J

jaðarr (gen. -s, dat. jaðri, pl. jaðrar), m. (1) edge, border, selvage (of cloth, of a sail, tent, &c.); (2) poet. prince, lord (ása j., folks j.).

jaðra-skegg, n. whiskers.

jafn, a. (1) even; jöfn tala, even number; (2) equal, the same; þínar (viz. ferðir) verða flestar jafnastar, thy doings are mostly the same, all equally bad; hann var ellefu vetra ok sterkr at jöfnum aldri, and strong for his age; jafn e-m, equal to one; jafnt er sem þér sýnist, af er fótrinn, it is just as it appears to thee, the leg is off; komast til jafns við e-n, hafa e-t til jafns við e-n, to equal one, be one’s match in a thing; at jöfnu, equally, in equal shares.

jafn-, in compds., such a, so… a, equally, as; er þat skömm j.-mörgum mönnum, it is a shame for so many men; j.-frægr drengr, so fine a fellow; j.-auðveldr, as easy.

jafna (), v. (1) to cut even, to trim (mörum sínum mön jafnaði); (2) to make equal; (3) to divide in equal shares (j. ríki með sér); (4) j. e-u til e-s, við e-t, to compare (liken) one thing with (to) another; j. e-u saman, to compare, set of one thing against another (var þá jafnat saman vígum); (5) refl., jafnast við e-n, jafnast e-m, to even oneself with, call oneself a match for, another; j. orðum við e-n, to bandy words with one.

jafna, f. level ground, plain (hann flýði af hálsinum ofan á jöfnu).

jafnaðar-boð, n. fair offer; -dómr, m. fair judgement; leggja mál til -dóms, to put a case before an umpire; -fundr, m. a meeting on equal terms; -geð, n. even temper; -kaup, n. equal bargain; -maðr, m. (1) equal match; (2) fair (impartial) man; -samr, a. fair; -skipti, n. fairdealing; -þokki, m. mutual affection.

jafnaðr (gen. -ar), m. (1) comparison; (2) equal share (en þaðan af höfum vit jafnað báðir); at jafnaði, in equal proportions (skipta e-u at jafnaði); usually, as a rule (= með jafnaði); (3) equity, fairness.

jafn-aldra, a. indecl. of the same age; -aldri, m. one of the same age (þeir váru mjök jafnaldrar).

jafnan, adv. constantly, always.

jafn-bjóða (see bjóða), v. to be equal to, be a match for one (e-m); -borinn, pp. of equal birth; -borinn til e-s, having equal birthright to (-borinn til ríkis sem ek); -breiðr, a. equally broad; -dœgri, n. equal length of day and night, equinox; -dœmi, n. equitable (fair) judgement, justice; -dœmr, a. fair, impartial.

jafnendr, m. pl. daysmen, umpires.

jafn-fram, adv. (1) equally forward, side by side, with (leggr fram skeiðina -fram skipi Hrúts); evenly, in a straight line (standa allir -fram fyrir konungsborðinu); (2) at the same time (þeir riðutil þings -fram Skeggja); -framt, adv. equally, in the same degree, = -fram; -fœtis, adv. on equal footing (standa -fœtis e-m, við e-n); -gegnt, prep. with dat. just opposite to; -girnd, f. equity, fairness; -gjarn, a. as eager; just, equitable; -harðr, a. as hard; -hugaðr, a. (1) of even temper; (2) of one mind.

jafni, m. (1) equalness; mæla til jafna (= til jafns) við e-n, to speak just as well as another; (2) even number (= jöfn tala).

jafningi (pl. -jar), m. equal, match.

jafn-keypi, n. equal bargain, = jafnaðarkaup; -kominn, pp. on even terms; with equal title (-komnir til erfðar); neut., -komit er á með ykkr, you are well matched; -krappr, a. as strait, as narrow; í -krappan stað, in such a strait; -leikit, pp. n. an equal game; -lendi, n. a level piece of ground; -lengd, f. the same time of the following day (til -lengdar annars dags); the same day in the next year, anniversary (eigi síðarr en fyrir -lengd); -léttvígr, a. as active in wielding arms; -liða, a. indecl. with an equal number of men; -liga, adv. (1) equally, fairly (skipta -liga); (2) usually, always; -ligr, a. equal, fair; -lyndi, n. evenness of temper; -lyndr, a. even-tempered; -maki, m. = jafningi; -menni, n. equal, match; -menntr, a. of equal rank; -mæli, n. fair play, equality; -oki, m. equal, match (for one); -ræði, n. equal match; -saman, adv. together (fyrir þessa hugsan alla -saman); -skiptiliga, adv. equally; -skjótt, adv. immediately, at once; -skjótt sem, as soon as; -snemma, adv. at the very same moment; allir -snemma, all at the same time; -sætti, n. an agreement on equal terms.

jafnt, adv. (1) just, precisely (þat var j. jólaaptan sjálfan, er þeir börðust); (2) always, perpetually.

jafn-tefli, a. an equal, drawn game; -vegit, pp. n. with an equal number slain on both sides; -vel, adv. (1) as well, equally well; (2) likewise, even (-vel sýniliga); -virði, n. equal worth; -vígi, n. drawn battle; -vægi, n. equal weight; -vægja (-ða, -t), v. to equal, match, with dat.; -vægr, a. of equal weight; -vætta (-tta, -tt), v. to weigh against, counterbalance; -yrða (-ða, -ðr), v. to bandy words with one (e-n).

jaga (), v. (1) to harp on one string; j. ávallt á enni sömu sök, to be always harping on the same case; (2) to hunt (j. dýr), rare.

jaka-för, f. drifting of ice-floes.

jaki, m. broken ice, ice-floe.

Jakobs-land, n. Compostella in Spain; -messa, f. St. James’ mass.

jalda, f. mare (í jöldu líki).

jam-, jamn-, see ‘jafn-’.

Jamtar, Jamtr, m. pl. men from Jamtaland in Sweden.

jarða (), v. to earth, bury.

jarðar-, gen. from ‘jörð’; -ávöxtr, m. produce of the earth; -blómi, m. bloom of the earth; -megin, n. strength of the earth (sá var aukinn -megni or -magni); -men, n. a long sod or turf; ganga undir -men, to creep under a sod partially detached from the earth.

jarð-bann, n. want of grazing (from snow or frost); -borg, f. stronghold of earth; -búi, m. underground-dweller; -eldr, m. volcanic fire; -fall, n. earth-slip; -fastr, a. fixed in the earth (-fastr steinn); -fé, n. treasure hidden in the earth; -fjúk, n. drifting snow; -fólginn, pp. hidden in the earth; -hita, f., -hiti, m. subterranean (volcanic) heat; -hola, f. earth-hole; -hús, n. underground room or passage; -kostr, m. choice of land, land to be had; -kross, m. cross-shaped mark in the ground; -laug, f. a bath in a warm spring in the earth; -ligr, a. earthly; -lús, f. ‘earth-louse’; -lægr, a. lying on the ground; -neskr, a. earthly; -ríki, n. the earth, world, opp. to ‘himin-ríki’; -skjálfti, m. earthquake; -stofa, f. underground room; -veggr, m. earthen wall.

jarki, m. the outside edge of the foot.

jarkna-steinn, m. glittering gem.

jarl (-s, -ar), m. (1) poet. a highborn, noble man or warrior; (2) earl (in dignity next to the king); -borinn, pp. earl-born, an earl by birth; -dómr, m., -dœmi, n. earldom.

jarls-dóttir, f. earl’s daughter; -maðr, m. an earl’s follower; -nafn, n. earl’s title; -ríki, n. dominion of an earl, earldom; -sæti, n. earl’s seat.

jarma (), v. to bleat, of sheep and goats (ærin jarmaði).

jarmr, m. bleating (sauða j.); screaming of birds (fugls j.).

jarpr, a. chestnut, reddish-brown (j. á hár); j. hestr, chestnut-horse.

jarp-skamr, m. ‘the brown pygmy’ (viz. Erpr).

jarp-skjóttr, a. bay-piebald.

jar-tegn (-tein, -teikn), n. (1) token, proof (of a thing); hafa e-t til -tegna, to use as a token or evidence; vera til jartegna, to serve as a token; (2) miracle; -tegna, -teina ( or -di, -dr), v. to betoken.

jata (gen. jötu), f. manger.

jaur, adv. yes indeed, yes certainly.

jaxl (-s, -ar), m. jaw-tooth, grinder, molar (tennrnar ok jaxlarnir).

jaxla-verkr, m. tooth-ache.

, adv. yea, yes; já, já! yes, yes!

(jái, jáða, jáðr), v. to say yes, assent to, with dat. (hann jáði því); já e-m e-u, to confess a thing to one; j. e-u upp, undan sér, to yield up.

já-kvæða (-dda, -ddr), v. to say yes to, with dat.; -kvæði, n. assent, consent; gjalda -kvæði til e-s, to give one’s assent to; -orð, n. = -kvæði.

járn, n. (1) iron (hagr á j.); bera j., to carry hot iron (as an ordeal); (2) in pl. irons, fetters (setja e-n í j., sitja íjárnum); iron hinges (lék þar grind ájárnum); horse-shoes.

járna (), v. (1) to mount with iron (járnaðir vagnar); (2) to shoe a horse (hestr járnaðr öllum fótum).

járna-far, n. iron-plating, on a ship; -gangr, m. chafing, galling from irons (máttlítill af -gangi); -staðr, m. mark or print of irons.

járn-borg, f. ‘iron-castle’ (used of a ring of iron-clad ships); -bundinn, pp. iron-bound, of a shield; -burðr, m. the ordeal of carrying hot iron; -bútr, m. iron stump; -dragi, m. ‘iron-drawer’, magnet; -festr, f. iron band; -fjöturr, m. ironfetter; -fleinn, m. iron rod; -gaddr, m. iron spike (goad); -gjörð, f. iron girdle; -glófi, m. iron glove; -góðr, a. of good iron; -greipr, f. pl. iron gloves.

járngørðar-maðr, m. blacksmith.

járn-hanki, m. iron handle; -hólkr, m. iron tube; -hvalr, m. harpooned whale; -kambr, m. iron comb; -ketill, m. iron kettle; -kló, f. iron claw or fang; -klukka, f. iron bell; -klæddr, pp. iron-clad; -krókr, m. iron crook; -kylfa, f. iron club; -ligr, a. of iron; -loka, f. iron bar; -lurkr, m. iron cudgel; -lykkja, f. iron clasp; -meiss, m. iron basket; -mél, n. pl. iron mouth-piece (of a bridle); -mikill, a. of solid iron; -nökkvi, m. iron boat; -rekendr, f. pl. iron chains; -rending, f. iron brim (of a shield); -rendr, pp. bordered with iron (targa -rend); -sía, f. spark from red-hot iron; -skór, m. iron shoe; -slá, f. iron bar; -sleggja, f. iron sledge-hammer; -smiðr, m. blacksmith; -smíði, n. smith’s work; -spjót, n. iron spear; -spöng, f. iron plate; -stafr, m. iron staf; -stöng, f. iron bar; -súla, f. iron column; -teinn, m. iron prong; -vafiðr, pp. wound round with iron; -variðr, pp. mounted with iron (= járni varðr); -vápn, n. pl. iron weapons; -viðjar, f. pl. iron withes, iron wire.

játa, or játta (, or -tta, -ttr), v. (1) to say yes to, with dat. (þessu játar or játir hann); (2) to acknowledge, admit (erkibiskup hafði því játat, at); (3) to consent; mun ek þessu j. fyrir mik ok mína heimamenn, I will agree to this for myself and my household; j. e-u undan sér, j. e-u upp, to yield up; (4) to promise (konungr játaði þeim griðum ok sættum); (5) with acc. of the thing, to acknowledge (j. syndir); to grant, give (játtuðu allir þér konungdóm); with acc. of the person; fyr engan mun játum vér hann guð, by no means do we acknowledge him to be God; j. sik, to confess oneself; j. sik undir e-t, to engage oneself; (6) refl., játast undir e-t, játast til e-s, = játa sik undir e-t.

játan, játtan, f. (1) affirmation; (2) confession (j. synda).

játari, m. one who confesses.

játning, f. confession (j. heilagrar trúar, j. synda).

ját-orð, n. consent (seinn í -orðum).

játsi, a. indecl. saying yes; verða e-m e-s j., to promise one a thing.

játta (, or -tta, -ttr), v. = játa.

já-yrði, n. consent; leggja sitt -yrði til, to give consent.

jóð, n. baby (j. ól Edda).

jóð-ligr, a. thriving (of a baby); -sótt, f. pains of childbirth; -ungr, a. very young.

jól, n. pl. Yule, a great midwinter feast in the heathen time, afterwards applied to Christmas.

jóla-aptann, m. Yule-eve, Christmas-eve; -boð, n. Yule banquet; -dagr, m. Yule-day, Christmas-day; -drykkja, f. Yule-drinking; -fasta, f. Advent; -friðr, m. Yule-peace, Christmas-peace; -gjöf, f. Yule-gift, christmas box; -hald, n. keeping of Yule; -kveld, n. Yule-eve; -morginn, m. Yule morning; -nótt, f. Yule night; -tíðir, f. pl. Christmas service; -veizla, f. Yule banquet or entertainment; -vist, f. staying over Yule; -öl, n. Yule ale.

Jóms-víkingar, m. pl. the Vikings of Jom (Wollin in Pomerania).

Jón, m., a proper name, John.

Jóns-messa, f. St. John Baptist’s day, the 24th of June; -stúka, f. chapel of St. John; -vaka, f. = -messa.

jór (gen. jós; pl. jóar, acc. jóa and jói, dat. jóm), m. poet. stallion, steed.

jó-reið, f. riding on horseback; -reykr, m. cloud of dust (seen afar off above a body of horsemen).

Jórsala-, gen. pl. from ‘Jórsalir’; -borg, f. Jerusalem; -fari, m. Jerusalem traveller; -ferð, -för, f. journey to J.; -lýðr, m. the people of J.

Jórsalir, m. pl. Jerusalem.

Jótar, m. pl. the Jutes.

Jót-land, n. Jutland.

jung-frú, f. princess, lady; -herra, m. ‘young lord’, prince.

jurt (pl. -ir), f. aromatic herb.

justa, f. bowl, cup.

jöðurr, m. = jaðarr.

jöfurr (-s, pl. jöfrar), m. poet. king, prince, chief (af Svía jöfri).

jöklaðr, a. covered with icicles (yfir jökluðu skeggi).

jökla-gangr, m. ice-drift (in a river); -vatu, icy water.

jökul-barinn, pp. storm-beaten, stiffened with ice; -kaldr, a. ice-cold.

jökull (gen. -s, dat. jókli; pl. jöklar), m. (1) icicle (hann gekk inn í sal, glumdu jöklar); (2) ice (vatnit snýst í jökul); (3) glacier.

jökul-vatn, n. ice-water from a glacier; -vetr, m. severe winter.

jöll, n. poet. disturbance, strife (?).

jörð (gen. jarðar, dat. jörðu; pl. jarðir), f. (1) earth, opp. to ‘himinn’ (hvárt býr guð á himni eða jörðu?); (2) the surface of the earth, ground (féll hann þá dauðr til jarðar); (3) mould; (4) land, estate.

jörfi, m. gravel, gravel bank.

jörmun-, a prefix, denoting something huge, vast superhuman; -gandr, m. the great monster, the Midgard Serpent; -grund, f. the earth.

jöstr (gen. jastar), m. yeast.

jötun-heimar, m. pl. the Giants’ land; -móðr, m. giant’s wrath, fury.

jötunn (gen. -s, dat. jötni; pl. jötnar), m. giant; jötna synir, sons of giants.

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