sharply; b. á beina við e-n, to show hospitality towards; b. reiðr við e-t, to get angry at; b. úkunnr við e-t, to be startled at the novelty of a thing; (9) impers., e-u bregðr, it ceases, fails; svá hart, at nyt bregði (to drive the ewes) so fast that they fail to give milk; veðráttu brá eigi, there was no change in the weather; of a sudden appearance, kláða brá á hvarmana, the eye-lids began to itch; þá brá ljóma af Logafjöllum, then from L. there burst flashes of light; ljósi bregðr fyrir, a light passes before the eye; with preps., bregðr af vexti hans frá öðrum selum, his shape differs from that of other seals; e-m bregðr í brún, one is amazed, startled (nú bregðr mönnum í brún mjök); e-m bregðr til e-s, one person takes after, resembles another; en því bregðr mér til foreldris míns, in that I am like my father; þat er mælt, at fjórðungi bregði til fóstrs, the fostering makes the fourth part of a man; e-m bregðr við e-t = e-m bregðr í brún; brá þeim mjök við, er þeir sá hann inn ganga, it startled them much when they saw him come in; en þó brá fóstru Melkorku mest við þessi tíðindi, this news most affected M.’s nurse.

breiða (-dda, -ddr), v. to spread; b. borð, to lay the cloth on the table; b. fáðm, to stretch out the arms; b. út, to lay out for dryinig, as hay; b. út hendr, to stretch out the hands; b. et yfir en, to cover one with a thing, chiefly of the bedclothes.

breidd, f. breadth.

breið-dœlskr, a. from Broaddale; Breið-firðingr, m. a man from Broadfirth; breið-firzkr, a. belonging to Broadfirth.

breiðka (), v. to grow broad, to broaden.

breið-laginn, a. broadish; -leikr, m. broadness, breadth; -leitr, a. broadfaced.

breiðr (neut. breitt), a. broad; á breiðan, in breadth, = í breidd; standa breitt, to spread over a wide space; sitja breitt, with the legs wide apart.

breið-skeggr, a. broad-bearded, as a nickname; -vaxinn, pp. Broadframed stout, squarebuilt; -øx, f. axe with a broad blade.

brek, n. claim, demand (eru Brynhildar brek of mikil).

breka (), v. to keep asking (látum barn hafa þat er brekar).

brek-boð, n. fraudulent bidding.

breki, m. poet. breaker.

brekka, f. slope; leiða þræl í brekku (viz. þingbrekku), to proclaim a bondsman free.

brekku-brún, f. the edge of a slope; -megin, n. (1) strength to climb a hill; (2) the steepest part of a slope; -munr, m. difference in height.

brek-laust, adv. without fraud; -ráð, n. pl. an attempt at fraudulent acquisition; -sekt, f. fraudulent outlawry (in order to disable one from pleading his case); -vísi, f. importunity, importunate solicitation.

brenna (brenn; brann, brunnum; brunninn), v. (1) to burn with a flame (logi, ljós, eldr, kerti brennr); (2) to be consumed by fire (á Flugumýri brann fé mikit); nú breðr (= brennr) víðara en hann vildi, the fire spreads wider than he wished; b. inni, to perish by fire; b. upp, to be burnt up (á þeiri nátt brann upp allt Danavirki); hlutr e-s brennr við, one gets the worst of it; brann brátt þeirra hlutr við, it soon grew too hot for them; rautt mun fyrir b., mun nökkut fyrir b., things will brighten up or improve.

brenna (-da, -dr), v. (1) to burn (b. bál); (2) to destroy by fire (b. bœ, hof, skip at köldum kolum); b. e-n inni, to burn one to death in his house; b. e-t upp, to burn up; (3) to cauterize (as a surgical operation); b. e-n við bölvi, to burn one to cure his malady; b. e-m díla, to burn spots on one’s back; fig. to brand one’s back; b. e-m illan díla, to inflict a severe injury upon one; (4) to produce by burning (b. e-t til líms); b. kol, to burn wood for charcoal; b. salt, to produce salt by burning (sea-weed); (5) to purify (silver or gold) by burning; brent silfr, pure silver (eyrir brendr, mörk brend).

brenna, f. the burning of a house or person (þá er b. var á Flugumýri; Njáls brenna).

brenniligr, a. that burns well (eldr b.).

brenni-steinn, m. = brennusteinn.

brennu-maðr, m. incendiary; -mál, n. action for fire; -saga, f. the story of the buring (of Njál); -staðr, m. the place where a fire has been; -steinn, m. brimstone, sulfur.

brennusteins-logi, m. sulfur flame; -vatn, n. sulfur well; -þefr, m. smell of brimstone, sulfurous smell.

brennu-sumar, n. summer of fires; -vargr, m. an outlawed incendiary.

bresta (brest; brast, brustum; brostinn), v. (1) to burst, to be rent (steinninn brast); þá brast í sundr jörðin (the earth burst) undir hesti hans; (2) to break, snap, with a noise (brast í sundr boginn); (3) to crash, of the sound alone; þá brast strengr, they twanged the bowstring; (4) to burst forth (skriða brast); eldr brestr upp, fire breaks out; blóð brestr út, blood bursts out; (5) to rise, begin; flótti brestr, the ranks break in flight; bardagi brestr, the battle breaks out, begins; (6) impers., e-n brestr e-t, one lacks, falls short of (eigi brestr mik áræði); ef oss brestr á, borði, if we fall short, get the worst of it; þat mun aldri b. (it will never fail), at.

brestr (-s, -ir), m. (1) crash (varð þar við hár b.); (2) chink, crack (b. hafði verit á hringnum); berja í brestina, to excuse or cover up the faults; (3) want, loss (hvárt ábati eðr b. í varð).

Bretar, m. pl. the Welsh.

Bretland, n. Wales; syðra Bretland, Brittany.

bretta (-tta, -ttr), v. to turn upwards (b. hala sinn).

breysk-leikr, m. infirmity, weakness (líkamsins -leikr); -ligr, a. frail, weak (mannsins -lig náttúra).

breyskr, a. (1) brittle (b. leirpottr); (2) weak, infirm.

breyta (-tta, -ttr), v. (1) to change, alter (b. átrúnaði); refl., breytast; hafa þau eigi breyzt síðan, they have not changed since; (2) to vary; b. háttum, to vary the metre; b. hári sínu, to dress one’s hair; réttr ok breyttr, plain and artificial; (3) absol. to conduct oneself, do, act; munum við báðir í brott komast, ef við breytum svá, if we do so; b. eptir e-m, to imitate; b. til e-s, to attempt.

breyti-liga, adv. strangely; -ligr, a. strange; breyting, f. change.

breytinn, a. (1) variable; b. í búningi, fashionable in dress; (2) courteous, attentive (b. í öllum atvikum við konurnar).

breytni, f. change; gera b. á um e-t, to make an alteration in a thing; b. í klæðnaði, fashion.

brezka, f. the Welsh language.

brezkr, a. Welsh.

brigð, f. (1) right to reclaim (chiefly of landed property); fyrnist þá eigi brigðin, then the right of reclamation will not be lost; (2) n. pl. change (engi brigð mun ek hér í gera); kaupa et í b. við annan mann, to purchase a thing already bought by another.

brigða (-ða, -ðr), v. (1) to try to recover (lost property) by lawful procedure (b. land, fé); (2) with dat. to annul, make void (b. kaupi, dómi, sáttmali); b. e-m frelsi, to revoke one’s liberty.

brigðar-maðr, m. reclaimer of lost property.

brigði, n. pl. (1) = brigð, f.; (2) = brigð, n. pl. (gera b. á e-u).

brigði-ligr, a. (1) variable; (2) corruptible, perishable (-ligr líkami).

brigð-kaup, n. void bargain; -liga, adv. variably; -ligr, a. = brigðiligr; -lyndi, n. ficklemindedness; -lyndr, a. fickle-minded; -meali, n. breach of promise.

brigðr, a. fickle, faithless.

brigð-ræði, n. fickleness, cunning.

brigðull, a. variable, inconstant.

brigzl, n. = brigzli.

brigzla (), v. to upbraid (e-m e-u or e-t) one with a thing; at honum sé því brigzlat, that it be thrown in his teeth.

brigzla-lauss, a. blameless.

brigzlan, f. reproach, blame.

brigzlanar-hlátr, m. reproachful or scornful laughter.

brigzli, n. reproach, blame; fœra e-m e-t í b., hafa e-m e-t at brigzlum, to upbraid one with a thing, to throw a thing in one’s teeth; eilíft b., everlasting reproach.

brim, n. surf (sker ok b.).

brim-dýr, n. poet. ship; -gangr, m. dashing of the surf.

brimill, m. a big, sort of seal, male seal; also as a nickname.

brim-lauss, a. surf-less, calm; -leysa, f. calm (smooth) sea; -leysi, n. = -leysa; -orri, m. a kind of duck; -rúnar, f. pl. poet. ‘surf-curbing’ runes; -sorfinn, pp. surf-worn (-sorfit grjót); -stormr, m. surf-raising gale; -svín, n. poet. ship, vessel; -tog, n. a rope to tug a boat through the surf.

bringa, f. (1) chest (hárit tók ofan á bringuna); e-m skýtr (or slær) skelk í bringu, one gets frightened; (2) brisket (of an animal).

bring-spalir, f. pl. = -spelir (acc. -spölu), m. pl. the ‘breast rails’, the lower part of the chest (bar sverðit a kviðnum fyrir neðan bringspölu).

bringu-bein, n. the breast-bone; -breiðr, a. broadchested; -sár, n. a wound in the chest; -teinar, m. pl. = bringspelir.

brík (-ar, pl. brikr), f. (1) thin board; (2) low wooden screen; (3) short bench, near the door.

bríkar-búningr, m., -klæði, n. covering for an altarscreen.

brími, m. poet. fire.

brímir (gen. -is), m. poet. sword.

brjá (brjáða, brját), v. to sparkle flicker, gleam.

brjándi, f. or n. flickering, gleam.

brjósk, n. cartilage (sem brjósk væri þar, sem bein skyldu vera).

brjóst, n. (1) the front of the chest, breast (hyl vel b. þitt); (2) woman’s breast; fœða barn á brjósti, to feed a child at the breast; (3) fig. the seat of the affections and emotions, mind, heart, feeling, disposition; mun han vera þrályndr í skapi sem faðir hans, en hafa b. verra, a harder heart mun hann optar mér í brjósti (in my mind) en þér; (4) the front (of wave or a battalion); (5) breastwork, protection (hann er sjálfr b. ok hlífiskjöldr kristni sinnar); vera b. fyrir em, to be one’s defender, to shield one; (6) vinna eið fyrir brjóst e-s, on one’s behalf.

brjóst-afl, n. strength of chest; -barn, n. a child at the breast, suckling; -björg, f. breast-plate; -bragð, n. compassion; -búnaðr, m. breast ornament, brooch; -drekkr, m. suckling, = spendrekkr; -fastligr, a. faihful; -fastr, a. fixed in the heart; -festa (-sta, -str), v., festa sér et, to impress on one’s mind; -friðr, m. peace of mind; -gjörð, f. saddlegirth; -gœði, f. compassion; -heill, a. having a sound chest; -kaldr, a. hostile; -kirkja, f. the heart; -kringla, f. brooch; -leysi, n. febbleness of mind; -megin, n. strength of mind or heart; -mikill, a. broadchested; -mœði, f. shortness of breath, weariness; -reiðr, a. enraged; -reip, n. breastrope, girdle; -samligr, a. = -fastligr; -stofa, f. front room; -sullr, m. a boil in the lungs; -sviði, m. heartburn; -vit, n. mother wit; -vitra, f. = -vit; -þili, n. front wall, = bjórþili; -þungt, a. n., e-m er -þungt, suffers from difficult breathing.

brjóta (brýt; braut, brutum; brotinn), v. (1) to break; b. fót sinn, to break one’s leg; b. tennr ór höfði manns, to break the teelh out of the head; b. mann um stein, to break a man on a stone; b. e-n í hjóli, to break on the wheel; (2) to break open (b. haug, búr); (3) to destroy, demolish (b. hof, skurðgoð, kastala); b. skip, to break one’s ship, be shipwrecked; (4) to break, violate, transgress (b. heit, lög); en þér konungr brutuð lög á Agli, you broke the law in Egil’s case; (5) to force, compel (b. menn til kristni); b. e-n til hlýðni, to force to submission; (6) in various fig. phrases; b. odd af oflæti sínu, to break the point of one’s pride, to humble oneself; b. straum fyrir e-m, to break the stream before one, to bear the brunt of battle; (7) with preps., b. af brúna, to break off the bridge; b. af við e-n, to wrong one; b. á bak, to force or drive back (b. fylking á bak); to neglect, disregard (b. á bak ráð e-s); b. niðr, to demolish, break down (b. niðr hús); b. niðr blótskap, villu, to put down, abolish; b. sik niðr við jörðu, to bow down to the earth; b. saman, to fold (b. saman skikkju); to unite (b. saman et forna lögmál ok nýja); b. sundr, í sundr, to break asunder (b. sundr silfrker); to unfold (clothes); b. (land, þjóð) undir sik, to subdue; b. upp, to break up (þeir brutu upp þilit); to force or break open (b. upp hurð, búr, kirkju, bréf); to unpack (b. upp gersemar sínar); b. upp vistir, to bring out the victuals (for the mess); b. upp vápn, to get out the weapons, prepare for battle; (8) refl., brjótast á e-t, to break in upon; Önundr brauzt á hurðina, tried to break in the door; b. á milli, to break out between; b. fram, to break forth; b. í haug, to break into a cairn; b. í e-u, to exert oneself in a thing; þessi maðr brýzt í miklu ofrefli, struggles against great odds; b. um, to make a hard struggle (björn brauzt um í vök); b. við e-t, to fight or struggle hard against; b. við ofrefli, to fight against odds; b. við borgargørðina, to exert oneself in making the burg; b. við e-u, to struggle against (b. við forlögunum, gæfu sinni); (9) impers. in a passive sense; skipit (acc.) braut í spán, the ship was broken to pieces; þá braut kirkju (acc.), the church was blown down; strauminn braut á öxlinni, the current broke against his shoulder.

brjótr, m. one that breaks, destroyer.

brodda (), v. to prick, goad, incite (broddaðr af óhreinsan).

broddhögg, n. a blow from a pike.

broddr, (1) spike; (2) a kind of shaft = broddör; (3) sting (of an insect); (4) prick, goad; (5) the front of a column or body of men, opp. to ‘hali’, the rear (b. fylkingar); (6) vera í broddi lífsins, to be in the prime of life.

brodd-skot, n. a shot with a shaft (broddr); -spjót, n. a kind of pike (the blade ending in a four-edged point); -stafr, m., -stöng, f. a (mountaineer’s) staff, pole, with an iron spike; -ör, f. a shaft with fouredgepoint, = broddr 2.

brokkari, m. cart-horse, trotter.

brokunar-maðr, m. an intermediary, a broker, = brakki.

brosa (-ta, -at), v. to smile; b. at e-u, to smile at; b. við, to smile in reply (Guðrún leit við honum ok brosti við).

brosa, f. smile (svara með brosu).

brosan, f. smiling, smile.

bros-leitr, a. with smiling face; -ligr, a. ridiculous.

brosma, f. a fish of the cod-kind.

brot, n. (1) breaking (cf. ‘skipbrot’); sigla til brots, to run ashore under full sail; (2) fragment, broken piece; (3) fracture (beinbrot); (4) a shallow place in a river or a firth; (5) lever; (6) spasm, convulsion, falla í brot, to have an epileptic fit.

brota-silfr, n. old silver broken to be recast.

brot-fall, n. epileptic fit; -fallinn, pp. epileptic, afflicted with epilepsy.

brotfalls-sótt, f. epileptic disease.

brot-feldr, a. = -fallinn; -geiri, m. an angular strip of land.

broti, m. heap of trees felled in a wood (fella brota).

brot-ligr, a. guilty of an offence.

brotna (), to break, be broken; skip brotnar í spán, the ship is broken to pieces.

brotning, f. breaking.

brott, adv. away, off, = braut, burt; also á b., í b. (fara b. or á b., hlaupast á b. or í b.).

brott-búinn, a. ready to start; -búningr, m. preparations for departure.

brottfarar-leyfl, n. leave to go away; -öl, n. parting banquet.

brott-ferð, f. departure.

brottferðar-öl, n. = brottfararöl.

brott-flutning, f. carrying off; -fúsliga, adv. with eagerness to depart; -fúss, a. eager to depart; -fýsi, f. eagerness to get away; -fœrsla, f. transformation; -för, f. = -ferð; -ganga, f. departure; -hald, n. going away (skip var búit til halds); -hlaup, n. running away; -hvarf, n. disappearance; -höfn, f. taking off; -kváma, f. coming away; -laga, f. retreat (after a seabattle), opp. to ‘atlaga’; -reið, f. ridingaway; -rekstr, m. driving away, expulsion; -sending, f. sending away; -sigling, f. sailing away; -sniðning, f. cutting, away or off; -söngr, m. divine service performed elsewhere than at the parish church; -taka, f., tekning, f. taking away, removal; -tœkiligr, a. removable.

brottu, adv., á b., í b., away = braut, brott (er vér vorum brottu; meðan jarl væri í brottu).

brott-varp, n. throwing away; -vist, f. absence; -visan, f. dismissal.

bróðerni, n. brotherhood.

bróðir (gen., dat., and acc. bróður, pl. brœðr), m. (1) brother; (2) friar.

bróður-arfr, m. a brother’s inheritance; -bani, m. the slayer of a brother; -baugr, m. weregild due to the brother; -bloð, n. a brother’s blood; -bœtr, f. pl. weregild for a brother; -dauði, m. a brother’s death; -deild, f. = -hluti; -dóttir, f. a brother’s daughter, niece; -dráp, n. the slaying of a brother; -gildr, a. equal in right to a brother; -gjöld, n. pl. = -bœtr; -hefnd, f. revenge for the slaying of a brother; -hluti, m. the share (as to weregild or inheritance) of a brother; -kona, f., kván, f. a brother’s wife; -leikr, m. brotherhood; -ligr, a. brotherly, fraternal (bróðurlig ást).

bróðursonar-baugr, m. weregild for a brother’s son.

bróður-sonr, m. a brother’s son, nephew.

brók (-ar, pl. brœkr), f. (1) one leg of a pair of breeches (ok lét hann leika laust knéit í brókinni); (2) breeches (but the pl. ‘brœkr’ is more common); vera í brókum, to wear breeches; gyrðr í brœkr, with breeches girt over one’s underclothing.

bróka-belti, m. breech-belt; -vaðmál, n. cloth (wadmal) for breeches.

brók-lauss, a. breechless; -lindi, m. waistbelt = brókabelti.

brugðinn, pp. (see ‘bregða’) accustomed to, versed in (b. við e-t).

brugðning, f. breach, violation, altercation (for the worse).

brugg, n. (1) brewing; (2) machination, scheming.

brugga (), v. (1) to brew; (2) to concoct, scheme; b. or b. saman svik, to concoct a fraud; b. em bana, to scheme his death; (3) to break (b. sáttmáli við en).

brugginn, pp. brewed (b. mjöðr).

bruggu-kanna, f. brewing can; -ketill, m. brewing kettle.

brullaup, n. = brúðlaup, brúðkaup.

brum, n. (1) bud; (2) point of time (í þetta brum).

brumr, m. = brum (í þenna brum).

bruna (), v. to advance with great speed, to rush (b. fram).

bruna-dómr, m. a sentence to be burnt; -flekkr, m. burnt spot; -hraun, n. burnt lavafield; -vegr, m. the torid zone; -þefr, m. smell of burning; -öld, f. the burning age, the (heathen) time when the dead were burnt (opp. to ‘haugs-öld’).

brund-tíð, f. the time when the ewes are ‘blœsma’.

bruni, m. burning heat, fire; fig., burning passion (b. öfundar, lostagirndar, heilagrar trúar).

brunn-lœkr, m. brooklet coming from a well; -migi, m. defiler of wells, fox.

brunnr, m. (1) spring; (2) well.

brunns-munni, m. the mouth or opening of a well.

brunn-vaka, f. an instrument to, get at water under ice or snow; -vatn, n. spring water; -vígsla, f. consecration of a well.

brú (-ar, pl. -ar, -r, brýr), f. bridge.

brús (), v. to bridge over (brúat var yfir dikit).

brúar-fundr, m. the battle of the Bridge; -gørð, f. bridgemaking; -sporðr, m. head or end of a bridge.

brúða, f. (1) doll, puppet; (2) chairpost; á brúðum stólsins var skorinn Þórr, Thor was carved on the chairposts.

brúðar-bekkr, m. the bride’s bench; -efni, n. a bride to be, bride elect; -faðmr, m. a bride’s embrace; -hús, n. bride’s chamber; -lín, n. bride’s veil; -stóll, m. bride’s chair.

brúð-bekkr, m. = brúðarbekkr; -fé, n. bride’s fee or gift; -ferð, -för, f. bride’s journey; -gumi, m. bridegroom; -hús, n. bride’s chamber; -hvíla, f. bridal bed; -kaup, n. wedding feast, bridal (at bjóða mönnum til kaups); -kaupligr, a. pertaining to a wedding feast (kaupligr viðbúnaðr).

brúðkaups-ferð, f. = brúðferð; -gørð, f. holding a wedding; -maðr, m. wedding guest; -veizla, f. wedding feast.

brúð-kona, f. bridesmaid; -laup, n. wedding, wedding feast; drekka, gera laup, to hold a wedding: gera laup til konu, to wed; ráða laup, to fix the wedding day.

brúðlaups-dagr, m. wedding day; -ferð, f. = brúðferð; -kláði, n. pl. wedding garment; -kostr, m. the cost of a wedding; -stefna, f. wedding meeting; -veizla, f. wedding feast; -vitni, n. marriage witness.

brúð-maðr, m. bridegroom’s man, bridesman; -messa, f. marriage service.

brúðr (gen. -ar, dat. and acc. -i, pl. -ir), f. (1) bride (konur skipuðu pall, ok var brúðrin döpr); (2) esp. pl. brides-maids = brúðkonur; sat Þórhalla milli brúða, Th. was seated among the bridesmaids = milli brúðkvenna.

brúð-stóll, m. bride’s chair or seat, = brúðarstóll.

brúk, n. a heap (brúkum in heaps); esp. a heap of seaweed (= þarabrúk).

brún (pl. brýnn), f. (1) brow, the projecting edge of a cliff or hill (cf. fjalls, heiðar, isbrún); (2) eyebrow; láta síga brýnn á nef fyrir brár, ofan fyrir augum, setja síða b. hleypa brúnum, to kni tthe brows lypta brúnum, hefja upp brún, to lift the eyebrows, become cheerful, brighten up; also impers., hefr em upp b., one brightens up; lypti þá mjök brúnum manna, therfaces brightened up; em bregðr í b., one is amazed.

brún (pl. brúnir), f. a kind of stuff.

brúnaðr, a. darkcoloured, brown.

brúna-mikill, a. heavybrowed; -síðr, a. having overhanging brows; -skurðr, m. cutting the hair straight across the brows.

brúnar-bein, n. pl. the bone of the eye-brow.

brún-áss, m. ridge-pole, ridge-piece.

brún-hvítr, a. white-browed.

brún-móálóttr, a. of mousegrey colour with a black stripe down the back (of a horse).

brúnn, a. (1) brown; (2) of polished metal, bright (beit brún egg).

brúnn, m. black horse.

brún-síðr, a. = brúnasíðr; -skarpr, a. light in the head; -völr, -völvi, -ölvi, a. frowning.

brúsi, m. buck, he-goat.

brú-steinn, m. pavement.

brydda (-dda, -ddr), v. (1) to prick, goad; (2) to rough shoe (aka jó óbryddum á ísi hálum); (3) to show the point (bryddu upp ór þokunni kollarnir); (4) impers., af þessi gørð herra páfans bryddi (arose) svá mikla styrjöld, at.

brydding, f. bordering, edging.

bryðja, f. a sort of trough.

bryggja, f. (1) gangboard, gangway; skjóta bryggjum, to shoot out the gangway; (2) landingstage, pier, quay (lágu langskip konungs með endilöngum bryggjum); (3) rarely, bridge, = brú.

bryggju-búð, f. storehouse on a pier; -ker, n. a tub at a pier?; -lægi, n. landingstage; -mangari, m. shopkeeper at a Ianding pier; -sporðr, m. the head of a pier.

bryna (), v. = bruna.

bryn-brœkr, f. pl. war-breeches; -glófi, m. war-glove, gauntlet; -hattr, m., -hetta, f. war-hood; -hosa, f. war-hose, greave; -höttr, m. = -hattr, -hetta.

brynja, f. coat of mail.

bryrja (), v. to cover or arm with a coat of mail; brynjaðr, wearing a coat of mail, mailclad.

brynju-bítr, m. ‘mailbiter’, sword; -bönd, n. pl. cords to fasten the coat of mail; -hattr, m., -hetta, f. = brynhattr, brynhetta; -hálsbjörg, f. the neckpiece of a hauberk; -hringr, m. a ring of a coat of mail (hringabrynja); -lauss, a. without a coat of mail unprotected; -meistari, m. maker of coats of mail; -rokkr, m. military tunic (worn over the coat of mail).

bryn-klungr, m. a sort of weapon used in defending a besieged castle; -knífr, m. warknife; -kolla, f. a mailcap (worn under the helmet).

brynna (-ta, -t), v. to water, give water to (b. nautum).

bryn-stakkr, m. mailjacket; -stúka, f. mailsleeve; -tröll, n. a sort of halberd; -þing, n. combat (poet.); -þvari, m. a sort of halberd (= bryntröll).

bryti (gen. brytja or bryta), m. bailiff, understeward; konungs b., a steward on royal estates.

brytja (), v. to chop (b. mat); b. lið heiðingja, to put to the sword; b. niðr, to cut down.

brytjan, f. chopping.

bryt-skálm, f. chopper (kallar hann þat sverð brytskálm sína).

brýna (-da, -dr), v. (1) to whet, sharpen (b. ljá, kníf, sverð); (2) brýna upp skipi, to drag a boat or ships half ashore, put it on the ‘edge’ of the seaboard; (3) to egg on; b. hug es, to encourage.

brýni, n. (1) whetstone; (2) spaces (ekki hafa þeir salt við mat ok ekki brýni).

brýning, f. (1) whetting, sharpening; (2) fig. egging on, incitement.

brýn-ligr, a. = brýnn; er -ligt um e-t, it is promising, likely.

brýnn, a. prompt, ready; ef brýn féföng lægi fyrir, ready means; brýn sök, just, cogent cause; brýn vörn, a clear case for defence; b. byrr, straight, fair wind.

brýnn, f. pl., from ‘brún’; -brýnn, a. -browed (létt-brýnn, þung-brýnn).

bræða (-dda, -ddr), v. (1) to melt (b. jökul, snjó, ís); (2) to tar, pitch (b. skip).

bræða (-dda, -ddr), v. to hurry, make haste (nú seinkaða ek, en þú bræddir heldr).

braði, f. anger, passion; mæla et í b., in a passion.

bræði-ligr, a. meltable, fusible.

bræði-mæli, n. pl. angry language.

brækta (), v. to bleat (b. sem geit).

brœðra-börn, n. pl. first cousins (agnate); -dœtr, f. pl. nieces (of brothers); -eign, f. property of brothers; -garðr, m. monastery, = kórsbrœðragarðr; -lag, n. (1) fellowship as of brethren, = fóstbrœðralag (sverjast í -lag); (2) brotherhood, religious fraternity.

brœðralags-bréf, n. letter of (religious) fraternity.

brœðra-mark, n. the constellation Gemini; -partr, m. = bróðurdeild; -samnaðr, m. assembly (union) of brothers; -skáli, m. apartment for friars; -skipti, n. division of inheritance among brothers; -synir, m. pl. brothers’ sons, cousins.

brœðrunga, f. female first cousin.

brœðrungr, m. male first cousin (agnate); also = brœðrunga; hón var b. (she was first cousin) Asnýjar.

brœðrungs-barn, n. child of a first cousin; baugr, m. share of weregild due a first cousin.

brœklingar, m. pl. ‘breechlings’, a nickname of the Irish.

brögðóttr, a. crafty, cunning.

brögðu-liga, adv. cunningly, slyly (blekkja, svíkja e-n -liga); -ligr, a. crafty, sly.

brölta (-lta, -lt), v. to toss or tumble about.

bröstuliga, adv. boastingly; láta liga, to brag.

buðka-grös, n. pl. herbs kept in a box (for use in medicine).

buðkr, m. small box (originally a box to keep herbs and balsams in).

buðlungr, m. poet. king.

buffeit, n. buffet (slá em b.).

buffeita (-tta, -ttr), v. to buffet.

buga (), v. to bow, bend.

bugr, m. bend, curve; the bight (inside) of a ring (í bug hringinum); of the bent fingers (b. fingranna); the concave side of the sails (sá af landi í bug allra seglanna); a curve, disorder, of a line of men or ships (rétta þann bug, er á var orðinn flotanum); aka em á bug, aka bug á em, to make one give way, repel.

bug-statr, m. crooked stick.

bukka-skinn, n. the skin of he-goats; -vara, f. = -skinn.

bukkr, m. (1) buck, he goat; (2) battering ram.

bukk-skinn, n. the skin of a he-goat (cf. ‘bukkaskinn’).

bukl, n. the boss of a shield.

buklara-bóla, f. = bukl; -fetill, m. strap of a buckler.

buklari, m. buckler, shield.

bukram, bukran, n. = buckram.

bula (), v. to cut throgh, = bola.

bulr, m. = bolr.

bulungr, m. pile of logs, firewood.

bul-øx, f. = bol-øx.

bumba, f. drum (berja á bumbur).

bundin, n. sheaf (of corn).

bunki, m. heap, pile, = búlki (rare).

burða-munr, m. diference of birth.

burðar-dagr, m. birthday; -maðr, m. bearer, carrier; -sveinn, m. errand-boy; -tíð, f., -tími, m. birthtime.

burdeigja (), v. to capriole, of a horse (for. word).

burðr (-ar, -ir), m. (1) carriage, bearing, of the limbs or body (b. líkamans birtir hugskotsins ráð); (2) birth (frá Krists burði); of domestic animals, lambing, calving (þær kýr, er bezt búast til burðar); (3) fetus, the thing born, offspring (fíll gengr tvó ár með burðinum; hinn hæsti b. várr dróttinn J. Kr.); (4) pl., burðir, birth, extraction; heiðinn at burðum, heathen by birth burðir ok ætt, birth and kinship.

burðugr, of high birth.

burgeiss, m. burgess.

buris, m. borax (for. word).

burr (-ar, -ir), m. poet. son.

burst or bust, f. (1) bristle, bristles; draga b. ór nefi em, to draw a bristle out of one’s nose, to cheat one; (2) gablehead or ridge of a house.

bursta-kollr, m. bristle-scalp, an assumed name.

burstar-hár, n. bristly hair.

bursti, m. bristly hair.

burst-ígull, m. hedgehog.

burt, adv. = brott.

burt, f., in the phrase, riða á b., to ride a tilt.

burt-búningr, m. preparation to leave a place (vera í búningi).

burt-reið, f. riding a tilt.

burtreiðar-maðr, m. tilter; -vápn, n. tiltweapon.

burt-stöng, f. a lance for tilting.

busil-kinna, f. a woman with fat or chubby cheeks.

busl, n. bustle, commotion (þú váru goðin í busli miklu).

buss, m. box, boxwood.

bust, f. (1) bristle = burst; (2) a kind of fish.

busti, m. = bursti.

buza, f. a sort of merchant-ship.

, n. (1) household, farming; þat er bú, er maðr hefir málnytan smala, it is ‘bú’, if a man has a milking stock; gøra, setja, reisa bú, to set up a home for oneself; bregða búi, to give up farming; eiga bú við e-n, to share a household with one; fara búi, to remove one’s household; vera fyrir búi, to manage a household; búa búi sínu, to have one’s own household; búa úmegðarbúi, to have many dependants (unable to work); (2) the stock of a farmstead (sumir lágu úti á fjöllum með bú sín); drepa niðr bú, höggva bú, to kill or destroy one’s stock; (3) housekeeping; fá til búsins, to procure necessaries for the maintenance of the household; einskis þurfti í bú at biðja, there was plenty of everything; (4) farm, estate; fara milli búa sinna, to go from one estate to another; eiga bú, to own an estate; (5) home, house (reið Hrútr heim til bús síns); vera at or á búi með e-m, to live at one’s house.

búa (; bjó, bjoggum or bjuggum; búinn), v. (1) to prepare, make ready; b. skip í för, to make a ship ready for a voyage; b. ferð sína, to make ready for a journey (voyage); b. veizlu, to prepare (make preparations) for a feast; b. mál á hendr e-m, to take out a summons against one, be in a lawsuit; (2) to dress, attire, adorn, ornament; bjó hón hana sem hón kunni bezt, she dressed her as well as she could; sá þeir konur vel búnar, well dressed; b. beð, rekkju, to make a bed; b. öndvegi, hús, to make a high seat, adorn a house (for a feast); öll umgjörðin var búin gulli ok silfri, adorned (mounted) with gold and silver; vápn búit mjök, much ornamented; (3) to fix one’s abode in a place, = byggja (þegar munu jötnar Ásgarð b.); (4) to deal with, to treat; þeir bjuggu búi sem þeim líkaði, they treated it as they liked, viz. recklessly; Haraldr bjó heldr úsparliga kornum Sveins, used S.’s stores rather unsparingly; (5) to live, dwell (b. í tjöldum); þeir bjuggu þar um nóttina, they stayed there during the night; sá maðr bjó á skipi (had his berth) næst Haraldi; (6) to have a household (cattle, sheep, and milk); meðan þú vilt b., as long as thou will keep house; b. á or at, with the name of the place added in dat., to live at or in (hann bjó á Velli; Gunnar bjó at Hlíðarenda); (7) to be, = vera (skip þau öll, er á vatni búa); b. í skapi, brjósti e-m, to be, dwell in one’s mind (eigi býr þér lítit í skapi); sýnandi þá hjartaliga gleði, er í brjósti býr, that fills the breast; (8) to behave, conduct onself (bjuggu þeir þar fremr úfriðliga); (9) with preps., b. af e-u, to lose; láta e-n af baugum b., to let him be deprived of his riches; b. at e-u, to treat, = b. e-u (cf. 4); þeir höfðu spurt hvern veg Þórólfr hafði búit at herbergjum þeirra, how Th. had treated their premises; b. e-t fyrir, to prepare (þeir hlutir, er guð hefir fyrir búit sínum ástvinum); b. fyrir, to be present (hann ætlar, at Selþórir muni fyrir b. í hverju holti); b. hjá konu, to lie with a woman; b. í e-u, to be at the bottom of, = b. undir e-u (en í þessu vináttumerki bjuggu enn fleiri hlutir); b. með e-m or e-rri, to cohabit with; b. með konu, to lie with; b. saman, to live together (as husband and wife, as friends); to have a common household (ef menn búa saman); b. e-t til, to prepare, take the preparatory steps in a case (b. sök, mál, vígsmál til, cf. 1); b. til veizlu, to prepare for a feast; b. til seyðis, to get the fire ready for cooking; b. til vetrsetu, to make preparations for a winter abode; b. um e-n, to make one’s bed (var búit um þá Þórodd á seti ok lögðust þeir til svefns); Þórólfr lét setja upp skip sitt ok um b., he had his ship laid up and fenced round; kváðu nú Guðrúnu eiga at b. um rauða skör Bolla, said that G. would have to dress B.’s (her husband’s) bloody head; b. um andvirki, to fence and thatch hayricks; at b. svá um, at aldri mátti vökna, to pack it up so that it could not get wet; b. svá um, at (with subj.), to arrange it so, that; b. eigi um heilt við e-n, to be plotting something against one; b. um nökkurn skoll, to brood over some mischief (deceit); b. um grun, to be suspicious; b. um hverfan hug, to be fickleminded; gott er um öruggt at b., to be in a safe position; b. undir e-u, to be subject to, suffer, endure (hart mun þykkja undir at b.); eiga undir slíkum ofsa at b., to have to put up with such insolence; to be the (hidden) reason of, to be at the bottom of (þat bjó þar undir, at hann vildi taka ríkit undir sik); þér vitið gørst, hvat yár býr undir (what reason you have) at girnast eina útlenda mey; b. e-n veg við e-n, to behave or act so and so towards one; sárt býr þú nú við mik, Þóra, thou treatest me sorely; b. við e-t, to enjoy (þú býr við eilífa ást ok bíðr eilífra ömbuna); to submit to, put up with; ok mun eigi við þat mega b., it will be too hard to bide; b. yfir e-u, to hide, conceal; framhlutr ormsins býr yfir eitri, is venomous; lítill búkr býr yfir miklu viti, little body holds mickle wit; b. yfir brögðum, flærð ok vélum, to brood over tricks, falsehood, and deceit; (10) refl., búast, to make oneself ready, get ready (bjuggust þeir at riða austr); b. ferðar sinnar, to make oneself ready for a journey; = b. at fara (b. ór Þrándheimi; b. út til Íslands, b. á land upp); bjuggust þeir fóstbrœðr í hernað, they prepared to go on a freebooting trip; b. til bardaga, to make oneself ready for a battle; b. fyrir, to have one’s own household (þat þing skal sœkja bóndi hverr, er býst fyrir ok bóndanafn berr); b. um (= búa um sik), to make one’s own bed, to make oneself comfortable, to encamp (var hörð veðrátta, svá at ekki mátti úti um búast); b. við e-u, to prepare for a thing (b. við veizlu, bóði); b. (vel, kristiliga) við dauða sínum, to prepare for one’s death; b. við vetri, to provide for the winter; absol., b. við, to make preparations (nú ríða hér úvinir þínir at þér; skaltu svá við búast, get ready to meet them).

búa-grettur, f. pl. qutirrel between neighbours; -kviðr, m. verdict of neighbours; -kvöð, f. summoning of neighbours.

búandi (pl. búendr), m. = bóndi.

búand-karl, m. farmer (karl eða þorpari); -ligr, a. peasantlike, stout, sturdy; -maðr, m. = bóndi.

búa-virðing, f. a fixing compensation by verdict of neighbours (búar).

búð, f. (1) temporary dwellings booth; farmanna búðir, merchants’ booths; esp. of the temporary dwellings at the Icelandic parliament; tjalda b., to fit up a booth (with tent-roof and hangings); (2) abode, dwelling place; fara búðum, to change one’s abode; hafa harða, kalda b., to have a hard, cold abode.

búð (= búið, búit), used as adv., may be; b. svá sé til ætlat, may be, it will come so to happen; b. eigi hendi hann slíka úgiptu í annat sinn, may be he will not have such misfortune again.

búðar-dvöl, f. dwelling in a booth; -dyrr, f. pl. door of a booth; -gögn, n. pl. utensils of a booth; -hamarr, m. a rock upon which a booth is erected; -ketill, m. booth kettle; -kviðr, m. a sort of verdict given by the inmates of a booth; -lið, n. the inmates of a booth; -maðr, m. inmate of a booth; -nagli, m. booth-peg; -rúm, n. lodging in a booth (biðja, kveðja e-n -rúms); -sund, n. passage, lane between two booths; -topt, f. the walls of a (deserted) booth; -veggr, m. the wall of a booth; -verðr, m. = -vörðr; -virki, n. a fortification round a booth; -vist, f. lodging in a booth (hafa -vist með e-m); -vörðr (gen. varðar), m. (1) cooking, cookery; halda -vörð, to take care of the cookery; (2) food, meat; eigi hafða ek þína veðra mér til -varðar, the rams of my flock I have not eaten; ráða til -varðar, to prepare for a meal.

búð-seta, f. living in a cottage.

búðsetu-maðr, m. cottager (þeir eru búðsetumenn en eigi bœndr).

búðu-nautr, m. fellowinmate of, companion in, a booth.

bú-far, n. household condition; -fé, n. live stock, esp. the milch kine; -fellir, m. starvation of livestock; -fénaðr, m. = -fé; -ferill (pl. ferlar), m. mover of one’s household; -ferli, n. chattels belonging to a household; fara ferli sínu, to remove, change one’s household and home; esp. live stock; hafði hann með sér skuldalið (dependants, family) ok ferli (live stock); -ferski, n. domestic or household utensils.

búfjár-ábyrgð, f. responsibility for búfé; -eyrir, m. value in live stock; -fóðr, n. food for cattle; -gangr, m. = -hagar; -hagar, m. pl. pasturefields on an estate, esp. the homepastures; -hagr, m. condition of the live stock; -hald, n. keeping of live stock; -laust, a. n. without live stock (búa laust); -leiga, f. rent of live stock; -matr, m. food for cattle, stores of fodder; -vegr, m. cattle track.

bú-fœrsla, f. removing of one’s household; -föng, n. pl. household necessaries; -gagn, n. household utensil, = búsgagn; -garðr, m. farm (esp. a big one); -gørð, f. making a household in a place; -hagi, m. pasture; -hlífð, f. a saving of household provisions; -hlutr, m. an implement of husbandry; -höfn, f. pasture-field; -högg, n. slaughtering of cattle.

búi, m. (1) dweller, inhabitant, esp. in compds. (berg-, hellis-, ein-búi); helvítis búar, inhabitants of hell; himna búar, inhabitants of heaven, angels; (2) neighbour = nábúi (Steinólfr b. hans); (3) a law term, neighbour acting as juror; kveðja búa, to summon the neighbours.

búi-griðungr, m. bull kept at the mountain-dairy, opp. to ‘heima-g’; -maðr, m. neighbour-man.

búinn, pp. (cf. ‘búa’), (1) prepared, fit, adapted; ek em gamall ok lítt til b. at (little fit to) hefna sona minna; (2) b. at e-u, endowed with (at flestum íþróttum vel b.); (3) ready, willing; margir munu búnir at kaupa, ready, willing to buy; engir munu sínu sik búnari (more willing) til liðveizlu; with gen., b. þeirrar ferðar, ready to make that journey; (4) b. til es, við e-u, on the point of; hann var b. til falls, he was just about to tumble; var búit við váða miklum, there was an imminent danger; (5) svá búit, as matters stand, thus; eigi má hlýða svá b., it will not do thus, something else must be done; stendr nú svá b. um hríð, matters stand thus (unchanged) for a while; þeir segja Eyjólfi til svá búins, they tell Eyolf the present state of things; þér skulut ganga með vápnum, en berjast eigi svá búit, not fight as yet; at svá búnu, as matters stand (hann kvaðst ekki fýsast til Íslands at svá búnu); at present, as yet (þenna draum segjum vér engum at svá búnu); við svo búit, thus, things being so (þeir skildu við svá búit).

bú-karl, m. farmer, = búandkarl.

búk-digr, a. thickset (in body).

bú-ketill, m. large ketlle; -kostr, m. (1) household provisions, stores; (2) livelihood, trade (er þat búkostr þeirra ok skemtan at sœkja sjóinn); -kot, n. small farm, cottage.

búkr (-s, -ar), m. (1) body, trunk, esp. the trunk without the head; (2) belly, = kviðr.

búk-reki, m. skin or leather bag (for holding liquids).

bú-lag, n. joint housekeeping; -land, n. home land; -lauss, a. having no household; -leiga, f. rent of cattle.

búlka-brún, f. the estate of the ‘búlki’; -stokkar, m. pl. the bulwark fencing the ‘búlki’ in the middle of the ship.

búlki, m. cargo (stowed in the middle of the ship, cf. fyrir framan or aptan búlka); binda búlka, to bind bulk, cover in the hold; leysa (rjúfa, brjóta) búlka, to break bulk.

bú-maðr, m. (1) husbandman, farmer (-maðr sáði akr sinn); (2) = búsýslumaðr; -maðr mikill, a skilled, stirring, husbandman; -missa, f. loss in stock.

búnaðr-bálkr, m. the section of the law about household matters; -maðr, m. = búmaðr; -munr, m. = búningsmunr.

búnaðr (gen. -ar), m. (1) household, housekeeping; reisa, setja búnað = reisa, gøra bú, to set up a household; fara búnaði sínum = fara búferli, to remove one’s household; (2) equipment, dress, = búningr; (3) preparations (for a voyage, freebooting expedition, etc.); (4) = búningr 4.

bú-nautn, f., in the phrase, til nautnar, for household use.

búningr, m. (1) dress, attire; (2) equipment of a ship (reiði ok b.); (3) the dressing and arrangement of a table; (4) ornaments (kyrtill með búningi).

búnings-bót, f. improvement in dress; -lauss, a. without ornaments; -munr, m. deference in apparel.

búnyt, f. milk of sheep and cattle; -prestr, m. a priest having a homestead or farm.

búr, n. (1) women’s apartment; (2) pantry (búr þat er konur hafa matreiðu í); (3) storehouse.

bú-rakki, m. farmdog; -ráð, n. household management; -rán, n. a kind of robbery, theft (to the amount of three cows at least or three cows’ value).

búr-brot, n. breaking into a pantry; -dyrr, f. pl. pantrydoor; -hilla, f. pantryshelf; -hringr, m. the door ring of a ‘búrhurð’; -hundr, m. watchdog, at a storehouse; -hurð, f. the door of a ‘búr’; -hvalr, m. a sort of whale, cachalot (?).

bú-risna, f. munificent or hospitable housekeeping.

búr-lykill, m. pantrykey.

búrs-hringr, m. = búrhringr; -hurð, f. = búrhurð.

bús-afleifar, f. pl. remains of stores; búhlutir, m. pl. implements of husbandry; -efni, n. pl. household goods; -far, n. = búfar; -forráð, n. pl. management of household affairs, = búráð (taka til forráða = taka við búráðum); -gagn, n. = búgagn; -gørð, f. = búgørð; -hlutir, m. pl. = búhlutir; -hœgindi, n. pl. help towards keeping a household.

bú-sifjar, f. pl. relations between neighbours; góðar búsifjar, good neighborhood; var illa í sifjum þeirra, they were not on good terms as neighbours; veita em þúngar sifjar, to be a troublesome neighbour to one.

bús-kerfi, n. household utensils, = búferski.

bú-skjóla, f. milkpail; -skortr, m. failure of stores; -skylft, a. n., hafa skylft, to have an expensive household.

búslits-maðr, m. a ‘bóndi’ without homestead (cf. slíta búi sínu).

bú-smali, m. cattle, esp. milch cows; -staðr, m. dwelling place, abode; taka sér stað, to fix one’s abode.

bús-tilskipan, f. settling of a household.

bú-stjórn, f. management of household affairs; -stýra, f. a female housekeeper.

bús-umsvif, n. pl. household cares; -umsýsla, f. managment of a ‘bú’.

bú-sýsla, f. household business.

búsýslu-maðr, m. = búmaðr (-maðr mikill).

bú-verk, n. dairy work (milking, churning and the like); -þegn, m. husbandman (bœndr ok þegnar); illr þegn, a bad (evil) husbandman.

bygð, f. (1) colonization (frá Íslands b.); (2) abode, habitation; setja, hefja b. sína e-s staðar, to fix one’s abode in a place; fœra b. sína, to remove; banna (lofa, leyfa) e-m b., to forbid (allow) one to settle in a place; (3) inhabited land or district, opp. to ‘úbygðir’, deserts.

bygðar-fleygr, -fleyttr, a. rumoured through the district; -lag, n. district, neighbourhood; taka sér -lag í e-m stað, to settle in a place.

bygðarlags-maðr, m. inhabitant of a district.

bygðar-land, n. land for settling on; taka sér -land e-s staðar, to settle in a place; -leyfi, n. leave to settle; -lýðr, m., -menn, m. pl. inhabitants of a district; -rómr, m. rumour going about in the neighbourhood; -stefna, f. district-meeting.

bygð-fleygr, -fleyttr, a. = bygðarfleyttr.

bygg, n. barley; -brauð, n. barley-bread; -hjálmr, m. barley-rick; -hlaða, f. barley-barn; -hleifr, m. barley-loaf; -hús, n. = -hlaða.

-byggi (pl. -byggjar), m. inhabitant; only in plur. compds. (fram-, aptur-, stafn-, Eyr-byggjar).

byggiligr, a. habitable.

bygging, f. letting out land for rent (b. jarðar).

byggja (-ða, -ðr), v., older form byggva; (1) to settle in a place, as colonist; sumar þat, er þeir Ingólfr fóru at b. Ísland, when I went out to settle in Iceland; Ingólfr bygði fyrstr landit, was the first settler; absol., Helgi bygði norðr í Eyjafirði, settled in E.; (2) to people (eptir Nóaflóð lifðu átta menn, er bygðu heiminn); Ísland bygðist (was peopled) ór Norvegi; (3) to inhabit, live in a country (þá er landit hafði sex tigi vetra bygt verit); þess get ek, at menn byggi húsit, that the house is inhabited; b. bœ, to settle on a farm (hann bygði bœ þann er í Eyju heitir); absol., kona, er bygði (lived) í einum afdal; hvar byggir þú, where dwellest thou?; (4) to dwell in, occupy (b. höll, helli); b. eina sæng, to share the same bed (of a niarried couple; also absol., b. með erri); bygði hann í skipum, he dwelt (lived) in ships.

byggja (-ða, -ðr), v. (1) to let out (konungr má b. almenning hverjum sem hann vill); nú byggir maðr dýrra (lets out at a higher rent) en vandi hefir á verit; (2) to lend money at interest (engi skal b. dautt fé á leigu); Hrútr bygði allt féit, H. put all the money out at interest; (3) b. frændsemi, sifjar, to enter into a marriage with a relation or one allied by by marriage (in such or such degree); þat var bannat at b. svá náit at frændsemi, intermarriage between so near relations was forbidden.

byggjandi (pl. -jendr), m. an inhabitant (borgin ok byggjendr hennar).

bygg-mjöl, n. barleymeal; -sáð, n. barley-seed.

byggva, v., older form for ‘byggja’.

bylgja (gen. pl. bylgna), f. billow.

bylgju-fall, n. heavy sea; -gangr, m. swells sea.

bylgna-gangr, m. = bylgjugangr.

bylja (bylr, buldi, bulit), v. to resound, roar (buldi í hömrunum).

byljóttr, a. gusty (veðr nökkut byljótt).

bylmingr, m. a sort of bread.

bylr (pl. -ir, dat. -jum), m. squall, gust of wind; þá er býlirnir kómu, when the squalls came along.

byrð, f. birth, descent (rare).

byrða (-rða, -rðr), v. to weave in (figures).

byrða, f. a large box or bin.

byrði, n. board (side) of a ship.

byrðingr, m. merchant-ship.

byrðings-maðr, m. a merchant seaman; -segl, n. the sail of a byrðingr.

byrðr (-ar, -ar), f. burden, load.

byrfall, n. dropping of a breeze.

byrgi, n. enclosure, fence.

byrging, f. (1) closing, shutting up; (2) close, conclusion, end.

byrgis-kona, f. concubine; -maðr, m. paramour; -skapr, m. concubinage.

byrgja (-ða, -ðr), v. (1) to close, shut (b. dyrr eða vindaugu); b. sinn munn, to shut the mouth; b. aptr húsit, to close the house; b. en inni, to shut one in (í húsum); fig. to outwit one (b. en inni fyrir vitsmuna sakir); b. et fyrir em, to exclude one from; b. en úti, to shut one out; b. et úti, to prevent, preclude (b. úti váða); (2) b. e-t með skömmu máli, to comprise it within a small compass.

byrja (), v. (1) to originate (ór himninum byrjast öll gœzka); (2) to beget esp. in pass., byrjast, to be begotten (á þeirri sömu nótt sem hann byrjaðist); (3) to enter upon, begin; b. ferð sína, to begin one’s journey; (4) b. mál es, to plead (support) one’s cause (ek skal b. þitt mál sem ek kann); b. rœðu, to deliver a speech (= flytja rœðu); hefir þú fram byrjat (stated) erendi þitt.

byrja (), v. impers. with dat. to behove, beseem; sem byrja (as it behoves) hlýðnum syni; sem þeim byrjaði at manntali, in due proportion to their number.

byrja (), v. impers., em byrjar vel (illa), one gets fair (foul) wind (byrjaði þeim vel um haustit).

byrjan-ligr, a. that is to begin.

byrjar-gol, n. gentle breeze.

byrla (), v. to pour out; byrlar hann í hornin he fills out the cups; with dat., to serve (a cup) to one (Snjófrið byriaði ker mjaðar fullt konungi).

byrlari, m. cup-bearer.

byr-leiði, n. favourable wind (fá gott -leiði); -léttr, a. gently blowing; -leysa, f. lack of a fair wind.

byrli, m. = byrlari.

byrligr, a. promising a fair wind (því at ekki er -ligt); ekki -ligr draumr, a bad dream; -lítill, a. faintly blowing with fair wind.

byrr (-jar, -ir), m. fair wind; e-m gefr vel byri (acc. pl.), one gets a fair wind; bíða byrjar, liggja til byrjar, to wait, lie by, for a fair wind; b. rennr á, a fair breeze begins to blow; b. tekr at vaxa, the wind freshens.

byrsta (-sta, -str), v. (1) to furnish with bristles; (2) to cover as with bristles; borg gulli byrst, with the gablehead mounted with gold; (3) refl., byrstast, to bristle up, to show anger.

byrstr, pp. set with bristles; fig. exasperated.

byr-sæll, a. lucky in getting fair wind; -vænligr, -vænn, a. promising a fair wind.

bysja (busti), v. to gush (busti blóð á brímis eggjar).

bytna (), v. to come to the bottom.

bytta, f. small tub, pail, bucket.

byttu-austr, m. baling (a ship) with buckets.

byxa (-ta, -t), v., b. sér, to jump (síðan byxti hann sér á sjóinn).

byxing, f. violent tossing.

, n. bee; -fluga, f. = bý; -flygi, n. = -flugur.

býfur, f. pl. clumsy feet; rétta b., to stretch out the legs.

býr (-jar, -ir), m. = bœr.

býsn, n. and f. wonder, portent (þetta eru stór b.).

býsna (), v. (1) to bode, portend (þetta býsnar tjón ok sorg); (2) b. skal til batnaðar, things must run to an extreme before they get better.

býsna-veðra, n. portentious weather; -vetr, m. a winter off portents.

bý-stokkr, m. bee-hive.

býta (-tta, -tt), v. (1) to deal out (býtti Hrafn silfrinu); (2) to exchange (býttum við jörðum okkar).

býti, n. exchange, barter.

bæði (n. dual from ‘báðir’, used as) conj., (1) b. … ok, both … and; b. vitr ok framgjarn, both wise and bold; b. at lærdómi ok vitrleik ok atgervi, both in learning, and wisdom, and accomplishments; (2) b. … enda, both … and also, and indeed.

bægi-fótr, m. ‘lame-foot’, a nickname of one who was ‘haltr’.

bæging, f. thwarting.

bæginn, a. cross-grained.

bægja (-ða, -t), v. (1) to make one give way, to fish, with dat.; b. skipi ór lægi, to push the ship from her moorings; b. heraðsvist, to remove from the district; honum bægði veðr ok bar hann til eyja þeirra er Syllingar heita, the weather drove him out of his course and he was carried to the Scilly Islands; (2) to hinder (ef eigi bægja nauðsyniar þeirra); (3) refl., bægjast við en, to quarrel or strive with one (þá vill hann eigi við þá bægjast).

bæla (-da, -dr), v. to consume by fire (brenna ok b.).

bæra (-ði, -t), v. impers., gekk áin undir þat þá er meirr bærði, when the waves (bárur) rose higher.

bæri-ligr, a. (1) able to be carried (-ligr á herðum); (2) fit, seemly.

bærr, a. entitled to; b. er hverr at ráða sínu, every one has a right to dispose of his own property.

bæsa (-ta, -tr), v. to drive cattle into the stall (= bása).

bæsingr, m. (one born in a báss), a child of an outlawed mother.

bœjar-biskup, m. town bishop; -bruni, m. burning of a town or farm-house; -bygð, f. town-district; -fólk, n. = -menn; -gjald, n. townrate; -lýðr, m. = -menn; -lögmaðr, m. town-justice; -maðr, m. (1) inhabitant of a town; -menn, townsfolk, townsmen; (2) citizen; -seta, f. dwelling (stay) in town; -starf, n., -sýsla, f. town office.

bœki-skógr, m. beech-wood (svín er ganga í bœkiskógi).

bœklingr, m. little book, booklet.

bœli, n. (1) den, lair; (2) farm, dwelling.

bœn (pl. -ir), f. request, prayer; er sú b. allra vár, at, we all beg, that; skaltu veita mér b. þá (grant me the request), er ek mun biðja þik; fella b. at e-m, til e-s, to entreat one; gera e-t at bœn e-s, at his entreaty or prayer; vera (liggja) í bœnum, to be at prayers; biðja b. sinni, bœnar sinnar til guðs, to pray to God; góðr bœna, ready or willing to grant a request (konungr var góðr bœna).

bœna (-da, -dr), v. to request, entreat, pray (b. e-n).

bœna-fullting, n. the support of prayers; -gørð, f. = -hald, n. (saying) prayers (H. gekk hverja nótt til kirkju til -halds).

bœnahalds-maðr, m. one who prays, religious man (-maðr mikill).

bœna-hús, n. = bœnhús; -kall, n. calling upon (God) in prayer; -kraptr, m. power of prayer.

bœnar-bréf, n. petition; -orð, n. pl. (1) entreaty, prayer; (2) wooing courtship; -staðr, m. (1) place of worship; (2) request, entreaty (þat er -staðr minn til allrar alþýðu, at); -tími, m. hour of prayers.

bœna-staðr, m. (1) = bœnarstaðr 1.; (2) = bœnarstaðr 2.; á því er mér -staðr, at, I beg, that; gera et fyrir -stað es, to do a thing at one’s intercession; -traust, n. confidence in one’s prayer or intercession (fela sik undir -traust e-s).

bœn-bifast (), v. refl. to be moved by prayers; -heyrðr, pp. willing to hear one’s prayers; (gørast -heyrðr við e-n); -hús, n. house of prayer, chapel; -rœkinn, a. diligent in prayer.

bœr (gen. bœjar, pl. -ir, dat. -jum), m. (1) farmhouse, farmstead; reisa, gøra, setja bœ, efna til bœjar, to build a farmstead; (2) farm, landed estate (nú búa tveir menn á einum bœ eða fleiri); (3) town; í bœ ok í heraði = í kaupangri ok í heraði; borgir ok bœir, castles and towns.

bœta (-tta, -ttr), v. (1) to better, improve (ár þær, sem mikit bœta landit); b. ráð sitt (to better one’s condition) ok biðja konu; b. aptr, to restore; b. at e-u, to repair; b. upp borg, to repair it; (2) to make up for, compensate; ef þér vilit eigi b. (make up for) þat er þér hafit brotit; b. glœp sinn syndir sínar, to atone for one’s crime, sins; b. e-m e-t, to compensate one for a thing (= b. e-t við e-n); Styrr vá mörg víg, en bœtti engi (viz. víg), S. slew many men, but paid for none; b. mann fé (dat.), to pay weregild for one slain (Hrafnkell bœtti engan mann fé); b. sál sína, to devote one’s efforts to the saving of one’s soul; b. um e-t, to improve a thing; ekki bœtist um, matters grow worse; b. yfir e-t, to make good again, redress; (3) to heal, restore to health; guð bœtti honum af þessi sótt, God healed him of his disease; with gen. of the disease; b. e-m sinnar vanheilsu, to restore one to health; refl., e-m bœtist, one gets better, is restored to health; with gen. of the disease (bœttist Búa augnaverkjarins).

bœtandi (pl. -endr), m. one who has to pay weregild.

bœttr, pp. (cf. ‘bœta’) atoned for; er mér ekki sonr minn at bœttari, þótt Bolli sé drepinn, my son’s death is none the more atoned for though B. is slain; ok er eigi at bœttra, þótt, things are no better though.

bœxl, n. shoulder of a dragon, flipper of a whale.

böð (gen. böðvar), f. poet. battle.

böð-frœkinn, a. valiant in battle, warlike.

böðvast (), v. refl. to become quarrelsome (böðvaðist at víni).

böggull, m. a small bag, bundle, a nickname.

böl (dat. bölvi; gen. pl. bölva), n. bale, misfortune (þá er bótin næst, er bölit er hæst).

böl-bœn, f. imprecation; -fengi, f. malice; -fenginn, a. evil minded.

böllóttr, a. ballshaped, round like a ball (böllótt eggskurn).

böllr (gen. ballar, dat. belli; pl. bellir, acc. böllu), m. (1) ball, globe (b. jarðar); (2) b. svínfylkingar, the front of a phalanx.

bölrann, n. house of woe; -stafir, m. pl. ‘evil’ runes, misfortune.

bölva (), v. (1) to curse, with dat. (2) to swear.

bölva-fullr, a. hapless, cursed.

bölvan, f. curse, imprecation.

bölva-smiðr, m. the contriver of mischief, Loki.

böl-víss, a. ‘balewise’, malignant, mischievious.

börkr (gen. barkar, dat. berki), m. bark (á berki ok á baðmi).

börr, m. a kind of tree; b. skjaldar, warrior (poet.).

börur, f. pl. = barar, barir.

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